2011

Pearls of Universe

Pearls of Universe
Selected Quotes of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra – Volume XV
Original Translation to English by Kosho Yamamoto Edited and Revised by Dr. Tony Page Translation to Brazilian Portuguese by Marcos Ubirajara de Carvalho e Camargo

Volume XV

Marcos Ubirajara de Carvalho e Camargo 1 Page Cristal Perfeito 27/10/2011

Pearls of Universe

Copyright © 2009 by Marcos Ubirajara de Carvalho e Camargo

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Pearls of Universe

Seven Kinds of People on the Banks of the Ganges
The Buddha said: "Well said, well said, Oh good man! Along the Ganges live seven kinds of people. They fear the thieves because now they are bathing. Or the case might be as with those who enter the river to pick flowers. The first person drowned as the waters came. The second person sinks amid the waters, but it comes up and sinks again into water. Why? Because his body is powerful and strong, and it is able to climb. But, the one who has not learnt to float, comes up, and then sinks again. The third (kind) comes up after sinking. Coming up, it does not sink again. Why not? Because his body is heavy, so it sinks, but as his power is great, it comes up. Having already learnt to float, it stays up. The fourth person, plunging into water, comes up again. Coming up, it looks around. Why? As it is heavy, it sinks, but as has great power, it comes up; as it has learnt to float, it stays up, not knowing where to get out, it looks around. The fifth person, entering the water, sinks and, having sunk, comes up. Having come up, it looks around, having looked, it goes. Why? Because it fears. The sixth person goes into the water, comes up, and stays in shallow waters. Why? Because it sees the thieves who are nearby and [also] far off. The seventh person is already standing on the other bank and is on a great mountain. It fears nothing, out of reach of thieves, it is blessed with great bliss." Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

First Kind of People
"Oh good man! It's the same situation with the great river of birth and death, too. These are the seven kinds of people: " "As they fear the thieves of defilement, they make up their minds and wish to cross the great river of birth and death. They abandon their Volume XV Page 3

Pearls of Universe homes, shave their heads and wear priestly robes. Having renounced their homes, they associate with evil friends, follow their teachings, and give ear to their doctrines, which state: 'The human body is the five skandhas. The five skandhas are nothing more than the five great elements. When a person dies, he ends up with the five great elements. When he breaks with the five elements, why does he any longer need to practice good or evil? For this reason, one must know that there can be no karmic retribution of good or evil.’ Such a person is an icchantika. It is uprooted from good and evil. Uprooted from good, he sinks into the waters of birth and death and is unable to get out. Why? Due to the great weight of evil deeds, and by he does not to possess the power of faith. He is like the first of those people on the banks of the river Ganges." Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Second Kind of People
“The second person aspires to cross the great river of birth and death, but devoid of amassed good, sinks and is unable to get out. We speak of ‘getting out - come to the fore '. This refers to the Good Teacher of the Way, through which one gains faith. By faith is meant to believe that dana [giving] evokes the fruition of dana, that any action that might be called good calls forth the fruition of good, and evil actions (calls forth) what is evil; is to believe in the suffering of birth and death, and believe in impermanence and dissolution. This is faith. Gaining faith, one practices the pure precepts, upholds, recites, copies and expounds [the sutras]. He always makes grants and practices Wisdom. If dull, the person encounters an evil friend. He is unable to learn how to practice the precepts of body and the Wisdom of mind. He gives ear to evil teachings. Or it may happen be visited by an evil period of time and be born in an evil land (country), and be uprooted from good deeds. Uprooted from goodness, it always sinks into the birth and death. His Volume XV Page 4

Pearls of Universe case is like that of the second person on the banks of river Ganges.” Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Third Kind of People
"The third person intends to cross the great river of birth and death. Devoid of good, it sinks amid the waters. His proximity to a Good Teacher of the Way is his getting out. The Tathagata is the All-Knower. He is eternal and immutable. For the sake of beings, he talks about the unsurpassed Way. All beings possess the Buddha Nature. The Tathagata does not go into extinction. It's the same with the Dharma and Sangha, too. There is no extinction. Not having done away with his innate quality, the icchantika cannot attain unsurpassed Enlightenment. He very needs do away with it, (his innate quality), and then he will attain it [Enlightenment]. Thus, he believes. Through faith, he practices the pure precepts. In practicing the pure precepts, he upholds, recites, copies and expounds the 12 types of sutras and speaks of them extensively for the benefit of beings. He delights in giving and practicing Wisdom. Born sharp-minded, he abides firmly in faith and Wisdom, and does not draw back in his determination. This is like the situation of the third person on the banks of the river Ganges." Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Fourth Kind of People
"The fourth person wants to cross the great river of birth and death. Devoid of good amassed, it sinks amid the waters. Coming close of a Good Teacher of the Way, it gains faith. This is getting out. As he gains faith, it upholds, recites, copies, and expounds, and for the sake of beings, it promulgates widely the Dharma. He takes pleasure in giving and practices Wisdom. Born sharp-minded, he firmly perseveres in faith Volume XV Page 5

