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Global Vision International 2011 Report Series No.

003

GVI Ecuador
Yachana Reserve, Rio Napo

Quarterly Report 113 June September 2011

GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve Programme Report 113

Submitted in whole to GVI Yachana Foundation Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN)

Produced by Jasmine Rowe Base Manager Fraser Ross Assistant Base Manager Isabel Varela Field Staff Phil Brown Field Staff Liam Ingram Intern Alexander Fowler Intern And
Ian Moody Colin Borowske Beau Horton-Hunter Charlie Thompson Alexis Booker Naomi Sanders Amlie Conti Jessica Sikora Pip Strickland Tom Harrison Amy Wyatt Lauren Hornsby Chris McMaster Emma Bent Intern Intern Intern Intern Intern Intern Intern Intern Short-term Intern Short-term Intern Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Keenan Mattimoe Lauren McDonnell Feifan Wang Quen Yee Wong Alexandra Baker Tim Schnabel Euan McCormack Josiah Portillo Samantha Lane Evans Darren Hunter Hannah Blanchard Nicole Hansen Nicholas Brown Short-term Intern Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer

Edited by Fraser Ross Assistant Base Manager Blaine Clarke Country Director GVI Ecuador, Yachana Reserve Email: ecuador@gviworld.com Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision Internationals GVI Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition in Ecuadors Amazon region and is run in partnership with the Yachana Foundation, based at the Yachana Reserve in the province of Napo. During the phase from June to September, GVI continued installing the long-term monitoring grid to the reserve, to near completion, and began using the grid to monitor local faunal communities. The expedition gathered some baseline data to be stored as part of the long-term monitoring plan for the Yachana Reserve. Summer school English lessons were provided to the communities of Puerto Rico and Rio Bueno three times per week. Three students from Yachana Technical High School were welcomed to GVI basecamp to join as members of the expedition, in order to exchange language skills, knowledge and experience. Two field trips were undertaken, one to Yasuni National Park and another to Sumak Allpa, an island reserve and school run by a local conservationist. Two new species were added to the Yachana Reserve Species List: Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and the Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetrodactyla). Of perhaps the most significance is the Giant Armadillo, which is listed as VULNERABLE and DECREASING by the IUCN. Other significant observations this phase include the Napo Sabrewing, whose status is NEAR THREATENED, the Ocelot (Leopardus pardalus) and Jaguarundi (Puma yaguarundi), both listed as DECREASING by the IUCN. This highlights the importance of small reserves as refuges for rare and elusive species, as well as their potential benefit as areas of habitat connectivity for species with larger ranges.

Table of Contents
Executive summary..................................................................................................... 1. Introduction...................................................................................................... 2. Long-Term Monitoring Grid............................................................................ 2.1. Methods................................................................................................... 2.1.1. Amphibians and Reptiles....................................................................... 2.1.1.1. Visual Encounter Surveys............................................................ 2.1.1.2. Pitfalls........................................................................................... 2.1.2. Birds...................................................................................................... 2.1.2.1. Mist Netting.................................................................................. 2.1.2.2. Point Counts................................................................................. 2.1.3. Butterflies............................................................................................... 2.1.4. Mammals............................................................................................... 2.2. Results..................................................................................................... 2.2.1. Amphibians and Reptiles....................................................................... 2.2.1.1. Visual Encounter Surveys............................................................ 2.2.1.2. Pitfalls........................................................................................... 2.2.2. Birds...................................................................................................... 2.2.2.1. Mist netting................................................................................... 2.2.2.2. Point Counts................................................................................. 2.2.3. Butterflies............................................................................................... 2.2.4. Mammals............................................................................................... 2.3. Discussions............................................................................................ 2.3.1. Amphibians and Reptiles....................................................................... 2.3.1.1. Visual Encounter Surveys............................................................ 2.3.1.2. Pitfalls........................................................................................... 2.3.2. Birds...................................................................................................... 2.3.2.1. Mist Netting.................................................................................. 2.3.2.2. Point Counts................................................................................. 2.3.3. Butterflies.............................................................................................. 2.3.4. Mammals.............................................................................................. 3. Species of Interest.......................................................................................... 3.1. Incidental Species.................................................................................... 3.2. New Species............................................................................................ 4. Community Programme.................................................................................. 4.1. Introduction.............................................................................................. 4.2. Colegio Tecnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School).................. 4.3. TEFL in the Communities......................................................................... 4.3.1. TEFL at Puerto Rico.............................................................................. 4.3.2. TEFL at Rio Bueno/Fuerzas Unidas ..................................................... 4.4. GVI Charitable Trust ........ 5. Future Expedition Aims 6. References.............. Appendix 1. Yachana Reserve Species List..................................................
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(iii) 6 8 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 20 21 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 33 34 35

List of Tables and Figures


Fig 1.1. Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador................................. 6 Fig 2.1. Pitfall trap array design....................................................................... 11 Fig 2.2. Example of arrangement of mistnets along the transect................... 12

Fig 2.3. Map of the reserve with long-term monitoring grid partially installed... 16 Fig 2.4. Herpetofauna commonly captured (Visual Encounter Surveys)....... Fig 2.5. Herpetofaunal species captured (Pitfall traps)................................... 17 18

Fig 2.6. Most common species captured (Birds)............................................. 19 Fig 2.7 Camera trap photo of Amazonian Squirrel (Microsciurus flaviventer). 22 Fig 2.8 Camera trap photo of South-American Coati (Nasua nasua).. 22

Table 1. Mistnetting sites for phase 113.......................................................... 19 Table 2. Most common species recorded during point counts....................... Table 3. Butterfly transects surveyed during phase 113................................ Table 4. Incidental Species............................................................................ 20 21 27

1. Introduction
The Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition operated by GVI is located in the Yachana Reserve in the Napo province (0 50' 45.47"S/-77 13' 43.65"W; 300350m altitude), Amazonian region of Ecuador. The reserve is legally-designated as Bosque Protector (Protected Forest), and consists of approximately 2000 hectares (including both North and South sides of the river) of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, as well as abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, regenerating forest and a road. The Yachana Reserve is owned and managed by the Yachana Foundation. It is surrounded by large areas of pasture land, small active cacao farms and currently un-mapped disturbed primary forest. The road within the Yachana Reserve is a large stone and gravel based road that dissects the forest.

Rio Napo, Napo Province

Fig 1.1.Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador

The Yachana Foundation is dedicated to finding sustainable solutions to the problems facing the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The foundation works with rainforest communities to improve education, develop community-based medical care, establish sustainable agricultural practices, provide environmentally sustainable economic alternatives, and conserve the rainforest. The Yachana Reserve is the result of the foundations efforts to purchase blocks of land for the purpose of conservation. The Yachana Foundation has a long-term plan of sustainable management for the reserve according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected forest guidelines and guidelines laid out by the Ministerio del Ambiente (Ecuadorian Ministry of the Environment). One of GVIs main roles at the reserve is to provide support where deemed necessary for the development of the management plan. This includes reserve boundary determination, baseline biodiversity assessments, visitor information support, and research centre development.

GVI also works with local research institutions. The Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, MECN, (Ecuadorian Museum for Natural Sciences) provides technical assistance with field research and project development. The museum is a government research institution which houses information and conducts research on the presence and distribution offloral and faunal species throughout Ecuador. GVI obtains their investigation permit with the support of MECN for the collection of specimens. The data and specimens collected by GVI are being lodged with the MECN in order to make this information nationally and internationally available, and to provide verification of the field data. MECN technicians are welcomed to the Yachana Reserve to conduct in-field training and education for GVI and Yachana students, as well as to explore research opportunities otherwise unavailable.

2. Long-Term Monitoring Grid Introduction


The Yachana Reserve, through the work of GVI staff and volunteers, has been extensively surveyed to gain scientific knowledge of the fauna within. Along with the creation of an extensive species list, specific studies have included: comparisons of primary and secondary forest and their respective levels of amphibian diversity, road impact effects on multiple taxa throughout the reserve and anthropogenic effects on butterfly communities. While specific hypothesis-directedstudies such as these have scientific value, it has been recognised that, at present, the long-term monitoring of the reserve should now be a priority and, as such, a monitoring system has been nearly fully installed within the reserve. The Yachana long-term monitoring grid follows set-up procedures and survey protocols of PPBio (named for its initials in Portuguese, translating to Program for Biological Investigation,), a worldwide approach to biological monitoring. Developed in Australia, this approach to biological monitoring has since become popular and is widely used in countries such as Nepal, Costa Rica and Brazil. We have adapted the PPBio scale and methods to fit with the environment and size of the Yachana Reserve. The aims of the grid are to facilitate the long-term ecological monitoring of key biotic and abiotic variables on the reserve, enabling the monitoring of both the effects of local land practices and environmental events, as well as long-term climate change. The key strengths of this grid are that it is: 1. Standardized methods are standardized to allow future land managers to continue monitoring 2. Implementable with existing manpower 3. Compatible with multi-taxa monitoring 4. Comparable results from surveys can be compared over time 5. Large scale enough to cover all areas of the Yachana Reserve.

The grid system consists of 32 individually located and evenly spaced plot locations. At each plot location, a 250 meter transect is created and is marked every 10 meters with flagging tape, which is attached to a suitable tree or branch. The location of each transect is marked and
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recorded using a GPS. This information is then used in conjunction with GIS software to create an accurate map of the reserve. Each transect is installed ensuring that it follows isoclines of the topography, resulting in a transect which runs at the same altitude for 250 meters. This is achieved using a variation on line-level techniques. A line level consists of two poles, between which a length of string is suspended. A spirit level is operated in the centre of the strings length. The poles are of even height (about 1.5 m) and the string is precisely 10 meters in length. A notch is made in each pole at exactly the same height (1.4 m above ground level) and the ends of the string tied around these notches. The centre of the string (5m from each end) is marked and the level itself is operated there and kept exactly parallel with the string to determine its slope. The poles are held apart by operators, with the string extended and the spirit level positioned exactly in the middle of the string. When the bubble in the level is between the two marks this means that the poles are positioned on level points on the transect - in other words on the contour. The poles must be held vertically. To lay out a contour along a transect, the team begins at the edge of the start of the transect. The operator holding the pole at the beginning (operator A) remains stationary while the operator holding the other pole (operator B) stretched the string out to full length in a westward direction and moves up and down the slope until the third operator is satisfied that the bubble is centred. Points A and B are then marked on trees using marking tape and the points recorded in a GPS. Operator A then moves to B and operator B moves onwards and the process is repeated. This continues until the contour line reaches the far end of the transect (250meters). The transect is cut only slightly, so as to make it passable, using machetes. This design minimizes variation in altitude, soil types, topography, and plant structure and composition within each plot.

