EUGENIA IRIMIAŞ ● BUSINESS COMMUNICATION TOPICS Second edition

Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene Cluj-Napoca, 2006

EDITURA FUNDAŢIEI PENTRU STUDII EUROPENE Str. Em. de Martonne nr. 1 Cluj-Napoca, România Director: Ion Cuceu

ISBN 10 973-7677-43-9 13 978-973-7677-43-3

EUGENIA IRIMIAŞ

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION TOPICS
SECOND EDITION IMPROVED

Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene Cluj-Napoca, 2006

Business Communication Topics 4 .

ISBN 10 973-7677-43-9 13 978-973-7677-43-3 . EUGENIA Business Communication Topics / Eugenia Irimiaş. Cluj-Napoca : Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene. 2006 Bibliogr.Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României IRIMIAŞ.

Business Communication Topics 6 .

Communicating in Business 7 .

..........TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................41 VII.......... WRITING EMPLOYMENT DOCUMENTS..... TYPES OF COMMUNICATION............................................ THE AUDIENCE...... COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM: MEMOS................................ COMMUNICATION STYLES..................................................................36 VI............... COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS.......................80 XI.........................................................86 XII....... COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS............. BUSINESS MEETINGS...............................................132 XVI........................................... BUSINESS LETTERS......................169 .......................139 XVII.................................................................................................... MINUTES..9 II...................................................................67 X....................47 VIII............................................. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION.................... PRESENTATIONS................. INTERVIEWS.....................28 V........................................................................................................................................................157 ANSWER KEY.................................................... NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS........... COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT......................................................... BUSINESS REPORTS....................149 XVIII.....................112 XV....8 I................................................91 XIII....................60 IX... AVOIDING DISCRIMINATION IN COMMUNICATION.................................................................................................... EFFECTIVE LISTENING.23 IV....17 III.................................................. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE..96 XIV...... REPORTS.... INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION.............................160 BIBLIOGRAPHY........................

g. THE PROCESS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION 3. Stress on adaptation: fitting the message to the recipients. Can you identify some other imperfections of the communication process? Meanings sent are not always received. e. Does the process of human communication differ. The message is detected by the senses. A response is formed and sent. Flatley 1993: 15) BASIC NOTIONS 1. The message goes through a filtering process. ………………………………………………. What do you know about the following forms of communication? Where/ when/ how/ by whom are they used? NON-VERBAL ORAL WRITTEN COMPUTER FORMS OF COMMUNICATION 2.: giving orders. The message enters in the sensory world. writing memorandums.e. Read about some forms of communication in business. COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS “Some writers have other goals (to impress. Can you identify some other examples? FORMS OF COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS INTERNAL OPERATIONAL: the communicating done in conducting work within a business i. The cycle is repeated. Petit. and communicating by computers Technology (computer.” (Lesikar. The symbols of communication are imperfect. Business communication should seek only to communicate. depending on the specific form of communication? The message is sent. to entertain).I. fax) . communication across cultures is especially difficult. assembling reports. IMPERFECTIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 4.

Lesikar.  Business needs good communicators. In his opinion. Discuss the following statements. its operating plan. you improve your chances for success. Flatley 1993: 3-15) assists in making & sending 1. and letter writing It may affect worker attitudes.: personal selling. in their turn.Business Communication Topics EXTERNAL OPERATIONAL: workrelated communication with people outside the business PERSONAL: nonbusiness-related exchanges of information and feelings among people. the larger the organization of which you are an employee. Petit.” 1. which. i. the basic skill colleges teach students – as future employees – is “the ability to organize and express ideas in writing and speaking”. 1. He continues: “…your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word.  The extent of a business’s communication depends on the nature of the business. COMMUNICATION NETWORK OF THE ORGANIZATION The information flow in business can be: downward/ upward/ horizontal The communication channels can be: formal/ informal (adapted from R. The concluding sentence in some paragraphs of the text (1-7) has been removed. 2. 1. And the further away your job is from manual work. but most people do not communicate well. Do you agree or disagree with them?  All organized effort. 10 .e. telephoning. J. a well-known management consultant. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-I) to conclude each paragraph. There is an example at the beginning (0 D ). M. 1. In the very large organization … this ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a person can possess. advertising. 5. requires communication. including the work of business. Debate upon what Peter Drucker. There is one sentence that you do not need. and the people involved. states about the role of communication in business. affect worker performance. Explain the importance of communication to you and to business. Read about the importance of effective communication in the work place.  Communication is vital to every part of business.  By improving your communication ability. Reading 2. Use the information in the table below and describe the communication network in an organization you know. the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. Discussion 2.

Winning the attention of the person with whom we wish to communicate. Some call them the four A's of communication. This includes everything that distracts. or distracting mannerisms or dress. obstacle to business productivity. is an obvious first step. Given the will. we must first try to eliminate . Managers are human beings involved with other human beings.as far as is humanly possible . yet avoidable. success and failure. making money or losing it.Communicating in Business A We can only discuss them very briefly here. C The task of the communicator is to change the aspect of "fear" into that of "understanding". respect for the other person is an important prerequisite for attention getting. be it noise in the literal sense. F To communicate successfully managers and supervisors have to understand the other person. the bleakest of situations can be turned around for the better. In order to achieve this goal. and harmonious cooperation. The human greeting. negative attitudes. and have to work hard to get the other person to understand them. Communicating Effectively in the Workplace: Four Essential Steps The way company personnel communicate with each other can make all the difference between efficiency and ineptitude. B Encouraging a free flow of input from the receiver is the best way of ensuring that understanding has been achieved. G However. it can be avoided. in the workplace. personal problems. E Assimilation of a concept presented by management. with abundant support and encouragement. On the other hand. D They need to realize that successful communication is no one-way process. or by another worker. goes a long way towards ensuring active participation. And yes. reciprocity is the essence of communication. I Effective communication requires tools and planning. although each of these four is worth an essay on its own. managers themselves have to set the example. Communication is as much a matter of human relationships as it is about transmitting facts. by Azriel Winnett Ineffective communication is a major. /1__/ The vital four steps in effective communication might well help people to correct this distorted view of the communication process. /2__/ Attention. They are far more than givers of information or instructions. too. Management must face squarely the challenge of formulating strategies to encourage personnel to communicate effectively. or inquiry about the other 11 . H The originator of the message must play his part.what experts in this field call "noise". physical or emotional discomfort. /0 D/ On the contrary. This applies whether the process is conducted verbally or through the medium of the written word.

Management Consultant Communication is the key to any business success! Unless potential clients and customers are aware of your business. 2. /6__/ Action. But what we have said about the two-sided nature of communication applies here as well. leads quickly to the second step in the process apprehension. We have preferred the term "apprehension" here primarily to retain the mnemonic of "four A's". Types of Communication "You can't do without communication and computers. but he or she has not accepted it. "Do you understand?" This is usually an unfair question. they will not have the information to contact you or to purchase your products. /7__/ (http://www. if there is the right relationship between the transmitter and the receiver of a message. they must be able to contact it easily. and even the somewhat improved "What do you understand?" is often perceived as a threat. Communication is still incomplete if he has not assimilated the information into his own being. On the other hand. To be sure.shtml) 2. is an effective catalyst in this process. Read the following text about the types of communication and answer the questions. /4__/ Achieving apprehension is a critical part of the communication process. indirect ways of establishing the degree of understanding will present themselves. This is the final step in our communication process. /5__/ Assimilation. however. Two types of communication are essential . Managers sometimes defend their inability to communicate by asking. Although this word usually carries the connotation of "fear". they are two sides of one coin. If assimilation has indeed taken place. /3__/ Apprehension.Business Communication Topics person's health or personal circumstances. if such introductions are false or stereotyped they might serve little purpose. are related.hodu. but is not translated into action. all the more so important in downward communication from superior to subordinate. The initiator has achieved an ideal result if the recipient has assimilated the message to the extent that he becomes one with the sender.external and internal." Gwyn Myers. So often a good idea in business (no less than in other spheres) meets with facile acceptance or agreement. When they are aware of your business. but it is a very subtle one also. it is accepted in a halfhearted manner. Its two meanings. It is that ingredient which propels abstract or theoretical knowledge into the world of reality. a person has understood a message perfectly.com/business-communication. they are the keys to the success of your business. Alternatively. without any conviction. 12 . as it were. As crucial as is the function of apprehension (in its positive sense as we defined it) it is not enough. its primary meaning is "understanding". Real empathy. action on the part of the receiver should follow inevitably. Often.

(http://www. Consider using an accounting software program appropriate for your business. 4.Communicating in Business External communication reaches out to the customers to make them aware of your product or service and to give them a reason to buy. Plan ongoing internal communications including awards. cards and website. you must motivate your staff through various forms of communication.org/s3/#1) 3. 2) computers. Build the word family of the words written in bold: Top Ten Do's and Don'ts Top ten do's 1. Develop a logo to represent who you are: for stationery. telephone calls. 10. When leaving messages. Use a remote Voice Mail answering system rather than an answering machine. Gain the capability to do word processing. 3. contact letters. newsletters. and formal and informal discussions. Internal communication is essential to attracting and retaining a talented staff. and 3) the Internet. meetings. Consider using a headset for cordless and cell phones. Image is extremely important in external communication! Your logo should represent who you are. telephone calls. can be grouped into 1) basic communication tools. which can include awards. web sites and anything else that makes the public aware of what you do. Consider a laptop computer if your business requires mobility. You must provide the direction for the company by consistently communicating that message. presentations and email. This type of communication includes your brochures.myownbusiness. Don't start your business without knowledge about and possession of computer tools. Use separate dedicated phone lines for your business and fax lines. 8. 2. newsletters and discussions. your telephone message should reflect your professionalism. Don't overlook the Internet as an important business tool. signs. Don't overlook making regular external back-ups to computer programs. The tools that facilitate that key element of your business – communication. Learn digital technology including use of pictures for marketing purposes. 3. 5. 6. 7. 9. Vocabulary . spreadsheets. 13 4. various forms of advertising. Comprehension Answer the questions: What do you think Gwyn Myers means by being “aware of your business”? What ‘communication means’ give the customer “a reason to buy”? What motivates the company staff? Read the text that highlights the importance of mastering modern communication technology in business by giving advice on what to do or not do when using modern technology. Top ten don'ts 1. Effective communication requires tools and planning. clearly and slowly repeat your name and number. 2. your letterhead should be a selling tool.

and pronouns). Do not spend for a top-of-line computer unless it is required in your business. they are clear and exact. be sure to request information on communication plans that more closely meet your new requirements. Functional words express relations among content words and have only one unchanging meaning in any given context (e. verbs. Don't purchase more equipment than will meet your need for the next two years. Don't fail to exercise your rights on return policies within time limits allowed. 8. Language focus The two most important aspects of word choice in business communication are:  Correctness  Effectiveness In order to achieve these text characteristics you should pay attention to the following tips: Strategies Use functional words correctly. Concrete words stand for something particular. 7. Abstract words are concepts. 5. Denotative meaning=dictionary meaning Connotative meaning=associative meaning Mind abstraction/ concreteness of the words you use. Use familiar words (but avoid overworked terms). Use short words rather than longer ones. (http://www. Do not turn verbs into nouns and adjectives – it weakens your writing style. characteristics.g. Pay attention to connotation and denotation. racial. and adverbs). When plans change. Avoid biased language (sexist. qualities. nouns. prepositions. Do not sign up for extended time periods on any service including phone and mobile. articles. concise and accurate! Be fair and objective in content! 14 .myownbusiness. Don't feel an 800 number is important unless you are receiving orders by phone. 9. 6. Choose strong words! These are the nouns and the verbs not the adjectives and the adverbs. conjunctions.org/s3/#1) THE RIGHT WORD 5. Do not sign up for long term plans with Internet Service Providers. 10. Choose content words carefully: they carry the meaning of the sentence (e. Communication targets Use them correctly! Develop your ability to choose the right content words for your message! Use terms that are low in connotative meaning! Use specific terms whenever possible! Use abstractions only when necessary! Be clear.Business Communication Topics 4.g. adjectives. ethnic.

6. …………………….   7. 2. Familiar Find out. 15 . To what extent is the ability to communicate important to the successful performance of each of them? Address the question to some other jobs you consider worth discussing. 5. 3. business consultant. How much personal communication should be permitted in a business organization? What companies require extensive communication and what companies require little communication? Discuss the list you have made with your colleague. Find some other examples. (adapted from Bovée. and worker. bring about Avoid Growth. Unfamiliar Ascertain Consummate Circumvent Increment …………………….1. Use them correctly in the appropriate context. accede – exceed accept – except access – excess allot – a lot born – borne complement – compliment correspondent – corespondent council – counsel defer – differ discreet – discrete levee – levy loath – loathe material – materiel moral – morale shear – sheer stationary – stationery waive – wave weather – whether (selected from Bovée. Speaking  Take into account the following positions: company president. after you discuss the differences in meaning. Thill 1992: 113) 5.Communicating in Business age or disability related). Use the following pairs of words correctly in sentences of your own. Read the following list of words and group them into two categories: familiar/ unfamiliar. Find some other pairs that can be easily confused. supervisor. chief accountant. increase ……………… ………………. describe the network of communication in an organization you are familiar with. Writing In not more than 200 words. learn Close... Thill 1992: 613) 5.

Business Communication Topics

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Professional Communication

II. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
BASIC NOTIONS Communication is defined as an exchange of messages resulting in shared meaning. Professional communication is a specialized exchange of messages resulting in shared meaning. KEY ELEMENTS OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Elements Communication chain Communication channels Communication networks Communication skills Communication effectiveness Communication climate Communication technology Communication barriers Communication crisis Indicators/qualities as direct as possible (fewer links) oral/ written; formal/informal downward/upward/horizontal internal/external influence employability (80%) perception, precision, credibility, congeniality open, influenced by the management style of the top executives affects information flow, ease of contact, organizational structure intercultural, oral/written problems conflict handling by communicating

(adapted from C. L. Bovée, J. V. Thill, Business Communication Today, New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc., 1992)

1. Discussion
1. 1. Describe the key elements of professional communication mentioned in the chart above. Feel free to enrich the list with some other characteristics defining professional communication. 1. 2. Which of them are, in your opinion, highly important for the business communication? Defend your view. 1. 3. Identify the types of technology used primarily in internal and externaloperational communication to transmit messages.

2. Reading
Technical communication represents one of the most important elements that contribute to the success of communication in the business environment. By reading this fragment from “Ten Technical Communication Myths”, you will reconsider the effect of communication technology and the contribution of the specialists in this domain to the development of a productive communication climate within or outside an organization. It is not business properly, but you will see that it is indispensable to the modern business world. Decide whether the following statements (1-7) are true (T) or false (F).

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Business Communication Topics

1. Despite the degree of abstraction or exaggeration that makes myths so fascinating, there is often a grain of truth but no insight into some fundamental aspects of the human condition at their heart. 2. The things we usually do in our daily work are strongly influenced by "rules of thumb". 3. Some modern communicators misinterpret the occasional rule to the point where it becomes valid for any circumstance it is applied to. 4. There are 14 central myths in modern technical communication. 5. It is a rule that audiences are always dynamic. 6. Technical communicators know that documentation is very expensive. 7. A culture can reinvent a myth by recasting it in their own unique context. Ten Technical Communication Myths by Geoff Hart Myths often represent the very human attempt to explain something important but poorly understood, such as the turning of the seasons, or to provide cautionary tales to warn listeners against unsanctioned behavior, as in the myths of Prometheus and Epimetheus. The fascination inspired by myths has kept many alive across the millennia, but despite the degree of abstraction or exaggeration that makes them so fascinating, there is often a grain of truth or an insight into some fundamental aspects of the human condition at their heart. In our current enlightened age, we fancy that we've grown beyond the need for myths, yet "urban legends" abound (particularly on the Internet), and many of the things we do in our daily work are strongly influenced by "rules of thumb" that are, in a very real sense, a form of myth. (par. 1) As any other profession, technical communication has accumulated its share of mythical rules of thumb, but the good news about our profession's myths is that they too contain grains of truth and insights into things that are truly important to us. The bad news is that we've also internalized some of these myths to the point that we no longer question them and have begun to let them constrain our choices rather than to help us remember and see the truth. Some communicators even overgeneralize the occasional rule to the point where it loses its validity and becomes dangerously misleading. (par. 2) So what myths do we live by? In no particular order, this paper presents my "top 10 list" of what I consider to be the central myths in modern technical communication. There are undoubtedly others. By acting as devil's advocate, intentionally presenting these myths in a bad light, I'm hoping that I can persuade you to question these and other rules of thumb that you use daily. When you pay closer attention to the rules you obey, consciously or otherwise, and question why, you can start to recognize the disabling aspects of a myth and begin taking steps to free yourself from those constraints. And here they are: (par. 3)  Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important (1)  Sans Serif Fonts are Always More Legible Online (2)  Audiences are Static (3)  Minimalism Means Keeping Text as Short as Possible (4)

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.. the thing to remember about "rules of thumb" is that thumbs bend when necessary. overgeneralize. Vocabulary Explain with your own words. find synonyms for the following: Paragraph 1: cautionary. It is a unit of thought. they are nonetheless based on something truthful. 6)   (adapted from: http://www. It involves logical thinking. if possible. attempt Paragraph 6: idiosyncratic. Comprehension Answer: What is technical communication? What is a technical communicator? What are the position/ function/ role of a technical communicator in the communication diagram of an organization? 4. dumping Paragraph 5: shed. 5) Each of the ten myths I've presented in this guest editorial passes this test for that idiosyncratic group of people known as technical communicators. 4) But myths aren't always invalid. By making the myths more relevant to ourselves. insights. Myths endure because no matter how much they simplify or exaggerate reality. (par.techwrl. and so all peoples have the same basic type of myths." (par. interface. After all. All peoples have the same questions.html#myth1) 3.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. or something that sheds a bright light on an aspect of our lives. obey.. Language focus THE PARAGRAPH The paragraph consists of several sentences all related to the same topic. refine 5. 19 . something important to us. disabling Paragraph 4: legible. we reinvigorate them and ourselves. unsanctioned. fancy Paragraph 2: share. Two of the things that fascinate me most about mythology are just how universal the themes can be and how creatively each person or culture can be in reinventing a myth by recasting it in their own unique context. invigorate. My hope is that each of us will find ways to answer those universal questions for ourselves by seeking out the underlying truths and building on them to create something more useful and fascinating still. misleading Paragraph 3: advocate. Folklorist Josepha Sherman has observed that "Myths are attempts to explain the cosmic truths. One obvious way to do this is to re-examine our current rules of thumb and see how they can be refined.Professional Communication The Optimum Number of Steps in a Procedure is 7 Plus or Minus 2 (5) You Can Make a Bad Interface Easy to Use Through Superior Documentation (6)  We Can’t Talk to the SMEs (7)  Usability Testing is Prohibitively Expensive and Difficult (8)  Single-sourcing Means Dumping Printed Documents Online (9)  Documentation is a Cost Center (10) (par.

depending on the writer’s plan. They are more specific than the topic sentence.it presents a problem and debates a possible solution to that problem comparison or contrast Methods to develop a paragraph discussion of cause and effect classification discussion of problem and solution (adapted from Bovée. or last. Explain the topic sentence. in the middle.it indicates the specific categories of a general idea . dealing with some details. It can come first.it gives examples that demonstrate the general idea . conjunctions) Repeated words or phrases Pronouns Words that are frequently paired Illustration . They indicate how paragraphs and ideas are related.e.it presents similarities or differences among thoughts .Business Communication Topics The paragraph consists of three basic elements: Elements Role It contains the essence of the whole paragraph (main idea). It indicates how the subject of the paragraph will be developed.it focuses on the reasons of something . Thill 1992: 129) 20 . Topic sentence Related sentences Transitional elements: Connecting words (i. They make the text coherent.

by classification. television sets and cars are not uncommon. by comparison or contrast. and the world is a long way yet from the day when they will be finally removed. and that for the majority of the world’s population human life exists on the border between bare subsistence and extinction.Professional Communication DO NOT FORGET: Limit each paragraph to one general idea! Write short paragraphs (100 words or less)! Leave out unessential details! Your message should contain unified. in America the family garage has two cars and indoors the deep-freeze contains ice cream and chicken. are not poor. The sad truth is partly that Europe and North America are not the world. Even if all the good things of the world were placed in a gigantic common pool. and shared equally amongst all the human race. 2. are very considerable) and certain pitfalls have to be avoided. Write a paragraph on each of the following topics. (Nevin 1971: 3) 5. of course. and coherent paragraphs! 5. 2) 5. and the related sentences: The world in which we live is a desperately poor place. Today. the world’s population would still have scarcely enough food and clothing and warmth and shelter to keep itself alive. 1. But parts of the world. choosing for each the most suitable way for the paragraph to be developed: by illustration. In the following paragraph. Exchange is vital to economics. however. Economic affairs are frequently involved with ethics. or even the greater part of the world. well developed. identify the topic sentence. and in the process of avoiding them the published national income estimates become somewhat 21 . sometimes downright dangerous. is not entirely a straightforward affair even in principle (the statistical problems of estimation. (Nevin 1971: chapters 1. Build a paragraph around each of the following topic sentences: Scarcity is the foundation of economics. few people die of starvation or exposure. 4. by discussion of cause and effect. three thousand million human beings crowd its surface. 3. Suggested connections:      the issue of unemployment types of personal computers available for sale how to use a digital camera a famous company got bankrupt advantages and disadvantages of traveling on business 5. Words are frequently misleading. each one needing food and shelter in order to do nothing more than preserve his own life. therefore. and by discussion of problem and solution. it may be said. It is also true that the relatively rich communities such as Europe and North America contain enormous pockets of real poverty. Break up these sentences into shorter. more readable ones: The calculation of total expenditure. Even in Europe the general standard of living is not bad.

What role does communication play in establishing their membership in each group? Give examples. 6. Employees belong to various groups.Business Communication Topics complicated because it is obvious that in calculating a country’s national income via estimates of total expenditure. made by one of your colleagues. employee or member responsibilities. organization policies. Which of the systems described is better? How could the organization improve its downward communication? 22 . methods used by top executives to inform individuals about the organization itself. Choose two jobs you might like to have after you graduate. while care should be taken to see that no such purchases are excluded. etc. only purchases which provide income for someone else in the community should be included. Writing Think of an organization you are familiar with and make a list of the means used for downward communication (i. What communication skills do you think would be most important to you in these positions?  7. Compare your list with another.).e. Speaking   Describe how managers use communication. each with their own characteristics.

It can be: representative (statements). inviting). declarative (appointment. persuasive. claiming.III. constatative/ performative (according to the theory of speech acts). ordering. Interviews personal Training programmes. organized It is more likely to involve creative effort. expressive (congratulating. offer. it unconsciously facilitates feedback. directive (order. accepting. communication It can be: locutionary (say something). quicker. It increases the sender’s Importance More reliable and more efficient It maximizes collaboration. eye Phone conversation behaviour. It saves time and provides . more spontaneous. advice). request. Less-structured. promising (promise. perlocutionary (intention). vocal Meetings characteristics. etc. controlled. touching behaviour. refusing. use of time and space Supports and It largely has an interactive clarifies verbal function. it convenient than written often occurs communication. illocutionary (content). etc. collaborative (inquiring. acknowledging . spontaneous.) Main characterist ics planned. Easy. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION BASIC NOTIONS Types of communication Nonverbal verbal Oral Facial Face-to-face conversation expressions. appearance. Conferences gestures and Presentations postures. declaration). efficient. not learned. thanking). written Letters Memos Minutes Reports Varieties Functions informative.