Pearls of Universe and Wisdom. There is no drawing back in his determination, and he looks all around in the four directions. The four directions signify the four fruitions of a Shramana. This is like the fourth person on the banks of the river Ganges." Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Fifth Kind of People
“The fifth person is someone who aspires to cross the great river of birth and death, but without good (deeds) amassed, sinks amid the waters. Associating with a Good Teacher of the Way, it gains faith. This is getting out. With faith, it upholds, recites, copies, expounds the 12 types of sutras, and speaks expansively for the sake of beings. He takes pleasure in giving, and practices Wisdom. Born sharp-minded, he firmly abides in faith and Wisdom, and there is no retroactivity in his mind. Not drawing back, it makes progress. Making progress refers to the Pratyekabuddha. Although good as regards to the salvation of himself, this does not extend to others. This is go away. This is like with the fifth person on the banks of the river Ganges.” Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Sixth Kind of People
"The sixth person aspires to cross the great river of birth and death. Devoid of accumulated good, it sinks amid the waters. Coming close to a Good Teacher of the Way, it gains faith. Acquire faith is getting out. Due to faith, it upholds, recites, copies and speaks extensively about [Dharma] for the sake of beings. He takes pleasure in giving and practices Wisdom. Born sharp-minded, he is firmly grounded in faith and Wisdom, and his mind does not retrogress. Not retrogressing, it proceeds on and finally reaches shallow waters. Arriving at the shallow Volume XV Page 6

Pearls of Universe waters, it remains there and does not move. We say that it remains. This means that the Bodhisattva, in order to save all beings, abides there and meditates on defilement. He is like the sixth person on the banks of the river Ganges." Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Seventh Kind of People
"The seventh person aspires to cross the great river of birth and death. But without good (deeds) amassed thus far, it sinks amid the waters. On meeting a Good Teacher of the Way, it gains faith. This gain of faith is what we call ' getting out '. Due to faith, it upholds, recites, copies and expounds the 12 types of sutras, and for the sake of beings, it speaks of them extensively. It takes pleasure in giving and practices Wisdom. Born sharp-minded, it firmly abides in faith and Wisdom, and does not retrogress in mind. As it does not retrogress, it steps forward. Stepping forward, it reaches the other shore. Having conquered the heights of a great mountain, it is now segregated from the fear and is blessed with pure peace. Oh good man! (Being on top of) the great mountain on the other shore can be likened to the Tathagata, peace to the Eternity of the Buddha, and the great and high mountain is Great Nirvana. Oh, good man! All these people on the banks of the river Ganges have hands and feet, but they are difficult to save. It's the same with all beings, too. The Three Jewels of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha truly exist, and the Tathagata always expounds the essentials of all law [Dharma]. There are the Noble Eightfold Path and Mahaparinirvana. All beings can achieve all this. This (Nirvana) is not what comes out of me, or of those noble paths, or of beings. Know that all these things go back to defilement. Because of this, all beings cannot reach Nirvana. " Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7. Volume XV Page 7

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The Parable of the Blind and the Elephant
“Oh good man! For example, there is a king who says to his Minister: ' Fetch an elephant and show it to some blind person'. Then, following the royal order, the Minister drew many blind people, to whom he showed the elephant. All blind people touched the elephant with their hands. The Minister said to the king: 'I already have the blind people to recognize the elephant'. Then the king called in the blind people and asked each of them: 'Have you seen the elephant'? 'Yes, sir! I saw the elephant '. The king asked: 'How do you think the elephant is'? The person who had touched their tusks said: 'The elephant is like the root of a goosefoot or a mushroom.’ The man who had touched its ear said: 'The elephant is like a fan.’ The one who had touched its trunk said: 'The elephant is like a pestle.’ The person who had touched their paws said: 'The elephant is like a handmill made of wood'. The one who had touched the back said: 'The elephant is like a bed.’ The man who had touched its belly said: 'The elephant is like a pot '. The man who had touched the tail said: 'The elephant is like a rope.’ Oh good man! All these blind people were unable to say well the form of the elephant. And yet, is not that they did not say anything about the elephant. All these aspects of representation are of the elephant. And, excluding these (aspects), there cannot be any elephant. Oh good man! The King is comparable to the Tathagata-ArhatSamyaksambuddha, the Minister (it is comparable) to the Vaipulya Great Nirvana Sutra, the elephant to the Buddha-Nature, and blind people to all beings who are ignorant.” Volume XV Page 8