2.1. Methods
Standard methods for surveying using the long-term monitoring grid were agreed upon using standard methodology for surveying PPBio grids and with expert advice from MECN. The methods used are described below:

2.1.1. Amphibians and Reptiles


2.1.1.1.Visual Encounter Surveys The Visual Encounter Surveys (VES) are carried out by 4 individuals. Among these is 1 leader (with GPS, setting the pace etc.), 2 observers and 1 processor (who will follow behind the observers, taking necessary measurements and acting as scribe). The VES transect runs 10-15 metres to one side of the midline and follows the curve of the midline. The VES transect is 6m wide and 250m in length, with a string running along the middle of the transect (henceforth known as the VES midline) for its length to ensure accuracy and consistency of the sampling area over multiple VES. The survey takes place between 8pm midnight, when amphibians are most active, and should not be carried out in extreme weather conditions. Each survey should take 1 hour and 15 minutes to carry out, walking at a speed of 10metres/3minutes. Each observer searches, on opposite sides of the VES midline, a width of 3m for all amphibians present. Care should be taken to thoroughly search all available and safely accessible habitats along the VES. This includes on the ground in the leaf litterand on plants, leaves and branches at all accessible heights (Including above the observers). Once located, individuals are captured using standard protocol (i.e. in a clean, single-use frog bag, rolled over the hand like a glove so the untouched inside of the bag becomes the untouched outside of the glove). Once captured, individuals are identified, photographed if necessary and then given to the processor/scribe, who takes the necessary measurements and notes them down on a data sheet. The processor then releases the individual behind the group so as to avoid the possibility of recapture or trampling. *Visual Encounter Surveys are not carried out alongside pitfall trap surveys (i.e. not in the same location at the same time) so as to avoid disturbance effects*

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2.1.1.2.Pitfalls Two permanent arrays are set up for each transect 5m to one side of the midline and are located at 75m and 175m along the transect. Each array consists of three 20L buckets, each 5m apart, in a linear formation running parallel to the midline. Each bucket is connected by a 5m long x 30cm high fly wire mesh baffle supported by 4 metal stakes in the following design Metal stakes

20l bucket 5m baffle

Fig 2.1. Pitfall trap array design Baffles are dug slightly into the ground to prevent fauna from burrowing under it. A few small holes are drilled into the bottoms of the buckets for water drainage. When not in use each bucket has a closed lid on top, covered with leaf litter. When in use, lids are propped up on sticks above the bucket to minimise rain entering the bucket. Leaf litter is placed on the bucket bottom as shelter for animals caught. Pitfalls are checked daily each morning for a survey period of 4 consecutive nights. Any amphibians caught inside buckets or alongside baffles are handled using the same protocol as for VES. Lizards are handled by trained staff only, and salamanders are carefully removed on natural platforms (i.e. leaves or sticks). Weight and snout to vent length (SVL) are recorded after species identification is made. Individuals are released at least 20m away from the transect to avoid recapture.

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2.1.2. Birds
2.1.2.1.Mist netting Four mist nets, each measuring 12m long x 2.5m high, are used for each transect. Nets are positioned approximately 10-20m from the midline. Attempts are made to ensure they are relatively evenly spaced along the transect, at 0m, 80m, 160m and 240m, although deviations from these distances are often necessary in order to find adequate terrain to accommodate the nets and to maximize the variety of habitats sampled along the transect (e.g. ridges and basins). To maximize efficiency, it is important that nets are set up to catch birds from a variety of flight paths along the transect. Therefore the orientation of nets varies and they do not all run parallel to one another.

Transect Mistnets
Fig 2.2. Example of arrangement of mistnets along the transect

At one end of the midline there is a banding site set up, where birds are processed and where surveyors wait between net checks. Mist nets are opened for a period of three consecutive days per transect (weather permitting). Each day nets are open between 0630 (sunrise) until 1030 to gain sixteen net hours per morning (number of hours open x number of nets). This gives a total of 48 hours per survey period. Nets are checked every 25 minutes or less to ensure caught birds are not left in nets for a long period of time. Birds are removed from nets by trained staff and placed into a bird bag, where they remain until they are processed. If appropriate, birds are banded on the left leg with an aluminium butt-end band (except hummingbirds) to allow for recapture data to be collected. After species identification is made, other data such as weight; brood patch; cloacal protuberance; fat; body and flight feather moult; flight feather wear; age; and sex are required.
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Measurements such as primaries, tarsus, tail length and culmen length, width and depth should only be taken if required to help with identification. Birds are then released no less than 50m away from nets after processing. All standard mist netting procedures and protocols are conducted and monitored by suitably trained staff.

2.1.2.2.Point Counts Three points are set up along the midline of each transect at 0m, 125m and 250m. Each point has a count duration of 10 minutes with a 3-minute settling period upon arrival prior to the beginning of each count. All birds seen and heard are recorded collectively as a group by staff and volunteers. Total species for each survey day are tallied at the end of each survey with a follow-up birdcall identification session required back in camp to help identify calls not identified in the field. Point counts are conducted between the hours 0600-0930 and 1530-1800 for morning/sunrise sessions and afternoon/sunset sessions respectively. 1-2 staff and 3 volunteers are required for each survey.

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2.1.3. Butterflies
Eight butterfly traps are hung along the midline of each transect at distances of 0m, 80m, 160m and 240m. At each location, a ground trap and a canopy trap are hung to increase the likelihood of capturing a representative sample of the butterflies present (Batra 2006). The ground traps are hung at a height of 1-1.5m and the aerial traps are hung as high as possible in the canopy (usually 10 to 20m from the ground). Fermented mashed banana is prepared as bait following the methods of DeVries et al (1999): Bananas are cut up (half with skins and half without) and mashed and mixed with a local peach wine (this may be substituted for other forms of alcohol if wine is not available) before being put in a sealed plastic container. Four bananas and 100ml of wine will provide enough bait for eight traps (two desert spoons of bait per trap). This container is left outside in the sun for 2 to 3 days so as to allow for fermentation of the bananas. Bait is placed in small bowls, covered in mesh netting and placed in the tray hung below the trap. Bait is disposed of at the end of the 5-day sampling period. Active traps are checked daily between the hours of 12pm and 5pm. Butterflies are removed from traps using a clean, dry zip-loc bag. Butterflies within a five-meter radius of the trap may also be caught in a hand net and identified. Butterflies removed from traps are identified in the bag with the use of identification plates. If necessary for identification purposes, butterflies may be removed from the bag and held in the hand, only by trained staff and volunteers. To hold a butterfly correctly, the thorax is held gently but firmly with the forefinger on the dorsal side and the thumb on the ventral side. This minimises damage to the wings and the loss of wing scales. Sex is recorded for dimorphic species and those that show obvious sexual variation (modified hairs on the wing close to the thorax indicate a male). Should marking be necessary (e.g. for any recapture projects), a non-toxic silver pen is used to mark the wings. This is done with utmost care so as not to damage the wing; an efficient identification code is used so as to minimise the use of ink on the wings of individuals. Butterfly surveys run for five days. The first day consists of trap set up; data iscollected over the following four days. Traps are taken down on the last day. No other surveys run along the same transect during the week in which the butterfly survey is being carried out to account for temporary disturbance caused by human foot traffic.

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2.1.4. Mammals
Camera traps are the sole method used for monitoring mammalian presence on the reserve. The main purpose for using camera traps is to obtain photographic records of species presence in the reserve. Two traps are placed along the plot midline at 50m and 200m (called camera stations). Trap placement is in the centre of the midline as mammals are most likely to use these cut trails for migration and movement. The cameras face a direction relative to the landform and environment that maximises exposure and opportunity for photographs. More traps may be used in the future where two traps may be set up facing each other at one camera station to identify individuals. This set up would be useful for possible future projects, such as estimating Ocelot density. Camera traps are set up for survey periods lasting three weeks (21 days), without disturbance. Maintenance is performed once weekly during a three-week survey period to check camera function, battery life and camera condition. After each three-week survey period, cameras are removed and photos downloaded and processed. Data is added to the camera photo database.


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2.2. Results
Installation of all sections of the monitoring grid is nearly complete, and completed sections are in use for monitoring avian, lepidopteran, mammalian and herpetofaunal communities. Using Arc GIS, a map of the reserve will be created to show the new trails created using the long-term monitoring plan. The map used for the surveys of phase 113 is shown below.

Fig 2.3. Map of the reserve with long-term monitoring grid partially installed

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2.2.1. Amphibians and Reptiles


Fourteen separate sites on the grid system were surveyed using the VES (Visual Encounter Survey) method, along with four sites surveyed using the Pitfall Trap method. 2.2.1.1. Visual Encounter Surveys

From the fourteen sites, a total of 97 individuals were observed, from which20 different species were identified from 16 genera and 12 families. The abundance of the more commonly found species is displayed in fig 2.4.
60 50 Number of Individuals 40 30 20 10 0

P.kichwarum A.bilinguis H.geographica B.peruviana A.trachyderma

Species

Fig 2.4. Herpetofauna commonly captured during visual encounter surveys

The most common species found ( 5 individuals) across all transects were Pristimantis kichwarum (18 individuals caught), Hypsiboas geographica (13 individuals caught), Ameerega bilinguis (12) andBolitoglossa peruviana (7). This species composition is similar to data collected during previous VES surveys on the reserve with the exception of Hypsiboas geographica,which has not previously been found in such relatively high numbers. Other species recorded on the surveys include Tropidurus umbra, Siphlophis

compressus,Anolis ortinii and Thecadactylus rapicaudus.