Discuss the table above. yet hiring on the basis of "tool skills" ignores the fact that the ability to format text is a very small part of our value as technical communicators. Business Communication Today. few writers lack the ability to type and do basic formatting from the software's menus. 2.Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important – from the article “Ten Technical Communication Myths” by Geoff Hart and answer the questions (1-4) by choosing the appropriate answer (A. FrameMaker.1. the ancients did a pretty good job of documenting complex processes without these tools. and decide what components of the product we must document and how we should do it. it's far less important than our ability to communicate. How can you handle emotional conflicts in business communication? Will you be able to maintain your objectivity? Discuss the topic considering the three types of communication: nonverbal. They hire us because we possess the ability to pry information from the grasp of reluctant Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). Nowadays. or RoboHELP. Back in the Dark Ages before computers. advanced formatting skills are actually a red herring. Bovée. because templates already exist and layout or design work consists more of applying the templates than of actively designing something new.. Add your own ideas to each of the points mentioned in it. faces a learning curve in a new position or at a new company. literally or figuratively. Reading Read the excerpt that describes the first myth . control but makes immediate feedback impossible. or C).) Employers hire us primarily because we can understand their products and communicate that understanding to their customers. J. Discussion 1. rather. (adapted from C. 24 . and because we have the persistence to make an effort to satisfy those needs. in many situations. 1992) 1. It's not that knowing how to format is unimportant to us. and may take weeks to learn the ins and outs of the new job. They hire us because we know how to take a product apart. those ancients could probably teach us a few things about good writing. B. oral and written.Business Communication Topics than verbal communication . 1. because we have that rare skill of empathizing with our audience well enough to understand that audience's needs. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc. even one who comes equipped with the desired tool skills. V. in fact.In speech delivery opportunities for social interaction. Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important Few managers want to hire a new technical communicator and wait weeks for the person to become productive with the company's writing tools. None of these reasons depends strongly on the ability to work in Word. 2.In job interviews . (It also ignores the fact that any new employee. Thill. and these (not formatting skills) are the crucial tools that support our work. L.

many of my colleagues have an even more diverse portfolio of tools at their disposal. ignores the fact that any new employee. ignores the fact that the ability to format text is a key element that makes technical communicators valuable for the organization. and become skillful with in about a week. An important hiring criterion for technical communicators should be A.html#myth1) 1. All else being equal—a rare situation— choose the communicator who also knows your development tools and can use them for layout. in my comparatively short career (not quite 15 years). faces a learning curve in a new position or at a new company C. they know how to advertise a product C. The crucial tools that support technical communicators’ work are A. using tool skills B. Hiring on the basis of "tool skills" A. three operating systems. I've mastered four different layout programs. they have that rare skill of presenting accurately the company’s policy in front of a demanding audience 3. Given that most of us have learned enough software skills to quickly develop basic to moderate competence with new software.Types of Communication But let's assume that tool skills really are as important as some managers claim. (adapted from: http://www. they can understand their products and communicate that understanding to their customers B. and more other types of programs and applets than I care to count. For example.techwrl. and you'll know which of the two writers you should hire. the ability to communicate 4. the ability to type and do basic formatting C. but most of what we do doesn't require that level of mastery. even one who comes equipped with the desired tool skills. formatting skills B. Mastery can certainly take far longer. ignores the fact that a new employee takes a couple of days to learn the ins and outs of the new job 2. ask yourself this: would you rather read well-written documentation or documentation produced by someone who can make Word 97 jump up and dance? Now ask yourself which of the two skill sets (writing versus formatting) is easier to teach. but rather that I'm so average. all the while coping with an ever-accelerating rate of evolution in each of these software categories.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. the period of several weeks while we adapt to our new job is more likely to pose problems than our ability to learn new software. The consequence for employers is that most experienced technical communicators have yet to encounter software we couldn't begin using productively within a day. Employers hire technical communicators because A. writing and formatting 25 . To see the flaw in using tool skills as a primary hiring criterion. B. What's impressive about my experience is not that I'm a software prodigy. half a dozen word processors.

" In short. The myth that minimalism equals brevity stems from a much more interesting and complex 7__: that you shouldn't bury readers in 8__ detail. For each blank (1-10).techwrl. A assertion 8. pure and 1__. decide which of the options A. for example. To set the record 3__.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. or D is best. It also doesn't mean trial and error learning. To quote Carroll and van der Meij: "The central principle in minimalism is task 4__. the minimalist philosophy involves understanding what your audience is trying to accomplish (audience and task analysis) and focusing on those needs by 6__ enough information. the "why" of graphic design rather than the "how") or writing to persuade the reader (for example. It's also a myth that minimalism is a one-size-fits-all solution for all communication problems because its task orientation does not make it directly 9__ to problems such as communicating theoretical information (for example. Why are technical communicators needed in a company? 4. in the right form and at the right time or in the right place. Yet even for such 10__ unrelated problems. knowing your development tools and being able to use them for layout 3. B. of course. A fit 10. The challenge. A orientation promotion 5. C. minimalism has much to say because of its emphasis on the reader.html#myth1) 1. or any of several other 2__ or oversimplifications. A direct 4. A seemingly B simple B conceptions B directly B directive B support B B B B B assuring discussion outsider matching seeming C C C C C C C C C obvious notions straightly direction D straight D terms D straight D D D D D D D offering sentence extraneous correspondent confused C view providing asserting lateral applicable apparent 26 . There is always one correct answer. Comprehension Answer the questions: Can the myth you have read about be extended to some other categories of persons dealing with the business environment? Take managers. to help them accomplish their tasks. But many other principles play a role in this design approach either because they 5__ task orientation or because they follow from it. lies in discovering what is truly extraneous. and that emphasis won't lead us far astray even when the reader's tasks are not immediately recognizable as tasks. chief executives.Business Communication Topics C. secretaries. marketing). supervisors. he co-wrote an article that deals with the misconceptions firmly and eloquently (Carroll and van der Meij 1996). A help supply 6. John Carroll has been one of the leading standard bearers in the minimalism movement and no doubt has grown rather frustrated with the notion that minimalism means brevity. A misconceptions 3. (adapted from: http://www. maximum simplicity. A foreign 9. Vocabulary Read about another myth of technical communication: Minimalism Means Keeping Text as Short as Possible. A insuring 7. A clear 2.

therefore. any possible barriers which affected the communication process). 27 . Language focus COHERENCE Text coherence is important in a business message. TECHNIQUES TO TIE TOGETHER THE Tie-in sentences Repetition of key words Use of pronouns Transitional words Design the sentences to tie in two successive ideas. the message. Pronouns connect with the words they relate to.Types of Communication 5. They indicate the kind of thought connection between following ideas (i. in spite of. however. Speaking   Is written communication or spoken communication more susceptible to be misunderstood and misinterpreted? Verbal communication skills are very important in business. Discuss how the text from exercise 4 is organized in terms of coherence. Coherence is achieved through the use of transitions that show the relationship  between paragraphs and  between sentences within paragraphs. thus. Evaluate your own skills in this field. in contrast. 6. Writing Think of a communication experience you have had recently. feedback. Describe it taking into account the main elements communication involves (sender. 5. in addition. for example. likewise. 2. receiver. 5. Mind coherence of your text. Identify the transitional devices used by the author.e. besides. the transmission channel. also). Use the same word in a sequence of sentences: it connects thoughts. 1. Write a one-page essay about The importance on selecting positive/ negative words in a business message. Give your message coherence by:  presenting information in logical order  bridging together the information presented TRANSITIONAL INFORMATION DEVICES. present them to your colleagues and ask their help: how can you improve them? 7.

Read and. When delivering speeches and presentations you have to decide on the style you will use – casual or formal. Think of a company whose employee you would like to become.IV. Discussion 2. Establish credibility. ……………………………….. The particular way you use words to achieve an overall impression or a certain tone in your message is the style of that message. particularly with clothes. Read the following text about style in business communication. What do you know about that company’s style? Could you subordinate your own style to that of the company you chose? 1. Style covers a variety of subjects but 1. You can do that by using the right style. Emphasize the positive. informal 1. Project the company’s image.1. Have you got style? Most people connect the word style with fashion. language too is either "dressed up" or "dressed down". COMMUNICATION STYLES BASIC NOTIONS Composition is defined as the process of drafting a message. improve the table below: types of style (another classification) Forceful Passive Personal Impersonal Colorful Colorless types of style/registers formal key elements for a successful business style Choose a warm but businesslike tone. decide upon the appropriate style and give your reasons for the choice you’ve made. if possible.2. depending on the situation you are in or who you are talking to. Identify some particular events and topics. When composing the message you should create a tone that suits the particular situation you are referring to. In a sense. Reading . Be polite. There always exists a company style you should be prepared to adjust to as an employee.

Statements are usually softened by qualifiers such as rather.". Notice the use of would which gives a more tentative sound to a statement or question. "I'd like to hear your proposals". some.htm) 3. quite. 2." This type of sentence would not be used in a business letter or report. rather than "I want to hear your proposals." rather than "Now. somewhat. quite. is the use of the passive voice. These contractions. If you were giving advice in spoken English. are not used in written English (except. Non-native speakers whose own language is far more direct. For example. "Wednesday is impossible" they might say "Would Monday be more convenient?".linguarama. in informal friendly letters).". The diplomatic use of the English language. 6. "I've". Native speakers often try not to sound too direct. I'd relocate the factory. Qualifiers such as rather.. Comprehension Write questions. (4) Native speakers also try to avoid giving an unnecessarily negative impression. meaning "I have".. 4. (5) Modifying your language in this way can be a useful tactic in business dealings when you are trying to establish a pleasant cooperative atmosphere. They would not be used in a formal letter or report. "That is too expensive" can become "That would be rather expensive". (3) Diplomacy.. etc. it's time to consider. e. Its spoken form differs considerably from its written form. For example. An example is "Perhaps we should now consider. particularly with people of other cultural backgrounds. in many business meetings and negotiations such diplomatic use of the English language can be a very positive aid to avoiding direct confrontation with your counterparts and a useful tactic. (1) Formality. used widely in conversation.. etc.. instead of saying "That is impossible" they say "That is not very likely". English also has a unique diplomatic spoken style. perhaps. it is also often preferable to avoid using personal pronouns. meaning "we would" or "we had". (6) Non-native speakers whose own language is far more direct may find it odd to use such diplomatic language.com/ps/294-6. in order to make the text more impersonal. meaning "it is" or "it has". In addition to formal written style. such as "If I were you. "he's". Spoken English contains a great many contractions such as "it's". "I don't fully agree" or "There is a slight problem"." rather than "Now. The use of the passive voice. 3. However. (2) Another aspect of formality which is important in report writing. it's time to consider. written English tends to be more formal.. Examples of this tactful style include using I'd like instead of I want.Communication Styles two aspects of style which are vitally important in business communication are formality and diplomacy. they should at least be aware of its existence. to which these could be the answers: 1. such as I or we. 29 . "we'd". for example.. you would probably use an "active" sentence. especially if they are doing business with native speakers of English. instead of saying." In formal written English. Formality and diplomacy are vitally important in business communication. meaning "he is" or "he has". some. English is different from many other languages in that its spoken form differs considerably from its written form. Naturally.. The sentence would probably read: "It is recommended that the factory be relocated.". Indeed.. Or. Another example is "Perhaps we should now consider. for example.g. somewhat. (7) (http://www. 7. relating to the text. For example. 5..

a commonly agreed assertion is that ‘Sans Serif Fonts are Always More Legible Online’. think of the word that best fits the context. even compared 4__ that of the advanced 24-pin dot matrix printers we abandoned 5__ favor of laser and inkjet printers." This resolution is certainly low. The typographic factors that can overwhelm the 10__ of serif versus sans serif typefaces include. line width.techwrl. Vocabulary 4. This rule 2__ thumb claims.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. the degree of contrast between the type and its background. Use the word given in capitals on the right to derive a word that best fits the context: It's easy to see why technical communicators are often first on the 1__ block when it comes time to trim staff: we cost a lot. though these assertions all contain a grain of truth. Use only one word in each space. and certainly can't do justice to the fine details of many serif fonts designed for print. and you should distrust any typographic studies that claim otherwise. in particular. and we produce a product that often 5__ no obvious income for our employer. (adapted from: http://www. the serifs can disappear entirely. "sans serif typefaces remain easier to read on low-resolution displays 3__ as computer monitors. "all else" is almost never equal. but are not limited to: legible design.Business Communication Topics 4. etc. we take 3__ away from their crucial work to answer naive questions. line spacing.html#myth1) 5. even if we ignore the fact that it's possible to optimize the designs of 9__ typeface style for online display (for example. we make all kinds of 2__ demands (such as time and money to perform audience analysis and usability testing). 1. Language focus THE SENTENCE Mind the rules: Clear sentences are effective sentences! Adapt your sentences to your readers/ audience! 30 .html#myth1) 1. anyway. "slab" serifs hold up better than thin serifs onscreen). Unfortunately. Read about another ‘myth’ of technical communication. Many factors can overwhelm the theoretical difference 7__ legibility 8__ serif and sans serif type. and character outlines may even blur 6__ the variable stroke width that characterizes traditional serif fonts lends itself poorly to fixed-size pixels. which typically have resolutions of between 72 and 96 dots per inch. 2. That's the myth. For each blank (110).techwrl.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. we hide away in our cubicles and write instead of 4__ others to shout our praise in the ears of upper management. type size. CHOP REASON DEVELOP PERSUASION GENERATOR (adapted from: http://www. Speaking 1__ layout. word and character spacing. The facts can be quite different.

too long)  use active sentences rather than passive ones  keep the subject and predicate of a sentence as close together as possible 31 . In order to achieve these qualities consider the following:  use short sentences  eliminate unnecessary words and phrases  avoid repetition (unless necessary)  separate strung-out sentences (sentences connected by and but containing unrelated ideas i. consequently. avoid cluttering phrases.Communication Styles You can compose short sentences by:  limiting sentence content: the shorter sentences communicate better BUT don’t use too many short sentences!  economizing on words: seek shorter ways of saying things (e. roundabout constructions. Tips for developing a clear style Your sentences should be clear. hence etc. Simple Compound Although you were reluctant to his longterm plan. and. accurate. and appropriate for the audience. which made him famous. grammatically correct. for. He is a talented speaker and he will deliver a speech tomorrow).e.g. a coma or a semicolon separates them.g. thus. and by modifying phrases) It consists of two or more simple sentences (clauses) that deal with the same basic idea. or. you have to recognize its strong points.e. I believe that your business plan seems to indicate that you may succeed in your endeavour. they are connected by co-ordinating conjunctions and adverbs (e. Complex He was the best technician in his division. Sentence style.)  avoid starting sentences with it and there  avoid long sequences of nouns  avoid cluttering phrases (uneconomical. in addition. so.) Independent clause (one or more) + dependent clause (one or more) examples Unemployment will decrease next year.  avoid hedging sentences (sentences containing may/seems which are used to avoid stating a judgment as a fact i. and unnecessary repetition of words or ideas) TYPES OF SENTENCES type Characteristics Subject + predicate (+nouns/ pronouns serving as objects of the action. and readable.

Writing Supplementary material Read about communication styles: In addition to the nonverbal communication cues discussed. converse. and c. a letter of complaint for not receiving the books you ordered two months ago. Find shorter substitutions for the following cluttering phrases: along the lines of at the present time for the purpose of for the reason that in accordance with in the meantime in the near future in the neighbourhood of in very few cases in view of the fact that on the basis of on the occasion of with regard to. Speaking   Style is important in establishing a successful relation sender-audience." While there are many nuances in communication styles there are essentially five contrasts in the way we approach topics of conversation -not the content but the way in which we debate. each in a different style and compare them with the letters of your colleague. You can do that by: a. ask questions. Knowing 32 . with reference to with a view to (see Lesikar. we often cannot figure out why we are so annoyed and/or frustrated. and organize verbal communication. b.that are challenging in interactions between people from different cultures. Thill 1992: 121) 5. a resignation letter or 2. how we say things is influenced by culture. giving them more space. Flatley 1993: 54) 6.Business Communication Topics  emphasize key elements of a sentence. Explain and discuss your options. Choose two paragraphs from the text and analyze their structure. 5. But when we think back on an exchange which has not gone well and analyze just the words spoken. 1. placing them at the beginning/ end of the sentence. Which style is the most appropriate for each situation? 7. making them the subject of the sentence (adapted from Bovée. Do you agree or disagree with that? Consider the six styles mentioned in the introductory part of this unit and find for each an appropriate business situation to fit in that particular style. Draft three letters for each of the two topics. 2. This is referred to as "communication style. Write 1. This can be one of the trickiest aspects of communication because we tend to react to different “styles” immediately and emotionally. Identify specific techniques of style used by the author to maximize the effect of the message. Petit.

linear. people prefer a strong. and concrete styles of communication. most countries tend to prefer one or the other of the five we will examine here:      Linear versus Circular = straight line discussion versus a more circular approach Direct versus Indirect = meaning conveyed by words versus through suggestion Detached versus Attached = objective presentation versus expressive style Intellectual Engagement versus Relational Engagement = discussion is about the task versus discussion is about the task and the person Concrete versus Abstract = example driven versus theory driven discussion Why Should You Pay Attention to These Differences? In this list. meandering story in response to a question you posed.Communication Styles something about communication styles will be very helpful to you in figuring out why “how” something is said is just as important as “what” was actually verbalized because we tend to react to style unconsciously and instinctively. it is far better to say. CONTRASTING COMMUNICATION STYLES 33 . If you learn to do it well. and detached. A fuller explanation of these styles follows below. If a new acquaintance overseas begins a long. "He or she certainly has a circular style!" than. indirect. that is. The point here is that anyone about to enter an international study abroad program is likely to encounter styles of communication which are unfamiliar and. and abstract in their approach. The French style is often abstract. Europeans can have a combination. detached. many African. like so many of the contrast sets we have examined so far. Asian. and Pacific groups prefer more circular. In contrast. "What is the matter with them. in Spain (and much of Latin America). Communication styles vary enormously across the globe. disconcerting. direct. and attached style of communication while also being direct. relationally engaged styles. perhaps. US-Americans tend to be on the left side. Many permutations of these five styles are found worldwide. attached. intellectually engaged. for example. can’t they get to the point?" Learning to deal with a new set of communication styles is part of the challenge of studying abroad. relational engagement. However. intellectually engaged. it will add to your ability to effectively communicate with a wider range of people than you can now and significantly increase your intercultural skills. to prefer linear.

(What you get is what you manage to see!) Detached: Issues are discussed with calmness and objectivity.Business Communication Topics Linear: Discussion is conducted in a straight line. it’s worth getting worked up over!) Intellectual Engagement: Any disagreement with ideas is stated directly. with the connections among the points stated as you move towards an end point. you’ll know what I mean. allegories. (We’re just arguing – don’t take it personally!) Relational Engagement: Relational issues and problems are confronted directly. and data. where the rubber meets the road!) Direct: Meaning is conveyed through explicit statements made directly to the people involved. and examples. (What you see is what you get! Tell it like it is!) Circular (contextual) Discussion is conducted in a circular manner. implication. (Once you have the relevant information. with the assumption that only the idea. nonverbal behavior. conveying the speaker's ability to weigh all the factors impersonally. which is often unstated because the listener will get the point after I give them all the information. (Cut to the chase. (If it’s important. albeit in a nonconfrontational manner. (Be authentic about your feelings and respectful of other's ideas. It is important to be objective. which is stated explicitly. however. and other contextual cues. principles. It is possible that messages will be sent through a thirdparty intermediary. almost like an outline. for instance. If you have a problem with someone. with little reliance on contextual factors such as situation and timing. In an intellectual debate. it shouldn’t be tainted by personal bias!) Attached: Issues are discussed with feeling and emotion. metaphors. (If it’s important. with emphasis on the general rather than the specific. this style allows one to avoid confronting another person or cause them to lose face. with emphasis on the specific rather than the general. conveying the speaker's personal stake in the issue and the outcome. telling stories and developing a context around the main point. is being attacked. This shows the passion someone feels in a situation or for an issue. it helps to talk things over. Mostly.) Indirect: Meaning is conveyed by suggestion. while intellectual disagreement is handled more subtly and indirectly. There is a low reliance on context and a strong reliance on words. This is an intellectual style found in some European countries. There is a high reliance on context. (What’s an example?) 34 .) Abstract: Issues are best understood through theories. (What’s the principle?) Concrete: Issues are best understood through stories. not the relationship. statements intended for one person may be made within earshot of a different person. it is important to be treated softly.

edu/sis/culture/index.Communication Styles (http://iisstage.uop.htm) 35 .

5. giving/ checking references for a post c. but strictly on the type of style used while speaking. There is language discrimination in the workplace. 1. the interview for a job (discriminatory questions) b. Communication barriers originate from social inequality." 1. employment testing d. Reading Language Discrimination: Is it fair? by Suzanne Crisanti Language discrimination is when a person is treated differently for the way he or she speaks. 6. Can communication be discriminatory in certain situations? Explain. AVOIDING DISCRIMINATION IN COMMUNICATION Possible situations in which discrimination by communication occurs a. 2. It is not based on a person's appearance.V. In American schools there is discrimination against children whose home language was "black English. A Mutual Life Insurance is related to English-speaking proficiency. . 7. This is wrong! Because of this. 3. people who are discriminated against for the way they speak may find it difficult to get a job. Discussion 2. People talking to someone who doesn't speak exactly like them do not find it difficult to communicate with that person. Is distorted information a source and a tool of discrimination in communication? Read the following article about language discrimination and decide whether the following statements (1-7) are true (T) or false (F). Language discrimination is based on the type of style used while speaking. others……………… Read and comment the table above. Sometimes people loose their jobs for the way they speak. Some people have even lost their job for the way they speak. 4.

: Lawrence Erlbaum. There are many communication barriers that exist among various races and groups of all sorts. The case resulted in a settlement.Avoiding Discrimination in Comunication However. Hillsdale. you can see how each part of the chart is related to one another. Yet. regional. their application is denied. A question may be asked but the desired response may not be given because that person answered the question according to the way he/she understood it. People have different ways of communicating with others that are influenced by where they are from. p. See graph below: (Graph from J." In Donal Carbaugh. the United States Supreme Court rejected this decision on the basis of the Fourteenth Amendment.J. If not. which include ethnic. However. The chart above shows historical factors as being the primary cause for social inequality. This is related to the way people treat those types of people. Nebraska): In 1919. It is interesting to see that if a person has trouble communicating to people living in a particular area how easy it becomes for them to make that person feel lesser when they speak. ed. N. Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact. Northwestern could no 37 . the person who asked the question might think that the response was one way of dodging the question. do you ever find it difficult to communicate with that person? Do you feel frustrated. Following the arrows. Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company): A Korean-American family sued Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company for its denial of an application related to English-speaking proficiency. 243. communication may not be the only barrier for people.) While talking to someone who doesn't speak exactly like you. The company apparently has a requirement that applicants for insurance must be English-proficient. and socio-economic factors. Here are some examples indicating communication barriers that led to language discrimination: • language discrimination in the Workplace (Meyer v. • language discrimination in the Consumer Industry (Kim v. the Nebraska Supreme Court found Robert Meyer guilty for teaching a young student a Bible story in German. Keith Chick (1990) "The interactional accomplishment of discrimination in South Africa. upset. and even angry? This is not uncommon.

A. (C) As early as 1926. for example. that makes the sentence incorrect. (C) especially if her (D) primar language is not English. For example. the United States Supreme Court ruled that a requirement that accounting (D) records be 38 . 3. Language discrimination (A) means to treat someone differently solely (B) because of his or her native language (C) or other characteristics (D) of speech.edu/Course/350-192/discrimination. and D. (http://www. Comprehension Answer the following questions: How would you explain the concept of ‘discrimination’. C. 4. Vocabulary In each of the following (groups of) sentences (1-7). C or D. v.Business Communication Topics • longer deny people insurance because they do not speak English well enough. 5. Ann Arbor School District): The main issue in this case was alleged discrimination against children whose home language was "black English. (A) On the job. B. The (A) question rises: Is language discrimination illegal? Although the (B) law in this area is still developing. in particular? Why is it important for teachers to recognize the language spoken at home by the children? 4. There is always one possible answer. An employee (A) may also be the victim of language discrimination if she is treated (B) less favorable than other employees because she speaks English (C) with an accent. 2. a person may be denied (C) access to businesses or government services because (D) he or she does not speak English. 6. A." The court decided that it was appropriate that the School Board take steps to help the teachers better understand and recognize the language spoken at home by the children. B.html) 3. But (A) language discrimination doesn't only happen (B) in the job.. generally. or if she is told she does not (D) qualify for a position because she does not speak English well enough. language discrimination in Education (Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children et al. Some courts have found language discrimination to be (A) the same like discrimination (B) based on race or national origin. there are many court (C) decisions which have found language discrimination (D) to be a violation of people's constitutional rights and civil rights laws. and ‘language discrimination’. there are four underlined parts.uwm. For each sentence. What is language discrimination? 1. an employee (B) may be subjected to language discrimination if the workplace has a "speak-English-only" policy. find the underlined part.

org/language/lang-report.aclunc. the court ruled that (D) in some cases. 7. When clients need assistance. And. substitute neutral expressions (he or she. (http://www. violated the Constitution (Yu Cong Eng v. you. In 1974. = A client who needs assistance has the right to get it.html) NONDISCRIMINATORY WRITING TIPS FOR AVOIDING DISCRIMINATORY WRITING Tips Suggestions a. Avoid words indicating minorities in a stereotyped way. rephrase the sentence Do not use masculine pronouns for both sexes. When assistance is needed. (Lau v. Language focus b. the Supreme Court ruled that (A) failing to provide bilingual instruction for public school students who did not speak English effectively (B) denied them equal access to educational opportunities. Nichols). member of the Congress Businessman – business executive Italians are Mafia members –Wrong! Blacks can do only menial jobs – Wrong! …the ghetto areas of the 5. Examples a. person) Avoid words derived from masculine words. it is his right to get it. one. he/she. language-based discrimination should be treated as race discrimination (Hernandez v. Take care to the effects of your words! 39 . and thus constituted national origin (C) discrimination under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Replace these words. make the reference plural c.Avoiding Discrimination in Comunication kept in English or local dialects but not Chinese. they have the right to get it. Trinidad). c. Man-made – manufactured Congressman – representative. b. as recently as 1991. New York). When a client needs assistance. one has the right to ask for it.

