Session – 1

Session Name: MOSFET Transistor Author Name: Pragya Kushwaha Department: Electronics and Communication Subject/Course: VLSI Design

Session Objectives
At the end of this session, the learner will be able to: Explain MOSFET. Describe the physical structure of MOSFET and discuss its types. Dramatize the working of a MOSFET and discuss its current-voltage characteristics.

Teaching Learning Material
Board. Presentation Slides. LCD Projector.

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

Session Plan
Time (min) Content Learning Aid and Methodology Faculty Approach Typical Student Activity Learning Outcomes (Blooms + Gardeners)

10

Introduction to MOSFET Transistor

Brainstorming Chalk and Talk

Conducts Facilitates Defines

Participates Recalls Answers

Remembering Understanding Intrapersonal Interpersonal Linguistic Remembering Understanding Intrapersonal Interpersonal Visual Linguistic Remembering Understanding Applying Intrapersonal Interpersonal Kinesthetic Visual Logical Remembering Understanding Intrapersonal Interpersonal Visual Linguistic

15

Physical Structure and Types of MOSFET

Slide Presentation Chalk and Talk Look and Tell Quiz

Explains Conducts

Listens Observes Participates Answers Comprehends

20

Operation of MOSFET

Role play Chalk and Talk Slide Presentation

Conducts Facilitates Explains

Participates Observes Comprehends

15

Conclusion

Pictorial Quiz

Conducts Facilitates Questions

Discusses Recalls Answers

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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Session Inputs
Introduction to MOSFET Transistor
We can begin the session on MOSFET Transistor by asking few questions to the learners to introduce them to the basic terms associated with the topic. Suggested Activity: Brainstorming We can ask the following simple questions to the learners. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is full form of MOSFET? What ‘M’ stands for in MOSFET? What ‘O’ stands for in MOSFET? What ‘S’ stands for in MOSFET? What ‘FET’ stands for in MOSFET? How many layers it consist of?

Learners may give various answers. We can write these on the board, and discuss and analyze the answers with the help of suitable examples. After removing the irrelevant answers, we can conclude the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor M - Metal O - Oxide S - Semiconductor FET - Field Effect Transistor It means MOSFET has 3 layers during its formation: metal, oxide and semiconductor. Metal (or poly-silicon doped heavily to act like a metal) Oxide (SiO2, Acts as an insulator.) Semiconductor (One can selectively change the carrier type to n-type or p-type.) Field Effect (Device is controlled by an electric field as opposed to current.)

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

Figure1: NMOSFET(left) and PMOSFET (right) MOSFET Transistor can be defined as: The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. An insulated-gate field-effect transistor or IGFET is a related term almost synonymous with MOSFET. The term may be more inclusive, since many "MOSFETs" use a gate that is not metal, and a gate insulator that is not oxide.

Physical Structure and Types of MOSFET
We can explain the topic physical structure of MOSFET Transistor by showing some pictures on presentation slides to the learners to introduce them with the physical structure of the transistor. The following figure shows the physical structure of the MOSFET transistor.

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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Suggested Activity: Look and Tell Quiz We can ask the following simple questions to the learners: 1. How many terminals are there in figure 2 (symbol)? 2. Lists the terminal names shown in figure 2. 3. Identify the types of substrate shown in figure 1? The following are the expected answers from the learners: 1. MOSFET is a four terminal device (body or substrate terminal is generally connected with source terminal hence not shown in figure). 2. There are two types of substrate n-type and p-type. 3. Source Terminal, Drain terminal, Gate terminal, Substrate terminal. MOSFET is a four terminal device. PMOSFET- MOSFET with n type substrate hence majority carriers are HOLES in this type of MOSFET. NMOSFET- MOSFET with p type substrate hence majority carriers are ELECTRONS in this type of MOSFET.

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

Types of MOSFET Transistor: The channel can be of n-type or p-type (see figure 1), and is accordingly called an NMOSFET or a PMOSFET (also commonly NMOS, PMOS). NMOS has high switching speed in comparison to PMOS, because NMOS has electrons as majority carriers while PMOS has holes as majority carriers.