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2.2.1.2.

Pitfalls

Eight pitfall arrays were set up across 4 transects. Due to the length of time needed to allow the sites to rest after setup, only one week of surveying was carried out. Staff and volunteers conductedsurveys over a five day period and collected seventeen individuals (shown in fig. 2.5.)
7 Number of Individuals 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 R. margari=fer A.bilinguis P. kichwarum H. nigrovi?atus L. parietale B. atrox

Species

Fig 2.5. Herpetofaunal species captured in pitfall traps

2.2.2. Birds
Fifteen mistnetting sessions were carried out in five different locations of the grid, whilst nine point count sessions were completed along seven different transects. 2.2.2.1. Mist netting Five mistnetting sites were set up for phase 113 and surveyed for 251 hours in total (Table 1). They were distributed in different areas of the grid, BB2, CC3, DD2, EE2 and GG2 (refer to Figure 2.3, map of the reserve with long-term monitoring grid partially installed)

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Site DD2 EE2 GG2 BB3 CC3 TOTAL

Time 41h 63h 46h 40m 55h 45h 20m 251h

Number Species 14 5 6 5 12 26

Number Individuals 22 12 15 12 21 82

Recaptures 1 0 1 1 0 3

Table 1. Mistnetting sites for phase 113

Figure 2.6., below, shows the species captured most often during the mistnetting sessions. Blue-crowned Manakin was the most common, with 16 individuals captured, followed by Greatbilled Hermit (15 individuals), Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (9 individuals) and Dusky-throated Antshrike (5 individuals). captures. These five species represent nearly 55% (54.9%) of the total of

Common species captured


18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Blue-crowned Manakin Dusky-throated Antshrike Great-billed Hermit Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Number of Individuals

Species

Fig 2.6. Number of individuals for most common species captured

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Three recaptures were processed, one Blue-crowned Manakin with band ID L131, and two White-plumed Antbirds, one with band ID L56 and the other with ID L51. In terms of notable captures, a White-necked Jacobin was caught on the reserve for only the second time in GVI history. Additionally, a Napo Sabrewing, with IUCN status of Nearly Threatened was processed as well. A Ruddy Quail Dove was captured and banded; this species is known to be sensitive to habitat fragmentation.

2.2.2.2. Point Counts A total of five hours and fifty-one minutes were spent on the nine point counting surveys. They were carried out in seven different transects of the grid, EE4, FF2, FF3, GG1, GG2, GG3 and HH1. The most common species found are shown in Table 2 below. Species Blue-crowned Manakin Broad-billed Motmot Gilded Barbet Orange-cheeked Parrot Roadside Hawk Russet-backed Oropendola Trochilidae Undulated Tinamou Violaceous Jay Yellow-rumped Cacique Number individuals 7 5 12 6 (no. of flocks) 5 9 5 11 14 15

Table 2. Most common species recorded during point counts

A total of 143 individuals (or flocks flying above, in the case of the Orange-cheeked parrots) were recorded, with 89 of them belonging to the most common species (see Table 2) representing the 62% of the total individuals recorded. Regarding the number of species, a total of 39 different species were encountered, by visual or audio identification in the field.


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2.2.3. Butterflies
Nine transects were surveyed during the phase. A total of 132 individuals were caught, from which 53 species were identified from 21 genera, 11 tribes and 7 sub families (Table 3). Numbers found along transects ranged from 6 to 22 with lower numbers caught during weeks with two or more days of heavy rain

Transect BB3 FF2 GG1 CC4 BB4 GG3 FF3 EE4 DD4

Individuals Caught 21 22 17 6 12 19 18 6 10

Table 3. Butterfly transects surveyed during phase 113

The most common species found ( 5 individuals) across all transects were Nessaea hewitsoni (18 individuals), Tigridia acesta (17 individuals), Colobura annulata (10 individuals), Taygetis cleopatra (7 individuals), Catonephele acontius (6 individuals), Hamadryas chloe (5 individuals) and Morpho helenor (5 individuals). This species composition is similar to data collected during previous butterfly surveys on the reserve. Nessea hewitsoni was present on all transects except EE4; similarly Tigridia acesta was present on all transects except CC4 and EE4. At present, the size of the data set makes meaningful analysis difficult; more data collection is required, from transects across the whole of the reserve, as well as further comparative data collected from transects already surveyed.

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2.2.4. Mammals
Four traps were left out for two three-week periods and yielded two identifiable photographic captures. The species captured were: Amazonian Squirrel (Microsciurus flaviventer) and SouthAmerican Coati (Nasua nasua). Both were within 1km of base camp.

Figure 2.7 Camera trap photo of Amazonian Squirrel (Microsciurus flaviventer)

Figure 2.8 Camera trap photo of South-American Coati (Nasua nasua)


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2.3. Discussion
2.3.1. Amphibians and Reptiles
2.3.1.1. Visual Encounter Survey This initial data acts as baseline information for the monitoring grid; however, as it originates from less than half of the proposed total grid survey points, the current data set does not necessarily provide a representative view of the reptile and amphibian diversity on the reserve. Consistent with previous research on the reserve, Pristimatis kichwarum and Ameerega bilinguis were among the most commonly found species, showing them to be capable of inhabiting a broad range of habitats. The data does display a need to consider sites independently, as all 13 Hypsiboas geographica were found at one single site, which ran along a small stream. This species has not in the past been found in such abundance on the reserve and is suggestive that this species may be specialized in their habitat. To find an abundance of one species in onlyone areaemphasizes the need to survey a wider range of habitat types in the reserve, a taskmadepossible and now underway using the new grid system. Future studies on the reserve will see all grid locations surveyedover different times of the year to attain a more accurate representation of the year round herpetofauna on the reserve.

2.3.1.2. Pitfalls The composition of species captured in the pitfall traps is different to that captured during visual encounter surveys. Ground-dwelling species, such as A. bilinguis and R. margaritifer, make up the majority of species found here. While VESs yield a higher number of individuals and more unique species than pitfall traps used alone (Doan, 2003) using a combination of both VES and pitfall trap surveys helps ensure a more accurate overall representation of both species found in the forest and their relative abundances. Data gathered will act as baseline information the long-term monitoring grid and new data will be added to these results as all other sites are surveyed. From our preliminary results, it is hard to draw any conclusions related to diversity as much more surveying will need to be carried out. This will allow comparisons between sites on the reserve, and allow us to monitor changes spacially and temporally, Records show that

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Yachana Reserve houses over 150 species of reptiles and amphibians and so only a small portion of this total have been located so far using current methods.

2.3.2. Birds
Comparing the data obtained in the two different types of avian data surveys, mistnetting and point counts, some species are solely encountered in one type of survey. However, the Bluecrowned Manakin, Lepidothrix coronata, has been registered for both types of surveys as a common species with a high number of individuals encountered.

2.3.2.1. Mist Netting While the current mistnetting data set is not yet large enough to extract conclusions onbehaviour, habitat distribution and/orpopulation tendencies of birds within the reserve, there is already some important data worth mentioning regarding the following captures: - Napo sabrewing, Campylopterus villaviscensio: captured on the 13th of July in the DD2 transect. This species is under the category of Nearly Threatened by the IUCN, and is thought to have a moderately small range and population. Habitat loss is the main cause for the decrease in population. This is potentially suggestive that the reserve offers a good area of relatively undisturbed habitat for this species. - - White-necked Jacobin, Floriduga mellivora: captured on the 1st of September on CC3, this species has only been captured once before on the reserve. Ruddy Quail Dove, Geotrygon montana, is a species sensitive to habitat loss, therefore an important record for the Yachana Reserve. It was recorded on the 15th of August on GG2, but it was released unbanded due to the lack of a suitable band size.This again suggests the reserve may act as a refuge for those species sensitive to environmental changes. Three individuals banded in the reserve in the past were recaptured, an adult male Bluecrowned Manakin and two White-plumed Antbirds, one of which was an adult male (sex and age of the second individual is recordedas unknown/unable to be recorded).
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2.3.2.2. Point Counts With 143 individuals recorded in only 5 hours and 51 minutes of total point count survey time, this type of survey is expected to contribute enormously to the bird data analysis in the future. At this point in time, no major conclusions can be reached, due to the small size of the data set, but there are a few facts that can be concluded after this phase: - Birds of prey, such as Roadside hawks; birds that fly at higher altitudes (Orangechecked parrots); or birds that occupy the forest canopy (Toucans) have only been recorded during point count surveys. - Russet-backed oropendolas and Yellow rumped caciques are present in the reserve in high numbers. Though they are rarely captured during mistnetting, they have been recorded in almost every point count survey. This information may be extrapolated to include other canopy-dwelling species that are not captured during mist netting surveys. This highlights the importance of carrying out complementary surveys to attain a more accurate representation of bird life on the reserve. - Birds with distinctive calls are more likely to be noticed during point count surveys than those with quieter or less obvious calls, particularly by newly trained surveyors. This will be noted when analyzing data to help standardise conclusions.

2.3.3. Butterflies
Butterflies are sensitive to local climatic conditions but also altitude and the floral composition of the area (DeVries 1988, DeVries et al 1999 and Murray 2000). To make the data more comparable between transects, and to compare the same transect at different times throughout the year or between years, more accurate weather data needs to be collected. This should include the amount of rainfall in the morning before the survey, light and temperature levels during the survey and any rainfall during the survey (DeVries 1988). Weather machines will now be used in future surveys to collect this information, which in turn may be used in future data analyses. With regard to floral composition, there are plans to conduct vegetation mapping for each transect in the future, however it would be valuable for this data to be collected immediately before or after the survey period. This could allow the immediate comparisons of qualitative and quantitative vegetation data against data collected on animal taxa in the reserve. Information

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indicating the altitude of each transect should be included in future when analysing data so species composition can be compared between transects at different altitudes. Over future months other transects across the reserve will be surveyed however it is important that data be collected from the same transects at different times of the year. This will mean data can be compared taking into account season variation or fruiting patterns of the local flora (Murray 2000).