Business Communication Topics

city… - Wrong! Avoid words that indicate age. Avoid words that describe disabilities. Carefully judge the use of such terms. Find nonbiased vocabulary to replace such words. e.g. mature, elderly, juvenile etc. Deaf and dumb = hearing and speech disabled

(adapted from Lesikar, Petit, Flatley 1993: 38)

6. Speaking
 Name some ethical dilemmas in business communication; choose one and describe it in detail (source, elements, characteristics, ways of preventing it, etc.) Can a business report be discriminatory? Give examples.

Complain to the local newspaper that your firm has been discriminated by a previous article that appeared in the same newspaper a week ago. That article contained distorted data about your organization. You wonder who’s to blame but do not accuse your competitors.

7. Writing

40

VI. EFFECTIVE LISTENING. THE AUDIENCE
BASIC NOTIONS Listening represents a vital skill in business. Do you usually listen according to the five steps mentioned in the table below? Which of the three types of listening do you prefer? Why? 1. sensing 2. interpreting steps in listening 3. evaluating 4. remembering 5. responding types of listening 1. content listening (understand and retain the message) 2. critical listening (evaluate the information) 3. active/ emphatic listening (to understand the other person)

What type of a listener are you? Self-centered: superimpose their experience on yours. Defensive: they view every comment as a personal attack Good/ effective: receptive to both information and feelings.

types of listeners

Does audience represent a problem for you? Explain. audienc e profile needs (information, motivational, practical)

Business Communication Topics

take into account: Audience’s size and composition (Who?) Reaction (How? Why?) Level of understanding (How much?) Relationship with the sender of information (What type?)

a. Make the difference: what do they want/ need to know? Anticipate possible questions. Mind the quality of information (accuracy, logic, importance, specificity) b. Try to win the audience to your point of view (agreement). c. Current problems audience may face: lack of time, distraction, and problem priority. Overcome them by: a convenient format of your message, use devices that make the message easy to understand (summaries, overviews, headings, lists, appendixes, handouts, charts, graphs, etc.)

1. Discussion
What makes you a good listener? Make a list of attitudes and qualities that contribute to effective listening and discuss them in your group of work. How will you use your listening skills during an interview or a meeting? Is it possible to overcome language and cultural barriers simply by listening carefully? Explain.

2. Reading
Read about another ‘myth’ of technical communication – “Audiences are Static”. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-E) to fill each gap (1-3). There is one sentence that you do not need. There is an example at the beginning (0-E). A But within one or two decades, these people will have become a vanishingly small component of the audience for typical software developers. B But will they change over time? C And the cycle begins again as more neophytes pick up the product and decide it's worth learning because it's the standard. D The only way to find out will be to keep our eye on them and start assessing how their needs are changing. E That's far from true. There's a myth that once you've characterized your audience through audience analysis, the job's done and all you need to do is follow up with a round of usability testing to provide a reality check. /__0 E/ Inconveniently, audiences insist on changing over time. The neophyte you devoted an entire "getting started" manual to teaching eventually grows beyond the need for this information, and may even become a "power user." Some of the former power users leave, tempted away from the fold by newer, more interesting products that present exciting new possibilities; in particular, the radical fringe who first adopted a product and pushed it to its maximum potential often leave to

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Effective Listening. The Audience

follow newer waves, leaving behind craftsmen who feel no need for such exploration. /__1/ I've already mentioned that our audiences are aging, but this fact has significant implications beyond the need to remember legibility issues. One change that is already well underway and that may be complete within the professional lifetimes of most current business people involves computer use. Even today, 20 years after personal computers began moving out of the hands of hobbyists, we must write for an audience that includes a fair number of people who are acutely uncomfortable with computers and who may be using them for the first time. /2__/ If they become sufficiently rare, perhaps our employers won't grant us the time and resources to cater to their needs. For most of our audience, computers will be so familiar that they're second nature, and that will have profound implications for how and what we document. There's already a trend in this direction, since manuals that begin with the words "We assume you already know how to use Windows" have pretty much driven manuals with an operating system tutorial into extinction. How else will our audience change over the next two decades? /3__/
(adapted from: http://www.techwrl.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths.html#myth1)

3. Comprehension
Answer the questions: How do audiences change over time? Does the audience of technical communicators resemble in any respect with the audience of a business presentation? Will employers still hire technical communicators in future?

4. Vocabulary
Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-10) to derive a word that fits in the space.

43

Business Communication Topics

Usually it is important to 1__ and use your own words in 2__ your understanding of the message. Parroting back the words verbatim is annoying and does not ensure accurate understanding of the message. Depending on the purpose of the 3__ and your understanding of what is relevant, you could reflect back the other persons: account of the facts, thoughts and beliefs, feelings and emotions, wants, needs or motivation, hopes and 4__. Don’t respond to just the 5__ of the words, look for the feelings or intent beyond the words. The dictionary or surface meaning of the words or code used by the sender is not the message. Inhibit your impulse to immediately answer questions. The code may be in the form of a question. Sometimes people ask questions when they 6__ want to express themselves and are not open to hearing an answer. Know when to quit using active listening. Once you accurately understand the sender’s message, it may be appropriate to respond with your own message. Don’t use active listening to hide and avoid 7__ your own position. If you are confused and know you do not understand, either tell the person you don’t understand and ask him/her to say it another way, or use your best guess. If you are 8__, the person will realize it and will likely attempt to correct your misunderstanding. Active listening is a very effective first response when the other person is angry, hurt or expressing difficult feelings toward you, especially in relationships that are important to you. Use eye contact and listening body language. Avoid looking at your watch or at other people or activities around the room. Face and lean toward the speaker and nod your head, as it is appropriate. Be 9__ about crossing your arms and appearing closed or critical. Be empathic and 10__. You can be accepting and respectful of the person and their feelings and beliefs without invalidating or giving up your own position, or without agreeing with the accuracy and validity of their view.

PHRASE, VERB ACTION EXPECT MEAN

REAL

REVEAL CORRECT

CARE JUDGE

http://www.drnadig.com/listening.htm#top

COMMUNICATING EFFECTS When you communicate within the organization you usually communicate information (reports, memos, proposals, procedures etc.). When you communicate outside the organization, mostly by letter writing, you communicate not only information, but also certain effects (i.e. goodwill effect, persuasion etc.)

5. Language focus

Effects

Techniques used to achieve that effect

44

Effective Listening. The Audience

goodwill effect (favourable effect)

Use a conversational language (warm and natural). Use “you-viewpoint”: it emphasizes the reader’s interests. Be sincere in being courteous. Avoid a cold, unnatural style. Be careful not to manipulate! Avoid exaggeration. Place the word/phrase you want to emphasize in the beginning/end of the sentence. Give the topic you want to emphasize more space. Use short sentences that emphasize the content. Use mechanical devices (colour, diagrams). clear, logic presentation clear, logic presentation Pay attention to text coherence. Use adequate vocabulary! Give special care to the words/ phrases you use!
(adapted from Lesikar, Petit, Flatley 1993: 73)

emphasis determines effect

accuracy effect clarity and planned effect persuasion effect moderation effect (for bad news)

Read the table about sending a message according to certain goals and objectives (Harold D. Lassiter’s diagram) Question Who? Elements to care about The communication antecedents The code and the characteristics of communication Objectives

Knowing the author of the message What? To describe the trends of the message; comparing the content to a certain standard Why? Communication process To know the aims of the sender To whom? The receiver The message and the audience How? The receiver Describe the communication patterns; persuasion techniques With what Getting information about the To assess feedback, to

45

46 . a. etc. Our sales agents will pass all training classes. trade fair. c. presentation. negotiation. 6. Speaking   Make a list of various activities that may help you improve your listening skills. clarity. Re – write ful paragraphs starting from the following sentences and try to render an effect of accuracy.). Writing In not more than 200 words make the profile of the ideal audience. 1. They will also increase written language skills to 3rd grade level. consider a particular occasion (conference. b.Business Communication Topics effects? results of communication analyze the information flow (Lasswell 1973) 5. Do the problems you have (as a listener) affect your behaviour at school/ at work/ in your group of friends? 7. sometimes persuasion or good will. Present it to your colleagues. You are supposed to deliver a speech in front of a ‘reluctant’ audience. then do the same with your best friend. The pupil will organize his work so that he or she can pass all classes. Discuss the changes you have made in the text to achieve your goal. PR employees will increase communication skills. Evaluate yourself as a listener.

coherent. questions. etc. quotations. their reaction • collect materials • select relevant points • group common points • arrange ideas in the most meaningful sequence • consider ways of linking pieces of information most effectively Consider the structure of your presentation Preparing Delivering 2.VII. Components of a presentation Pre-preparation Planning Constitutives Consider: objectives. location Consider: goal. Greeting Introduce yourself (if necessary) Introduce your talk (subject of your speech) Present main point divided into: point 1. time. Be logical. best order. Emphasize transition between parts body . main points. humour. PRESENTATIONS BASIC NOTIONS Definition: A presentation is a prepared talk given by a speaker (the transmitter) to one or more listeners (the receivers) 1. clear. etc. expectations. audience. your relationship with the audience. The structure of a presentation I ntroduction Elements Action Gain attention Opening possibilities: human interest. point 2.

thoroughness.) Vocabulary grammar pronunciation fluency Logic never forget the audience Let them ask questions or make comments (feedback) delivery of information use of language care for the audience 4. linguistic techniques (sentences. uses notes. handouts. sincerity.Business Communication Topics Invite questions (if necessary) conclusion Restate the subject Summarize main points Draw a conclusion Call for action 3. voice. Determination of the presentation method 2. friendliness) 3. rehearsed Memorizing Presentation strategies 1. Presentation making Presentation techniques Extemporaneous: thorough preparation. diagrams. education. technical support (slides. transparencies. etc. Audience analysis (audience characteristics: size. humour. Elements of an effective presentation organization of information Targets structure transparency content organization information level 1.) 2. age. 48 . etc. questions) 5. image (formal/informal. audience features 3. non-linguistic techniques 4. silence. Consideration of personal aspects (confidence. relaxed/ high powered.

Discussion 2. lack of vocal emphasis. Flatley 1993) Types of presentations: 1. personal appearance. lack of variation in speed. movements. Be careful with your appearance and physical actions (communication environment. audience reactions: facial expressions. The topic sentence in each paragraph has been removed. Petit. There is an example at the beginning (0 E). make the visuals points of interest in your presentation) (all tables adapted from Bovée. which does not belong in any gap. facial expressions. Thill 1992 and Lesikar. Choose from the list (A-M) the best sentence to fill each of the blanks (111). Reading 49 . noises) 4. 1. unpleasant voice) 6. Use of voice (avoid: lack of variation in pitch. Team (collaborative) presentations 3. There is one extra sentence. The oral report (an oral presentation of a factual information) Tips             for effective speaking: organize your speech logically target your speech to a clear conclusion adapt your language to the audience pronounce clearly speak correctly maintain a vivid attitude use body language to best advantage be relaxed and natural keep eye-contact be calm support your presentation with visuals keep your temper What kind of presentations have you delivered during your school years? Analyze yourselves as effective speakers. manner of walking. gestures) 5. Classic (one person presentation) 2.Presentations Reading knowledge. posture. use the type of visual that communicates the information best. Have your personal characteristics influenced your presentations? Read about Audience Interaction. Use of visuals (select visuals carefully.

D A good presentation can be ruined by a poor question and answer session. L Consider an example where the presenter has started well. taking a drink of water and regaining eye contact with supportive members of the audience. whilst keeping your supporters with you and trying not to alienate the opposition. The real point of reading signals from your audience is that it can help you to judge who you have on-side. J You may face questions that are unanswerable. One or more members of your audience may attempt to disrupt your presentation. never lose your temper or your cool.as this will represent negative audience interaction during presentation. and delivered a clear and concise introduction. G Another thing that can prove invaluable is to know how to recover when a joke has failed. talking round those that can be swayed. a badly executed joke. who is opposing your point of view and who has yet to decide. This should help you to focus your message where it can have maximum impact. avoid getting into an argument with them.right at the start. Timing is a critical aspect of using humor effectively. However. Use Humor Carefully /1__/ On the whole humor is seen as a positive thing .and if you carry it off it can be an excellent way of creating a rapport with the audience. F If someone denounces something that you have said.even during the planned question and answer session. You must be confident that any jokes you include do not offend or embarrass any members of your audience . H When answering questions do so by speaking clearly and confidently.but its all down to the way it’s delivered. Good 50 . Audience interaction Focusing Your Message for Maximum Impact /0 E/ Your message and the material with which you are communicating should have been carefully prepared and radical changes will almost certainly not be practical. B It was recommended earlier that you planned your presentation to have a question and answer session at the end. There is an increasing trend towards actually opening presentations with a joke . C The use of humor in presentations is a difficult area. E Recognizing both positive and negative signals from audience interaction during presentation should not change your planned presentation fundamentally. one that just sits inert and will not show any interest in taking part . Learn to recognize how this disruption may manifest itself and you will be better equipped to cope with it.Business Communication Topics A The keywords when dealing with disruption are to be polite but firm. otherwise you will appear unsure of what you are saying. I You may be facing an unresponsive group. usually because they strongly disagree with your message. K However by pausing. M Humour should be carefully used in a presentation. the presenter has managed to compose herself once more. or simply the wrong joke can create erect an insurmountable hurdle .

should be strong and clear but not protracted. For example. For example you could say ‘Now to sum up briefly before I answer your questions’. intonation and other verbal techniques . time and pauses are all important when telling jokes. if you are using humor make sure it is a medium that you are familiar with. 51 . Unless you are using visual-aids make sure that they are switched off to avoid them causing a distraction during your conclusion. this can liven up a presentation and help the audience to remember your key points. check the appropriateness of the content. Step forward so that you are confidently asserting yourself as the center of attention and then deliver the summing up with confidence and authority. Losing Your Presentation /5__/ This will enable you to deliver your message and then end strongly with a clear and concise summing up before entering the relatively unpredictable area of tackling questions from the floor.as this nearly always reflects badly on the presenter.so always plan to finish strongly. if it was based on your personal opinion then don’t attempt to pass this off as factual . perhaps with humor or support but don’t try to put people down . in order to create a memorable statement. Your conclusion. However. then you may be safer using an analogy. whilst other members of your audience may respond unwittingly to a rhetorical question that you pose . /2__/ Often this can be done just by pointing out the flatness of the failed joke . In summary. Done with care.such as alliteration. Attention seekers may make silly or sarcastic comments simply to get themselves noticed. Use a combination of pauses. Aim to reiterate the main points from your presentation. /4__/ If your point was based on fact then make this clear and present the evidence. and practice setting up the punch line. rehearse it well and have a contingency plan in case it falls flat. It is vital you don’t let disruptive members of the audience derail your presentation .simply because they weren’t paying full attention. or summing up. but if this fails to work then politely request that the point is discussed later at the pre-planned question and answer session.but once again this is a skill that takes a lot of self-confidence and practice. If you are tempted to use humor because the content of your presentation seems a little dull. who may then swing against you. Always remember that what is underlying the point of contention may be a genuine concern and that if you try to brush it aside it is likely to be taken up by other members of the audience. Try to approach the point of contention from any common ground that you share. Never get into an Argument /3__/ If you enter into a shouting match with a heckler then they win and you lose. The last impression you make with the audience will be the lasting one and the last words that you say may be the best remembered .it is your presentation and therefore your opinion should be worth expressing. The use of pacing. Ideally it will represent about 10 per-cent of the overall presentation.you are working to a tight schedule so don’t get involved in protracted discussions. if you were a sales manager trying to explain to your sales force the attributes of your competitors you might draw parallels with popular family pets from a loyal dependable unimaginative Labrador to a small tenacious hyperactive terrier to a large aggressive and dominant Rottweiller.Presentations comedians work with timing. It may be a good idea to announce that the end is near . Try to analyze these sort of events as they occur and respond.as this can refocus the attention of any members of the audience who are beginning to suffer from listening fatigue.

rather than risk answering a question that wasn’t asked. “Let me think about that for a minute. If the question requires clarification then ask the questioner to do this. which is what would happen if control was not regained. The presentation ended with a clear and memorable conclusion and the question and answer session was also well managed. When answering. This example illustrates a key point . /7__/ You may think that the obvious conclusion to draw is that they have no interest in what you are saying. /11__/ She followed this by telling a joke at her own expense. always think about your answer before you speak and if necessary refer back to your notes in order to answer a question. can we come back to it later? Next question please”. The key to being confident in dealing with questions is preparation.you may offer to see a questioner after the presentation to continue a point that is of specific personal interest to them. and then firmly re-established her position in the presentation by summing up the main points made so far. The overriding impression was of a professional and successful presentation.Business Communication Topics The Question & Answer Session It was recommended earlier that you provide your audience with a protocol in the introductory phase of your presentation. but if you see me after the session I will take your details and get back to you as soon as I’ve checked some facts”. However it is equally likely that you are just facing an unresponsive group. Here are some examples that you may find useful: “I'd rather not answer that here and now. /9__/ These may be posed by people who are hostile to your message or by those just wishing to make a point. Following this her confidence returned and the presentation proceeded well. Regaining Control During a Presentation /10__/ However early into the main body of the presentation she became confused about where she was in relation to her cue cards. When you have finished drafting your presentation read through it carefully and note any questions that it is likely to raise. to include such elements as the timing of the question and answer phase.that if the presenter can remain 52 . nerves set in and subsequently she lost the attention of the audience. this may be due to the character types within it or the intra-group politics. and prepare answers to these in advance. If you feel unable to answer a question you may find it useful to have a standard reply ready in order to reduce its impact on your presentation. “I don’t think that the information necessarily supports either view definitively.in this way it is usually possible to anticipate most questions that are likely to arise. address the entire audience and not just to the questioner. At this stage the presentation could have degenerated into chaos. This is the time to focus on any areas in which your message is short of facts or vulnerable to being challenged . /8__/ Do not let nerves draw you into responding hastily. with the help of smooth running audio-visual aids and some well researched but spontaneously delivered examples. However my personal opinion is that…”. This is often best dealt with at the end of the presentation. just before your final summing up. If your presentation has a chair then the chairperson should intervene and ask some initial questions in an attempt to involve your audience. /6__/ Conversely a mediocre one can be saved by a confident final session. and avoid getting into a protracted debate on any point that is raised . This analysis will also help you to prepare one or more lengthy answers in advance for questions that you are sure will be raised.

getahead-direct. I’d like to look at… Those are the main points on… That’s all I have to say about… Now we have looked at/ dealt with… Now let’s turn to…/ move on to… I’d like now to consider/examine… Next we come to… Turning now to… Let’s move on now to… The next point I’d like to make is… As I said at the beginning I told you a few moments ago that… In the first part of my talk I said… As I have already said… As I mentioned earlier… I’ll come to that later. Vocabulary . 53 3. I aim to talk to you for about… minutes. In brief. INTRODUCTION Good morning/afternoon/evening ladies and gentlemen/ colleagues. we have looked at… That’s all I have to say for now. If you have any questions. I will take about 20 minute of your time. hold the interest of the audience and make a successful presentation. I’d like to consider… LINKING SENTENCES: First of all. I’ll be glad to try to answer your questions at the end of my talk. please feel free to interrupt. During my talk I’ll be looking at two main areas. Practice them in short presentations in your work group.htm) Explain and find synonyms for the words written in italics in the text above. CONCLUSIONS So now. I’ll return to this point in a few minutes. This will take about… I have divided my talk into three main parts. I’d just like to summarize the main points. I’ll talk about this in the next part of my presentation. Here are some phrases you can use during a presentation.Presentations calm and composed and deal with situations as they arise then they should be able to stay in control. My name is… and I am… I would like to say a few words to you about…/ I would like to talk to you about…/ I would like to explain to you the operation of…. Comprehension 4.com/gwpr14-audience-interaction-during-presentation. The subject may be looked at under four main headings. (http://www. To start with. I’ll comment on this in my conclusion.

Business Communication Topics I think that covers most of the points. Thank you for your attention. GETTING FEEDBACK And now. if you have any questions. That concludes my talk. … To my mind… From my point of view… I’m inclined to think that… I tend to think that… Asking for opinions Intensity of manner Strongly Expressions Do you really think that…? Do you really believe that…? Are you absolutely sure/ convinced/ positive that…? Don’t you think that…? 54 Neutrally Weakly . Does anyone have any questions? Any questions? 5. Language focus ASKING FOR AND GIVING OPINIONS Study the following tables and try to improve their content with some other expressions: Giving opinions Degree of intensity Strongly Expressions I’m convinced/ sure/ positive that… I strongly believe that… I have absolutely no doubt that… I definitely/ certainly think that… I really do think that… I really feel that… In my opinion… As far as I am concerned… According to… I think/ consider/ feel that… I believe that… As I see it. I’ll be glad to answer them.

Choose the suitable topic sentence for each paragraph. It is human nature to assume that when we communicate we are doing 55 . The Communication Process.  A 10-minute informative presentation to a group of high school pupils interested in attending the Faculty of Economics  A 20-minute sales presentation to a 5-member group of top executives interested in ordering some of your products. Make a presentation to a hypothetical group of investors that may help you begin a new business. Speaking    Present some advantages and disadvantages of getting feedback during a presentation. INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS 1. Discussion 2. communication is a complex two-way process. B The most important thing to remember is that the message that you intend to communicate is likely to be misunderstood. Writing Prepare outlines for the following speaking situations:  a five-minute talk to 15 workers that must improve the quality of their work. C Creating and delivering an effective presentation require a basic understanding of the communication process. Delivering effective presentations /1/ Most business presentations require the clear and unambiguous communication of a message in a way that can be clearly understood by the recipient. Reading How do cultural differences affect a presentation making? Read the text about how to deliver an effective presentation. The topic sentence has been removed from some paragraphs.Presentations Neutrally Tactfully Do you think…? Do you believe that…? Do you consider that…? Am I right in thinking that…? Would I be right in thinking that…? (see Brieger. Sweeney 1994: 186) 6. A As you can see. Discuss some good and bad techniques of using visuals. 7.

It is up to you. What they think they say. Therefore we have: 1. With the complexity apparent even in a simple communication.Business Communication Topics so effectively. As a result of what a recipient hears. None of these are necessarily the same and three chances already exist for a breakdown in communication. What the presenter thinks they say. and when the opportunities for misscommunication are considered you may view it as surprising how often communication works without a problem. 2. 2.to minimize the chance of misunderstandings. This is often done in the light of individual attitudes and prejudices or alternatively with reference to previous experience or associations. stay alert for any signs that your audience is misinterpreting it. 5. The result may range from a simple failure for the message to hit home. and should listen carefully to the message. giving: 1. correctly interpreted and filed in the receivers mind. and that if anything goes wrong consequently then the responsibility for that must rest with the recipient. This screen highlights six steps that constitute a typical two-way communication. it should be apparent that there is a need for clarity and simplicity . This may range from satisfaction that the communication is proceeding as you intended. Each recipient will have some feeling about the message and will interpret its meaning. What the audience thinks they say.htm) 56 .with a view to providing some guidelines that should help to promote more effective two-way communication. A presenter speaks to an audience. It is improvement through practice that differentiates a skill from other forms of knowledge. You will feel and interpret something about this message. Once you have the attention of the audience the communication of the message can begin. understood. to bewilderment at how your original message was miss-interpreted. 2. Understanding the theory of communication and effective presentation will not in itself make you a brilliant communicator or presenter but should make you aware of how to maximize the impact of your presentations. Each recipient may respond to the original message. What they actually say. they may make a reply. Communication is a skill and like any skill it requires practice. You have now become the receiver.getahead-direct. through to a serious misunderstanding. /3/ Therefore in addition to carefully preparing and presenting your message. Your problem is that the audience may not feel and interpret in the way that you intended. 6. (http://www. 3. 3. the presenter. Ensure that your audience are tuned in and paying full attention to what you are about to say. 1. What the presenter thinks they say. to continually check that your message has been received.com/gwpr01-presentation-skills-training. 3. Six Steps in Effective Communications Let’s examine each of the six steps in slightly more detail . What they actually say. Each recipient listens to the message. /2/ This is why it so often breaks down and is ineffective. 4.

