Introduction Basic forms of Scaffold Other forms of Scaffold
Slung Scaffold Truss-out Scaffold Suspended Scaffold Mobile Tower Scaffold Birdcage Scaffold Gantries System Scaffold





Definition: Temporary erections, constructed to support a number of platforms at different heights to enable workmen to reach their work and to permit the rising of materials.

Tubular metal Woods Bamboo Metal frame



A Scaffold should:
Be stable Have a firm base Have properly constructed standards, ledgers, transoms and bracers Have a suitable working platform Have guard rails in place Be inspected where required Be constructed so that the public are not put at risk

Cross-Section of Scaffolding



at least 219mm wide and 35mm thick should be laid to support the base plates for standards. a sole plate should support at least two standards. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 8 Base Plate Base Plate CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 9 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 10 Standards The independent tied scaffold has two vertical rows of standards.Components of scaffolds Base Standards Ledgers Transoms Bracing Working platforms Platform width Toeboards and guard-rails Brickguards Means of access CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 7 Base Plate A good base is essential and the ground should be leveled and rammed to give a firm surface. . CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 11 Ledgers The standards in each row are kept equal distance and strengthened by ledgers. Timber sole plates. Wherever possible. to ensure that the load carried by each standard is distributed over a fairly large area. These are an inner row about 325mm from the building. fixed horizontally on the inside of standards with right angle give a working clearance near the wall and an outer row in line with the inner standards to provide a platform of the width required. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 12 . Any joints necessary in standards to reach the required height should be staggered and occur near ledgers.

At lower level . All boards should be marked with their maximum span. Platforms Width Platforms should be wide enough to permit freedom of movement and to accommodate whatever materials need to be stored for short periods. All boards should be laid closely together along their length.2m between supports.danger to pedestrians or passing vehicles and it is good practice to use safety caps on the open ends. Bracing CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 15 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 16 Working Platforms The minimum width of a working platform is 600mm.Ledgers Transoms Transoms. Horizontal distance between transoms at working platform level is determined by the thickness of boards to be used. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 13 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 14 Bracing Bracing is essential to stiffen the structure. The maximum span should be 1. Standard boards are nominal 225mm wide x 38mm thick. are set on top of ledgers at right angles to them and to the building. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 17 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 18 . Each board should have at least three supports unless its thickness or span is enough to prevent any sagging under load. Ledgers and transoms should not protrude more than is necessary beyond the general outline of the scaffold. keeping the inner and outer rows of standards evenly apart. The surface of the working platform should be even to prevent anyone tripping.

Toeboards and guard-rails should be fitted on the inside of standards to prevent outward movement. SCAFFOLD TYPE AND SELECTION Selecting a Scaffolding System The safe and efficient use of scaffolding depends. backfill.Toeboards and Guard-Rails Toeboards and guard-rails are required at the outsides and ends of all working platforms from which men and materials can fall more than 2m. sandblasting. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 24 . exterior. metal siding. or if all the necessary components are not available. Selection of scaffolding and related components requires an understanding of site conditions and the work to be undertaken. type and condition of walls. either an intermediate guard-rail or other form of effective barrier example brickguard frames – must be filled. hoarding CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 23 BASIC FORMS OF SCAFFOLD Putlog Scaffold – single row of uprights or standards set outside the perimeter of the building & partly supported by the structure Independent Scaffold – two rows of standards set outside the perimeter of the building – not dependent on building support. There must be an unprotected gap of more than 470mm in height in the means of protection against a fall of a person from the working platform. anchorage points. The safety issues in the use of ladder have been covered in previous note. variations in elevation. concrete floors. tools. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 19 Brickguards Brick guards are constructed of wire mesh with three hooks at the top that will be hung over the top rail of the scaffold. on choosing the right system for the job. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 20 Means of Access Access to the scaffold must be by the use of a secure ladder. The employer must consider the following: Basic Considerations: the weight of workers. If the scaffold’s basic characteristics are unsuited to the task. painting. The lowest part then hands inside the toe board and this prevents a person or material from falling through the space between the top handrail and the working platform. mechanical installation. tie-backs) type of work that will be done from the scaffold (masonry work. first of all. materials and equipment to be carried by the scaffold system (safe work load) site conditions (interior. Toeboards should rise at least 150mm and the main guard-rail must be at least 910mm above the working platform. proper erection and use is compromised. Under no circumstances should a person be allowed to climb up the scaffold tubes to gain access. access for the equipment. etc) CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 22 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 21 height to which the scaffold may be erected (overhead power lines. In practice therefore. including wind and ice build-up requirements for pedestrian traffic through and under the scaffold area means of access to the scaffold configuration of the building or structure being worked on special erection or dismantling circumstances. suspended ceiling installation) duration of work weather conditions.