2.3.4. Mammals
The initial results from the camera traps were not overly successful, capturing onlytwo individuals. There are a number of factors that may explain this lack of data: (i) Disturbance - The traps were first set up near the road. Shortly afterwards, unforeseen road repairs began, involving a relatively large amount of felling of trees in the area. The disturbance caused by this event may have been sufficiently large so as to scare off potential mammalian photographic captures. (ii) Lack of maintenance On retrieval of the traps, it was found that some had lost battery power and may not have been active for the full three-week period. To remedy this, future surveys may be carried out over shorter time periods or traps may be checked at a mid-phase point to ensure they are all operating fully. This has the potential to cause disturbance in the area and so must be carried out by only two operators and with minimum disturbance. (iii) Poor trap placement As this was the first time staff used the camera traps, it is possible that lack of experience may have led to poor camera trap placement. This will be further researched and improved if necessary. (iv) Lack of bait The traps were unbaited. Baited camera traps are known to be an effective method of photographically capturing larger mammals (Gompper et al., 2006) and so future surveys may include baited traps, using fish, chicken or perfume, to encourage better results.

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3. Species of Interest
Species of interest (i.e. new species or those not seen frequently) observed during any survey or walks within the reserve are recorded on a Yachana Reserve Incidentals sheet and logged into the designated database. Photographs are taken when possible and uploaded to the relevant computer folder as soon as possible after returning to camp.

3.1. Incidental Species


The incidentals sighted this expedition are as follows:

Common Name
Arboreal Anole Amazon Scarlet Snake Brown Ground Snake White-tailed Prionodactylus Red-tailed Boa Capybara Southern Tamandua Black mantle tamarin Kinkajou *Ocelot Gold Striped Frog Tawny Forest Racer Great Potoo Swallow-tail Kite Smooth-fronted caiman *Jaguarundi Moustached Jungle Frog Broad-billed Mot Mot Rufous Mot Mot Fer-De-Lance Turnip-tailed Gecko Common Glossy Racer Water Opossum *Giant Armadillo Central Amazon Coral Snake Tiger Rat Snake Long Tailed Potoo Barred Monkey Frog Collared Tree Runner

Scientific Name
Anolis fuscauratus Pseudoboa coronate Atractus major Cercosaura argula Boa constrictor constrictor Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Tamandua tetrodactyla Sanguinus nigricollis Potus flavus Leopardus pardalus Leptodactylus lineatus Dendrophidion dendrophis Nyctibius grandest Elanoides forficatus Paleosuchus trigonatus Puma yaguarundi Leptodactylus rhodomystax Electron platyrhynchum Baryphthengus martii Bothrops atrox Theodactylus rapicauclas Drymoluber dichrous Chironectes minimus Priodontes maximus Micrurus spixii spixii Spilotes pullatus pullatus Nyctibius aethereus Phyllomedusa tomopterna Tropidurus plica plica
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Common Blunt-headed Snake Brassolinae Butterfly Table 4 Incidental species

Imantodes cenchoa geigai Opsiphanes quiteria

*It is important to note that of the incidental species that have been assessed by IUCN, the status for Giant armadillo is vulnerable and the trend for Giant armadillo, Jaguarundi and for Ocelot is stated as decreasing. The Napo Sabrewing captured during mistnetting, although not a new incidental this phase, is also mentioned here as its IUCN status is Near Threatened.

3.2. New Species


During phase 113, two new species were added to the Yachana Reserve Species List; the Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and the Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetrodactyla).

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4.

Community programme

4.1. Introduction
The community programme at GVI Amazon continues to grow and significant advances have been made this phase. Below are the aims and achievements to date for the various community projects being conducted at Yachana and in the surrounding area.

4.2. Colegio Tcnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School)


GVI continues to work closely with the Yachana Technical High School. GVI welcomes students from the Yachana Technical High School joining the expedition for varying periods. Students participate in all aspects of the expedition, including survey work, camp duty and satellite camps. The students are of great assistance during field work, sharing their knowledge about local uses for plants and local flora and fauna knowledge, as well as helping with the scheduled project work. They share their culture with volunteers and allow a greater insight into their background. Aims of Colegio Tcnico Yachana GVI collaboration To enable Colegio students to gain practical experience in conservation biology, ecology, survey techniques, as well as training in First Aid, species identification, leadership/group work and other trainings as available. To provide a cultural exchange between volunteers and Ecuadorian students. To allow volunteers to practice Spanish and Colegio students to practice English. To create a greater awareness of the work conducted by GVI Amazon

Progress this phase This phase GVI Amazon welcomed three Yachana studentsto the programme, as part of the high school pasanta (internship) program. Two students stayed for a period of four weeks and one student stayed for eight weeks. The students participated in first aid training courses, species identification tests, survey work and all camp activities, aswell as undertaking regular Spanish and English exchange sessions with the volunteers. The students received a certificate of achievement for their participation in the program.


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4.3. TEFL in the communities


Aims Provide English lessons in the local community, or improve current English curriculum through use of native English speakers. Introduce new teaching styles into the classroom and stimulate learning in children. Developt and incorporate environmental education lessons for the children at the school. Maintain good relationshipwith localcommunities.

4.3.1. TEFL at Puerto Rico


Puerto Rico is a village located approximately a twenty minute walk down the reserve road from the GVI Amazon base camp. The school has two classes, a younger and older class, and lessons are given twice a week. Progress As this phase coincided with summer vacation for the students at Puerto Rico, maintaining our normal class schedule was not possible. Prior to this expedition, GVI approached the community and offered to continue lessons as part of an optional Summer School for the children and adults of Puerto Rico. The idea was welcomed by the community. Although student number per class varied, a total of 12 English classes were given at Puerto Rico this phase.

4.3.2. TEFL at Rio Bueno/Fuerzas Unidas


This school lies at the fareastern edge of the reserve and consists of one class with students all of similar age, from 7 to 12 years old. The school may be accessed by foot in approximately one and a half hours or by buses on the route from the community of Cruzchita. Progress As with Puerto Rico, the school at Rio Bueno (also knows as Fuerzas Unidas) was closed for summer vacation during Phase 113. However, summer school classes were offered by GVI and proved to be immensely popular. Eight lessons were delivered this phase, with an average attendance of fifteen students. This included not just children, but adults from the community and Rio Buenos permanent schoolteacher, Marta, as well.
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4.4. GVI Charitable Trust

The GVI Charitable Trust works with local communities and grassroots organisations to improve facilities, resources and environments by funding education, training and opportunities that would otherwise be denied. Formed in 2005 to provide disaster relief to communities in Guatemala following the devastation caused by Hurricane Stan, the GVI Charitable Trust has grown to support projects in over 20 countries. GVI CT projects support a wide range of critical sustainable development initiatives including education, conservation and disaster relief, the National Scholarship Program (NSP) is our flagship initiative. NSP projects provide opportunities for students and adults in the regions where we work to receive support and access to education, training and opportunities that may lead to long term improvements for them, their local community and environment. More information on the GVI Charitable Trust can be found at www.gvi.org. Within the GVI Charitable Trust, each GVI expedition has its own specific project within the local country. GVI Amazon wanted to work with the schools and communities in the Amazon, and began by asking the local communities, nearest our base camp, about their needs. When the communities were consulted to find out the most pressing needs for the school and education program, the president of Rio Bueno/Fuerzas Unidas listed a water pump as the communitys highest priority. A new school building had recently been constructed in the community, but without a pump, the school had no water, and students were still receiving classes in the much smaller, older building. GVI Amazon made a new pump its immediate Charitable Trust fundraising goal, and during previous Phase 112 (April June 2011), volunteers and staff put together a 24-Hour Survey Challenge event, involving spending all night in the forest competing in a series of both mentally and physically challenging activities. Friends and families donated to support the cause and sponsor their favourite team, and over $700 dollars was raised for this Charitable Trust goal. The water pump was purchased and presented to the community during Phase 113 and the community were invited to base for a morning of activities and Sunday dinner. The community then reciprocated our invitation, inviting all the GVI volunteers and staff to the community for a fun day of games, and then, a couple of weeks later, a walk through a new area of forest with the president.

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Being able to support education in this local community has been a source of great pride for GVI Amazon, and allowed us to deepen our relationship with Rio Bueno, which has continued with community days at base, and GVI visits to the community. Based on the success of this project, GVI Amazon decided to make rural education in the Amazon its long-term fundraising goal, with proceeds from all fundraising efforts to support education, schools, scholarships and projects within the communities where our volunteers and interns teach. More information can be found online at http://www.justgiving.com/project/1876296.

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5.

Future Expedition Aims


To hone the methods used for biological surveys of the long-term monitoring grid. To obtain base-line results for all survey points on the grid in order to have comparable data for the future. Inclusion of flora profiles at all survey points is an essential part of the biological monitoring of the long-term monitoring grid. Methods for achieving this will be researched and aim to be implemented by January 2012 GVI and Yachana Foundation internship GVI Amazon has committed to be an internship site for Colegio Tcnico Yachanas new gap year program, in which all students will complete an internship year before graduating, passing through various different work placement sites to gain experience in conservation and ecotourism. GVI Amazon has proposed a program for Yachana students that will include first aid training, English practice and biological survey and species identification skills, culminating in a certification from GVI Amazon. This will form one of the components required to successfully complete this year of their official higher education. Thenew internship program is scheduled to begin in November 2011and will see two students joining GVI Amazon for a period of four weeks. After each four-week internship, two new students will be welcomed to begin the program. Communities/TEFL Classes at Rio Bueno will return to normal, with lessons delivered to the children every Wednesday. Also, due to the popularity of our summer school, we are considering the possibility of offering weekly community English lessons open to all the residents of Rio Bueno. Next expedition will also see the return to normal class schedulesduring the school term at Puerto Rico, with lessons delivered every Tuesday and Thursday for one hour.