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Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

Life, Color, and the Fame of the Bodhisattva
"The Bodhisattva-Mahasattva when he is born in Tushita heaven, has three superior things, namely: 1) life, 2) color, and 3) fame. The Bodhisattva-Mahasattva does not seek life, color, or fame. Not seeking [these], what he gets is superior. The Bodhisattva- Mahasattva seeks much Nirvana, and in the question of 'is', too, he is superior. For this reason, we say inconceivable. Although the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva overcomes so the gods in these three things, they do not get [feeling of] anger, jealousy, or arrogance against the Bodhisattva. They are happy. The Bodhisattva, too, does not become arrogant against the gods. This is why we say inconceivable. Although the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva does not perform any action to gain life, he gains life in that (Tushita) heaven ultimately. So we say that [his] life is superior. Although he has not done anything for [the sake of] color, the light of his wonderful body fills all around. Thus, he is superior to others in color. Living in that heavenly world, the BodhisattvaMahasattva does not seek the five desires. What he does relates to Dharma. Because of this, his name resounds in the ten directions. This is how his name [reputation, fame] is superior. This is how he is inconceivable. " Read more on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 39, on Bodhisattva Lion's Roar 7.

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The Earth on the Fingernail
Then the World Honored One grabbed a small bit of earth and deposited on his fingernail, saying to Kasyapa: "Which is greater? This bit of earth, or that of the ten directions?" Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "Oh World Honored One! The earth on your fingernail cannot be compared to the earth of the ten directions." "Oh good man! One abandons the body, and gets a body again; one casts aside the body of the three unfortunate realms [ie, the realms of hell, hungry ghosts and animals] and gains another body. And when all the sense-organs are perfect, one gains life in a Middle Country, gains right faith, and practices well the Way. Practicing well the Way, a person indeed practices the Right Way. Practicing the Right Way, one attains Emancipation, and then one really enters Nirvana. These are like the earth on my fingernail. A person casts away the own body, and gains a (body) of the three unfortunate realms. One casts away the body of the three unfortunate realms, and gains (another) body of the three unfortunate realms. Someone who is not perfect in all its senseorgans, comes alive in an out-of-the-way [remote] place, acquires an upside-down view of life, follows a twisted way, and does not attain Emancipation and Nirvana. These can be likened to the land of the ten directions. Oh good man! Someone who upholds the precepts always makes effort, does not commit the four grave offenses, does not commit the five deadly sins, does not use the things that belong to the Sangha, does not become an icchantika, and does not segregate himself from the roots of good. Those people who believe in this Nirvana Sutra can be likened to the earth on my fingernail. Those who violate the precepts, those who are indolent, those who commit the four grave offenses, those who Volume XV Page 10

Pearls of Universe commit the five deadly sins, those who use the things of the Sangha, those who become icchantikas, those who cut off all the roots of good, and those who do not believe in this sutra are as numerous as the earth in the ten directions. Oh good man! The Tathagata knows well the qualities of the beings of high, middle and low [positions]. Because of this, we say that the Buddha is perfect in the power to be able to see through the root of all things." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 40 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 1.

Innumerable Names to One Thing
"Oh good man! The Tathagata, on account of the land, on account of the season, on account of other languages, on account of beings, for the qualities of the roots of beings, relative to one thing, it speaks in a double way. In the case of one name, he uses innumerable names; for one meaning, he displays innumerable names; with respect to innumerable meanings, he speaks of innumerable names. How does he speak of the innumerable names when referring to one thing? This is as in the case of Nirvana, which is called Nirvana, nonbirth, no- appearance, non-doing, non-created; also [is called] refuge, vihara [place of residence], Emancipation, light, a lamp, the other shore, fearlessness, non-retrogression, the abode of peace, quietude, formlessness; also, the non-dual, the one action, cool, non-gloom, the unhindered, non-disputation, the non-defiled, wide and great; also, amrta [Immortality] and happiness. The things are thus. This is how we say one thing possesses innumerable names. " Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 40, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 1.