The supporting scaffolding structure which projects from the face of the building is known as truss-out.400 plan size. Used where it is impossible to erect a conventional scaffold from ground level. Working platform is similar to conventional in access of 2. Main use: for gaining access to high ceilings or the underside of high roofs. which rely entirely on the building for support.INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD Putlog Scaffold CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 25 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 26 INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD OTHER FORMS OF SCAFFOLD Slung Scaffolds: Suspended by means of wire ropes or chains and are not provided with a means of being raised or lowered by a lifting appliances.400 x 2. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 29 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 30 . CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 27 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 28 Slung Scaffolds At least six evenly spaced suspensions wire ropes/ chains should be used and these should be adequately secured at ends. Truss-out scaffolds: A form of tied scaffold.

e 25mm wide. which cantilever over the upper edge of building. Cradles may be single units or grouped together to form a continuous working platform. As a temporary means of access to the face of a building for the purpose of cleaning and light maintenance work. unless tied to the structure. the height to working platform of the tower should not exceed three and a half times its least base dimension for internal work.Suspended Scaffolds: TRUSS OUT SCAFFOLD Consist of working platform suspended from supports such as outriggers. Three times its least base dimension is the maximum for external work. Inclined ladders or vertical ladder fixed inside or outside the tower . they are connected to one another at their abutment ends with hinges which form a gap n. if grouped. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 35 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 36 . CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 31 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 32 Suspended Scaffolds Mobile Tower Scaffolds: Used mainly by painters and maintenance staff to gain access to ceilings – can be easily & readily moved to a new position. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 33 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 34 Mobile Tower Scaffolds: To ensure stability. The maximum overall height is 9.6m. A square tower constructed & mounted on wheels and fitted with brakes.must be secured with wire lashing & provided with bottom transom support.

Easy to erect. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 41 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 42 . Can served as a storage and accommodation area as well as providing staging from which a conventional independent scaffold to provide access to the face of the building can be erected. 219mm square x 35mm thick. Birdcage Scaffold CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 37 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 38 Gantries Used primarily as elevated platforms over a public footpath where the structure under construction or repair is immediately adjacent to the footpath. ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Ditto to medium ground. standards should be placed at not more than 2. 219mm wide x 480mm long x 35mm thick. Ditto to soft ground. To ensure stability. Good practice to use one length of board to support two standards. pavements. giving a clear walk through at all levels even though facade – bracing is required.400 centers in both directions and the whole arrangement braced. For heavy loads concentration or double standards. Advantage – the elimination of internal cross bracing. adaptable & can be assemble and dismantle by a semi-skilled operatives. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 40 ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Foundation: Ensure the ground is suitable – well compacted and free from irregularities – caused the sole board unstable. marble.Birdcage Scaffold: Used to provide a complete working platform at high level over a large area and consist basically of a two-directional arrangement of standards. Use base plate for – scaffold pitched on soil. and floor surfaces. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 39 System Scaffold Based upon the traditional independent scaffold – instead being connected by a series of loose couplers & clips – used integral interlocking connections.mosaic. 219mm wide x 750mm long x 35mm thick. double thickness boards or larger timbers may be required. ledgers and transom to support a close-boarded working platform at the required height. Sole board to hard ground (min.).