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6.

References

Batra, P. (2006). Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (Team) Initiative, Butterfly Monitoring Protocol, Version 2.01. Conservation International DeVries, P.J. (1988). Stratification of fruit-feeding nymphalid butterflies in a Costa Rican rainforest. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera26: 98-108 DeVries, P.J., Walla, T.R. and Greeney, H.F. (1999). Species diversity in spatial and temporal dimensions of fruit-feeding butterflies from two Ecuadorian rainforests.Biological Journal of the Linnean Society68: 333-353 Doan, T.M. (2003). Which methods are most effective for surveying rain forest herpetofauna? Journal of Herpetology 37(1):72-81. Gompper, M.E., Kays, R.W., Lapoint, S.D., Bogan, D.A. and Cryan, J.R. (2006).A comparison of noninvasive techniques to study carnivore communities in Northeastern North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(4):1142-1151. Murray, D.L. (2000). A survey of the butterfly fauna of Jatun Sacha, Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea).Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera35: 42-60

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Appendix 1. Y 1 Yachana Reserve Appendix achana Reserve Species List Species List CLASS AVES
Apodiformes
Apodidae 1-Chaetura cinereiventris 2- Streptoprocne zonaris Swifts Grey-rumped Swift White-collared Swift

18- Eurypyga helias 19- Tigrisoma lineatum Cathartidae 20- Cathartes aura 21- Cathartes melambrotus 22- Coragyps atractus 23- Sarcoramphus papa

Sunbittern Rufescent Tiger-Heron American Vultures Turkey Vulture Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Black Vulture King Vulture

Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgidae 3- Nyctidromus albicollis 4- Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Nyctibiidae 5- Nyctibius aethereus 6- Nyctibius grandis 7- Nyctibius griseus Nightjars and Nighthawks Pauraque Ocellated Poorwill Potoos Long-tailed Potoo Great Potoo Common Potoo


Columbiformes
Columbidae 24- Claravis pretiosa 25- Columba plumbea 26- Geotrygon montana 27- Leptotila rufaxilla

Pigeons and Doves Blue Ground-Dove Plumbeous Pigeon Ruddy Quail-Dove Gray-fronted Dove

Charadriiformes
Recurvirostridae 8- Hoploxypterus cayanus 9- Terenotriccus erythrurus 10- Tityra cayana Plovers and Lapwings Pied Plover Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Black-tailed Tityra

Coraciiformes
Alcedinidae 28- Chloroceryle amazona 29- Chloroceryle americana 30- Chloroceryle inda 31- Megaceryle torquata Bucconidae 32- Chelidoptera tenebrosa 33- Bucco macrodactylus 34- Malacoptila fusca 35- Monasa flavirostris Kingfishers Amazon Kingfisher Green Kingfisher Green and Rufous Kingfisher Ringed Kingfisher Puffbirds Swallow-winged Puffbird Chestnut-capped Puffbird White-chested Puffbird Yellow-billed Nunbird White-fronted Nunbird Black-fronted Nunbird White-necked Puffbird Striolated Puffbird


Scolopacidae 11- Actitis macularia 12- Tringa solitaria


Sandpipers, Snipes and Phalaropes Spotted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper

Ciconiformes
Ardeidae 13- Ardea cocoi 14- Bubulcus ibis 15- Butorides striatus 16-Egretta caerulea 17- Egretta thula Herons, Bitterns, and Egrets

36- Monasa morphoeus Cocoi Heron 37- Monasa nigrifrons Cattle Egret 38- Notharchus macrorynchos Striated Heron 39- Nystalus striolatus Little Blue Heron Snowy Egret

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Capitonidae 40- Capita aurovirens 41- Capita auratus 42- Eubucco bourcierii Corvidae 43- Cyanocorax violaceus Cotingidae 44-Ampelioides tschudii 45- Cotinga cayana 46-Cotinga maynana 47- Gynnoderus foetidus 48- Iodopleura isabellae 49- Querula purpurata Hirundinidae 50- Atticora fasciata 51- Stelgidopteryx ruficollis 52- Tachycineta albiventer

New World Barbets Scarlet-crowned Barbet Gilded Barbet Lemon-throated Barbet Crows, Jays, and Magpies Violaceous Jay Cotinga Scaled Fruiteater Spangled Cotinga Plum-throated Cotinga Bare-necked Fruitcrow White-browed Purpletuft Purple throated Fruitcrow Swallows and Martins White-banded Swallow Southern rough-winged swallow White-winged Swallow

60- Campephilus melanoleucos 61- Campephilus rubricollis 62- Celeus elegans 63- Celeus flavus 64- Celeus grammicus 65- Chrysoptilus punctigula 66- Dryocopus lineatus 67- Melanerpes cruentatus 68- Picumnus lafresnayi 69- Veniliornis fumigatus 70-Veniliornis passerinus Pipridae 71- Chiroxiphia pareola 72- Chloropipo holochlora 73- Dixiphia pipra 74- Lepidothrix coronata 75- Machaeropterus regulus 76- Manacus manacus 77- Pipra erythrocephala 78- Tyranneutes stolzmanni Polioptilidae 79- Microbates cinereiventris Ramphastidae 80- Pteroglossus azara 81- Pteroglossus castanotis 82- Pteroglossus inscriptus 83- Pteroglossus pluricinctus 84- Ramphastos tucanus 85- Ramphastos vitellinus 86- Selenidera reinwardtii

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Red-necked Woodpecker Chestnut Woodpecker Cream-coloured Woodpecker Scale-breasted Woodpecker Spot-breasted Woodpecker Lineated Woodpecker Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Lafresnaye's piculet Smoky-brown Woodpecker Little Woodpecker Manakins Blue-backed Manakin Green Manakin White-crowned Manakin Blue-crowned Manakin Striped Manakin White-bearded Manakin Golden-headed Manakin Dwarf Tyrant Manakin Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens Tawny-faced Gnatwren Toucans Ivory-billed Aracari Chestnut-eared Aracari Lettered Aracari Many-banded Aracari White-throated Toucan Channel-billed Toucan Golden-collared Toucanet


Momotidae 53- Baryphthengus martii 54- Electron platyrhynchum 55- Momotus momota Parulidae 56- Basileuterus fulvicauda 57- Dendroica aestiva 58- Dendroica fusca 59- Dendroica striata


Motmots Rufous Motmot Broad-billed Motmot Blue-crowned Motmot New World Warblers Buff-rumped Warbler Yellow Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Blackpoll Warbler


Picidae


Woodpeckers and Piculets

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Troglodytidae 87- Campylorhynchus turdinus 88- Cyphorhinus arada 89- Donacobius atricapillus 90- Henicorhina leucosticta 91- Microcerculus marginatus 92- Thryothorus coraya Turdidae 93- Catharus minimus 94- Catharus ustulatus 95- Turdus albicollis 96- Turdus lawrencii Tyrannidae 97- Attila spadiceus 98- Colonia colonus 99- Conopias cinchoneti 100- Conopias parva 101- Contopus virens 102- Hemitriccus zosterops 103- Legatus leucophaius 104- Leptopogon amaurocephalus 105- Lipaugus vociferans 106- Megarynchus piangu 107- Mionectes oleagineus 108- Myiarchus ferox 109- Myiarchus tuberculifer 110- Myiobius barbatus 111- Myiodynastes luteiventris 112- Myiodynastes maculatus

Wrens Thrush-like Wren Musician Wren Black-capped Donacobius White-breasted Wood-wren Southern Nightingale-Wren Coraya Wren Thrushes Gray-cheeked Thrush Swainson's Thrush White-necked Thrush Lawrence's Thrush Tyrant Flycatchers Bright-rumped Attila Long-tailed Tyrant Lemon-browed Flycatcher Yellow-throated Flycatcher Eastern Wood-Pewee White-eyed Tody-tyrant Piratic Flycatcher Sepia-capped Flycatcher Screaming Piha Boat-billed Flycatcher Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Short-crested Flycatcher Dusky-capped Flycatcher Whiskered Flycatcher Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher

113- Myiozetetes granadensis 114- Myiozetetes luteiventris 115- Myiozetetes similis 116- Ochthornis littoralis 117- Pachyramphus marginatus 118- Pitangus sulphuratus 119- Rhynchocyclus olivaceus 120- Rhytipterna simplex 121- Tityra inquisitor 122- Tityra semifasciata 123- Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum 124- Tolmomyias poliocephalus 125- Tolmomyias viridiceps 126- Tyrannulus elatus 127- Tyrannus melancholicus 128- Tyrannus savana 129- Tyrannus tyrannus 130- Zimmerius gracilipes Vireonidae 131- Vireo olivaceus

Gray-capped Flycatcher Dusky-chested Flycatcher Social Flycatcher Drab Water-Tyrant Black-capped Becard Great Kiskadee Olivaceous Flatbill Grayish Mouner Black-crowned Tityra Masked Tityra Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Gray-crowned Flatbill Olive-faced Flatbill Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tropical Kingbird Fork-tailed Flycatcher Eastern Kingbird Slender-footed Tyrannulet Vireos Red-eyed Vireo

Cuculiformes
Cuculidae 132- Crotophaga ani 133- Crotophaga major 134- Piaya cayana 135- Piaya melanogaster Opisthocomidae 136- Opisthocomus hoazin Cuckoos and Anis Smooth-billed Ani Greater Ani Squirrel Cockoo Black-bellied Cuckoo Hoatzin Hoatzin