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One Meaning to Innumerable Names
“How does one refer to innumerable names? This is as in the case of Devendra, who is called Devendra, Kausika, Vasava, Puramda, Maghavat, Indra, Thousand-Eyed, Saci, Vajra, Treasury-Staff, and Treasury-Banner. The case is thus. This is how we say that one meaning has innumerable names.” Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 40, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 1.

Innumerable Meanings to Innumerable Names
"How do we use innumerable names to innumerable meanings? This is as in the case of the Buddha-Tathagata. We say 'Tathagata', in which the meaning is different and the name is different. Also, we say 'Arhat', which has a different meaning and the name is different. Also, we say 'Samyaksambuddha' [Fully Enlightened One], which has a different meaning and a different name. Also, we say 'Master Mariner'. Also, we say 'Guide', and ‘Right Enlightened One'. Also, we say ‘All-Accomplished One’. Also, we say 'Great Lion-King'; also, ‘Shramana’, 'Brahmin', 'Quietute', 'Danapati' [giver], 'Paramita' [transcendent perfection], 'Great Doctor', 'Great Elephant-King', ‘Great Naga-King', 'Eye-Giver', 'Great Wrestler', 'Great Fearlessness', 'Ball of Treasure', 'Merchant', 'Emancipated', 'Great Man', 'Teacher of Gods and Humans', 'Pundarika' [Lotus], 'Unique, Singular', 'Great Field of Blessings', 'Great Sea of Wisdom', 'Formlessness', and 'Perfect in the Eight Knowledge’. So, we have different meanings and different names. This is why we say that innumerable meanings have innumerable names. " Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 40, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 1.

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Innumerable Names to One Meaning
"Also, there is another case where the meaning is one, but the names are many. The so-called 'skandha' is called: skandha, upside-down, satya; it is presented as: four remembrances, four kinds of food, and four abodes of consciousness. Also, it is called 'is', way, time being, world, 'Paramartha-satya’ [Ultimate Truth], three practices of body, sila (precepts) and mind, cause and effect, defilement, Emancipation, 12 links of interdependent arising, Sravaka, Pratyekabuddha, hell, hungry preta, animality, human and god. Also, it is called: past, present, and future. This is why we say that innumerable are the names to one meaning." Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 40, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 1.

A Bhiksu Called Kutei
"Oh good man! I also say in a sutra: "Also, there is retrogression. Why? Because innumerable bhiksus are indolent and lazy, and do not practice the Way’. There are five kinds of retrogression, which are: 1) one likes having many things, 2) having enjoyed, one speaks of worldly things, 3) one loves sleeping, 4) likes to associate himself with people of the secular world, 5) having enjoyed, it undertakes. Because of all this, the bhiksu falls back. There are two types of causal relations of retrogression, which are: 1) inner, 2) outer. A person of the Arhat stage certainly leaves the inner cause, but not the outer. Due to the external causal relations, the defilements rise to its head. Due to defilements, retrogression comes Volume XV Page 13

Pearls of Universe about. There was a bhiksu called Kutei, who had retrogressed six times. Having retrogressed, he repented and again practiced the Way, and now it was the seventh time. Gaining it, and being afraid of losing it again, he killed himself. I also, at times, say that there is Emancipation, or talk about the six Arhats. All of my disciples hear this, do not understand my intent, and say: ‘The Tathagata says that there is decidedly retrogression'." Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 40, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 1.

The Virtue of Doubt
"Oh good man! These controversial issues are things that belong to the world of the Buddha. They are not what Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas can fathom. If a person can indeed gain a doubting mind, such a person can crush out innumerable defilements, as huge as Mount Sumeru. When a human gets a fixed thought, this is what we call clinging." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "Oh World Honored One! How do we cling?" The Buddha said: "Oh good man! Such a person may very well follow what others say or look into the sutras by himself. Or it may particularly teach others, but being unable to abandon what the mind sticks. This is clinging." Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