Operation of MOSFET
With the help of the following role-play, the working of MOSFET can be discussed. Suggested Activity: Role Play To begin with this activity, let us call upon 16 learners from the class. These learners can be informed in prior about their roles. They can be asked to come prepared with the dialogues assigned to them. We can appoint 2 learners to maintain the decorum of the class during role play. One learner can explain the task from the backend while the others are enacting their roles. 2 learners (standing) from the group of 16 acts as drain and source terminal potential of MOSFET. Chair is the symbol of Gate terminal. The value of gate to source voltage (Vgs) can be given by the observing learners; so as to make everyone involved. This can also alert the attention of everyone. The play begins as follows: Step 1: Gate voltage of MOSFET is less than Threshold voltage Vtn=1v. The sitting learners are having Vgs value less than Vtn i.e. 0.6volt, 0.7volt.

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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Cut off region: No channel formation Step 2: Now, next values are applied to the gate terminal. The sitting learners are showing nearly equal and higher values of Vgs (i.e. 1v, 1.5v, 2v….), which is higher than Vtn= 1v.

MOSFET Transistor is ‘ON’ Step 3: Learners are showing the stage when MOSFET gets Gate voltage Vgs>= Vtn (see figure 4). Electrons are going from source terminal to drain terminal. Here sitting learners are playing role of moving electrons.

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

N-Channel is created Step 4: After channel formation, drain current starts flowing from drain terminal to source terminal. Here two learners are sitting between source and drain terminal showing current flow in channel. The learner sitting in left hand side is showing symbol of linear drain current Id when Vds<Vgs-Vt (see figure 5b), while the learner sitting on right hand side is showing the saturation current Idsat when Vds>Vgs-Vt (see figure 5c).

MOSFET: A Voltage Controlled Current Source:

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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Figure3: NMOSFET ‘ON’ state In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel between the two other contacts called source and drain. Hence it is also called voltage controlled current device. Threshold Voltage (Vt) - The value of VGS where the drain current just begins to flow (see figure 4). PMOSFET- Vgs is negative to switch ON the MOS transistor (Vgs<Vt). NMOSFET- Vgs is positive to switch ON the MOS transistor (Vgs>Vt).

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

Figure4: Drain current increased after Threshold voltage (Vgs>Vt) Current-Voltage characterstics of NMOSFET is shown in figure 4. After getting the the condition of Vgs>Vt, A channel is created by electrons and in results Drain current Id starts flowing from drain to source. Then after Vgs>Vt when current starts flowing, current increases further with respect to the drain to source potential Vds. We get linear region of MOSFET when Vds< Vgs-Vt and Saturation region of MOSFET when Vds> Vgs-Vt as shown in figure 5.

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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Figure5: I-V Characteristic of MOSFET

Conclusion
Finally, we can conclude the session by revising the key points discussed so far, through the following Pictorial Quiz activity.

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

Suggested Activity: Pictorial Quiz To begin with this activity, the learners can be divided into two groups (columns wise). We can select one representative from each group. The group members can collectively help their team representative to identify the keyword written on the power point slide by giving clues in the form of its definition, function, etc. If he/she identifies the keyword correctly, one point can be given to the group. The group with highest point can be declared as winners. The following are some sample questions based on pictures: 1. Identify which type of MOSFET are these?

The possible answer: Left hand side MOSFET is NMOS and right hand side MOSFET is PMOS 2. Fill in the blank: MOSFET has 4 terminals: DRAIN, (…….), SOURCE, and SUBSTRATE.

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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The possible answer: Gate 3. NMOS transistor will ON when Vgs<Vt. Statement is True/ False.

The possible answer: False Click the below link to view the PPT for some more sample questions. http://www.mission10x.com/mission10x/Documents/Pictorial%20Quiz_Pragya_KIT.ppt

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

Summary
In this session, we learnt to: Explain MOSFET. Describe the physical structure of MOSFET and discuss its types. NMOS PMOS Dramatize the working of a MOSFET and discuss its current-voltage characteristics.

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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Assignment
Find some applications of MOSFET. MOSFET works as a switch: prove this fact. Relate MOSFET with Pass transistor and Transmission gate.

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MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

References
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QO5FgM7MLGg www.cmosvlsi.com/lect1.ppt www.acsel-lab.com/Books/Digital_System.../DigSysClkCh8_v1.ppt www.eng.buffalo.edu/courses/ee240/studentprojects/.../group1.ppt userwww.sfsu.edu/~larryk/engr301/Mosfet%20Basics.ppt en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET www.doe.carleton.ca/~tjs/21-mosfetop.pdf www.ece.sunysb.edu/~adoboli/355/class_7.ppt

MOSFET Transistor Pragya Kushwaha, Kanpur Institute of Technology

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