Falconiformes
Accipitridae Kites, Eagles, Hawks, and Osprey

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137- Accipiter bicolor 138- Buto albonotatuse 139- Buteo magnirostris 140- Buteo polyosoma 141- Elanoides forficatus 142- Geranospiza caerulescens 143- Harp agus bidentatus 144- Ictinia plumbea 145- Leptodon cayanensis 146- Leucopternis albicollis 147- Leucopternis melanops 148- Pandion haliaetus 149- Spizaetus tyrannus Falconidae 150- Daptrius ater 151- Falco rufigularis 152- Herpetotheres cachinnans 153- Ibycter americanus 154- Micrastur gilvicollis 155- Micrastur semitorquatus 156- Milvago chimachima

Bicolored Hawk Zone-tailed Hawk Roadside Hawk Variable Hawk Swallow-tailed Kite Crane Hawk Double-toothed Kite Plumbeous Kite Gray-headed Kite White Hawk Black-faced Hawk Osprey Black Hawk Eagle Falcons and Caracaras Black Caracara Bat Falcon Laughing Falcon Red-throated Caracara Lined Forest-Falcon Collared Forest-Falcon Yellow-headed Caracara

Rallidae 161- Anurolimnatus castaneiceps 162- Aramides cajanea

Rails, Gallinules, and Coots Chestnut-headed Crake Gray-necked Wood-Rail

Passeriformes
Cardinalidae 163- Cyanocompsa cyanoides 164- Saltator grossus 165- Saltator maximus Dendrocolaptidae 166- Dendrexetastes rufigula 167- Dendracolaptes certhis 168- Dendrocincla fuliginosa 169- Glyphorynchus spirurus 170- Lepidocolaptes albolineatus 171- Xiphorhynchus guttatus 172- Xiphorhynchus ocellatus 173- Xiphorhynchus picus Emberizidae 174- Ammodramus aurifrons 175- Oryzoborus angloensis Fringillidae Saltators, Grosbeaks and Cardinals Blue-black Grosbeak Slate-colored Grosbeak Buff-throated Saltator Woodcreepers Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper Plain Brown Woodcreeper Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Buff-throated Woodcreeper Ocellated Woodcreeper Straight-billed Woodcreeper Emberizine Finches Yellow-browed Sparrow Lesser Seed-Finch Cardueline Finches Lesser Goldfinch

Galliformes
Cracidae 157- Nothocrax urumutum 158- Ortalis guttata 159- Penelope jacquacu Odontophoridae 160- Odontophorus gujanensis Curassows, Guans, and Chachalacas Nocturnal Curassow Speckled Chachalaca Spix's Guan New World Quails Marbled Wood-Quail

176- Carduelis psaltria


Furnariidae 177- Ancistrops strigilatus 178- Automolus infuscatus 179- Automolus rubiginosus 180- Philydor pyrrhodes 181- Sclerurus caudacutus


Ovenbirds Chestnut-winged Hookbill Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Cinammon-rumped Foliage-gleaner Black-tailed Leaftosser

Gruiformes

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Icteridae 182- Cacicus cela 183- Cacicus solitarius 184- Clypicterus oseryi 185- Gymnomystax mexicanus 186- Icterus chrysocephalus 187- Icterus croconotus 188- Molothrus oryzivorous 189- Psarocolius angustifrons 190- Psarocolius decumanas 191- Psarocolius viridis Thamnophilidae 192- Cercomacra cinerascens 193- Chamaeza nobilis 194- Cymbilaimus lineatus 195- Dichrozona cincta 196- Formicarius analis 197- Frederickena unduligera 198- Hersilochmus dugandi 199- Hylophlax naevia 200- Hylophylax poecilinota 201- Hypocnemis cantator 202- Hypocnemis hypoxantha 203- Megastictus margaritatus 204- Myrmeciza hyperythra 205- Myrmeciza immaculata 206- Myrmeciza melanoceps 207- Myrmornis torquata 208- Myrmothera campanisona 209- Myrmotherula axillaris 210- Myrmotherula hauxwelli 211- Myrmotherula longipennis

American Orioles and Blackbirds Yellow-rumped Cacique Solitary Cacique Casqued Oropendola Oriole Blackbird Moriche Oriole Orange-backed Troupial Giant Cowbird Russet-backed Oropendola Crested Oropendola Green Oropendola Typical Antbirds Gray Antbird Striated Antthrush Fasciated Antshrike Banded Antbird Black-faced Antthrush Undulated Antshrike Dugand's Antwren Spot-backed Antbird Scale-backed Antbird Warbling Antbird Yellow-browed Antbird Pearly Antshrike Plumbeous Antbird Sooty Antbird White-shouldered Antbird Wing-banded Antbird Thrush-like Antpitta White-flanked Antwren Plain-throated Antwren Long-winged Antwren

212- Myrmotherula menetriesii 213- Myrmotherula obscura 214- Myrmotherula ornata 215- Phlegopsis erythroptera 216- Phlegopsis nigromaculata 217- Pithys albifrons 218- Schistocichla leucostigma 219- Thamnomanes ardesiacus 220- Thamnophilus murinus 221- Thamnophilus schistaceus Thraupidae 222- Chlorophanes spiza 223- Cissopis leveriana 224- Creugops verticalis 225- Cyanerpes caeruleus 226- Dacnis flaviventer 227- Euphonia chrysopasta 228- Euphonia laniirostris 229- Euphonia rufiventris 230- Euponia xanthogaster 231- Habia rubica 232- Hemithraupis flavicollis 233- Piranaga olivacea 234- Piranaga rubra 235- Ramphocelus carbo 235- Ramphocelus nigrogularis 236- Tachyphonus cristatus 237- Tachyphonus luctuosus 238- Tachyphonus surinamus 239- Tangara callophrys 240- Tangara chilensis 241- Tangara gyrola 242- Tangara mexicana

Gray Antwren Short-billed Antwren Ornate Antwren Reddish-winged Bare-eye Black-spotted Bare-eye White Plumbed Antbird Spot-winged Antbird Dusky-throated Antshrike Mouse-colored Antshrike Plain-winged Antshrike Tanagers Green Honeycreeper Magpie Tanager Rufous-crested Tanager Purple Honeycreeper Yellow-bellied Dacnis White-lored Euphonia Thick-billed Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Yellow-backed Tanager Scarlet Tanager Summer Tanager Silver-beaked Tanager Masked Crimson Tanager Flame-crested Tanager White-shouldered Tanager Fulvous-crested Tanager Opal-crowned Tanager Paradise Tanager Bay-headed Tanager Turquoise Tanager

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243- Tangara schrankii 244- Tangara velia 245- Tangara xanthogastra 246- Tersina viridis 247- Thraupis episcopus 248- Thraupis palmarum

Green-and-gold Tanager Opal-rumped Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager Swallow Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager

268- Ara ararouna 269- Ara severa 270- Aratinga leucophthalmus 271- Aratinga weddellii 272- Brotogeris cyanoptera 273- Pionites melanocephala 274- Pionopsitta barrabandi 275- Pionus chalcopterus

Blue-and-Yellow Macaw Chestnut-fronted Macaw White-eyed Parakeet Dusky-headed Parakeet Cobalt-winged Parakeet Black-headed Parrot Orange-cheeked Parrot Bronze-winged Parrot Blue-headed Parrot Maroon-tailed Parakeet

Piciformes
Galibulidae 249- Galbula albirostris 250- Jacamerops aureus Jacamars Yellow-billed Jacamar Great Jacamar

276- Pionus menstruus 277- Pyrrhura melanura


Trochilidae 251- Amazilia fimbriata 252- Amazilia franciae cyanocollis 253- Anthracothorax nigricollis 254- Campylopterus largipennis 255- Campylopterus villaviscensio 256- Eriocnemis vestitus 257- Eutoxeres condamini 258- Glaucis hirsuta 259- Heliodoxa aurescens 260- Heliothryx aurita 261- Phaethornis bourcieri 262- Phaethornis hispidus 263- Phaethornis malaris 264- Phaethomis ruber 265- Thalurania furcata


Hummingbirds Glittering-throated Emerald Andean Emerald Hummingbird Black-throated Mango Gray-breasted Sabrewing Napo Sabrewing Glowing Puffleg Buff-tailed Sicklebill Rufous -breasted Hermit Gould's Jewelfront Black-eared Fairy Straight-billed Hermit White-bearded Hermit Great-billed Hermit Reddish Hermit Fork-tailed Woodnymph

Strigiformes
Strigidae 278- Glaucidium brasilianum 279- Lophostrix cristata 280- Otus choliba 281- Otus watsonii 282- Pulsatrix perspicillata Typical Owls Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Crested owl Tropical Screech-Owl Tawny-bellied Screech-owl Spectacled owl

Tinamiformes
Tinamidae 283- Crypturellus bartletti 284- Crypturellus cinereus 285- Crypturellus soui 286- Crypturellus undulatus 287- Crypturellus variegatus 288- Tinamus major Tinamous Bartlett's Tinamou Cinereous Tinamou Little Tinamou Undulated Tinamou Variegated Tinamou Great Tinamou


Trogoniformes

Trogonidae 289- Pharomachrus pavoninus

Trogons and Quetzals Pavonine Quetzal Collared Trogon Blue-crowned Trogon

Psittaciformes
Psittacidae 266- Amazona farinosa 267- Amazona ochrocephala Parrots and Macaws Mealy Amazon Yellow-crowned Amazon

290- Trogon collaris 291- Trogon curucui

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292- Trogon melanurus 293-Trogon rufus 294- Trogon violaceus 295- Trogon viridis

Black-tailed Trogon Black-throated Trogon Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Amazonian White-tailed Trogon

309- Rhinophylla pumilio Desmodontinae 310- Desmodus rotundus Emballonuridae 311- Saccopteryx bilineata Glossophaginae 312- Glossophaga soricina 313- Lonchophylla robusta Phyllostominae 314- Macrophyllum macrophyllum 315- Mimon crenulatum 316- Phyllostomus hastatus

Little fruit bat Vampire bats Common vampire bat Sac-winged/Sheath-tailed Bats White-lined bat Long tongued bats Long tongued bat Spear-nosed long-tongued bat Spear-nosed Bats Long-legged bat Hairy-nosed bat Spear-nosed bat