5m 2. putlog or birdcage scaffolds: Very duty light Birdcage scaffold Light Duty General Purpose Heavy duty Heavy duty (bkwk) (masonry) ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: +/. ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Ledgers: Jointing should be made preferably with sleeve couplers but where expanding joint pins are used. Where tension is developed in a standard then the jointing should only be made with sleeve couplers or parallel laps. Maximum Maximum 1500mm on 1500mm on lift height lift height Maximum Maximum 200mm on 200mm on bay length bay length +/. For unboarded lifts. a maximum lift height of 2. ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Standards: All standards should be pitched on base plate. they should be positioned as close to the ledger/ standard connection as possible but not more than 1/3rd. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 45 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 46 ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Transoms & Putlogs: Should be fixed to the ledgers with right angle or putlog couplers.7m is allowable.4m 2.20mm in 2m bay +/.20mm in 2m bay with aamaximum of with maximum of 50mm deviation over 50mm deviation over full length full length Erection Tolerances: Plumb and level all standards and ledgers progressively as erections of scaffold proceeds. 2. deviation over full height. Joints in standards should be made with sleeve couplers or expanding joint pins staggered in adjacent bays. Connect ledgers to standards with right angle couplers.7m 2.0m should be maintained.20mm in 2m lift with aa +/.1m 2. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 47 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 48 .ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Basing Out: The following maximum bay centers should not be exceeded for independent. a maximum lift height of 2.20mm in 2m lift with maximum of 50mm maximum of 50mm deviation over full height. All joints should be staggered in adjacent lifts. For general walkthrough access on upper lifts. transom should be positioned within 300mm of the standard and connected to the ledgers with right angle couplers.8m CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 43 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 44 ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Lift Heights: For base lifts where access under is required.0m 1.

ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Couplers: Can be classified into two categories: Load bearing couplers Right angle couplers Swivel couplers 5KN Brace coupler Sleeve coupler Adjustable Fork Heads Adjustable Base Plate/jack ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Bracing: Bracing should be remain in position at all times for stability. DOG LEG BRACING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 51 ONE-WAY BRACING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 52 ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Facade Bracing: All scaffolds should be façade braced either with “zig-zag” bracing from bottom to top or by continuous long bracing from bottom to top. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 54 . fixed from ledger to ledger with right angle or 5 KN braced couplers at alternate pairs of standards on every lift for full scaffold height. such as loading platform or a lift where no ledger bracing can be placed – plan bracing should be placed under the ledger line and be connected from standard to standard with right angle or 5KN brace couplers. each brace assembly must occur along the scaffold at intervals not exceeding 30 m. Where clear access is required on base lifts. Where clear access is required on any working lift bracing at every pair of standards may be inserted from inside ledger to guardrail to increase clear access way. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 53 ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Plan Bracing : Not normally required on access scaffolds unless there is a point or level on the scaffold where some lateral loading may be applied. or from standard to standard with swivel couplers at alternate pairs of standards on every lift for full scaffold height. Non-load bearing Putlog couplers couplers Expanding Joint Pine Toe board clips CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 49 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 50 ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: One way bracing.7m. Types of bracing: Ledger bracing: Dog leg bracing fixed from ledger to ledger with right angle or 5KN brace couplers. ledger bracing may be omitted on the base lift provided the lift height does not exceed 2.

Shoring Scaffolding PREVIOUS EXAM QUESTIONS Explain FIVE (5) factors influencing the choice of selection for the type of scaffolding to be use. the characteristics of two (2) of these components to fulfill its functionality adequately.ERECTION NOTES COMMON TO ALL SCAFFOLDS: Boarded Lifts: •All boarded lifts should be closed boarded. Explain with the aid of sketches. THREE (3) situations that may justify the use of each of the following in relation to demolition works. Explain briefly these safety measures in conjunction to the following aspects: Foundation Lift Heights Erection tolerances 38mm 1. Explain briefly two (2) basic forms of scaffolding: Putlog Scaffold Independent Scaffold (15 marks) CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 60 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 59 . CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 57 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 58 PREVIOUS EXAM QUESTIONS (APRIL2005) Scaffolding is a temporary structure which is constructed to support workmen and materials to be reach at different heights. List all the basic components of scaffold and explain briefly with the aid of sketches. You are to make necessary assumptions where appropriate. Thickness of board Max. between transoms span Minimum overhang Max.5m 50mm 150mm CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 55 CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 56 PREVIOUS EXAM QUESTIONS Demolitions give rise to the need for temporary support and to some extent cause consequences to the adjacent structure/building. overhang PREVIOUS EXAM QUESTIONS The Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) has come out with a standard guideline to ensure the performances and safety of scaffold while installation being done. (15 marks) PREVIOUS EXAM QUESTIONS (NOV2005) Scaffolding is a temporary structure which is constructed to support workmen and materials to be reach at different heights.

CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV 61 ...YOUR TASK Please update the notes with the required sketches/ drawings or photographs..

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