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The Temporal Aspect of the Beings
"Oh good man! If a person asks: 'Is there a fruit in the seed or not?’ Answer definitely: either 'is' or 'not-is'. Why? Without the seed, we cannot gain the fruit. Hence, we say 'is'. The seed does not yet germinated. Hence, 'not-is'. Because of this, we say 'is' or 'not-is'. Why? Although there exists the time difference, the body is one. The same is the case with the Buddha-Nature of the beings. 'If someone says that in the being there is a Buddha-Nature separately, this is not so. Why? Because the being is the Buddha-Nature, and the Buddha Nature is the being. Through the difference in time, we have the difference of the Pure and the non-Pure'." Oh good man! If a person asks: ‘Can this seed definitely call forth fruit, or can this fruit truly call forth a seed?’ Answer definitely: ‘It either calls forth or it does not’." Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

When I Speak of my Own Free Will
“What does it mean that I speak of my own free will? 500 Bhiksus put a question to Shariputra: 'Oh great one! The Buddha speaks about the cause of the body. What can this be'? Shariputra said: 'Oh great ones! When you yourselves gain the Right Emancipation, you yourselves will know. Why do you put such a question'? A bhiksu answered: 'Oh great one! At the time when I had not yet attained the Right Emancipation, I thought that ignorance was the cause of the body. As I so thought to myself, I attained arhatship'. Volume XV Page 15

Pearls of Universe One person said: 'Oh great one! When I had not yet attained the Right Emancipation, I thought to myself that ignorance and craving were the cause of the body. As I so thought to myself, I attained the fruition of arhatship'. And someone said: 'Things such as action, consciousness, body-and-mind, the six spheres, touching, feeling, craving, cleaving, existence, birth, food and drink, and the five desires are the cause of the body'. Then all the 500 bhiksus, each one saying what he understood, went to the Buddha, touched his feet, circumambulated him three times, paid him homage, drew back to one side, and each one reported what he had in his mind to the Buddha. Shariputra said to the Buddha: ‘Oh World Honored One! Of all these people, who's that who speaks in the right way? And who is not right?’ The Buddha said to Shariputra: 'Well spoken, well spoken! Each bhiksu says nothing but what is right'. Shariputra said: 'Oh World-Honored One! What is in your mind'? The Buddha said: 'Oh Shariputra! I said for the sake of beings that parents are the cause of the body’. The case is so. All of these sutras are what I spoke of my own free will.” Read more on the Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41, on Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

When I Speak Following the Will of Others
"What are those (sutras) which I spoke following the will of others? The rich man, Patala, came to me and said: 'Oh Gautama! Do you know a phantom or not? Someone who knows phantoms is a great phantom. If not, such a person is not All-Knower'. Volume XV Page 16

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I said, 'Oh rich man! How can you call someone who knows a phantom a phantom'? The rich man said: 'Well spoken, well spoken! Someone who knows a phantom is a phantom'. The Buddha said: 'Oh rich man! There was a candala in the state of King Prasenajit in Sravasti, whose name was Baspacandala. Have you heard of him or not '? The rich man said: 'I've known him for a long time already.’ The Buddha said: 'If you have known him for a long time, might it be that you are a candala?’ The rich man said: 'I've known him for a long time already, but this body of mine cannot be that of a candala'. ‘Oh rich man! Now you know that although you know a candala, you're not a candala. How could I be a phantom because I know a phantom? Oh rich man! I truly know a phantom, someone who acts as a phantom, the rewards of a phantom, and the skills of a phantom. I know the killing, the killer, the karmic retribution of killing, and the emancipation from killing. I also know twisted views of life, the people of twisted views, the karmic retribution of twisted views, and the emancipation from twisted views. Oh rich man! Should you call someone who is not a phantom a phantom, and someone who does not hold twisted views of life one who is possessed of twisted views of life, you will gain innumerable sins.’ The rich man said: 'Oh Gautama! If things are as you say, I shall earn a great sin. I shall now give you all that I possess. Please be good enough Volume XV Page 17

Pearls of Universe for King Prasenajit not be informed of this." The Buddha said: ‘It may be not that the causal relations of this sin necessarily will prevent you from losing your wealth. However, as a result of this, you will fall into the three unfortunate realms.’ On hearing mention of the unfortunate realms, the rich man became frightened and said to the Buddha: ‘Oh Holy One! I have now lost my head and committed a great sin. You, Holy One, are the All-Knower! You should know how to become emancipated. How do I escape from the worlds of hell, hungry ghosts, and animals'? I then spoke to him about the Four Truths. The rich man, on hearing this, attained the fruition of Srotapanna. Repentance has sprung, and he begged forgiveness from the Buddha: 'I was an ignorant. I said that the Buddha was a phantom, despite the fact that you are not. From this day forward, I will take refuge in the Three Treasures.’ The Buddha said, 'Well spoken, well spoken, Oh rich man!’ The case is so. This is speaking in response to the will of others." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