CLASS MAMMALIA
Carnivora
Artidactyla 296- Mazama americana 297- Odocoileus virginianus 298- Tayassu tajacu Felidae 299- Herpailurus yaguarundi 300- Leopardus pardalis 301- Puma concolor Mustelidae 302- Eira barbara 303- Lontra longicaudis Procyonidae 304- Nasua nasua 305- Potos flavus

Peccaries and Deer Red brocket deer White-tailed deer Collared peccary Cat Jaguarundi Ocelot Puma Weasel Tayra Neotropical otter Raccoon South american coati Kinkajou


Stenodermatidae 317- Artibeusjamaicensis 318- Artibeus lituratus 319- Artibeus obscurus 320- Artibeus planirostus 321- Chiroderma villosum 322- Sturnria oporaphilum 323- Sturrnia lilium 324- Uroderma pilobatum 325- Vampyrodes caraccioli Vespertilionidae 326- Myotis nigricans


Neotropical Fruit bats Large fruit-eating bat Large fruit bat Large fruit bat Large fruit bat Big-eyed bat Yellow shouldered fruit bat Hairy-legged bat Tent-making bat Great Stripe-faced bat Vespertilionid Bats Little brown bat

Chiroptera
Carollinae 306- Carollia brevicauda 307- Carollia castanea 308- Carollia perspicullatus Short-tailed Fruit bats Short-tailed fruit bat

Lagomorpha

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Leporidae 327- Sylvilagus brasiliensis Brazilian Rabbit/Tapeti

Large Cavylike Rodents Opossums Western woolly opposum Water opossum Common opossum Little rufous mouse opossum Long-furred woolly mouse opossum Andersons Gray Four-eyed opossum 342- Agouti paca 343- Coendou bicolor 344- Dasyprocta fuliginosa 345- Hydrochaeirs hydrochaeirs 346- Myoprocta pratti Sciuridae 347- Sciurus sp. 348- Sciurillus pusillus Two-toed sloths Southern two-toed sloth Paca Bi-color spined porcupine Black agouti Capybara Green acouchy Squirrels Amazon red squirrel Neotropical pygmy squirrel

Marsupialia
Didelphidae 328- Caluromys lanatus 329- Chironectes minimus 330- Didelphis marsupialis 331- Marmosa lepida 332- Micoureus demerarae 333- Philanderandersoni

Megalonychidae
Subfamily Choloepinae 334- Choloepus diadactylus

Xenarthra
Dasypodidae 349- Cabassous unicinctus Armadillos Southern naked-tailed armadillo Nine-banded armadillo

Primates
Callitrichidae 335- Saguinus nigricollis Cebidae 336- Allouatta seniculus 337- Aotus vociferans 338- Cebus albifrons Black-mantle tamarin Red howler monkey Night monkey White-fronted capuchin

350- Dasypus novemcinctus Cyclopedidae 351- Cyclopes didactylus

Anteaters Silky Anteater

CLASS SAUROPSIDA
Crocodilians
Alligatoridae 352- Paleosuchus trigonatus

Smooth-fronted caiman

Rodentia
Echimyidae 339- Dactylomys dactylinus 340- Nectomys squamipes 341- Proechimys semispinosus Amazon bamboo rat Water rat Spiny rat

Chelonia
Testudinidae 353- Chelonoidis denticulata Polychrotidae 354- Anolis fuscoauratus Yellow-footed tortoise Slender anole

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355- Anolis nitens scypheus 356- Anolis ortonii 357- Anolis punctata 358- Anolis trachyderma Scincidae 359- Mabuya nigropunctata Tropiduridae 360- Tropidurus (Plica) plica 361- Tropidurus (Plica) umbra ochrocollaris Teiidae 362- Kentropyx pelviceps 363- Tupinambis teguixin

Yellow-tongued forest anole Amazon bark anole Amazon green anole Common forest anole


Snakes
Boidae 376- Boa constrictor constrictor 377- Boa constrictor imperator 378- Corallus enydris enydris 379- Epicrates cenchria gaigei

Red-tailed boa Common boa constrictor Amazon tree boa Peruvian rainbow boa Earth snake sp3 Earth snake Earth snake sp2 Olive whipsnake Rusty whipsnake Musarana Tawny forest racer Ornate snail-eating snake Big-headed snail-eating snake Amazon egg-eating snake Common glossy racer Banded south american water snake Spotted water snake Common blunt-headed tree snake Amazon blunt-headed tree snake Common cat-eyed snake Brown parrot snake White-lipped swamp snake Common swamp snake Brown vine snake Yellow-headed calico snake Black-headed calico snake Banded calico snake Common bird snake

Black-spotted skink Collared tree runner Olive tree runner Forest whiptail Golden tegu

Colubridae 378- Atractus elaps 279- Atractus major 380- Atractus occiptoalbus 381- Chironius fuscus 382- Chironius scurruls 383- Clelia clelia clelia 384- Dendriphidion dendrophis 385- Dipsas catesbyi 386- Dipsas indica 387- Drepanoides anomalus

Lizards
Gekkonidae 364- Gonatodes concinnatus 365- Gonatodes humeralis 366- Pseudogonatodes guianensis 367- Thecadactylus solimoensis Gymnophthalmidae 368- Alopoglossus striventris 369- Arthrosaura reticulata reticulata 370- Cercosaura argulus 371- Cercosaura ocellata 372- Leposoma parietale 373- Neusticurus ecpleopus 374- Prionodactylus argulus 375- Priondactylus oshaughnessyi Collared forest gecko Bridled forest gecko Amazon pygmy gecko Turnip-tailed gecko Black-bellied forest lizard Reticulated creek lizard Common forest lizard Common streamside lizard Elegant-eyed lizard White-striped eyed lizard

388- Drymoluber dichrous 389- Helicops angulatus 390- Helicops leopardinus 391- Imantodes cenchoa 392- Imantodes lentiferus 393- Leptodeira annulata annulata 394- Leptophis cupreus 395- Liophis miliaris chrysostomus 396- Liophis reginae 397- Oxybelis anaeus 398- Oxyrhopus formosus 399- Oxyrhopus melanogenys 400- Oxyrhopus petola digitalus 401- Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis

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402- Pseustes sulphureus 403- Sphlophus compressus 404- Spilotes pullatus 405- Tantilla melanocephala melanocephala 406- Xenedon rabdocephalus 407- Xenedon severos 408- Xenoxybelis argenteus Elapidae 409- Leptomicrurus scutiventris 410- Micrurus langsdorfii 411- Micrurus lemniscatus 412- Micrurus spixii spixxi 413- Micurus hemprichii ortonii 414- Micrurus langsdorffi ornatissimus 415- Micurus surinamensis surinamensis Viperidae 416- Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata 417- Bothriopsis taeniata 418- Bothrops atrox 419- Bothrops hyoprora 420- Lachesis muta muta

Giant bird snake Red-vine snake Tiger rat snake

426- Cochranella midas 427- Cochranella resplendens Dendrophryniscus

Glass Frog Glass Frog Leaf Toads Orange bellied leaf toad Poison Frogs Ruby Poison Frog Sanguine Poison Frog Ucayali Rocket Frog Duellmans Poison Frog Tree Frogs Amazon Leaf Frog Upper Amazon Tree Frog Neotropical Marbled Tree Frog Red Striped Tree Frog Mottled Clown Tree Frog Variable Clown Tree Frog Casque-headed Tree Frog Rocket Tree Frog Gladiator Tree Frog Convict Tree Frog Rough-skinned Tree Frog Map Tree Frog Common Polkadot Tree Frog Forest bromeliad Tree Frog

Black-headed snake 428- Dendrophryniscus minutus Common false viper Giant false viper Green-striped vine snake 430- Ameerega ingeri Pygmy black coral snake Langsdorffs coral snake 433- Ameerega zaparo Eastern ribbon coral snake 434- Colostethus bocagei Central amazon coral snake Orange-ringed coral snake Ornate coral snake Aquatic coral snake Western Striped Forest Pit Viper 439- Dendropsophus marmorata Speckeled forest pit viper Fer-de-lance Amazonian Hog-Nosed Lancehead 442- Dendropsophus triangulium Amazon Bushmaster 443- Hemiphractus aff. scutatus 440- Dendropsophus rhodopeplus 441- Dendropsophus sarayacuensis Hylidae 437- Cruziohyla craspedopus 438- Dendropsophus bifurcus 435- Colostethus marchesianus 436- Dendrobates duellmani 431- Ameerega insperatus 432- Ameerega parvulus Dendrobatidae 429- Ameerega bilinguis


Toads Cane Toad Crested Forest Toad Sharp-nosed Toad Glass Frogs undescribed Glass Frog Glass Frog

444- Hyla lanciformis 445- Hylomantis buckleyi 446- Hylomantis hulli 447- Hypsiboas boans 448- Hypsiboas calcarata 449- Hypsiboas cinirascens 450- Hypsiboas geographica 451- Hypsiboas punctatus 452- Osteocephalus cabrerai complex 453- Osteocephalus cf. deridens

CLASS AMPHIBIA
Bufonidae 421- Rhinella marina 422- Rhinella complex margaritifer 423- Rhinella dapsilis Centrolenidae 424- Centrolene sp. 425- Cochranella anetarsia

44

454- Osteocephalus leprieurii 455- Osteocephalus planiceps 456- Phyllomedusa tarsius 457- Phyllomedusa tomopterna 458- Phyllomedusa vaillanti 459- Scinax garbei 460- Scinax rubra 461- cf. Sphaenorhychus carneus 462- Trachycephalus coriaceus 463- Trachycephalus resinifictrix 464- Trachycephalus venulosus Leptodactylidae 465- Edalorhina perezi 466- Engystomops petersi 467- Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus 468- Leptodactylus andreae 469- Leptodactylus knudseni 470- Leptodactylus mystaceus 471- Leptodactylus rhodomystax 472- Leptodactylus wagneri 473- Lithodytes lineatus 474- Oreobates quixensis 475- Prystimantis acuminatus 476- Prystimantis aff peruvianus 477- Prystimantis altamazonicus 478- Prystimantis conspicillatus 479- Prystimantis lanthanites 480- Prystimantis malkini 481- Prystimantis martiae 482- Prystimantis ockendeni complex 483- Prystimantis sulcatus 484- Prystimantis variabilis 485- Strabomantis sulcatus