Do not get up there and say. ".so that's why I like social software. About how it's so terrible and how it 1__ awful presentations. I appreciate your attention today. "Hi. "The Web is like a school of fish. Keep your hands 9__ of your pockets. Away from the podium. saying one thing from over here.. then give them a slide that reiterates those ideas in easy to digest bullets. "You know what I 57 . and hear lots and lots of presentations at the conferences I attend. because you just told them you were done. For each blank (1-10). But don't move too much. I pace a little bit around the stage. decide which of the options A. No need for a joke or an opening or any of that." Then stand there and wait. Pause. Stand. we're going to talk about. or that a staff person spilled a pitcher of water. "Um. Ever. and thank you so much for coming to my session. I can't believe how many presenters forget this. Vocabulary Read about the Seven Steps to Better Presentations. Much more powerful and memorable. say. Commiserating is fine. But the problem isn't Powerpoint. Let it hang there for a few seconds. How can a message be distorted? 4. because you know the whole backstory. Then say the Web is like that. Try it when talking to your friends. Seven Steps to Better Presentations I've noticed a lot of talk about Powerpoint lately. Thanks again!" and start packing up your stuff. leave a gap 10__ it. I speak for a living. [heh heh] I'll be around after if you think of anything.. People could care less about the five ways some XML vocabulary will enable enterprise whatever. put a screenshot of your project up. or the fact that your mic just popped off your lapel. Got a good metaphor? Use it. I guess I told you everything you need to know then. Today. and another from over there. Show pictures. Take off your conference badge (the lights will catch it and be distracting). or D is best. tell people what you learned 3__ doing it. Tell stories. If nobody asks anything. of course. Just start strong and confident." Make sure those are the absolute first words you say out 7__.. keep it to yourself. Also. and you'll be tempted to explain why something isn't quite perfect. you don't need to apologize about the color on the projector. End strong too. Here are some notes I wrote up for someone who is 2__ to give his first ever public presentation." But go to images. They'll never know. If something is out of order." Instead. Seriously. however.google. timed with my points. Only one answer is correct and there is always one correct answer. It's really great to be here.. well. When you say something important. Don't apologize. Thank you. I guess we should probably get started. Make it a slide. That's do not go from bullet-point slide to bullet-point slide trying to tell people what to think. B. 8__ the uncomfortable silence with "Well.. Out from behind the presenter table. ask them if they have any questions. When they've finished. Skip it. I'll be able to see my breath!" Start strong. The problem is bad content delivered poorly. I'm Jeff. Everyone will clap. Comprehension Explain how a breakdown in communication can occur. This is really hard. C. or if something occurs 5__ you as a mistake during the presentation. by Jeffrey Veen. nobody cares about the presentation itself.Presentations 3. Rather. "If it 6__ another 5 degrees colder in here.com and type in "sardines" or "school of fish" or 4__. Besides.

com/jeff/archives/000483. but… (I’m afraid) I can’t accept that I don’t accept that Disagreement (see Brieger...Business Communication Topics think? (pause.two...veen...) I think X is bankrupting this corporation for the next ten years..four. (pause..) Here's why. but… You may have something there but… You could/ may be right. but… (I’m afraid) I can’t agree with you I don’t agree Agreeing to something I totally accept that I fully/ completely agree I’m in favour of that Agreement Partial agreement Up to a point/ to a certain extent I’d accept that. but… That may/ might be right..two. but… That may be so.three. Study the table and use the phrases in a conversation with the topic Facing cultural diversity in negotiations." (http://www..html) 1 2 3 about 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A creates A on A while A A A A A A A whoever with gets louder disrupt out following B enables B ever B in B B B B B B B whatever about makes loud interrupt of ending C produces C aloud C from C what C to C becomes C in loud C stop C off C after D imagines D about D D alike D by rises loudly break outside D besides D D D D Language focus AGREEING AND DISAGREEING Distinguish between: agreeing with someone // agreeing to something.three.... Sweeney 1994: 188) Make the difference: to agree with (someone/something)// to agree to (something) // to agree to do something // to accept something 58 .....four.. Type Agreeing with someone I totally agree with you I fully/ completely agree I’m in total agreement with you there Up to a point/ To a certain extent I’d agree with you.

Speaking Work in groups. The other members of the group will make comments about the accuracy of the presentation they have just listened to.Presentations 6. 7. 59 . One member of the group will make a short presentation of a product he/she has bought lately. Writing Draft the plan of a presentation you have to make in front of a group of investors willing to finance a student project about the environment protection.

apply for an interview . …) 2.functional skills (leadership. COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT BASIC ELEMENTS Read about the essential use of communication in recruitment activity. Do you have suggestions of your own to improve the table below? Essential use of communication in recruitment activity steps activities .list your best prospects for employment (build a network of contacts) .education and experience .analytical and synthetic judgment . Consider the following questions: What would you enjoy doing every day? What type of corporate culture best suits you? 1.write the application letter (cover letter) skills required . speaking ability. aggressive.assessment ability . Skills for the position you apply for: .VIII. ………………… . 1.attend the interview write your CV (resume) .use correct business vocabulary .speaking and writing skills .analyze your work skills and qualifications . Skills for the interview and the written documents you have to produce . great with people.e.………………………………. 1.use correct grammar .creative thinking …………………………………… …………………………………… the job search the interview the job application 1. Consider the steps you have to take. Discussion .develop a strategy for selling yourself . outgoing.personal characteristics (i. the activities you should perform and the skills you may be required in applying for a job. articulate.

and an ally. B . you are showing wisdom and professionalism. H . or caution others to give co-workers the benefit of the doubt.Credibility Assessment. 2. ageism or favoritism. do what you say you'll do or are there in a time of need for others. Every time you make a deadline. Reading Read about the importance of words at the place of work. People listen to what you say and how you say it. Conversely.Say ‘No’ when Necessary.Communication and Recruitment What type of organization do you want to work for? 1. Whether or not you're a manager. refuse to engage in gossip. your credibility rises. 61 . C . Give each paragraph (18) the appropriate title from the list below (A – H). you can lose your job and damage your career immeasurably when you lie.Importance of Words You Say 1. Whether you cry racism. the credibility counter is activated. Workplaces provide ample opportunities for you to earn credibility. misstate or misrepresent your accomplishments.Credible communicator. You do everyone a disservice if you falsely accuse or ascribe such motives to actions that otherwise occur. Gossiping about others or spreading falsehoods or even half-truths can flag you as dangerous. Whether or not you are "found out" during the interview process.Communication truthfulness. 2. Be cautious of assertions made about others. it's important that there be credence to your claims. your forecasts realistic and your word solid. for telling people what they want to hear. Your CV's assertions should be accurate. In every job situation you have the opportunity to become known as a person of his or her word. which raises your credibility in the workplace. One of the keys to success in the workplace is engendering trust from your co-workers. You're also susceptible to blackmail when you lie and are then threatened with exposure.Your Word Represents You. interview). From the moment you submit a résumé and then interview for a job. A . Your estimates have always been accurate. E . 5.Opportunities to Earn Your Credibility. your chronology factual and your affiliations. a safe confidante. What speaking skills should you have in order to perform well during a job interview? 1. degrees and awards correct. If you are gossiping or betraying confidences you destroy your own credibility as an honorable co-worker. F Tell the Truth. you can become known for shading the truth. your words carry a weight to them that affects others. or parsing words as a defendant might do under cross examination in a court of law. Discuss the importance of each of the stages you have to pass through in order to get a job (job-inquiry letter. untrustworthy and ultimately unpromotable. CV. the department of the company at large. 3. You have to be credible when you apply for a job. Whenever you defend the honor of co-workers who aren't present. G . D . 2. sexism. Credibility in the workplace means that people believe what you say because your reputation is based on a track record of telling the truth. 4. application letter. 3.

decisions and determinations. it's less important that you made a mistake. but a person who is a "straight shooter" is respected by all. than that you fixed it and can assure others it won't happen again.shtml) Explain the meaning of the following words in the context above: Track record (par. when you "say the right thing" or "do the right thing" in ethical situations your credibility is enhanced. parse (par. agreeing to something you ultimately can't deliver on is detrimental to your reputation. restoring confidence in him or herself.5. 7. yet the credible communicator can address them and go about rectifying them. Everyone makes mistakes. 3). 2). (adapted from Craig Harrison. The credible communicator doesn't just tell people what they want to hear. often compounding the error of their ways. Those lacking in credibility might try to cover up. have confidence in your projections and feel secure in their knowledge you're on the team. The credible communicator can admit errors or mistakes in a forthright and direct manner.Business Communication Topics Similarly. You'll know you're succeeding when you hear others tell you they know they can count on you.com/business-communication. forthright (par. ignore or minimize their folly. Often employees fall down when it comes to admitting mistakes. Over the long term. 4). 6. exposure (par. 3. Strive to boost your credibility rating at work and in your professional relationships.hodu. 6) Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-10) to derive a word that fits in the space. Vocabulary 62 . even if the news isn't music to the ears of all who listen. Sometimes the truth isn't popular or pretty. Yet realistically. 8. Say "no" when this is the right answer. engender (par. Ultimately. 1). you will be respected for the accuracy of your assessments. even though it may not be the popular one. Comprehension 4. http://www. Life would be easy if we could say "yes" to every request we received.

check the employment section of the newspaper. no matter how Correlative conjunctions: either…or. since. as…as. though…yet SUBORDINATE CLAUSES The subordinate clause cannot stand by itself as a sentence. The 7__ tips can help you make the most of any fair. associations. FOLLOW GOVERN WHERE LOCATE (http://www. besides etc. Leave at least one with every company that seems promising. as though. State and local 8__. Main types of subordinate clauses 63 . no sooner…than. and search online via an Internet job fair 10__. even if. notwithstanding. Bring several copies to the fair. Language focus Simple: and. are face-to-face meetings between 1__ and employers. Making a good 5__ at a job fair may give your resume or 6__ added weight. At a fair. and private companies organize job fairs. in case that. You know that before attending a fair. as well as  on condition that. accept resumes. review the business bulletin board at your school or local library. but etc. both…and. in order that. whether…or. as long as. not…but. so that.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. like interviews. SEEK ATTEND INFORM RECRUIT IMPRESS APPLY. They are one of the easiest places to find good job leads.txt) CONJUNCTIONS 5. Career centers.gsa. and size up jobseekers. Find the fairs in your area by looking 9__ they might be announced. provided that. it depends on a main clause. when. Ask a career counselor. otherwise. But you have to find the fair. therefore. why. 4__ staff booths and answer questions. as soon as.Communication and Recruitment Job fairs. or. jobseekers gather 3__ about a company to help them decide if they want to apply for a job. however. if. Complex:  as if. neither…nor. Every employer 2__ is there to hire one or more workers. distribute brochures.pueblo. not so…as. that. not only…but also. you should prepare a resume. Compound: although.

wherever (exactly) as. where. as long as. owing to. in view of. in case. Introduced by: Relative pronouns: Who/whom/whose Which/of which (whose) That Relative adverbs: when. as though Clauses of purpose follow the rule of the sequence of tenses “that” is preceded in the main sentence by the following correlatives: such a (n)…/ so… The time clause requires a present instead of a future. prevent that. the reason why. so that. so. therefore. in order that. non-defining relative clause provides extra information and is not essential to the meaning of the main clause. as soon as. the reason for. after. since. Time Place Manner (the adverbial clause of comparison) 64 . for. whenever. 2. (and) as a result/ consequence. now that. while. where. etc. in order (not) to. on the grounds that. so as (not) to. till/until. etc. because. Cause or reason Adverbi al clauses (take the place of an adverb) Purpose Result/ effect as. seeing that. with the result that. etc. for fear/lest. once. avoid. when. defining relative clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence by providing necessary information. for. since. (just) as As. every time. for fear of. due to the fact that. than. just as. with a view to. by the time. as if. the moment (that). consequently. why Observations ANY TENSE can be used in a relative clause.Business Communication Topics Type Relative / adjectiv e clauses (modify a noun or a pronou n) 1. because of. before. with the aim of.

(Nevin 1971: 71) It may be asked why the banks should lend money to discount houses. but. 6. (Nevin 1971: 49) Labour must be regarded as a very special agent in production. and that in general the additional utility derived from any commodity by any one person diminishes as his rate of consumption rises. supposing that. providing. on condition (that). should not be taken to imply a belief that this is the only aspect of human economic activity with which the economist need be concerned. yet. in case. otherwise.Communication and Recruitment Concession/ Contrast although/though/even though. in spite of (the fact)/ despite. while. what if. Speaking 65 . on the other hand. (Nevin 1971: 71) The concentration on the productive activities of human beings. no matter what. rather than discount the bills themselves and so enjoy the profits otherwise made by the discount houses. or else. which is called labour. no matter how if. that the utility derived from consumption will vary as between different commodities and different people. whatever. It has been seen that people desire goods and services because they derive utility from them. since (unlike land and capital) it is inseparable from the personality of its supplier. however. as long as. suppose. but for + gerund/ noun. (Nevin 1971: 317) Identify particular business situations in which a certain type of subordinate is mostly used to create a well-aimed effect. even if. unless (if…not). Bring arguments in favour of your opinion. nevertheless. whereas. provided (that). only if Structures that require a clause of concession: Adjective/adverb + as + subject + verb Adjective/adverb + though + subject + verb Condition (if clauses) Read the following paragraphs and identify the type of subordinate clauses they contain and the words they are introduced by. however.

Writing Write an article for a newspaper in which you complain that you have suffered discrimination at the job interview you attended. 66 .Business Communication Topics 7. Describe the situation in detail and stress the communication situations that put you into a bad light.

1. stimulate interest. Cover letters (letters of application). An effective letter can get you a phone call for an interview. Cover Letters: How to Sell Yourself 1. Make your goal clear. name the position stated in the ad and identify the source. Draft your letter to show how your individual qualities can contribute to the organization. 5. If 1. Or you may want to open by referring to the company's product. For example. and be appropriate to the job you are seeking. Sometimes the writer chooses to describe particular experiences and skills that could not be generalized to most other recent graduates. The difference can be a matter of how you handle a few key points. Preferably. which appeared in the Chicago Sun Times. Discussion 2. This is your letter. Instead. Look for this person's name in company publications. Such a reference makes your reason for contacting the company clear and indicates to them that their advertising has been effective. Read the following text and find for each paragraph a suitable title. try to identify the job title used by the organization.. which you want to promote. strive to make your letter represent your individuality and your capabilities. If you're prospecting for a job. Give your readers some insight into you as an individual.". WRITING EMPLOYMENT DOCUMENTS THE APPLICATION LETTER How do you think companies find new employees? How do job seekers find work? 2. Reading .IX. May 15.. . If the name is unavailable in these places. 4. the person you write to should be the individual doing the hiring for the position you're seeking. but a poorly written application letter usually spells continued unemployment. for example: "your advertisement for a graphic artist. Such a reference shows your knowledge of the company. Your introduction should get your reader's attention. phone the organization and ask for the person's name or at least the name of the personnel manager. If you're answering an advertisement. you may want to begin with a reference to an advertisement that prompted your application. Your application letter is one of your most important job-search documents. so avoid simply copying the form and style of other letters you've seen. try to begin where your reader is and lead quickly to your purpose in writing. The following are some tips to help you develop effective application letters. Whatever opening strategy you use. 3. 2. 2006.

html) Now check if the titles you found resemble the real titles of the paragraphs (a-g) and match the paragraphs (1-7) with their headings. Make your letter strong enough to convince readers that your distinctive background qualifies you for the job but not so long that length will turn readers off. can be enough. Also refer in the last sentence of the first paragraph to specific work experience that can be detailed in the following paragraph. names of equipment you've used. organization. especially if you travel at your own expense or have a restricted schedule. a. elaborate on the valuable experience you gained and how you can put it to work for them. style. for example. One strong qualification. in your first paragraph you should provide a preview of the rest of your letter. However. you can develop additional paragraphs. 7. f. and suggest a procedure for doing so. 68 . Extract from each the job requirements and the skills they are looking for and decide which best fits your career objectives and qualifications. If you ask for a phone call. Read the following job advertisements. Highlighting Your Qualifications. Refer to your resume. (http://www. Individualizing Your Letter. Other Tips. g. e. Use numbers. Seek advice. This tells your reader what to look for and lets him or her know immediately how your qualifications fit the requirements of the job. Additionally. d. Some employers recommend a maximum of four paragraphs. You can then refer your reader to your resume for a summary of your other qualifications.Business Communication Topics a specific position title isn't available or if you wish to apply for a line of work that may come under several titles. Maintain a courteous tone throughout the letter and eliminate all errors. discuss it in detail and show how you can apply it to the needs of the company. 2. Be sure to refer to your enclosed resume at the most appropriate point in your letter. 6. Conclude with a clear. Remember that readers often "deselect" applicants because of the appearance of the letter. Addressing a Specific Person.io. grammar. Make sure your letter is professional in format. If special projects you've done apply directly to the job you are seeking. in the discussion of your qualifications or in the closing paragraph. Or if you were president of the Marketing Club and you are applying for a position in marketing or sales. Be specific about how your reader should contact you. explain them in detail. you're welcome to suggest a range of dates and places convenient to you. give your phone number and the days and times of the week when you can be reached. It's always good idea to prepare at least one draft to show to a critical reader for comments and suggestions before revising and sending the letter. Catching Your Reader's Attention. Be professional. described so that the reader can picture you actively involved on the job. c. First Paragraph Tips 2. and mechanics. Organize the middle paragraphs in terms of the qualifications that best suit you for the job and the organization. or features of the project that may apply to the job you want. if your on-the-job experience is your strongest qualification. The Importance of Covering Letters. Be specific. courteous request to set up an interview. The date and place for the interview should be convenient for the interviewer. If you have two or three areas that you think are strong. you may decide to adapt the professional objective stated in your resume. That is.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2. b. Job Advertisements.

You will have a minimum of 6 months working in an office or clerical environment. reserved. fax or letter using personal judgment and initiative to investigate customer requests and ensure timely fulfillment of orders. As it is a client facing role you must have a good personality & also your minimum academic qualification must be a Bsc (min of 2-1 but ideally a 1st). mature.ukworksearch.ukworksearch.g. confident. limited. articulate. particularly MIPS / PowerPC Creative programming ability . Maya and photoshop all an advantage. numerative. dedicated. aggressive.1st preference will be given to applicants with 2+yrs commercial exp. anti-social. Both full time and permanent opportunities exist.com/Customer_Services/Avon/Job/27096/) 4.Writing Employment Documents 1. Please supply sample of work with CV. bright. You will maintain accurate task analysis records and ensure the database is correctly updated for all communications and transactions. One of the UK's largest and award winning direct communications companies is seeking customer service agents to join this fast moving. or for more information call the number above. sensitive. highly responsive team.com/IT/East_Sussex/Job/24205/) e.ukworksearch.com/IT/England/Job/18860/) 2.com/IT/England/Job/27076/) 3. patient.having an eye for quality and special effects Passion for games (both playing & programming) Experience of version control software (e. Experienced and trainee positions available. Knowledge of 3D Studio MAX. (http://www. preferably a Msc. You will be able to demonstrate excellent written communication skills and computer literacy including word and e-mail. mean 69 . talkative. conscientious. We are currently looking for 4 engineers who have experience in C++ and DSP for integration with our clients systems/chips. Artists wanted for games industry. We will also consider junior applicants with a similar academic quals who have had work placements or projects involving C++ & DSP. (http://www. Job advertisements and job requirements To be: sociable. self-motivated. The successful applicant will be educated to GCSE level or equivalent and have excellent keyboard skills ideally allowing you to type 50 words per minute. (http://www. To apply please e-mail your CV with a short cover letter. You will be replying to customer queries efficiently and effectively in writing either by e-mail. VSS or CVS) A game demo with sample source code (http://www.g. aggressive. specialised. economical. At least 2 years commercial C++ experience working in a team environment Should have a strong mathematics / physics knowledge and ideally an understanding of 3D graphics Experience with a 3D graphics API such as DirectX or OpenGL would be useful Experience with DirectX 8 vertex and pixel shaders would be useful for work on the Xbox console or for PC titles and tools Experience with low level assembler programming would be useful.ukworksearch.

: resume ( http://www. sound practical experience (proven track record). TX 78759 6 June 1997 John G. buying. 3.io. Holloway Brackenridge Hospital 4505 W. layout. Owens Encl. Notice what are the points the applicants are making. Austin. Based on my experience and continuing education. 1707 Guernesey Lane Austin.Business Communication Topics To have: appropriate professional qualifications. Holloway: I am writing in response to your classified ad in the Austin-American Statesman for Assistant Director of Materials Management. flair. I hope to get a chance to discuss my qualifications and goals with you. Currently. stamina. Brackenridge Hospital and the Children's Hospital supply such a vital service to the Travis county area that I would be proud to be a part of your team. My experience there has ranged from controlling. I am attending night school at Austin Community College where I lack only nine hours to complete my Associate Degree in Business Administration. Edward's University to complete my course work for a degree in Technical Business. industrial experience………… 2. I believe that I am qualified to fill this position. When I complete this degree. XETEL Corporation and Fisher Controls International. 1990 Personnel Assistant JD Employee Credit Bank of Texas 70 . Application letter examples Read the following letters.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex1. Tom Thumb Ave. TX 78703 Dear Mr. etc. Texas 78664 August 5.html) 3303 West Valley Cove Round Rock. to planning materials. I hope to return to St. the ability to establish rapport drive.). analyzing. I can be reached at (512) 877-0991 after 5 p. For the past four years. aptitude for….m. I have been employed in the materials divisions with two different manufacturing companies. Sincerely yours. talent. Discuss their content (logical sequence of ideas. accuracy. style. tone. integrity. John M.