When I Speak Following My Own Will and That of Others
"How do I speak following my own will and that of others? When everyone says that the wise says 'is', I also say 'is'. When they say that the wise says 'is-not', I also say 'is-not'. When the wise of world says that amuse oneself in the five desires ends in non-eternal, suffering, Volume XV Page 18

Pearls of Universe non-Self, and disintegration; I also say thus. When the wise of the world says amuse oneself in five desires does not end in the Eternal, the Self, and the Pure; I also say thus. So things are set down. This is what is called speaking following one's own will and also that of others." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

One Who Always Sinks
“Oh good man! In this All-Wonderful River of Great Nirvana, there live seven kinds of living beings. It starts from the first - which always sinks to the seventh. Among these, some sink and some come up. We speak of one who always sinks. This refers to one who hears this be said: 'This Great Nirvana Sutra states that the Tathagata is Eternal, Unchangeable, and is Bliss, the Self, and the Pure; that it ultimately does not enter into Nirvana; that all beings possess the Buddha Nature; that the icchantika, the slanderers of the Vaipulya Sutras, those who have committed the five deadly sins, those guilty of the four graves offenses, all will carry the Way of Enlightenment; that the Srotapanna, Sakrdagamin, Anagamin, Arhat, and Pratyekabuddha unfailingly will attain unsurpassed Enlightenment’. Upon hearing this, such a person does not believe, but thinks to himself: 'This Nirvana Sutra is one that belongs to the tirthikas and is not a Buddhist Sutra’. This person then moves away from the Way, and does not give ear to Wonderful Dharma. Sometimes, it may happen to hear [the Dharma], but it cannot have a good thought. It may think, but not a good thought. As it has no a good thought, abides in evil. Abiding in evil has six ways, which are: 1) evil, 2) non-good, 3) defiled dharma, 4) the valuation of 'is', 5) worry in heat [that is, becoming hellishly hot with worry], 6) receiving evil results. This is to sink.

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Pearls of Universe Why is it sinking? When a person has no a good mind, when it always commits evil, when it does not practice the Way, we call this 'sinking'. Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

One Who Sinks and Comes Up Again
"Oh good man! I say: 'The icchantika is someone who eternally sinks, but there are icchantikas who do not fall into the class of those who eternally sink '. Who are these? This is like in the case where, for the sake of 'is', one practices giving, sila [precepts of morality], and the good. This is one who is not eternally sunk. Oh good man! There are four instances where good things call forth evil results. What are the four? They are: 1) reading and reciting the sutras in order to come above the others, 2) upholding the prohibitions and precepts for the sake of profit, 3) giving because (that) belongs to others, 4) instigate own mind and meditating towards achieving the mental state of thoughtlessness-non-thoughtlessness. These four (things) evoke evil results. This is why we speak of one who practices and amasses such (things), that it sinks and comes up again. Why do we say it sinks? Because he enjoys the three existences [i.e,, kamadhatu, rupadhatu, and arupadhatu - who are the worlds of desire, form, and non-form (spirit)]. Why do we say that it comes up? Because he sees the light. The light corresponds to his hearing [Dharma], upholding the silas, giving, and sitting in meditation. Why do we say that a person sinks? Because it grows in evil views and acquires arrogance. Hence, I say in the sutra:

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Pearls of Universe 'If beings seek all existences (of the three worlds) and commit good and evil deeds for existence, such persons will lose the way to Nirvana. This is why we say that the person temporarily comes up but sinks again. It sails on the dark ocean of birth and death, it may gain Emancipation and do away with defilement. But the person suffers again from evil returns. This is temporarily coming up only to sink again.’ Oh good man! This is like in the case of big fish that comes up on the water for a time, when it sees the light, but, as its body is heavy, sinks again. This is how things proceed with the second person mentioned above." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