Common bromeliad Tree Frog Flat-headed bromeliad Tree Frog Warty Monkey Frog Barred Monkey Frog White-lined monkey Tree Frog Fringe lipped Tree Frog Two-striped Tree Frog Pygmy hatchet-faced Tree Frog

486- Vanzolinius discodactylus Microhylidae 487- Chiasmocleis bassleri Plethodontidae 488- Bolitoglossa peruviana Ranidae

Dark-blotched Whistling Frog Sheep Frogs Bassler's Sheep Frog Lungless Salamanders Dwarf climbing salamander True Frogs Neotropical Green Frog Caecilians

Amazonian Milk Tree Frog Common milk Tree Frog Rain Frogs Eyelashed Forest Frog Painted Forest Toadlet Black-banded Robber Frog Cocha Chirping Frog Rose-sided Jungle Frog Moustached Jungle Frog Wagneris Jungle Frog Painted Antnest Frog Common big headed Rain Frog Green Rain Frog Peruvian Rain Frog Amazonian Rain Frog Chirping Robber Frog Striped-throated Rain Frog Malkini's Rain Frog Marti's rainfrog Carabaya Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog Variable Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog

489- Rana palmipes Typhlonectidae 490- Caecilia aff. tentaculata

CLASS ARACHNIDA
Araneae 491- Ancylometes terrenus 492- Nephila clavipes Giant Fishing Spider Golden Silk Spider

CLASS INSECTA
Coleoptera
Grylloptera 493- Panacanthus cuspidatus Hemiptera 494- Dysodius lunatus

Spiny Devil Katydid Lunate Flatbug


Scarabaeidae 495- Canthon luteicollis 496- Deltochilum howdeni 497- Dichotomius ohausi

45

498- Dichotomius prietoi 499- Eurysternus caribaeus 500- Eurysternus confusus 501- Eurysternus foedus 502- Eurysternus inflexus 503- Eurysternus plebejus Various spp. 504- Canthon luteicollis 505- Dichotomius ohausi

506- Dichotomius prietoi 507-Euchroma gigantea 508- Eurysternus carabaeus 509- Eurysternus coafusus 510- Eurysternus foedus 511- Eurysternus inflexus 512- Eurysternus pleibeus 513- Homoeotelus d'orbignyi 514- Onthopogus haematopus

Giant Ceiba Borer Pleasing Fungus Beetle


Lepidoptera
Lycaenidae
515- Celmia celmus 516- Janthecla sista 517- Thecla aetolius 518- Thecla mavors 519- Colobura annulata 520- Colobura dirce 528- Catonephele acontius 529- Catonephele esite 530- Catonephele numilia 531- Diaethria clymena 532- Dynamine aerata 533- Dynamine arthemisia 534- Dynamine athemon 535- Dynamine gisella 536- Ectima thecla lerina 537- Eunica alpais 538- Eunica amelio 539- Eunica clytia 540- Eunica volumna 541- Hamadryas albicornus 542- Hamadryas arinome 543- Hamadryas chloe 544- Hamadryas feronia 545- Hamadryas laodamia 546- Nessaea batesii 547- Nessaea hewitsoni 548- Nica flavilla 549- Panacea prola

Noctuidae
521- Thysania agrippina

Nymphalidae
Apaturinae 522- Doxocopa agathina 523- Doxocopa griseldis 524- Doxocopa laurentia 525- Doxocopa linda Biblidinae 526- Biblis hyperia 527- Callicore cynosura

46

550- Panacea regina 551- Paulogramma peristera 552- Phrrhogyra amphiro 553- Pyrrhogyra crameri 554- Pyrrhogyra cuparina 555- Pyrrhogyra cf nasica 556- Pyrrhogyra otolais 557- Temenis laothoe Charaxinae 558-Agrias claudina 559- Archaeoprepona amphimachus 560- Archaeoprepona demophon 561- Archaeoprepona demophon muson 562- Archaeoprepona licomedes 563- Consul fabius 564- Hypna clytemnestra 565- Memphis arachne 566- Memphis oenomaus 567- Memphis offa 568- Memphis philomena 569- Prepona eugenes 570- Prepona dexamenus 571- Prepona laertes 572- Prepona pheridamas 573- Zaretis isidora 574- Zaretis itys Cyrestinae 575- Marpesia berania 576- Marpesia crethon 577- Marpesia petreus Danainae

578- Appias drusilla 579- Danaus plexippus 580- Dismorphia pinthous 581- Eurema cf xanthochlora 582- Perrhybris lorena 583- Phoebis rurina Danainae Ithomiini 584- Aeria eurimidea 585- Ceratinia tutia 586- Hypoleria sarepta 587- Hyposcada anchiala 588- Hyposcada illinissa 589- Hypothyris anastasia 590- Hypothyris fluonia 591- Ithomia amarilla 592- Ithomia salapia 593- Mechanitis lysimnia 594- Mechanitis mazaeus 595- Mechanitis messenoides 596- Methona confusa psamathe 597- Methone cecilia 598- Oleria gunilla 599- Oleria ilerdina 600- Oleria tigilla 601- Tithorea harmonia Heliconinae 602- Actinote sp. 603- Dryas iulia 604- Eueides eunice 605-Eueides isabella 606- Eueides lampeto 607- Eueides lybia

47

608- Heliconius erato 609- Heliconius hecale 610- Heliconius melponmene 611- Heliconius numata 612- Heliconius sara 613- Heliconius xanthocles 614- Heliconius doris 615- Philaethria dido Limenitidinae 616- Adelpha amazona 617- Adelpha cocala 618- Adelpha cytherea 619- Adelpha erotia 620- Adelpha iphicleola 621- Adelpha iphiclus 622- Adelpha lerna 623- Adelpha melona 624- Adelpha mesentina 625- Adelpha messana 626- Adelpha naxia 627- Adelpha panaema 628- Adelpha phrolseola 629- Adelpha thoasa 630- Adelpha viola 631- Adelpha ximena Nymphalinae 632- Anartia amathae 633- Anartia jatrophae 634- Baeotus deucalion 635- Eresia eunice 636- Eresia pelonia 637- Historis odius

638- Historis acheronta 639- Metamorpha elisa 640- Metamorpha sulpitia 641- Phyciodes plagiata 642- Siproeta stelenes 643- Smyrna blomfildia 644- Tigridia acesta Satyrinae Brassolini 645- Bia actorion 646- Caligo eurilochus 647- Caligo idomeneus idomeneides 648- Caligo illioneus 649- Caligo teucer 650- Caligo placidiamus 651- Catoblepia berecynthia 652- Catoblepia cassiope 653- Catoblepia generosa 654- Catoblepia sorannus 655- Catoblepia xanthus 656- Opsiphanes invirae 657- Eriphanes automedon Satyrinae Haeterini 658- Cithaerias aurora 659- Cithaerias menander 660- Cithaerias pireta 661- Haetera macleannania 662- Haetera piera 663- Pierella astyoche 664- Pierella hortona 665- Pierella lamia 666- Pierella lena

48

667- Pierella lucia Satyrinae Morphini 668- Antirrhea hela 669- Antirrhea philoctetes avernus 670- Morpho achilles 671- Morpho deidamia 672- Morpho helenor 673- Morpho menelaus 674- Morpho peleides 675- Morpho polycarmes Satyrinae Euptychini 676- Caeruleuptychia scopulata 677- Chloreuptychia agatha 678- Chloreuptychia herseis 679- Euptychia binoculata 680- Euptychia labe 681- Euptychia myncea 682- Euptychia renata 683- Hermeuptychia hermes 684- Magneuptychia analis 685- Magneuptychia libye 686- Magneuptychia ocnus 687- Magneuptychia ocypete 688- Magneuptychia tiessa 689- Pareuptychia hesionides 690- Pareuptychia ocirrhoe 691- Taygetis cleopatra 692- Taygetis echo 693- Taygetis mermeria 694- Taygetis sosis

695- Battus belus varus 696- Battus polydamas 697- Papilio androgeus 698- Papilio thoas cyniras 699- Parides aeneas bolivar 700- Parides lysander 701- Parides pizarro 702- Parides sesostris

Riodinidae
703- Amarynthis meneria 704- Ancyluris aulestes 705- Ancyluris endaemon 706- Ancyluris etias 707- Anteros renaldus 708- Calospila cilissa 709- Calospila emylius 710- Calospila partholon 711- Calydna venusta 712- Cartea vitula 713- Emesis fatinella 714- Emesis lucinda 715- Emesis mandana 716- Emesis ocypore 717- Eurybia dardus 718- Eurybia elvina 719- Eurybia franciscana 720- Eurybia halimede 721- Eurybia unxia 722- Hyphilaria parthenis 723- Isapis agyrtus 724- Ithomiola floralis 725- Lasaia agesilaus narses 726- Lasaia pseudomeris

Papilionidae

49

727- Leucochimona vestalis 728- Livendula amaris 729- Livendula violacea 730- Lyropteryx appolonia 731- Mesophthalma idotea 732- Mesosemia latizonata 733- Mesosemia loruhama 734- Napaea heteroea 735- Nymphidium balbinus 736- Nymphidium caricae 737- Nymphidium chione 738- Nymphidium lysimon 739- Nymphidium mantus 740- Nyphidium nr minuta 741- Pandemos pasiphae

742- Perophtalma lasus 743- Pirascca tyriotes 744- Rhetus arcius 745- Rhetus periander 746- Sarota chrysus 747- Sarota spicata 748- Setabis gelasine 749- Stalachtis calliope 750- Stalachtis phaedusa 751- Synargis orestessa

Uranidae
752- Urania leilus

50