I have converted a large database that was originally written in a customized C language database into the Query database environment. I can be reached by phone between 9:00 a. Virginia Rementeria Encl. and Query programming languages.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2.m. Comprehension 3. In that capacity. Sincerely.Writing Employment Documents P. Write an answering letter to one of the two candidates  announcing him/her that he/she is hired  refusing his/her application 71 . Related to this database-programming experience is the work I have been doing to write and market an automated documentation utility for Query database applications. As for my experience with database programming. On both of these assignments. I believe that I have the qualifications and experience that you are looking for. 2. which will give you additional information on my background and qualifications.: resume (http://www. Pascal.m.io. I am currently working on a contract with Texas Parks and Wildlife to make major modifications to its existing Query database application. at (512) 545-0098. 1. I was responsible for the authorship of the Pascal and Query programs. I have also served as customer contact person. I would welcome a chance to talk further with you about the position you are seeking to fill. Box 32345 Austin. and 6:00 p. The Pascal programs are completely responsible for the user interface and system integration management. Texas 78745 Dear Personnel Assistant: I am writing about your newspaper ad in the August 1 Austin-American Statesman concerning your need for an experienced programmer in the database environment. I have worked for the past year as a programmer/analyst in the Query database environment for Advanced Software Design.html) 3. Enclosed you will find a resume. Fill in the following table with information you have found in the letters above: Applicant’s name Employer’s name Position Source of information Previous jobs Future plans Applicant’s motivation Virginia Rementeria John Holloway 3.O. This product was written using a combination of C.

com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2. … resume will demonstrate that I have the characteristics and 9. … Dr. Kilborn.io.. adapted from: Halpern. IN 47902 1. organizational. Judith M. and marketing would help me use that information 18… researched. sales. I look forward to meeting with you to discuss the ways my skills may 23… serve Aerosol Monitoring and Analysis. Inc. sales. qualifications. experience I would 19… the opportunity to discuss these and other 20… with you. … I believe that my 8. Business Writing Strategies and Samples. The knowledge of the aircraft industry I gained from this 14… would help me analyze how Aerosol products can 15… the needs of regular and prospective 16…. looking for. development. has 3. Christine Rennick Engineer Aerosol Monitoring and Analysis. and Agnes Lokke. MD 21038 Dear 2. … Ms. … experience. I discussed Kentech's products with marketers and 11… personnel from around the world. or feel free to 22… a message. clients. … for the position. enclosed.m.) 4. P. Find the right place for the following vocabulary items missing from the following letter of application (covering letter): 311 Nestor Street West Lafayette. a consultant to your firm and my Organizational Management professor. I'd like to mention how my work experience last summer makes me a particularly strong 10. contact Sincerely yours. I also 12… and wrote reports on new product 13… and compiled information on aircraft industry trends.. and leadership 6. Vocabulary 4.html. position. informed. best. 1988. Box 233 Gulltown. In addition. please 21… me at (317) 555-0118 any morning before 11:00 a. Ms. Jeanne W. background. Read the following useful phrases in an application letter: 72 . If you are interested. New York: Macmillan. … to train for a management 7.Business Communication Topics 4. 2. meet. 1. position As a promoter for Kentech Training at the 1997 Paris Air Show. candidate. Saul Wilder. … me that Aerosol Monitoring and Analysis is 4. … you seek. June 6 1998. experience. 5. First Last name Enclosure: resume (http://www. … someone with excellent communications skills. leave. Rennick. and the valuable 17… I gained in promotion. welcome. effectively.O.

he said you need…. • Mention the name of a person highly regarded by the reader: When X of your division spoke to our business communication class last week.. could we discuss the possibility of putting my skills to work for your company? I am available. After you have reviewed my qualifications. I am seeking a position in…. please contact me at… I would welcome the opportunity to meet you. • Use a question referring to the organization’s needs: Can your R&D division use a specialist in ……… with nine . Write an application letter for the position you consider best fits your qualifications. Speaking Work in groups. Subject: Application for ………position (you may use a title at the opening of your letter) Expressing motivation and expectations: If my application were successful. After reading it.for the opening of your new division in Germany..Writing Employment Documents Getting attention: • Highlight your strongest work skills: When you need a …… who can …. call me. 5.year experience in the field.. Please keep my application in your active file. I should like to… I wish to become involved in… I feel strongly that… Giving evidence of work experience: I feel I am well qualified to… for the following reasons:… As a … who has…. a BA in chemistry and a real desire to succeed? If so. Expressing application follow-ups: Please keep my application in your active file. each in 73 . should you wish to discuss matters further. Stating the reason for writing: I am applying for the………position advertised by your firm in………. please consider me for the position. Give it to a colleague in your group. You can contact me on … (your telephone number) between 11 am and 6 pm at the above address. my experience would be invaluable in… My particular interest is… Through… I am well aware of… By …ing and …ing I would be able to… Ways of ending a letter of application: I have no urgent commitments at present. and let me know when a position opens for a capable…. • Make reference to publicized company activities or achievements: The Financial Times reports that you may need the expertise of a …. and let me know when you need a skilled….

 contents and style  present the strongest. degrees. areas of study work experience: should list all the related jobs you’ve had activities and achievements: projects. phone number career objective: be as specific as possible education: it contains: the school you most recently attended. etc) other relevant facts: miscellaneous facts: foreign languages proficiency. vacation schedule  contact information  use a title/ your name and address as a heading 2. not opinions  avoid personal pronouns  omit the date of preparation  omit mention of your desired salary. Write a covering letter applying for one of the positions advertised at the beginning of the unit. most relevant qualifications  do NOT use whole sentences  use facts. CURRICULUM VITAE BASIC NOTIONS RESUME LAYOUT 1. list for each school you attended (the name and location). community service activities personal data (hobbies. work schedule. 6. A resume should contain:        name and address.Business Communication Topics the group will have to concisely analyze the document. references Keep in mind! The following expressions are alternatively used: Career objective = summary of qualifications Education = academic credentials// academic preparation// professional college training Work experience = employment history Read the following checklist for resumes and discuss it with your colleagues. institutions. Writing Draw an application letter (cover letter). computer expertise. date of availability. Try to improve it. The format of the resume 74 . pointing out its value and its weak points. dates. imagining you are applying for the post of CEO of a well-known multinational.

expand. firms. design. design. implement. qualifications. discuss their usefulness when writing your CV and application letter and try to find some more. resolve (problems). assign. Vocabulary You will find in the table below some action verbs for pointing out accomplishments. improve. evaluat.”.: “To serve in an entry-level position in personnel management that will provide an opportunity for growth and advancement. collect. edit. facilitate ………………………………………………………. critique. classify. analyze. advise. transform (adapted from Lesikar. organize. Approve. clarify. increase. Writing Supplementary information and activities Other types of employment messages 75 . appraise.” (adapted from Lesikar. collaborate. counsel. clarify. build. restore. collect. establish …………………………………………………… Assess. assist. explain.. conceptualize. communicate.“.g. reduce (losses). spearhead. Flatley. attain. special information (achievements. chair. direct. compute. degrees. improve. ………………………………………………… Assemble. Use a heading for the entire resume and subheadings for the parts Include a statement of objective: e. draft. places. arrange. convince. examine. evaluate.Writing Employment Documents 3. coach. operate………………………………………………………… Adapt. devise. coach. “To apply 20 years of successful furniture sales experience to selling quality products for a progressive company. inform………………………………………………………… Administer. Clarify. develop. arrange. balance…………………………………………………………. personal details (interests. facilitate. employment (dates. arbitrate. major field). lecture. Achieve. memberships. Act. institutions. Petit. achievements). audit. references. execute. duties). create. Basic Business Communication. calculate. pioneer. Petit. 1993: 337) 4. consolidat direct. IRWIN. abilities). plan ……………………………………………………… Address. “Sales Representative for X Corporation leading to sales administration. customize. prepare ………………………………………. coordinate. Flatley 1993: 339) Write your resume according to the standard procedure being careful to include the elements below: Arrange logically the information on education (dates.. Management skills Communicati on skills Research skills Technical skills Teaching skills Financial skills Creative skills Helping skills Clerical or detail skills More verbs for accomplishm ents Administer. investigate …………………. educate. promote………………………………………………………………………………………… …. allocate. mediate.

1 – letter addressed to the employer Tom Smith did work at ………… as a ……. • e. 1. We need more…like Tom. Tom and I have……………Working closely with him. 2. 76 . Read the following letters refusing to recommend a candidate and identify their characteristics. In light of current legalities. I am sure you understand the dilemma. 2. Good luck in your hiring process. Reading 2. however. Your instructors at the community college would have more relevant knowledge of your ability to perform the type of job you are applying for. 2 – letter addressed to the job applicant You have had an interesting year since you left………… Thank you for bringing me up-to-date. I would be happy to elaborate on his skills if you call me at home any evening. Your decision to…………seems well thought-out. we cannot comment on the job performance of people who no longer work here. so I suggest you ask them for recommendations. and the classes you have taken should help you get a job. Answer: What’s the goal of a recommendation letter? What should such a letter contain? 2. • e.Business Communication Topics 1.g. from May 1999 through July 2203. Good luck to you in your future endeavors. 2. I have found that he is a good…Not only is he…but he also…I have really enjoyed working…with him. Be creative and finish the following recommendation letter by adding the missing information: I am pleased to support Tom Smith’s application for…… For the past five years.g. 1. Discussion 1. Read the list containing other types of employment messages and check your knowledge: do you know when to use them? Job-inquiry letter Application form Application follow-up letter References (testimonial or open letter of reference)// Recommendation letter 1.

the third step. there’s no use fighting against it. In the folowing table you have a list of these connectors and sequence markers and the types of relationships they express. after + verb …ing. thus. So. he created/ initiated/ inspired/ encouraged/ built up strong personal relationships. for this reason Time relationships Logical relationships 77 . initially. the first step. that’s why. secondly.Writing Employment Documents 3. Vocabulary Reference-writing expressions – you may need them in giving references about a job candidate. the second step. (after) having + verb …ed Categories Connectors and sequence markers Therefore. they connect the following information with the earlier information: The merger has already been decided. subsequently. Language focus CONNECTING AND SEQUENCING IDEAS Connectors and sequence markers are words or phrases. thirdly. consequently. hence. He has been a most valuable/ loyal/ hard-working/ co-operative employee // She has a logical mind and is sensitive…// She has a talent/ flair for design and is creative…// She is an effective…// He was a very active member of………and he had a good relationship with colleagues// Through full and active membership of the… team. which show the relationship between ideas. In brief. after that Next. the final step. at the third stage Then. first of all. at the final stage Other language forms: before + verb …ing. to start with. Types of relationships between ideas Connectors and sequence markers First. Study them carefully. the purpose of my lecture is to convince you to buy our product. 4. at the first stage Second. at the second stage Third. because of this. as a Cause consequence/result. accordingly. at the next stage Finally. so. the next step.

on the other hand. normally. say. as follows. nonetheless. in other words. as a rule. all the same. to illustrate. in fact. likewise. after. to conclude (see Brieger and Sweeney 1994: 208) 78 . namely. first. sometimes Connectors and sequence markers Also. on the contrary. for instance. alternatively Yet. but. here again. in contrast Formerly. too To sum up. also. in detail.conversely. in brief/short In conclusion. indeed Then. what’s more in brief/short. besides. whereas. chiefly. actually. if Instead. in most cases. moreover. in the same way. in addition. in particular. as a matter of fact. furthermore. in that case. clearly In other words. in general. especially. of course. on the whole Obviously. then. second.Business Communication Topics Comparison Concession Contradiction Condition Alternation Contrast Time sequence Categories Addition Highlight Intensification Repetition Generalization Textual relationships Stating the obvious Equivalence Inclusion/explan ation Summary Conclusion Similarly. although. even so. mainly Indeed. too. still. as has been said Usually. finally. overall. in any event That is. lastly. overall. notably. still Anyway. nevertheless. however. when. meanwhile. or rather For example. in comparison. that is to say. in this case. such as. naturally. at any rate In fact. for the most part. that means. finally In particular.

with……. 3. highly enthusiastic. 5. Write a follow-up letter to………that will reinforce your application with……… . Look in the local newspaper for a job advertisement or compose the advertisement for an imaginary post you would like to apply for.Test your skills in writing application documents 1. Write a letter to follow up a job application using the information below: A month ago you applied for the position of……. Consider the following points in your letter: You don’t know what has happened with your resume and application letter you sent them a month ago Since you wrote. Write the corresponding letter of application.industry and a good academic record. the director of personnel. 2. the other – as neutral as possible. Since you have ten-year experience in ………. Write two recommendation letters – one. Unfortunately. you………. so you decide to write a follow-up letter to show your interest in the position.. You have submitted applications to several other firms but would prefer to work at……..(the name and the address of the company) sending an application letter and your CV to………. 4. you haven’t got any reply yet. you are very confident in your chance to get the position. Write your CV.

unstructured. A Employers say they are impressed by well-informed jobseekers.) information interview persuasive interview Types of interviews exit interview evaluation interview counselling interview conflict resolution interview disciplinary interview (from C. 1992) Work in groups.. less formal. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc. simultaneous. C But it doesn't have to be. V. Thill. Bovée. job interview (directed. B Another important step in preparing for a job interview is to practice describing your professional characteristics. stress interview etc.). simulating. Present the list to the class and bring arguments in favour of your choice. Discussion 2. There is one sentence that you do not need. skills they need. Choose one of the eight types of interviews from the table above and make a list of some specific communication skills you suppose it calls for. L. Reading . INTERVIEWS BASIC ELEMENTS The interview is a planned conversation with a specific purpose involving two or more people. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-K) to fill each gap (1-9). Try to find similarities and differences between the interviewer and interviewee (purpose. Read the article about employment interviewing. D Responding to interview questions should not sound as if you are reciting a 1.X. There is an example at the beginning (0 C). J. Business Communication Today. style etc.

/3/ Before arriving for an interview. try to respond aloud to the following: G Preparation can be as important as the interview itself. you should know what the company does. and telephone and video conferencing interviews. but most frequently overlooked ways to demonstrate enthusiasm for a job is to research both the company and the position for which you are being interviewed. any recent changes it has undergone. arranged to capitalize on available technology. intended to help employers make final selections. J When responding. when you don't have to respond under interview pressure. /5/ Think of examples from past jobs. you can show how your qualifications match the company's needs. Practice describing yourself. I The company itself is often the easiest place to start your search. and describing your qualifications well. well fitting. Try to learn about the company's goals and values. Seizing the Opportunity and the Job by Olivia Crosby Interviewing is the most stressful part of the job search for many people. Employment Interviewing. being careful never to criticize a previous employer or coworker. and business indexes.Interviews script. during. E Although these interviews often have different purposes. designed to whittle the applicant pool. /0 C/ Interviews are an opportunity to show you are an enthusiastic worker who would do a job well. and there may always be surprising questions. One of the best. and dressing appropriately are the first steps to making the most of a job interview. will strengthen your answers during the actual event. focus on subjects related to the job. /6/ * How would you describe yourself? * What did you like most about your last job? 81 . Recalling accomplishments beforehand. how large it is. And many companies' human resources departments will send recruiting information if you request it. such as Hoover's Business Index and Dun and Bradstreet. interviewers suggest rehearsing with a career counselor or friend to gain confidence and poise. presenting a professional demeanor. Career counselors say a good job interview starts well before the jobseeker and interviewer meet. F As a starting point. With these facts. Preparation. There are many types of interviews: screening interviews. schoolwork. and what role you could play in its organization. and after a job interview. H Focus on what you learned from the experience. trade journals. Public libraries and career centers also have valuable information about employers. and activities to illustrate important skills. they all require basic interviewing skills. These sites often include a history of the company and a description of its products and customers. and wrinkle free. /2/ Researching. practicing. /1/ Read on for advice about what to do before. Nevertheless. reports kept by local chambers of commerce. You can make the most of that opportunity by being prepared. K Clothes should be clean. Research. Every interview will be different. including companies' annual reports to shareholders. longer second and third interviews. /4/ Many businesses fill their websites with information tailored to jobseekers.

nod. if interviewing for an entry-level job. Ask about the next step in the process. and your career goals. If there are weaknesses evident on your resume. or transcript.txt) Arrange the steps of the interview in an acceptable order and discuss your option. Smile.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. answering questions about your hobbies or interests allows you to highlight some of your other strengths. Tell me about a time you worked as part of a team. /8/ Whatever the question. Introduce yourself in a courteous manner. rehearse an explanation before the interview in case you are asked about them. For example. Use body language to show interest. or describe a shortcoming you are working to overcome. 10 Steps to a Successful Interview Write a thank-you letter to anyone you have spoken to. Comprehension 82 . (http://www. What are your short-term goals? Why do you want to work in this occupation and for this company? Each question gives you an opportunity to illustrate your favorable characteristics. your training and experience. talk about your professional characteristics and background.gsa. such as needlepoint. if asked to describe yourself. ability in a craft. and your career goals. Participating in a sport might demonstrate teamwork. shows an attention to detail. give nonverbal feedback to the interviewer. Arrive on time. Describe a work or school-related problem and how you solved it. such as being fired from a job or receiving poor grades.jobweb. Read company materials while you wait. Listen. /9/ Interviewers suggest rehearsing with a career counselor or friend to gain confidence and poise. In addition. The goal is not to memorize responses to these questions but to become comfortable speaking about yourself.htm) 3. not your personal life. The goal is to become comfortable speaking about yourself. /7/ For example.com/Resources/Library/Interviews/10_Steps_to_a_02_01.pueblo. Career centers and libraries have many books with additional questions and possible answers. (http://www. be ready to accentuate the positive. your training and experience. choose one that does not affect your ability to do the job. Interviewers ask these types of questions to learn about your personality and test your interpersonal skills. Some questions – such as those about hobbies or interests – may seem irrelevant. Have a firm handshake. The interviewer might ask for a weakness or failure. cite your lack of paid experience. Thank the interviewer.Business Communication Topics * * * * * * * * * What types of courses do you enjoy most? Why should I select you over other applicants? What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses? What are your hobbies? Tell me more about the project you described on your resume.

Clothes should be clean. gray. For each blank (1-15). And plan 13__ the unexpected: if you will wear a skirt. NERVOUS The interview is your chance to confirm that 5__ and establish rapport. Keep hair neat by tying it back. These distract the interviewer 15__ your qualifications. buy an extra pair of stockings. putting it up. a briefcase serves a function: it gives 3__ to things you will want at the interview.gsa. The object is to look reliable. A useful guideline is to dress 2__ you would for an important day 3__ the job.pueblo. Use only one word in each space. On the day of the interview. interviewers HEART recommend getting a good night's sleep and maintaining your usual morning routine – if you never eat breakfast. and examples of your work. Bring such extras 14__ with you the day of the interview. like a meeting with a supervisor or a presentation 4__ a client. such as writing samples. such as the proper spelling of the interviewer's name and the time and date of followup interviews. preferably 7__ a conservative color such as navy blue. CONSIDERATION PROFESSOR. To reduce 6__. closed-toe shoes complete 11__ professional image. Dress professionally. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-7) to derive a word that fits in the space. give yourself plenty of time to get ready for and travel to the interview. They also recommend calling to mind some of your happiest memories or proudest moments before arriving for the interview. get more shoelaces.Interviews 4.txt) 83 . http://www.PORTABL E REFER Most people are nervous when interviewing. Many employers say that women's skirts should be knee-length 10__ below. Polished. These include a pen and paper to record important information. 1. But remember: you have been asked to interview for the job BELIEVE because the employer believes you could be right for it. large pieces of jewelry. Plan to arrive 10 to 15 minutes early. and heavy or unnatural makeup. 9__ trendy. for example. well fitting. 1__ carrying a briefcase to the interview. (http://www. Avoid cologne and perfume. In addition to giving you a 2__ look.pueblo. 5__ wrinkle free.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. think of the word that best fits in the context.2. Securing 1__ job is much easier if you look the part. Vocabulary 4. Most employers expect jobseekers 6__ wear a traditional two-piece suit. or cutting it short.txt 4. Avoid last-minute clothing disasters 12__ trying on your suit a few days before the interview.gsa. if you have shoes that tie. don't eat a 7__ morning meal on interview day. copies of your résumé or application and 4__.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. 8__ black.

V.? Did you attend those classes? You said you like travelling. Business Communication Today. please? I don’t understand what you have just said.Business Communication Topics 5. Thill.. L. please? Would you mind repeating that. please? What exactly do you mean by…? 84 Asking for repetition If you didn’t hear the message. 1992) Checking and confirming information Techniques Advice Example Sorry? Pardon? Pardon me? (AE) Excuse me? (AE) I’m sorry. Bovée. Is that correct? How was your trip? I’d like to know more about… Types of interview questions (from C. J. Could you repeat that / say that again. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc.. Language focus Open-ended: it invites the interviewee to offer an opinion Direct open-ended: it suggests a response Closed-ended: it calls for short responses or yes/ no answers Restatement: invite the respondent to expand on an answer Warm-up: it helps break the ice Indirect: elicits further information What do you think your company expects from you? How have you trained in…. Could you go over that again. . you may use: State your problem and then make a request. I missed that part. I didn’t quite hear/ catch what you said.

I think you’ve made a mistake. didn’t you? Is it true/ a fact that he …. If I could just bring/ draw together the points we have discussed. making the correction. What is the precise purpose function of…? Could you tell us a bit more/ Could we have some more details about…. please? Did you say…. Sorry. Correcting information Do not forget to use a polite formula before. Writing 85 . Speaking How do you prepare for a job interview? Is there advisable to mention your weaknesses in a job interview? Why? Comment upon discrimination during a job interview. please? In other words… What I mean is…/ By that I mean that… Let me just go over/ repeat/ summarize the main points again. you may use.? You did say…. … (see Brieger and Sweeney 1994: 182) Repeating information You can paraphrase the information or summarize the main points.Interviews Asking for clarification Ask for more precise information. … Sorry. Asking for spelling Can/could you spell that.? Asking for verification If you want to check that you have understood the message. 6. Excuse me. Select a job advertisement from the local newspaper and write the following letters: a job inquiry letter/ a thank-you letter for the interview/ a request for more time to decide/ a letter of acceptance/ a letter declining the job offer 7. that’s not quite right.

. minutes. order.logically grouped and presented ideas . collaborate Specific: to present specific data…. selecting the channel and medium 2. motivated/ unmotivated. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE BASIC NOTIONS inside the firm: memos. persuade.clear subject and purpose. to convince somebody to do something.all necessary information included .information related to the subject and purpose . planning 2. analyzing the audience (audience profile) 3. reports Types of business correspondence outside the firm: business letters (of inquiry. with: . establishing the main idea 4. composing The result should be a well organized message. etc. Oral/ written communication 1. to help somebody to do something Small/ large Informed/ uninformed Specialists/ casual public.XI.) Steps (i) Steps (ii) Type General: to inform. defining the purpose 1. complaint. warning etc. It should make a statement about the topic.

html) 3. Each letter. the main characteristics of business correspondence? What are the prerequisites of a well organized business message? 2. in your opinion. Why were they emphasized in the text? Bring arguments in favour of their importance for business correspondence. overzealous or desperate-sounding phrases. Business Communication Protocol A universal format.Business Correspondence 3. Be wary of suggestions to use gimmicky attention-getters. If correspondence is lost in the mail. Reading Read about some key elements of the Business Communication Protocol and discuss them in your study group.jobtrak. style. Never duplicate a letter. each must be an original.com/job_search_tips/protocol. (http://static. and exaggerated praise of the employer. however. and etiquette is accepted by nearly all organizations. Always send a letter with a resume. 87 . The importance of proper communications cannot be overemphasized. never a resume alone. so follow suit. Correspondence Tips Use a standard business style format and 8 1/2" x 11" paper. must be individually tailored to the needs of the prospective employer and individually produced. which are written in bold. Professional communication ability remains a significant factor that employer use in evaluating and comparing applicants. Type all letters. Job candidates can alienate potential employers simply because they do no use standard business writing style. Comprehension Consider the words/ phrases from the text above. Address letters to a particular individual. It is a good idea to have someone else proofread it. Make paragraphs average in length. Misunderstandings often occur because of the failure to follow up in writing. and use his/her correct title. showing potential employers the copy may save a job offer. Take the extra time needed to avoid confusion. Employers type even personal notes. Always keep copies of letters sent because they may save later embarrassment. Check your work carefully for grammar and spelling. revising Review the message for content and organization 1. A good succession of communication shows the employer that you sincerely want the job. Discussion What will be. Written communication is the backbone of every personnel office.

Saying 20-20 hindsight A rising tide that lifts all boats An Old (China. 5. Kennedy) someone with long experience in the place Disagreement at the last minute develop by yourself without outside support from politics. Vocabulary Colloquial American Business Jargon Defined Native speakers unconsciously use jargon or slang that doesn't mean much to speakers of English (or even American in this case) as a second language.pacificovertures.) Hand at loggerheads at the 11th hour Bootstrapped both sides of the aisle deep pockets Do you read me? dog and pony show don't make waves down in the dumps Meaning perfect knowledge but too late something that benefits all (Pres.Business Communication Topics 4. Downtoning is used when you are not certain and want to protect yourself from your listeners.html) ASSERTING AND DOWNTONING INFORMATION You use assertion if you want to emphasize what you are saying and to influence the attitudes and behaviour of your listeners. involving both parties wealthy. Here are some common phrases used by American businesspeople during U.com/BizJargon. What it counts is the competition. Japan etc.-Japanese business meetings. Asserting informat ion Techniques Example Rarely is he punctual at meetings. It is the competition that counts. Language focus Fronted topic Cleft sentences: It’s + subject + that Relative clause + is + subject 88 . has ability to pay do you understand (military communications) financial presentation don't disagree or contradict policy depressed (http://www.S.

We might accept merger with them. Speaking  Which is the most important. appear Use the verbs: tend to. quite. fully. Use the verbs: seem.) In no way will I deceive you. In a way I have to agree to their proposal. a bit. highly. entirely. Their company is completely bankrupt. totally. very. absolutely. nowhere. perhaps. fairly. reasonably. especially. Sweeney 1994: 174) 6. It’s just only a minor delay. nobody. a little Express possibility with: maybe. might Express reservation with: in a way. extremely. nothing Intensifying adverbs (wholly.Business Correspondence Inversion (after certain negative words: no-one. the correspondence outside or inside the firm? Bring arguments to support your opinion. he maximized the PC memory. be inclined to Downtoning informat ion Minimize message with: just. It seems that the stocks will plummet. to some/ to a certain extent (adapted from Brieger. completely. only. besides. In particular. He tends to underestimate the expertise of his competitors. etc. He upgraded his computer. it’s nothing serious. moderately) Connecting expressions of highlight (in particular. Perhaps we will accept merger with NTX International. 89 . never.

Business Communication Topics  Give examples of adapting the message you are sending to the audience. 7. Writing 90 . In not more than 200 words write an essay about the manipulative power of words.

COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS BASIC NOTIONS Business letters usually use the BLOCK STYLE. This means:  the addressee’s name and address are at the top ON THE LEFT  the date: usually. Thomson/ Mrs…/ Miss/ Ms…/ Kate) Heading (it says what the letter is about) The body of the letter Introduction: it says why you are writing The main message: details The close: it usually mentions a future. = references: names (initials of the author/ typist of the letter)  Common introduction formulae: I am writing in connection with…/ I have received your letter of…concerning…  Ending formulae: I look forward to receiving your …/ Looking forward to hearing from you  Closing the letter: Yours faithfully/ Yours sincerely/ Sincerely Your ref: .XII. on the right  no punctuation in the address or after the salutation  the paragraphs start at the margin. planned activity The ending of the letter Closing formula The signature The name (typed) Keep in mind  Ref. with double space between them  the writer’s name and title are under the signature Letter layout The logo of the firm The sender’s address The recipient’s address Our ref: The date The salutation (Dear Sir/ Sirs/ Madam/ Mr.

place important information in high . subject matter right away: 5. I have worked…. Since 2001 I have been teaching at “…. unfriendly negative tone with one much more positive. “topic indicators” = a word or phrase that indicates the topic 3. identify that letter by its subject and date in the first paragraph or sentence 2. Comment upon their value in business writing:  “compartmentalize” the contents of your letter: place each different topic of the letter in its own paragraph  keep the paragraphs short: these will help the reader to read rapidly.Business Communication Topics 1. from 4 pm to 5 pm. Change the cold. I will …to …. “As soon as you…. comprehend and remember the important facts or ideas  list or itemize whenever possible: it makes it easier to pick up the important points. “I am writing in response to your July 2. May I expect to hear from you within the week?” “I am available in the afternoons.  place important information strategically: info in the first and last lines of paragraphs tends to be read and remembered better. 2006 letter in which you…” c. Style of business correspondence a.” University…” “As for my work experience.” d. Provide topic indicators at the beginning of paragraphs. Discussion What function do letters perform in society/ in business? What do the style and tone of a letter depend on? What does the format of a letter depend on? 2. Read the following examples and try to figure out what do they refer at? Match them (a-e) with the suggestions you have below (1-5). 2006 letter in which you…. Can we set up an appointment to discuss………? I’ll look forward to hearing from you. “I have worked as a teacher in London for about ten years.” e.” “I have just received your September 20. Here are some tips you may find useful in writing your business letters.visibility points 92 . 2. 4. “If you do not send us the computers by the 1 July.” b. unfortunately. cordial and tactful. changes in the method of payment.” 1. purpose. Give your business letter an “action ending” whenever appropriate: make clear what you expect the recipient to do and when 2. State the main business. If you are responding to a letter. Reading 2. you will not get the money…” “Please send us the computers we ordered till the 1 July as we agreed in the contract. Any change of the deliverate date may entail. 1. “I am writing to apply for the position you currently have open…” “I am writing in response to your letter of… in which you discuss problems you have had with….

This method can be especially helpful because you have reference to all your letters for use when composing other letters. Before you begin sending any letters. if you send a letter to Ms. ‘strategically’. B. X asking for an interview and offer to call her during the week of June 6th. concise and to the point close with a direct request for some sort of action (i. refuse. any commitments you made in the letter and follow-up. person who replied. Listed below are two formats for organizing your letter campaign. whenever possible. Make copies of all the letters that you send out and file them in a folder. You should also take into account some general suggestions for letter writing:  follow rules of layout and format of a standard business letter slant letter toward what you can offer employers. Explain or find synonyms for the words written in italics. forbid. Make another chart showing the response you received from each letter with column headings. 2. deny. Vocabulary Read the following pieces of advice about business correspondence. Also. and paragraph correctly write in your own words and in conversational language hand-sign. Keep these charts up to date and hold on to letters you receive. restrict. rather than type your signature print your letters on good quality paper be brief.Communication with Partners   find positive ways to express bad news. interview appointment)         93 . you need to have that date on record so you can be sure to meet that commitment. you can look back over the letters you have sent and see which ones were the most effective in generating interviews. to an individual. and action taken. punctuate. such as prospective employer’s name. common-sense. the person contacted. along with his/her correct title spell. fail. ‘pompous’? 4. it can be critical to know what you have said in a particular letter to be able to follow it up with accuracy. For instance. it is important that you devise some way of keeping track of when and what you have sent. ‘itemize’. down-to-earth person) 3. ‘positive ways’. Also. Comprehension Consider the tips presented under 2.e. Create a chart with columns for the prospective employer’s name. if you are sending out 40 letters to various employers. the date sent. impossible. avoid pompous. inflated. avoid such words as: cannot. date of reply. What do the following words mean in that context: ‘compartmentalize’. A. Keep another file folder for the letters you receive which call for further action to be taken on your part and a separate file folder for your rejection letters. prohibit. not what you think they should be offering you address. legal-sounding phrasing (picture yourself as a plain-talking.

capacity for hard work or intelligence. although. all the same 94 . However. He was promoted in spite of some serious mistakes he has made.fsu. nevertheless. while. even though. still. We are the first car supplier on the market.html) 5.edu/ccis/guides/write_eff.Business Communication Topics  take advantage of any link to the employer that can put your foot in the door or give you an edge over the competition (for example. we need to improve the quality of our products. in spite of Sentence connectors of contrast: yet. though. Language focus CONTRASTING AND COMPARING IDEAS Function Language techniques Clauses of contrast But. but. Contrasti Phrases of contrast Despite.career. even so. however. mentioning the name of someone you know in the organization) It’s not advisable to:      use stiff language or phrasing be gimmicky in an attempt to be original or clever load with constant use of the word “I” be lofty in tone or indicate you will do the employer a great service by “considering” a position be excessively emphatic about your reliability. This kind of self-appraisal is usually best understated. whereas Examples We will deliver you the merchandise even though the deadline of delivery is a bit too tight. (http://www. The appearance and tone of your letter and resume can say more about you than you can gracefully say about yourself.

match.Communication with Partners Clauses of comparison Comparative + than Rather than As… as…. resemble. look like. Writing 95 . Speaking   Discuss each of the style requirements in writing business letters. Sweeney 1994: 178.180) 6. Their price is the same as two years ago. Their business plan is not reliable compared to ours. I ordered as many pieces as you told me to. Comparin Expressions of comparison Compared to/with. They should pay their debts rather than defer them. What is a recipient-oriented style? You are the system chief engineer of the university. Can you establish a hierarchy among these issues? State your reasons. Their price differs from that of their competitors. 7. not so… as… Having a reliable investor is more difficult than I have ever imagined. Write a letter to the Department of Modern Languages Applied to Business in which you communicate your plan for installing the equipment for a new computer-assisted languageteaching laboratory. in comparison with Words and expressions of similarity: Conform to. correspond to difference: Differ/ vary/ diverge/ deviate + from (adapted from Brieger.

Thill 1992: 70 and Lesikar. Petit and Flatley 1993: XVii) 1. goodnews. Describe the situation in your own words. Try also to assign them to a particular type from the table above. Initiating letters II. Read the list and try to figure out what particular situations do they serve for. BUSINESS LETTERS Classification By function Direct requests/ Routine inquiries Inquiries about people Favourable responses/ Routine.XIII. letters of acceptance letters accepting a job offer letters acknowledging orders/ order confirmation letters of appreciation letters approving credit letters of authorization letters checking a reference letters for claims and adjustments letters of condolence letters of congratulations letters conveying news about products letters declining a job offer letters denying routine requests letters giving unfavourable replies to orders letters of greetings letters of inquiry letters of job application letters offering a job letters placing orders letters providing credit references letters of recommendation letters replying to requests letters requesting action/ credit/ information/ a recommendation/ a time extension letters of resignation letters responding to customer claims sales letters reminder letters order letters response letters request letters follow-up letters . Discussion You have here a long list of letters that can be written in business environment. and good-will messages Bad-news messages/ Claims Persuasive messages Orders By message direction I. Response letters Miscellaneous Refusing a request Adjustment grants Adjustment refusal Credit refusal Sales letter Order acknowledgements (adapted from Bovée.

Other models of inquiry letters a. One of our projects is to establish a car-components industry and we wonder if you could help us to find a suitable partner. Reading 1. Read the following letter and identify its main parts: Dear Sir We are a multinational corporation established in 2000 by the merger of two of the biggest organizations in car industry and we have been operating in your country for 2 years. Regards. The sort of company we have in mind is a large-scale manufacturer of wheels and accessories. Read the following example of inquiry letter in the form of an e-mail message. letter asking for information (preliminary inquiry). 8261 Comments on AB document and AB987 quotation 1. We are most interested in developing secondary industry in this area.Business Letters LETTER OF INQUIRY AND REPLY 1. 8261 TO: J SMITH SUBJECT: Comments on AB document and AB987 quotation John Please send me your comments asap on the documents. I’d like to finalize them this week. which fits this description. We would be most grateful if you could recommend a Romanian company. Jan Jansen Nedco Den Bosch DB 99-36 TEL. 1. Yours faithfully 97 . Is there any difference between the electronic form and the typed form? FROM: J JANSEN 09-03-02 16:28:56 NEDCO DEN BOSCH INTERNAL ADDRESS: DB 99-36 TEL. 2. with international marketing experience and a strong technical staff. since 2001.

Problem-inquiry. which is quite satisfied with your services. Looking forward to hearing from you. collecting what is owed. reminder. Unsolicited inquiry letter. inquiry. Solicited inquiry letter. 4. The steps in the collection series are: notification. 3. What do they have in common. You will appreciate that our technical knowledge is limited.Business Communication Topics Signature Tom Smith Director b. what are the differences between them? Dear Sirs Your name has been given to us by one of your clients in Germany. urgent notice and ultimatum. Yours sincerely XXXXX (name) Keep in mind! The content of an inquiry letter is the following:  Introduction (introduce yourself or tell them wherefrom you have heard about them). 3. specific. and easy-to-read format  Offering further information  Ending the letter: express gratitude for any help DO NOT use “thank you in advance” expression You may find the following pieces of advice useful: Since the inquiry letter is usually asking for information and is a personalized message. it must avoid accusations or any suggestion of customer dissatisfaction. 2. Job-inquiry letters. Making a routine credit request) . 6.with their descriptions below (af): 98 . One of our projects is to establish a car-components industry in this area. and we need the expertise of someone who has experience in this industry. identify the purpose: to obtain help or information  Request making: list questions or information needed in a clear. 5. We have recently been allocated a considerable sum in order to improve our marketing offer in this area. Comprehension Match the different types of inquiry letters (1-6: 1.e. Would you consider helping us in any or all of the following ways? supplying modern machinery supplying technical know-how helping with the marketing operation training personnel setting up the plant We should like your views on the possibility of setting up a partnership. We are an industrial organization operating in cars branch and would be most grateful if you could help us. Booking accommodation. Read now the proper letter of inquiry and then compare the two letters. i. This type of a letter is part of collection series.

Please do not hesitate to contact us if you require/ need further information. Mr. What we have in mind is… Making the request: You will appreciate that… We need… Would you consider supplying us with…? If you could send/ give… we would be most grateful. asking for money e.Business Letters a. e. you want more information about an article you have read. you ask specific questions about a product/ service you are interested in b.. Offering an alternative: However. requesting an application form. Vocabulary Read some useful phrases you may use in a letter of inquiry: Introducing yourself: Your company has been recommended to us by… We have heard of your firm We are particularly interested in… We are most interested in/ increasing/ developing/ extending… Your name has been given to us as one of the most important … manufacturers in Europe. I would very much appreciate a ………. Could you please confirm that there is………. We want to help you fulfill your obligations.g. written when the recipient has done nothing to prompt your inquiry. f.. Is there a problem we should know about? Please send us your payment right away or phone me at 453 – 579 to discuss your situation. I’m wondering why we haven’t received your October payment of $ 200. Read the example: Because you are a valued customer who has been conscientious about paying bills on time. enquiring about a hiring decision – a direct request d. Could you please let me/ us have… You will appreciate that we require/ need… We would like your comments/ thoughts on the possibility of opening/ becoming/ entering/ sharing…/ What we require is… What we need is… We would like you to… Offering further information: We will be only too happy to supply you with/ let you have more details. Smith. we are interested in… Expressing interest/ regret: We could possibly…but we regret that… 99 . c. Yours faithfully XXX (name) 4. Read the example: Dear Sir I would like to reserve a………………. written when a business/ agency advertises its products/ services.

. … In fact.. In answer to your question (inquiry) about . inquiring (asking for information) about. or Miss) Thank you for your letter of .. inquiring (asking for information) about. We would like to thank you for your letter of ......... Yours sincerely (remember use 'Yours faithfully' when you don't know the name of the person you are writing and 'Yours sincerely' when you do).. … For example. … (see Matthews.Business Communication Topics Ending the letter: We look forward to hearing from you/ meeting you/ seeing you We would be most grateful if you could help/ advise/ send/ give us… Important language to remember in a response letter The Start Thanking the potential customer for his/her Interest: Providing requested materials Providing additional information Closing a letter hoping for future business Ending Signature Dear Mr.. We are pleased to enclose.. hearing from you / receiving your order / welcoming you as our client (customer). We look forward to ... 5. We would also like to inform you. Language focus DEALING WITH FACTS Stating a fact Everyone knows that… It’s a fact that… Actually. very important: use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs. Miss. We enclose . I’m not really sure that’s correct. Enclosed you will find .. Regarding your question about .. … As a matter of fact. Marino 1990: 85) 100 . To give you an example...... Are you sure that’s right? Isn’t it true that…? For example? For instance? Such as? Could you give me an example? Refuting Asking for exam ples Giving examples Let me give you an example. Ms (Mrs.. … Well. … For instance.

Jackson Brothers 3487 23rd Street New York. Consider the following situations: You are a bank manager. Reply to Tom Smith who wants to set up his own small business and asks for a bank loan. 7. Identify several such cases. NY 12009 Kenneth Beare Administrative Director English Learners & Company 101 . Writing Letters of reply to inquiries 7. 4.. Write an answer acknowledging their inquiry. using the following plan: thanking for the letter/ politely refusing/ offering an alternative/ asking for information/ expressing interest/ ending.   You are able to grant the bank loan on the following conditions: ………………… You are unable to grant the bank loan because ……………………………………. ending on a warm note – promise future cooperation. refuse their inquiry using the following plan: acknowledging letter. Try to write the inquiry letter sent by Mr. 5. Starting from the same letter. 3. Work in groups of four – six. 7. mainly. expressing regret. encouraging but giving a reason for refusal. from 9 a.m. 7. Beare. Imagine you want to write a routine inquiry to find out about a merger.Business Letters 6. Discuss the differences. offering an alternative. Write a letter of inquiry and booking accommodation using the following information: you require a single room the dates are from 20 May to 23 you need a room with shower and seashore view You would like to have confirmation that your room will be available at the required date. Read the letter in which a multinational inquires about specific conditions of setting a car sub-components industry in Romania. Write only one paragraph – the one you consider the key paragraph of your inquiry letter. Read the following example letter of response to an inquiry. 7. 2. Read it to your colleagues and notice the similarities or differences between your style/ tone/ vocabulary. 1. Speaking   Directness is not preferred in some situations you ask for information. 7.

damaged merchandise. The most important step to customer satisfaction is the need for you to act immediately. Reading 2. We are pleased to enclose our latest brochure. With a little know-how. Read the following instructions about writing a letter of complaint.com. many of us choose instead to swear off a company or product altogether simply because we lack the skill and confidence to express our disappointment. defective products. Occasionally we find ourselves on the receiving end of a defective product. company error. Yours faithfully (Signature) Dennis Jackson Marketing Director Jackson Brothers (Source: http://esl. you will be able to get the results you deserve and find happiness in the consumer world.htm) LETTER OF COMPLAINT The complaint letter indicates discontent about inadequate services. Before you sit down to write your complaint letter. Discussion When do we complain? Give examples linked to the business environment (but not only). Can complaining be considered a business strategy? What are.com/library/writing/blwrite_respond_enquire. However. etc. 1. in your opinion. 1. 2000 Dear Mr. We would also like to inform you that it is possible to make purchases online at http:\\jacksonbros.Business Communication Topics 2520 Visita Avenue Olympia. Identify some situations in which you can write such a letter. warranties or contracts. Beare Thank you for your inquiry of 12 September asking for the latest edition of our catalogue. WA 98501 September 12. or poor service. the basic principles of writing a letter of complaint? 2. This experience can be so infuriating that we feel we must mention it to someone in charge and have the situation rectified. This is a small tragedy since many businesses are fully prepared to remedy any problems that arise. We look forward to welcoming you as our customer.about. ensure that you have made photocopies of all pertinent information such as product and postage receipts. It could be mild/strong. Not only do most companies have a fourteen-day return policy but also you may need to recall details of your transaction and you will need to act while the events are fresh in your mind. as you will need to back up your 102 .

product-number 011011. Before composing the letter.com/complaintletter_rcst. proving she ordered the book in the correct manner. It is not necessary to know the name of the person that will be receiving your letter. just enough to get the point across. a replacement product or perhaps credit applied towards your account? Once you are certain of your request you will then be ready to compose your letter. so it will be quite acceptable to address your letter "To whom it may concern". The complainant will include the postage receipt and a copy of the original order form. stick to the facts only. Do you want your money back.essortment. On April 1 2006 I received a book entitled "How To Write A Complaint Letter" by the author XXX. (http://wywy. many times they offer their customer an additional bonus such as a gift certificate. Read the letter and make the summary of the problems it raises. Your Name Here Comments: The "when" in this example is April 1 2006. TX 78728 8 October 2006 103 . why not take the time to commend a company or sales person that made an effort to please you? It will do your heart good to know you gave someone a boost.htm) 2. The complainant should also photocopy the letter for her records. State the "when" first. Complaint letters written to several companies always receive the results you expect as well as a few unexpected extras. While you have your pen and paper out. If you give a company the opportunity to right a wrong. 111 White Horse Lane Austin. Read the sample letter below.essortment. No need to get insulting. I am returning this book and including my postage receipt. take a moment to think about how you want the situation to be rectified. 3.com/complaintletter_rcst. (Melanie Cossey.Business Letters request with tangible proof. http://wywy. If you take the time to express your lack of satisfaction. followed by the "what" and the "how". You must clearly outline your demands for the company to be given the proper opportunity to please you. coupon or free product. The "what" is the situation of the shipping error and the "how" is the credit on account for postage and a second request for the desired book to be sent. many companies will not only meet your requests but will thank you for giving them the opportunity to do so.htm) 2. When relating the information. 2. Yours Truly. Please credit my account the amount of the postage and send me the book I had originally ordered entitled "How To Write A Love Letter" by YYY. I believe I was shipped this book in error as I had ordered the book "How To Write A Love Letter" by the author YYY on March 15 2006 and to date I have not received the book. To whom it may concern. Your letter only needs to be a few sentences long.

If the Waveport 5000 was charged to my account immediately when I ordered it. this product did not perform satisfactorily. and on 15 August. These finance charges. Today. However.      respond quickly. apologies. I fail to understand why the same promptness was not used in crediting my account immediately upon receipt of the returned item. It is not my responsibility to pay for your company's lack of promptness and I rightfully deserve a refund to any and all finance charges that may be applied during this time period. as well as the price of the Waveport 5000. I decided to return the Waveport 5000 to your company. There is no real excuse for this delay other than someone not wanting to take the necessary time in crediting my account. When I spoke to one of your company's representatives by phone. I was informed that the shipping and handling charges. John A. 4. as well as this letter. no credit has been applied to my account for either the Waveport 5000 or the shipping and handling charges. could have been avoided if your employees had been as prompt in crediting my account as they were in charging to it. I received a statement for my Ritz card.: Copies of sales receipt and credit card statement 2. Sincerely. And as of today. I shipped the item by UPX and was notified 19 August of its receipt. The $225 was immediately charged to my Ritz card. would be credited to my account. in spite of complaints. Somebody Encl. the correspondent needs to know the complaint has been received and is being dealt with acknowledge and apologize give your version of the facts explain what action is being taken concede a point if possible 104 .Business Communication Topics Director of Consumer Relations Cincinnati Microwave One Microwave Plaza Miami. This price included a two-day delivery and a 60-day money-back trial offer. On 10 August 2006. I purchased a Waveport 5000 from your company in the amount of $225. problems of any kind. and I would like nothing more than a quick solution for my problem so that I may be a customer of yours in the future. TX 75249 Dear Director: I am writing you concerning the purchase and subsequent return of a Waveport 5000 I made on 10 August 2006 in the amount of $225. Your company's quick detection products have greatly helped me in the past. October 7. The reply to a letter of complaint: some tips for keeping the business running.

some suggest warning (3). could you… I hope that is not necessary to remind you that… I regret// Unfortunately// I am afraid… I have had nothing but trouble…. 2. Place each expression under its appropriate heading – 1. Making a point 3. we will…. I should like to draw your attention to (the fact that) Unfortunately. Vocabulary 105 ./// The delay was due to the fact that/ the result of…. 1. Read the three lists with expressions used in such situations and attach a suitable heading (1-3) to each of them: A. while others “make a point” (4). disclaiming possibility and 3. you will find some useful phrases for a letter of complaint. Mild complaint 2. Please./// If you check. you will find that the guarantee states…. we will be forced to… It is now ten weeks since we … I should like to point out that we… We really must insist that… Unless we hear from you… If you not…. B. We regret that in no way can we be held responsible for…/// We would like to emphasize that it is your responsibility to…. 1. In the following list. others to strong complaints (2). // …it is still unserviceable. Warning 4./// I would like to explain the situation. C. I am writing to complain about I am sure you will appreciate the annoyance I look forward to hearing your comments// to receiving your cheque Unfortunately. you forgot…. or 4.Business Letters  sympathize and reassure your correspondent In answering complaints you may refer at three distinct situations: 1. 2. You leave me no option but to… I am forced to/ obliged to…. complaint Strong 3. in view of the circumstances…/// Under the circumstances we are prepared to/ can…./// Now that you know the full facts perhaps you…/// Now that you understand the situation perhaps you…/// We are bound by the terms of our contract…. // I am not prepared to… I am now left with no alternative but to…………. apologizing and excusing. 3. We are sorry to hear/// We were distressed to learn/ hear about…/// We must apologize for the delay in returning/ replying/ forwarding…. some belong to mild complaints (1). we/I have not received… We would be grateful if you could… I should like to point out… Unless…. making concessions.. 3. In the normal way we would have been obliged to…/// However.

2. Reject the arguments in the letter of apologies: I would have thought that………. Under no circumstances can we extend your credit. c. Mind the advice: Change the aggressive tone into more diplomatic sentences by using indirect sentences: I was told instead of You told me… A mistake was made instead of You made a mistake. Avoid words which have strong negative associations: positive negative incorrect wrong misunderstanding mistake imperfect faulty ineffective useless E. Take action: to lodge a complaint// to send copies of the correspondence to the editor// to see that it is published: Not only am I forced to…but also I………… 3. e. Please accept my sincere apologies. (negative) // We have been obliged to reschedule your order (positive) 3. I hope it hasn’t upset you too much. 3. (negative) // Thank you for your comments. // I’m sorry for the bother you’ve had.// I consider that my request….g. I’m sorry……… 106 . Put the blame on… Not only did you… but you… d. Express anger: I am/ was// somewhat/ very/ most/ extremely// disappointed/ concerned/ surprised…… I am/ was// disgusted/ furious/ outraged………… I am/ was// hurt/ upset/ sad/ confused/ surprised…… b. Make a polite but direct request: I would like to hear from you by return of post.: We received your criticisms. Here are some useful expressions when you want to: a. is reasonable. // We are sorry to inform you that we are unable to…………. I appreciate the honour of being asked to address your members but I regret…// Thank you for the invitation to speak. (positive) Your order will be 3 weeks late. Which is formal.Business Communication Topics 3. which is informal language in the following examples? I very much regret the inconvenience my action may have caused you. 4.