One Who Comes Up and Abides
“The second kind of person deeply understands that it is not perfect in action. Being not perfect, it associates with a Good Teacher of the Way. Associating himself with a Good Friend, it takes pleasure in to seek learn what it did not listen. Having heard, it takes pleasure in to act in the way taught. Having received [these instructions], it takes pleasure in to meditate. Having thought well about, it begins to live in accordance with Dharma. As it abides in Dharma, the good increases. As it increases, it does not sink any more. This is 'abiding'. Who of the Sangha are those who match to this description? They are Volume XV Page 21

Pearls of Universe these five bhiksus as Shariputra, Mahamaudgalyayana, Ajnatakaundinya and the others, the group of five bhiksus of Yasas, and such others as Aniruddha, Kumarakashyapa, Mahakashyapa, Dasabalakashyapa, Bhiksuni Kisagotami, Bhiksuni Utpala, Bhiksuni Superior, Bhiksuni TrueMeaning, Bhiksuni Manas, Bhiksuni Bhadra, Bhiksuni Purity, Bhiksuni Non-Retrogression, King Bimbisara, rich man Ugra, rich man Sudatta, Mahanama, poor man Sudatta, son of rich man Upali, rich man Jo, Upasika Fearless, Upasika Supratistha, Upasika Dharma-Loving, Upasika Valorous, Upasika Heaven-Gained, Upasika Sujata, Upasika PerfectBody, Upasika Cow-Gained, Upasika Wilderness, Upasika Mahasena. All such bhiksus, bhiksunis, upasakas and upasikas can well be called "abodes" [i.e. those who abide]. Why do we say 'abide'? Because such a person always truly sees the good light. Hence, whether the Buddha has appeared in the world or not, such a person never does evil things. That's why we say 'abide'. This is like in the case in which the fish 'timi' seeks the light, does not sink and hides away. With all such beings, things proceed thus. That's why I say in the sutras: 'If a person truly discriminates the meanings, and with an intensive mind seeks the fruition of a Shramana, and if a person truly reproaches all existences, such a person is someone who lives in accordance with Dharma. If a person makes offerings to innumerable Buddhas and practices the Way for innumerable kalpas, and is blessed with worldly pleasures, such a person is someone who abides in Dharma. If a person befriends a Good Teacher of the Way, Volume XV Page 22

Pearls of Universe hears the Wonderful Dharma, and has a good thought in your mind, lives in accordance with the Way, and seeks the light and practices the Way, that person reaches Emancipation and lives in peace'." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 41 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 2.

One Who Comes Up and Looks All Around
"Oh good man! A man rides a horse, and he both loves as whips it. It is thus. It is also the same with the mind that warms up. Due to craving, the life is obtained, and due to abandoning [the waiver], one meditates. For this reason, it is a thing of the 'is'. Although it is a created thing, it does represent the Right Way. Those who gain the warming-up are of 73 kinds, and the 10 of the world of desire. These persons are all clad in defilement. It goes from one-tenth to nine-tenths. Like in the case of the world of desire, the things range from the first dhyana up to the heaven of thoughtlessness-non-thoughtlessness. We say that there are 73 kinds. Such a person, on gaining the warming-up, never cuts off the roots of good, commits the five deadly sins, or the four grave offenses. There are two types of these people. One associates with a good friend, and the other with a bad friend. One who associates with a bad friend comes up for awhile, but sinks again. One who associates with a Good Friend looks all around. Look all around refers to ‘topmost-height' ['murdhana' - this topmost dharma is a fruition of practice likened to the topmost height of a hill, which is both the topmost point, but it is also crucial for the falling down or retrogressing. It is a stage of practice in the Hinayana category - by Kosho Yamamoto]. The nature of this stage is yet of the class of five skandhas, and yet is related to the Four Volume XV Page 23

Pearls of Universe Truths. Hence, one can see all around. After the stage of 'topmostheight', the person attains that of 'cognition' [i.e. a stage of practice in which one obtains cognition of the nature of the Four Truths, and from which one no more is not retrogresses. There are several degrees at this stage - by Kosho Yamamoto]. This is the case with the stage of cognition, too. The nature is of the five skandhas, but is related to the Four Truths. This person then reaches laukikagradharma ['first-root-ofgood-in-the-world'], which is of the nature of the five skandhas and has causal relations with the Four Truths. The person, gradually, gains the 'cognition of suffering’. The nature of Wisdom actualises the causal relation of the First Truth. Having thus actualised the causal relation of the Truth of Cognition, the person cuts away the defilement and attains the [level of] Srotapanna. This is the fourth stage of seeing all around in the four directions. The four directions are nothing more than the Four Truths." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 42 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 3.