Independent work: revise the tense system in English. will ensure that the matter will receive maximum publicity. not mine. not denied. I am now left with no alternative but to start proceedings against you. Writing Write a letter in which you complain about the poor quality of the after-sales services of the firm that sold you 20 computers and 2 OHPs. including the following suggestions:  begin with a reference to the date of the original letter of complaint and to the purpose of your letter  express your concern over the writer’s troubles and your appreciation that he has written you  conclude cordially. sentence structure. Yours faithfully Dear Mr… As you have not replied to my letter of…. the problems I experienced with your… were due to your negligence. The editor. 2. // I suggest you to get in touch with… 4. I must repeat. Analyze their style. not to mention the anxiety and discomfort. I hereby inform you that I am lodging a formal complaint with your company’s Trade Association. Why are they called strongly worded complaints? Dear Mr. Read the following letters of complaint.Business Letters You would be well advised to contact your local representative. but must point out that unless you settle my claim in full you leave me no alternative but to place the matter in the hands of my solicitors. 5. I consider my request for a refund of your repair bill very reasonable. who is a personal friend. your responsibilities. In view of the business I have lost. also for the loss of business and any legal costs. I have no doubt that the matter will be of considerable interest to them. I would like to hear from you by return of post. expressing confidence that you and the writer will continue doing business 107 . vocabulary. X I was astonished to receive your letter of 20 May. 1. Copies of our correspondence will be sent to a popular motoring magazine. I intend to claim all the expenses I incurred on your behalf. 4. Language focus 4. I would have thought that a reputable company such as yours would have accepted. Yours….

you still will consider us your main deliverer. deposits). Reading Read the following letter and fill in the blanks with the missing words. was not possible since you ordered the machines in a shorter period of time. that the misfortunes of the production process will disappear. unreasonable. Therefore we are happy to 8… our cheque for $ 10. enclose. Some useful expressions for: Referring: Further to…/ With reference to…? I am writing in connection with…/ With regard to… Giving bad/ good news: I regret/ am sorry/ am happy/ am pleased/ am delighted to inform/ advise/tell you that…. 000. details (such as: quantity. You have our 10…. produce unsafe sewing machines. X We were most 1…. assurance. explanation. Dear Mr. arrangement for payment (method. … we do realize that you were 6. We appreciate that you felt it would have been 7…. for the delay in replying. accidentally. product description. We hope that in spite of these problems. Apologies. Elements of the order form:  Direct statement of the request: Please send me/ ship…  Justification. Writing Identify a business problem/ circumstance you have to apologize for. shipping instructions (date and place). I must explain that Mr. put on one side. catalogue numbers. ORDERS The order is a simple type of direct request. circumstances. B was suddenly taken ill and your letter was 4…. …. I have to remind you. Vocabulary. Please accept our 3…. size. price/ discounts. concerned On re-considering the 5. Write the corresponding letter. On checking with the main agents of Toronto they confirm that the assembling disfunctions could not have been discovered without 6 months use and careful examination which. You will find the vocabulary items at the end of each paragraph. in a difficult position.Business Communication Topics LETTER OF APOLOGY AND SETTLEMENT 1. I have been asked to take over where he left off. to receive your letter of 1 September 2003 and have given it careful 2. to expect you to stick to the fine print on the contract. that we 9…. Saying what you can/ cannot do: We are/ are not able to…. Negligently. placed 2. …. We would not like you to think however. Giving reasons: This is due to…/ owing to…/ because of…/ as a result of…. 3. time. consideration. cost totals  Courteous close with request for specific action 108 .

The price should be acceptable. 3. this is a positive reply that contains: introduction (a statement of good news). Lots of products are being advertised in your local newspaper. they will bill you for the total cost plus shipping charges. expressed intention for future dealings)  bad news about orders entailed by some situations such as: unclear orders. Discussion Is there any difference between an order letter and an order form? Consider the following beginnings of an order letter: I need the following items… I would appreciate your sending me the following items… Can you send me the following items… I would like to have the following… Please ship the following items… Specify the situation in which you will use each of them. you have to order the following books published by …………. you will request rush delivery. Because we are considering your company as the supplier please send us any model you have. 1. (you want 2 hardcover books for the library and 10 paperbacks for your students. Find their description in their sales literature and then write the order letter. substitutions. closing section (resale information. and nonconforming orders.Business Letters Order responses:  acknowledging orders – confirmation that the order has been received. sales promotion. in the past. shipping. Choose one and write an order for that product. 109 . Bring arguments in favour of your statement. As your course of lectures will begin in 19 days.) Because you have ordered from ………. Reading Read the following order and evaluate it (good/bad). We would appreciate receiving your reply by October 5. 2.) ……(you want 2 hardcover books for the library and 10 paperbacks for your students. explanation of the problems that might have arisen. middle section (summary of the transaction: delivery date. You will deliver a course of lectures about ………. Therefore. back orders. 1. 3. credit terms. unfillable orders. cost of the merchandise. taxes.. Writing 3.) …… (you want 1 hardcover book for the library and 10 paperbacks for your students. and you know that there isn’t too much bibliographical material on this subject at the library.). pointing out your criticisms of its bad parts. 2. ……. We are interested in 10 washing machines for our new hostel.

Style tip 2: Writers often use abbreviations in email communication. Email messages often need an informal or casual tone. and then details of their name and (internal) address. Tips for Email messages Style tip 1: Writers often use contractions in email communication. Regards and they almost never use Yours sincerely. because they are usually written between people who have an established relationship and/or between colleagues who know each other well. Email messages are usually much less formal than business letters. Here is a possible structure for an internal email message:  Context in subject line  Extra information – if necessary  Request for information or action Layout.g. In the same way. For example.g. They have widely been replaced by e-mail correspondence. I’m instead of I am. 110 . John. Sometimes writers pre-programme the close of their email messages so that they automatically include a closing phrase. The writer will often provide a context for the reader in the subject line in the header and then begin their text immediately as if they are continuing a conversation. The employees working within the same business organization will often use first names only. Business people often have to answer large numbers of email messages everyday.Business Communication Topics E-MAIL CORRESPONDENCE Usual business letters sent and received by post are less and less common. a writer may want to find out about something quickly from one of his or her colleagues or they may want to send them some information. or don’t instead of do not. so they have to be written very quickly without very much time available for editing the text. e. Like in a business letter. at the beginning of an email message without adding Dear as a salutation. e. They also often need to bring about a certain action. They are usually used in internal correspondence – between business people at the same company as part of an intranet system – but they can also sometimes be used between two different companies. e. Here are some characteristics of e-mail correspondence: Email messages are often written in order to obtain or exchange information about a business related topic. Email messages usually have a very straightforward structure. writers usually identify the action or information they need and they sometimes provide extra information for the reader of the message. for example between a supplier and one of their customers. asap instead of as soon as possible. e. email messages often end in an informal way.g.g. which has induced a considerable modification of the business correspondence style. like Regards. Structure of Email messages.

) (Source:http://www. (Source for E-mail messages: Mulholland. Try to write your text as quickly as you can without too much editing. write two letters of complaint. announcing them that you didn’t receive an important quantity of material you have already ordered and paid and enquiring about the reasons of the delay 3. technical manager for a research and development department at a large multinational corporation based in Den Bosch. (1999). Speak about the layout of a business letter.html) Practice. you do not want to lose John Smith as a customer and you know that he has the option of sending his samples to an external contact. Which is more effective – a letter of complaint or an inquiry letter? 5. What do the two letters have in common. Present orally three types of business letters you know and underline their specific characteristics. E-mail: Uses. 243-264). social and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 8.com/netiquette/book/0963702513p91. Unfortunately you are very short staffed at the moment and you may not be able to meet the request. one mild complaint and one strong complaint. You are a textile company tailoring sportswear for famous football teams. Writing business: Genres. Ziv.. O. issues and problems in an institutional setting. Compare the two letters. Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic. Bargiela-Chiappini & C. Herring (Ed. Test your knowledge in letter writing 1. to rush through the analysis of one hundred chemical samples – the ABC Batch . You have received a request from an internal client. 111 . 57-84). what differences have you noticed? 7.). enquiring why payments have not been done yet  your suppliers. On the other hand. Nickerson (Eds. and as if the person writing the email message is shouting. J. Home assignment: look for a business letter on the internet and write a letter to a friend you haven’t spoken to for many years. Write an answer to one of the two letters from 2. 4. In S. London and New York: Longman. (1996). Considering the same two situations from 2.before a very important meeting of senior management in two weeks time. Email John Smith and deal with his request. media and discourses (pp. John Smith. Writing to work: How e-mail can reflect technological and organizational change. Write inquiry letters to:  football clubs. 2. In F. Name the characteristics of Block Style.Business Letters Style tip 3: Many corporations recommend that their staff do not use capital letters in their email communication as this can be misinterpreted as impolite.albion. 6. Write a corporate email message using the following instructions: You are Bart de Wit.). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

1. MINUTES.  Qualities of a good memo: clarity. It is a memo addressed to the Heads of Departments by the Managing Director. careful arrangement.  Sometimes memos are addressed to groups of people: All Sales Rep.  A memo does not require a complimentary close or a signature. as long as they are present).  The memo often has internal headings. 1. to help recipients understand at a glance what they have received and from whom. How will each receiver react to it? Comment upon the action they will take.XIV. Production Group. Assistant Vice Presidents. The characteristics of a memo are:  The subject line must be short but still informative. day-to-day exchange of information within a company. neatness. a memo and a report. Read the following memo and identify its component parts. a memo and the minutes of a meeting? 2. etc. To: NN Sales BB Accounts CC Advertising MM Legal TT R & D PP Production Date: 1 August 2006 From: AA (MD) . Reading 2. Discussion What are the advantages of using memos inside the organization? What are the differences between a memo and a letter. MEMO LAYOUT The memo is usually used for the routine. COMMUNICATION REPORTS MEMOS BASIC NOTIONS INSIDE THE FIRM: MEMOS. A typical memo contains: Date: To: From: Subject: Many organizations have memo forms printed and contain the four pieces of information (arranged in almost any order.

3. Thill 1992) 2.g. 8. Read the list and try to find an appropriate description for each of them. bad news comes before the reasons d. memos written to and from subsidiaries. short paragraphs. You should be clear (use concrete. or joint venture partners.30 – 16. written to people within one company. or written to clients or other outsiders.13.Communication inside the Fim. of authorization. 30. Read and discuss the good/ bad points of the following memo: Date: 5 may 2003 To: Managing director From: assistant manager. and less formal. write a report) b. Will participants please brief me in writing before 15 August? I hope you will be able to join us for the cocktail party at the Intercontinental. say what you want to know. branches. PP 12-12. favors. they tell employee what to do for conveying bad news: in a memo. 4. 2. 7. why you want to know. 5. new location lunch 14. for intercultural communication. responding to requests a. used to persuade top management to approve a proposed investment or project. explicit words. written to provide an answer to requests j. 1. the opening and closing phrases are omitted (adapted from Bovée. they are more direct. Reports Subject: Annual Sales Meeting – 1 September Our company organizes the annual meeting with our customers on 1 September. 10.30 placing orders. for direct requests. g. it acknowledges the assignment to do something (write a report) c. The program is as follows: Time Subject Participants 9-12 new products presentation BB. Loan Division Subject: Outcome of loan negotiation 113 . 6. 2. for reports. why it is in the reader’s interest to help you e. informal memos. a written document that authorizes you to do something (e. TT. periodic reports describe what has happened in a department or a division during a particular period i. containing directives. headings) f. interoffice memos. simple and direct sentences. 30 coffee 12. Memos. they could be brief. 9. written to solicit funds. persuasive memos. 2. information. Here are several types of memos (1-10) you may be asked to write or answer to in your future career.30 visit R&D department. Minutes. concise. discussing terms of delivery The product presentations will be made in the Conference Room. for justification reports. or cooperation h. 3. of acceptance.

Is the memo adequately written? Would you have any suggestions for its improvement? Date: 1 May 2003 To: ARDAF Insurance Reinsurance Company From: Tom Smith Subject: Car accident On 23 April 2003 I was driving the motor lorry with the registration number CX 473. she did not seem to accept my doubts regarding the success of her business and took it personally. Moreover. the right corner of the bumper. I consider that our bank could not possibly accept the high risk to make a loan to a person who does not seem to have the ability to manage a business. etc. being thrown back and hitting the back of the trailer.) she came prepared to sign the papers and take the money just after our meeting. Ms. NICHOLSON HAD ABSOLUTELY NO IDEA HOW MUCH MONEY SHE NEEDED FOR SETTING UP HER BUSINESS! Ms. to estimate the feasibility of the business plan she may come with. Nicholson’s request for a credit. 4. Nicholson’s skills as a sports instructor. I think that I do not need any other argument to support my decision to refuse Ms. though I do not intend to contest Ms. came today to our bank asking for a loan to support her financial needs related to this matter. At Junction 7 on the motorway I was outran on the left side by a green vehicle whose registration number I was unable to see.Business Communication Topics As a result of your request – to have the summary of my meeting with Ms. hitting the right parapet. addressed to an insurance company in order to obtain money to repair the damaged car. Nicholson. Nicholson regarding her loan request. Nicholson refused to accept my argument that is inconceivable for a person who wants to run a business not to know the financial issues related to its activities. Is the memo adequately written? Would you have any suggestions for its improvement? 2. In spite of the fact that she was told that it takes time for a bank to approve a loan (since we need to check the papers. Considering the re-organizing activity our bank is experiencing. In 15 years of work I have never heard something like that: MS. the driver lost control of the wheel. I decided to take care personally of Ms. just to make sure her request will be treated appropriately and the credit would be a viable one for our bank. I was driving according to regulations on the left lane. starting to complain about our bank’s policy In conclusion. who wants to start up a fitness centre. Nicholson. crossing transversely the three lanes on the right. After getting in front of my lorry. with the semi trailer YZ 209 from York to Manchester on the M 45. She argued that she considered her professional skills to be enough for the success of her fitness club and that she does not have to know the financial data from her business plan by heart. I report the following: Ms. she was very reluctant. Read the following memo reporting an accident. after the merger with the Continental Bank. 114 . Nicholson’s impatience seemed to be trifling compared to what came next.

The cause (in one sentence) is linked to an effect (in the following sentence) by a connector: therefore. As a consequence.3.4. effect cause: to result from. due to. be attributable to Low unemployment rate is attributable to higher government spending.Communication inside the Fim. Reports We waited for the police to come and they asked for all documents and the amount of $ 300. Vocabulary Re-read the memo from 2. hence. because of this. This is owing to the deceiving information he got from his broker. I put down the address of the police officer who took my green card. The cause is introduced by an adverb phrase: because of. the driver losing control of the wheel 3. The car had an excessive speed. as a consequence/result. C. Minutes. I do not consider myself guilty for the accident as I was driving according to regulations. result in. so. that’s (the reason) why Banks offer high interest rates. stem from. be responsible for Government spending resulted in low unemployment rate. lose control. since Their products sell on the market because their high quality. Memos. feasibility. give rise to. on account of. cause effect: lead to. 4. They took the green card and they didn’t want to return it saying that this was the procedure. reluctant. guilty. and find antonyms for outrun. as a consequence of He sold all his stocks. OBLIGATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS The person/ situation causing the obligation = the obliger The person receiving the information = the obliged 115 . The relationship cause-effect is linked by conjunctions: because. refuse. owing to. bring about. and find synonyms for: viable. accordingly. Language focus CAUSE AND EFFECT A. a lot of small firms will make deposits instead of investments. B. The relationship cause-effect can be viewed in two directions: a. Re-read the memo from 2. arise from. consequently. as. thus. Comprehension Re-write the two memos. trifling. D. 5. account for. b. excessive.

be required to. Sweeney 1994: 191-192) MODAL VERBS FUNCTION MODAL VERB MUST HAVE TO (have got to) OBLIGATION HAVE TO OUGHT TO BE SUPPOSED TO EXAMPLE Used when the speaker has the authority: You must write the report till tomorrow. forbid. Used for an obligation resulted from an arrangement or regulation: They are supposed to deliver the goods tomorrow. not force. make. not need to (adapted from Brieger. general obligation: I often have to do all the work myself. have to. be forced to Oblige d Obliged not to do something: must not/mustn’t. not be permitted to. ban Not oblige someone to do something: not require. You ought not to be so rude with them. Used for repeated. demand. may not. compel. not be allowed to. not compel. oblige Oblige r Oblige someone not to do something: prohibit. Used for moral obligation/ duty: You ought to pay him a visit. not have to.Business Communication Topics Oblige someone to do something: require. Used when someone else has the authority: You have to be punctual (the policy of the firm requires it). not make Obliged to do something: must. be supposed to. force. 116 . be prohibited from. cannot/can’t Not obliged to do something: need not/ needn’t. need to.

COULDN’T DEDUCTION Past deduction: MUST/ CAN’T/ COULDN’T + have + past participle 6. OUGHT TO HAVE + past participle MUST CAN’T. They must have met him. Close the door! Strong commands: You are to give them an answer immediately! In informal situations: Can I smoke? In formal situations: Could I take your car? Very formal: May I see him now? Would you mind if we leave now? Yes. you don’t have to be very polite) WOULD (more polite/ formal) SHOULD SHOULD HAVE You mustn’t speak on the phone all day long. Memos. Speaking Discuss the need for conciseness and clarity in memo writing.) He must be your friend It can’t be him.Communication inside the Fim. You needn’t be so rude. future probability: SHOULD. Should we do that? An action not completed: He should have learned more. Minutes. COULD + short infinitive Present/. They should be in London by now. They should have met the Japanese by now. Is there any difference between printed memos and electronic memos? 117 . Can you help him? Will you close the door? Would you answer the phone? Would you mind writing the report? You should be punctual. NEEDN’T Present/ future POSSIBILITY possibility: MAY. PROBABILIT OUGHT TO Y Past probability/ not accomplished past probability: SHOULD HAVE. We should have met them while in New York (not now. He may be a good doctor. I need to get that job. She couldn’t have reacted like that. Reports MUSTN’T PROHIBITIO N BE NOT TO COMMANDS PERMISSION (asking for…) Giving PERMISSION REQUESTS IMPERATIVE BE TO CAN COULD MAY WOULD CAN/ MAY (never COULD) CAN/ COULD WILL (informal. you can/ may. MIGHT. ADVICE HAD BETTER NECESSITY NEED TO LACK OF DON’T NEED TO. A strong prohibition: You are not to merge with them. DON’T NECESSITY HAVE TO. You’d better tell him the truth.

Registration is done by Employee Relations. Day-shift employees are forbidden to park at the curb. Writing 7. 1. (1 par. 3.and swing-shift employees need to be reminded of the parking guidelines. The components of the project are:  work 40 hours a week  work a minimum of 4 days a week  work no more than 12 hours a day  the employees may schedule work time as they please  the employees must declare their work hours during the previous week  the supervisor will record each employee work schedule  the employees who wish to try this new project must stay on it for three months before returning to the current policy  The employees must sign up for this plan by 1 June 2003. Memo writing again! Assume that you are Tran Crozier. Return your completed questionnaire by Friday. (2 par. Day-shift employees may loan their spaces to other employees if they know they will not be using the space.m. presenting them the conditions of the flex-time schedule and reminding them that they have to sign up for the plan by 1 June 2003.m. Write a memo to all employees in R&D department. after 3:30 p. and from 3 p. Any car without a sticker will be ticketed. Moreover. Your task is to write the memo. Handicapped. 7. to take applications and issue white parking stickers.m. 2. You give them a questionnaire and ask them to respond to the questions.) You end the memo like that: Please feel free to make additional signed or unsigned comments at the bottom of this memo. One serious problem is lack of registration (as evidenced by white stickers). the Project Manager.m.Business Communication Topics 7. director of the Human Resources Division of IBM at Franklin Lakes. If they have not registered their cars and received their white stickers. the cars will be ticketed. following the suggestions above.m. To encourage registration. New York. You are Anna Thomson. 118 . Employee Relations will be in the cafeteria May 12 and 13 from 11:30 a. to 1:30 p.. Day-shift employees must park in Lots A and B in their assigned spaces. in order to use it. Car Pool. to 5 p. Van Pool. Both day. 7. Swing-shift employees may park at the curb before 3:30 p. swing-shift employees may park in any empty space—except those marked Tandem. Situation: Your firm “Starcraft Engineering” changes its policy of working hours and introduces a new flex-time schedule to the R&D team.m. Consider the following situation: You are a supervisor interested in your employees’opinion about the quality of food at the canteen.) You request action: you make some suggestions for improving the service activity at the canteen and ask your employees to vote for them. or Management.

asking her to confirm what she said. You wonder if you remembered this conversation accurately.io. agreed to come at 10:30 a. Because one of the topics your panel will discuss is whether employers may monitor e-mail. your company attorney. Geraldine Simpson. Employees have no legal right to use the employer's property for personal business. She said. and you will be serving on a panel discussing e-mail privacy. who has a B. Mark Cunningham. Ms. and everything else.com/~tcm/busi1304/planners/guffey823. about e-mail privacy. even in the workplace. Wilson emphasized the fact that the employer owns the workplace. Mr. who has been an accountant for 15 years with Bechtel Corporation. As you recall. Write a memo to Mr. (http://www. stationery.m.com/~tcm/busi1304/planners/guffey815. Reports Write a procedure memo that reviews the parking guidelines and encourages your employees to get their cars registered. 5.A. Wilson said that an employer may listen to or read only as much of a communication as is necessary for the employer to determine whether it is personal or business. Wilson. Use itemization techniques and strive for a tone that fosters a sense of cooperation rather than resentment. degree and eight years of experience in payroll accounting. will come at 9:30 a. However. he now must travel to Philadelphia on that weekend. He also wants a brief summary of the background of each candidate. (http://www. October 7. Your boss." Equally important. Fred Knox. however. is the recognition of a right to privacy.html) 119 .com/~tcm/busi1304/planners/guffey828.Communication inside the Fim. computers. Knox including all the vital information he needs. Letter-writing in memo form! Consider the following situation: At lunch one day you had a stimulating discussion with Barbara Wilson. Minutes. in these interviews." said Ms. Memos. All of these appointments were for Friday. machines. He asks you to reschedule all the appointments for one week later. You brought up the topic because you will be attending a conference shortly on Internet uses and abuses. Stastry usually is part of the selection process. Paul Scheffel. "If an employee can demonstrate that the employer violated his or her reasonable expectation of privacy. Knox forgot to include Don Stastry. had scheduled three appointments to interview applicants for an accounting position.io. Ms. "then he or she can hold the employer liable for that violation. Wilson.html) 7. 4. you decide to write to Ms.io. who is a CPA and a consultant to many companies. You call each person and arrange these times. (http://www.m." You also remember a rather startling comment.html) 7. operations personnel officer. will come at 11:30. "It owns the desks. You're wondering if Mr.

MINUTES MINUTES LAYOUT SUBJECT: DATE: PRESENT: (attendees are listed. etc. 5. The minutes will reflect the way in which the meeting was organized. The minutes-taker should be a participant in the meeting. 1. Discussion What is the difference between the agenda and the minutes of a meeting? When. All background information used at the meeting should be provided to the minutes-taker. Reading Read the following article about taking minutes. 1. The minutes-taker needn’t record every action taken. if necessary (i. reports. CLOSE ending formula: Submitted by (signature of the person who took the minutes. 7.e. in alphabetical order. followed by the typed name and position of the person). The Chairperson will clarify any points that might have been made by the minutes-taker. the typist initials should be added if someone else typed the minutes. 3. It is not necessary that the minutes-taker note if any of the attendees arrives late or leaves early. Decide whether the following statements (1-7) are true (T) or false (F). tables. 2. all subjects that were deferred to a later meeting  it objectively summarizes important discussions and the names of those who contributed major points  additional documentation may be added. why and how are they used? 2. especially if they seem trivial to him/her. 6. charts. You shouldn’t discuss business that is not on the agenda at the meeting. or in some combination) ABSENT: THE BODY OF THE MINUTES  includes all major decisions reached at the meeting. Taking minutes . generally by rank. all assignments of tasks to meeting participants. 4.

Arizona. Tucson. In case the minutes-taker become distracted and misses something at the meeting. Make sure that the Chairperson holding the meeting understands the fundamentals of what must occur. Record motions properly. pass around a piece of paper for everyone to print his or her name on. the minutes must then be transcribed into the style that was previously followed. date and time of the meeting as well. For the record. The minutes-taker should record every action taken. having a tape recording of the meeting can be of great value. It does not have to be a difficult task. It is a final accurate record of what transpired at a meeting. Memos. The minutes-taker may need to restate a motion after a lengthy discussion. Reports Taking minutes is a necessity of many organizational gatherings. it should be noted if any of the attendees arrives late or leaves early. The minutes should reflect the name of the association meeting. the minutes-taker should speak to the Chairperson as soon as possible after the meeting.Communication inside the Firm. The minutes-taker should have at his or her disposal the agenda for the meeting and a copy of the minutes for the last meeting. It is therefore very important to record these motions exactly as they have been stated. An example of how to document a motion is as follows: Moved. This should be done as soon as possible. This will be the first step in the whole process running smoothly. There are three basic styles for minutes. The meeting needs to be organized. Minutes. The minutes-taker should sit as close as possible to the Chairperson. chances are the minutes will reflect this. The minutes-taker should not be a participant in the meeting. the Hilton Hotel on Broadway Avenue. It is best to stick to the agenda as much as possible in order to keep all information on record. The minutes-taker should have a list of all attendees at the meeting and a copy of the Agenda. Having the minutes-taker sit close by the Chairperson will make it easier for that person to clarify any points that might have been made. and then passed by a vote. Their sole responsibility should be that of taking the minutes. An example of this would be: “MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF ABC COMPANY”. 8:00 am. The whole process can flow much more smoothly if the minutes-taker has some knowledge of the subjects to be discussed. The following styles for minutes are: 121 . In order to allow for the minutes-taker to pay the best attention possible. If a meeting is not structured or if it is disorganized. After the meeting has finished. It is best to keep the minutes in the same style as they were recorded in the previous months meeting. This will make for mass confusion. before the meeting begins. The following article addresses some basic items to remember when taking minutes at a meeting. If there are any questions regarding importance. seconded. Do not allow any business to be discussed that is not on the agenda. A motion is a formal suggestion made by an attendee at the meeting that has been seconded by another attendee. he or she should not be a participant in the meeting — only the taker of the minutes. It can be replayed for the vital information that might have been overlooked. Be sure to list the names of all attendees making and seconding any motions. They may need to refer back to this information during the meeting. January 1. and carried that all members of the Board will receive a three percent cost of living raise. 2000. whether they seem trivial or not. If this is not possible. All background information pertaining to the meeting should also be provided to the minutestaker. the location.