One Who Looks All Around and Then Goes Of
"We say that the person looks all around and then goes of. This is the Sakrdagamin. His mind is wholly focused on the Way, he practices the Way, and in order to cut out the greed, anger, ignorance and arrogance, he, like the fish 'timi', look around, and then goes of in search of food. " Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 42 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 3.

One Who Goes Off and Then Remains There
"We say that a person goes off and then remains there. This can be compared to Anagamin who, having shared the food, abides there. Volume XV Page 24

Pearls of Universe There are two kinds of this Anagamin. One is who has now attained the fruition of Arhatship and, practicing the Way still further, gains the further fruition of the Arhat [stage]. The other is who greedily adheres to the Samadhi of Silence of the world of form and non-form. This person is called Anagamin. He does not gain a body from the world of desire." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 42 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 3.

One Who Reaches the Other Shore
"Oh good man! Reaching the other shore can be compared to the Arhat, the Pratyekabuddha, Bodhisattva, and the Buddha. This is like the godly tortoise, that can move around in both on water as on land. Why do we employ the example of the tortoise? Because actually it shuts in the five things [i.e., limbs and head]. It's the same with the Arhat up to the Buddha, who actually shut in the five sense organs. Hence a comparison is drawn with the tortoise.
Photo by Diego Rafael

We say water and land. Water can be compared to the world, and land to getting out of the secular world. Volume XV Page 25

Pearls of Universe It's the same with these holy people, too. They indeed reach the other shore, as they meditate deeply about the evil defilements. Hence, the comparison is drawn with moving both on water as on land. Oh good man! The seven kinds of beings in the Ganges River possess the name of the tortoise. But they do not depart from water. Thus, in this case of this All-Wonderful (Sutra of) Great Nirvana, there come about seven different names, since the icchantika up to all Buddhas. But these do not depart from the water of the Buddha Nature. Oh good man! With these seven beings, whether that concerns the Wonderful Dharma, the non-Wonderful Dharma, the means, the Way of Emancipation, the Gradual Way, causation or result, all are the Buddhanature. They are the words of the Tathagata that come from his own free will." Read More on Nirvana Sutra, Chapter 42 - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa 3.

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Pearls of Universe

CONTENTS SEVEN KINDS OF PEOPLE ON THE BANKS OF THE GANGES ............. 3
FIRST KIND OF PEOPLE ........................................................................................................... 3 SECOND KIND OF PEOPLE ....................................................................................................... 4 THIRD KIND OF PEOPLE .......................................................................................................... 5 FOURTH KIND OF PEOPLE ...................................................................................................... 5 FIFTH KIND OF PEOPLE........................................................................................................... 6 SIXTH KIND OF PEOPLE........................................................................................................... 6 SEVENTH KIND OF PEOPLE..................................................................................................... 7

THE PARABLE OF THE BLIND AND THE ELEPHANT......................... 8 LIFE, COLOR, AND THE FAME OF THE BODHISATTVA..................... 9 THE EARTH ON THE FINGERNAIL ........................................... 10 INNUMERABLE NAMES TO ONE THING ................................... 11 ONE MEANING TO INNUMERABLE NAMES .............................. 12 INNUMERABLE MEANINGS TO INNUMERABLE NAMES ................ 12 INNUMERABLE NAMES TO ONE MEANING .............................. 13 A BHIKSU CALLED KUTEI ..................................................... 13 THE VIRTUE OF DOUBT....................................................... 14 THE TEMPORAL ASPECT OF THE BEINGS .................................. 15 WHEN I SPEAK OF MY OWN FREE WILL .................................. 15 WHEN I SPEAK FOLLOWING THE WILL OF OTHERS .................... 16
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Pearls of Universe

WHEN I SPEAK FOLLOWING MY OWN WILL AND THAT OF OTHERS ..................................................................................... 18 ONE WHO ALWAYS SINKS................................................... 19 ONE WHO SINKS AND COMES UP AGAIN ............................... 20 ONE WHO COMES UP AND ABIDES ....................................... 21 ONE WHO COMES UP AND LOOKS ALL AROUND ...................... 23 ONE WHO LOOKS ALL AROUND AND THEN GOES OF ................ 24 ONE WHO GOES OFF AND THEN REMAINS THERE .................... 24 ONE WHO REACHES THE OTHER SHORE ................................. 25

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