One of the main reasons is that their meeting minutes are incomplete and improperly recorded (D) due to the lack of appropriate systems and tools to accurately record meeting minutes.  Minutes of Narration – these include some of the discussions that took place and important details. Movers and seconders are not recorded. Comprehension Answer: What are the three styles for minutes? Which of the three styles do you consider the most effective for the company you work for? (or an organization you know) 4. movers and seconders of any motions. 122 . B. C. It is estimated that (A) up to 70% of small and medium size corporations in the United States are not (B) in compliance to their State or Federal Requirements. This style of minutes is also considered a legal document. signed. 2. written in a narrative style. (C) It doesn't take long to learn. B. Currently. For each sentence.  Minutes of Resolution – these are limited to the recording of the actual words of all resolutions that were passed. and installed in their corporation record's book. There is always one possible answer. (C) have them recorded. These systems (B) are mainly used in the courtrooms and for deaf and hard of hearing individuals to provide real time translation from speech to text and a written record that (C) can be reviewed later. easier.htm) 3. and you (D) can become effective taking meeting minutes and more comfortable with this work assignment. that makes the sentence incorrect. Vocabulary In each of the following paragraphs (1-6) there are four underlined parts. and more efficiently than any method (B) you have ever used. Minutes-taking is a necessity for formal meetings. They do not document their corporation meetings with minutes. 3.Business Communication Topics Report – this is a full record of all discussions that includes the names of all speakers. Use the tips listed above the next time you or someone else needs to take the minutes at a meeting. This revolutionary way to learn speed writing and typing will enable you to take meeting minutes quickly and accurately. Real-time captioning and speech-to-text systems provide an accurate transcription of words (A) for they are spoken into text. Writing meeting minutes 1. two major options (D) are available to provide realtime captioning and speech-to-text processing. This style of minutes is considered a legal document. find the underlined part. or D. C. yet it doesn’t have to be difficult. A. and D.com/takingmeetingm_rrga. EasyScript/ComputerScript was introduced (A) to writing and typing faster.essortment. Each resolution that is made commences RESOLVED THAT. Good luck!  (http://iaia. just a few hours. A.

Identify its components. 2005 at 7:07 p. Memos. tape and message transcription. Speaking 7. Existing typing abbreviation systems (Instant Text. The steno-based systems use a 24-key machine to encode (A) phonetic spoken words and to enter them into a computer where they are converted into readable text and (B) can be displayed on a computer screen or television monitor (C) in real time. These systems are also called CART (computer-aided real-time transcription) because they are often transported from one location to another on wheels.html) Independent work: revise the SEQUENCE OF TENSES. As a result. Computer script (C) assigns all words to five basic categories and you only need to learn one rule per specific category. PRESENT: Council members …. Writing Supplementary material Read the following minutes. Prepare the formal minutes of a meeting you have attended. In addition. Language focus 6. If you don't remember the codes you (B) will not able to retrieve a corresponding full word. learning curve and memorization volume are drastically reduced and attaining proficiency can be achieved in (D) a short period of time. Minutes. and order/message processing. In contrast. Point out the importance of the minutes of a meeting. MINUTES OF THE CITY OF … – COUNCIL MEETING January 11.Communication inside the Firm. Reports 4. For computer-aided note taking systems (CAN) a standard keyboard is used to input words in an abbreviated form as they are being spoken and transcription software translates the abbreviations (A) into readable format. Productivity Plus. 5.easyscript. 2005 A regular meeting of the City Council of the City of … was held January 11. computer-aided note taking systems are (C) more costly effective. 123 . steno-based systems are mainly used in courtrooms when verbatim is required. ShortCut Windows and Abbreviate) assign a unique code (A) to each word. For non-verbatim applications (B) such as meeting minutes. Mayor Wilson presiding.m. Vice Mayor … and Mayor Wilson. (D) Due to the high cost of equipment and stenotypist training. 6. (http://www. these systems do not provide codes for all words and the user has to create additional abbreviations. in the City Council Chamber at City Hall. 5. Present it to your colleagues.com/meetingminutes. The method of abbreviating words is a major factor of how efficiently you can process and enter verbal information (D) in an abbreviated form. You will need to memorize tens of thousands of abbreviations to type efficiently. 2222 Camino Ramon.

recognized the Mayor’s efforts and said that he appreciated the Mayor’s support of the program. at the Crow Canyon Country Club in Danville. She invited interested individuals to attend their monthly meeting on the third Wednesday of each month at 12:15 p. **** APPROVAL OF MINUTES Vice Mayor Livingstone’s motion to approve the minutes of the December 20. for continually demonstrating excellence in the execution of their duties and for their significant and valuable contributions to the City.2. Mike C. Officer …. and Interim City Clerk … **** Mayor Wilson announced that the Council met in closed session to … **** ANNOUNCEMENTS Mayor Wilson asked if there were any changes or additions to the agenda. City Attorney …. Theo N. **** PUBLIC COMMENT The Interim City Clerk reported that two people have requested to speak under Public Comment and that one fax was received relating to Item 8. Each officer received a plaque and was presented with a bouquet of flowers for their significant others by the Mayor. Sgt. 2004 meeting was seconded by Cm. Police Chief …. Parks and Community Services Director …. **** PRESENTATIONS Mayor Wilson recognized San Ramon Police Officers … and … as Police Officers of the Year for 2004. Mr. Planning Services Director …. The Interim City Clerk noted that there were none. Committee and Commission meetings schedule. Those in attendance were presented with a plaque. Hudson and passed 5-0. spoke on behalf of Soroptomist International of San Ramon. and Officer … were thanked for their service to the San Ramon Police Department by Mayor Wilson. **** CONSENT CALENDAR 124 . The Interim City Clerk noted that there were none. Interested persons may contact her for additional information. This event recognizes and honors returning local military servicemen. Detective ….m. Six San Ramon servicemen were among the fourteen honored. Mayor Wilson thanked the officers for their service. Mayor Wilson thanked Mr. and flowers for their significant others by the Mayor. 2004 Sentinels of Freedom meeting at San Ramon Valley High School. She also described their winter fund raiser which is a performance of the "Wigged Out" show in Danville on February 26 includes a raffle with great prizes. a certificate. C.Business Communication Topics STAFF PRESENT: City Manager …. thanked the Mayor for attending the December 29. Mayor Wilson asked if there were any changes or additions to the Boards. …. C. for his service on this project. **** CITY COUNCIL APPOINTMENTS The Interim City Clerk noted that there are none.

Hudson’s motion to continue the public hearing to the next Council meeting for action was seconded by Vice Mayor Livingstone and passed 5-0. **** UNFINISHED BUSINESS Public Hearing #2 . Hudson’s motion to approve the following Consent Calendar was seconded by Vice Mayor Livingstone and passed 5-0. The General Plan Amendment is being submitted to correct a mapping error and the appropriate designation for this property. No public comments were received. The Director noted that the Finance Committee met on December 8. from the agenda. 2004 to review the proposal and recommended forwarding the item to the Council for its approval. Perkins to remove items 8. Memos. **** NEW BUSINESS Grant Funding Agreement for Child Care Facility at Bollinger Canyon School The Parks and Community Services Director said it was the recommendation of staff that the Council adopt Resolution 2005-01.. and continue the public hearing to the next Council meeting for consideration of the resolution and ordinance for approval and adoption. The San Ramon Valley Unified School District has approved a new master plan for the entire Bollinger Canyon site with the exception of the kindergarten and the new multi-purpose room and this plan requires the relocation and retrofitting of the child care facility.Communication inside the Firm. Cm. Minutes. Executive Director for Kids’ Country. He remarked that the City funded the original building in 1989 with the adoption of the Child Care Ordinance. Leonard H.1 and 8. reviewed the history of Kids’ Country operation at Bollinger Canyon School. concerning the carpet cleaning agreement.2. He noted that the Planning Commission has conducted the required hearings and they unanimously recommended forwarding the item to the City Council for its approval.General Plan Amendment for the N’s Restaurant Property The Planning Services Director reported that this is the second public hearing in a series of three required under Measure G. thanked the Council for the opportunity to speak to them about the project. Communication was received on this item. Cm. Rowley asked to remove Item 8. Cm. He requested further evaluation from staff. He requested that the Council open the public hearing. The item was referred to staff. 125 .1. Cm. Reports The Mayor requested that Item 8. H. Mr. The Parks and Community Services Director introduced Mr. There was no public comment. There were no questions from the Council. Hudson clarified that the item would be discussed at the January 25th Council meeting and not at the January 22nd workshop. He introduced his staff. He noted that Kids’ Country is in a position to rebuild and they need to replace the structure with a building that conforms to current seismic requirements and State building codes. Hudson and passed 5-0. the Stormwater Management and Discharge Control Ordinance. Cm. be removed from the agenda. accept public testimony. and recapped their experiences with the other sites that they operate in San Ramon. A motion by Cm.2 from the Consent Calendar was seconded by Cm. Hudson requested more detail on the definition of the transit village and if there are any stipulations on the low and moderate income housing projects.

html) 126 . 2005 City Council meeting.Business Communication Topics Cm. Hudson reported that the last SWAT meeting included a General Plan Amendment (GPA) from Danville.us/councilminutes/yr2005/ccmins01-11-05.m. for training him in the ways of Council procedures. Cm. at the San Ramon Golf Club. Rowley and passed 5-0. and the City which benefits everyone. Mayor Wilson asked for a moment of silence for the tsunami victims. 2005 (http://www. There being no further business to come before the City.ca. She also invited the public to attend the Dublin San Ramon Women’s Club’s First Annual Art Auction and Wine Event on January 30. He noted that he will not be present for the January 25. Mayor Patricia Edwards. **** COUNCIL MEMBER REPORTS Cm. Tickets are $35 per person. Perkins thanked former Vice Mayor Hudson for his service last year. Rowley complimented the Mayor on the State of the City address which he presented at the January 11. The procedure to do the GPA was brought under review by Supervisor U. Signed: H.m. He added that he is looking forward to working with Vice Mayor Livingstone. Hudson’s motion to approve the resolution was seconded by Cm. Rowley observed that this is another example of a wonderful partnership between Kids’ Country. the San Ramon Valley Unified School District. 2005 from 1:00 to 5:00 p.san-ramon. 2005 Chamber of Commerce luncheon. Interim City Clerk Approved: January 25. Abram Wilson. The GPA included 55 homes and some commercial buildings at the former Navlet’s site. and for nominating him to the Hazardous Waste Commission. **** CITY MANAGER COMMENTS The City Manager had no report. Cm. the meeting was adjourned at 8:12 p. He invited citizens to bring any hazardous material concerns to his attention. Cm.ci.

memorandum reports (informal style) Characteristics . summary. Prerequisites of a good report:  Carefully prepared  Unbiased approach  Based on real events.letter reports (personal style) .parts: identifying information. findings and analyses.any type of long reports can also have a short form . recommendation B. What kind of reports have you already written? Types of reports A.highly elaborate . problem/objective.it follows a fixed plan irrespective with the problem discussed .personal writing is common . discussion. then introductory material is presented. facts.it consists of a title page and the report text . objective records and accurate data  Useful for the organization Read about the types of reports and their characteristics. SHORT (the most common in business) . LONG staff report . conclusions and recommendations) . conclusions.especially useful for business problems .little need for introductory material .it contains ample information .REPORTS BASIC NOTIONS A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves a business purpose.written in the direct order (it gives the main message first.usually begin directly – with conclusions and recommendations .

e.typically organized in a fixed order introduction.Business Communication Topics progress report .g.) . Read about the report sources.basic references (dictionaries. it is a standardized statement verifying an accountant’s inspection of a firm’s financial records . if possible.government documents Computerized databanks 128 . conclusion. etc. facts. resemble rational sales letters. add some more. methodology. a government agency might have funds to award for research projects • prospecting proposals.in long form these reports vary so much that they say no typical form exists .abstracts . almanacs. Report sources Facts primary sources Questionnaires (opinions) secondary sources Library resources: .in short form.books and articles . e.it presents a review of progress made on an activity . a university department writes proposals to philanthropic foundations audit report the technical report the proposal (varies in length) You can write a good report if you are well informed.formal/ informal . biographical reference books. discussion. recommendation Definition: a presentation for consideration of something -types: • invited proposals. encyclopedias.g.

" Unfortunately. the article actually discusses the human ability to reliably distinguish categories (for example. this represents the number of cognitive tools typical readers can hold in their mind's hand (so to speak) and use to attack a problem. A Our value as communicators lies in our ability to figure out where the barriers to usability lie and create documentation that guides users as painlessly as possible around the problems. distinct shades of gray. Discussion Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of formality for the documents used inside the company (memos. /0 B/ In effect. revisiting an article often leads to inspiration and the discovery of new ways to build on those old thoughts. E In effect. The Optimum Number of Steps in a Procedure is 7 Plus or Minus 2 George Miller studied. There is an example at the beginning (0-B). readers will always find it easier to deal with fewer items at a time than many items. F More interestingly. his publication (1956) is also probably his least-read." which represents (simplistically) how much information your audience can manage at a single time. sound levels) and the related issue of "channel capacity. we should begin thinking about how to test the applicability of this body of research in our own unique context so we can begin applying the new findings to our work. moderately dense prose by Miller in any depth. among other things. /1__/ I won't try to summarize 16 pages of rich. both because I want to encourage you to read the original article yourself 129 . reports) Why is direct order preferred in the shorter reports? 2. human short-term memory. minutes. several generations of writers have made the assumption that (for example) lists and procedures should contain no more than five to nine steps. D All else being equal. C Given the importance of what Miller discusses. Reading Do you remember the article about “Ten Technical Communication Myths” by Geoff Hart? Read now about myth number five which mainly deals with the problem of ‘how much information the audience can manage at a single time’. based solely so far as I can tell on the title of Miller's article and the myths that have grown up around it. There is one sentence that you do not need. but he is famous for discovering "the magical number seven. As it happens.Reports Note cards 1. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-G) to fill each gap (1-5). G That may mean we'll have to reconsider an interface design because we're asking users to deal with too many inputs at once. B This failure to consult the source has led to one of the more pernicious misunderstandings in the field of technical communication.

com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. Comprehension What does Miller’s article actually discusses and what trend did it initiated? Debate upon the need to consult the source when doing research. We should always go to the source rather than blindly accepting someone else's report of what that source said. And we should. but it greatly reduces the number of myths and misconceptions that we'll perpetrate and perpetuate. /2__/ While we wait for those results to trickle in. Language focus EQUATING AND INCLUDING IDEAS To give more information about an item you can use two types of text connectors: 130 . and there are many barriers raised in our paths. that's all that most of us have been able to do thus far.techwrl. 11__ we understand the barriers well enough to propose changes in the interface itself. two things we already know give us much to ponder. (adapted from: http://www. 4. we notice it first because we have a devil of 4__ time trying to document 5__ to use it. even if they're not the ones we've assumed for almost 50 years. and it's time we began making concerted efforts to go one step 9__. /5__/ (adapted from: http://www. really good documentation makes even the worst interface easier to use—but it will never 2__ a truly bad product easy to use. we need to learn to write in such a way as to let readers digest one chunk of information before we force them to begin dealing with the next one. /4__/ As a starting point for applying Miller's findings. Use only one word in each space. Vocabulary Read about another myth of technical communication – “You can Make a Bad Interface Easy to Use Through Superior Documentation”.Business Communication Topics and because an update on this subject merits its own article. Unfortunately. and if something is difficult to use. Our value as communicators 6__ in our ability to figure out where the barriers to usability lie and create documentation 7__ guides users as painlessly as possible 8__ the problems. This takes longer and usually requires considerably more thought on our part. and recognizing the existence of these limits means that we need to better understand how we can help readers to process information.html#myth1) 3. our audiences have very real limits on how much information they can process simultaneously. 1__ definition. I stated earlier that one thing that makes us so valuable 3__ our employers is our ability to think like the product's users. If we can understand the barriers well 10__ to solve the problems in our documentation. increasingly.html#myth1) 5. /3__/ Miller's study does have intriguing implications for technical communication. For example. that's the role we must take 12__ for ourselves. I'm not the first to recognize this.techwrl. For each blank (1-15) think of the word that best fits in the context.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. 13__ am I the first to propose that we do something about 14__. But corporate culture is often such that making our voices 15__ is difficult.

as follows Highlighting: in particular. such as management. that means. especially management. chiefly Our major investor. Consequently. You are the manager’s assistant in the case above. Tanaka. in a memo. (Brieger. You want to know the cause of the delays. you ask your assistant to write a short report about this problem. marketing. technically (speaking). 7. e.Reports Equivalen By designation: the second idea is identified as the equivalent of the first. Sweeney 1994: 176) 6. in other words. Inclusion The economical sciences. (more) simply/ to put it simply. need a lot of practice. will visit our company tomorrow. simply VAT will rise again. for instance. The value added tax. Write the memo. such as.g. in more technical terms The first item includes the second: Exemplification: for example. notably. Write the short report. Writing 131 . namely. The economical sciences. Speaking   Discuss the differences between letter reports and memo reports. especially. and accounting became a sort of fashion nowadays. Find three major differences in writing short and long reports. that is to say By reformulation: the first idea is reworded Or (rather). namely Mr. say. You are the manager of a large high-tech retail store and you are concerned about customers complaints of late deliveries of computers purchased.

interpretation. …) Timing: When is the report prepared? (routine/ special reports) Distribution: Where is the report being sent? (internal/ external reports) Purpose: Why is the report being prepared? (informational reports – focused on facts. another person = authorized reports) Subject: What subject does the report cover? (economic. 1992: 343) Can other elements/ characteristics be added in order to make the definition more clear? . impersonal/personal grouping of ideas organization Which are the factors that affect the report format. Routine/ special Internal/external ……………… …………………. manuscript formal/informal. accounting. Thill. style and organization? What types of reports do you know? Consider the following and fill in the table below with the corresponding types of reports: Origin: who initiated the report? (yourself = voluntary report. BUSINESS REPORTS BASIC ELEMENTS format Essentials in report writing style letter. etc. business. analytical reports – that include analysis. memo.” (Bovée. Discussion Types of reports Read the following definition of a business report and comment upon it: “any factual.XV. 1. objective document that serves a business purpose. conclusions. ……………………. recommendations) Probable reception: How receptive is the reader? Voluntary/authorized Technical.

operating reports. 2. 6. Plans. General Purposes of the Reports Match the characteristics of the reports (1-9) with the appropriate type of report (a-i): 1.it should provide all the information the client needs. Speaking Work in groups: answer the following questions: 133 . to document work performed for a client. contain background information and analysis of options 8. Work in groups. Here are some tips for writing a report:  consider the audience before beginning and while writing the report  describe facts or events in concrete terms  be clear and concise  report all the relevant facts  put the facts in perspective  give plenty of evidence for your conclusions  present only valid evidence and supportable conclusions  keep your personal biases in check Choose one of them and discuss the advantages of using it and the disadvantages of ignoring it. analyze problems and propose solutions a. Research reports e. Justification reports d. to monitor and control operations – (help managers find out what’s happening) 2. they are required by law 4. 2. position reports f. to obtain new business or funding – sales proposals: 5. The income tax return. Troubleshooting reports b. Reading 2. procedure reports. to guide decisions on particular issues – help managers make decisions about problems and opportunities. 7. used to persuade top management to approve a proposed investment or project 9. personal activity reports c. final reports g. Memos. Solicited proposals (prepared at the request of clients.Business Reports How long should a business report be? 2. to help implement policies and procedures – help managers communicate the company’s standards 3. meant to show that your organization is better qualified than your competitors to handle a particular contract). Justification reports or internal proposal report h. unsolicited proposals (initiated by a company in order to obtain business or funding on its own) 3. 1. Interim progress reports. guidelines. the annual report to a company’s shareholders i. to comply with legal or regulatory requirements – explain what a company is doing to conform to government regulations.

Report writing Generally. in a paragraph of about 150 words. available data) b. include keywords in your title but omit words and phrases such as “A study on…”.: Using personal computers in PR department Submitted to Mr. tangible products) c. introduction: your hypothesis. tell what was done and present selected results. the name of the person/ company/ organization for whom the report has been prepared.g. research problem. statement of the purpose and scope of your investigation 4. you should introduce your subject matter. body. plans. a report should contain: A. The parts of the abstract are: BASIC ELEMENTS. CONFIDENTIAL). schedules. a security classification. the date the report was completed. and background of the research (facts that the reader must know in order to understand the discussion) 134 . in an abbreviated form. the name of the author. abstract: the representation of the contents. description of the end products that will result from the investigation (e. C. i. Reports. and resource requirements. scope (outlines the method of investigation). your expectations// introduces the purpose. indicating who will be responsible for what. Would you find an appropriate sequence of the actions? a. presentation of the tasks to be accomplished. table of contents: contains each major section of the report. how much the investigation will cost e. “An investigation of…” e. when tasks will be completed. money. title page: the report title. results and conclusion. and restrictions (on time. review of project assignments. operating improvements.e. indicating sources of information. an explanation of your idea. (contract number. Tom Smith Chief Executive Officer AMRO Bank 13 July 2003 by Anna Thomson PR director B.g. required experiments or observations. statement of the problem d. D.Business Communication Topics   What are the important steps in report preparation? What does a formal work plan contain? You have below the answer to the second question but the steps mentioned are not in the right order.

body: it includes details. recommendations G. Thill 1992: part five Reports and Proposals) 5. descending. data. Language focus DESCRIBING TRENDS Trends are changes or movements. experiment: describe the method you used to collect your data and observations. results of tests. conclusion: summarize your results) F. conclusions (it may consist of: a. c. acknowledgements: you should give credit to all who assisted you H. as you can read in the following table: Trends Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs increase increase raise rise put/push/step up go/be up grow extend extend expand expand boom keep/ hold … remain stable stable/ constant maintain … (at the stay constant same level) decrease decrease fall drop drop put/ push down go/ be down decline cut reduce collapse slump Nouns increase rise growth extension expansion boom stability decrease fall drop decline cut reduction collapse (dramatic fall) slump (dramatic fall) 135 .Business Reports E. facts. There are three basic trends: ascending. discussion: analyze the results. references: the list includes any documentation that is not your own (books. articles) (adapted from Bovée. horizontal. each expressed by several verbs and nouns. b.

how did your results differ from your expectations?  Describe your findings. vast(ly).Business Communication Topics You may also need to describe: The degree of change: dramatically. slow(ly) Focus on a particular point: to stand at Maximum: to reach a peak NOTES • Do not use up after increase. reach a peak 6. Useful words and expressions: Fluctuation. gradual fall. leap upwards. take a plunge. in a table. rise and do not use down after fall. try this prewriting exercise: provide answers for the following issues:  describe the purpose of your report  describe the most important feature of your report  make a list of anyone who could be involved in writing the report  compile a list of works that you used in your report  describe the ways in which your report proves or disproves other reports (if the case)  describe the background of the report/ topic  describe what you expected to find before you began your research. enormous(ly). Read an article and write an informative abstract to convey the main points from it. raised mean “increase in pay”: Workers get an annual rise of 10%. drop. You are asked to write a report about the curriculum of your specialty/ the educational system in Romania/ the academic perspectives/ a random topic. gradual(ly). erratic movements. dramatic fall. moderate(ly). a little The speed of change: rapid(ly).  If you are seeking to publish your report. (BE) // Workers get an annual raise of 10%. rose. level off. raise. with a figure?  Describe the consequences of your research. b. describe the journals in which you would like to see your report appear. How can you best represent them: with text. significant(ly). Writing practice a. slight(ly). huge(ly). risen. a plateau. decline. quick(ly). 136 . sharp recovery. Try to clearly summarize and NOT describe the information from the article. raise. (AE) • Use: to increase by (with the verb) // an increase of (with the noun) • Use: to rise to (verb) // a rise to (noun) Interpreting graphs. How will it affect future activity of the organization?  Describe the ideal audience for your report. swift(ly). steady increase. gradual rise. considerable/considerably. decrease • Rise. substantial(ly). Before you actually write your report.

In your group or with a colleague. g. socioeconomic status. If relevant. You will perhaps find out that… you discussed with… their opinion is… Your recommendations could be:. 137 . requiring capital for their business. 000 for a new business he wants to start (The National Gazette. employment. educational background) of the students at your college/ university  the best part-time employment opportunities in your community  the best of two health/ gym clubs in your community  actions that can be taken in your community to combat alcohol/ drug abuse  improvements that can be made in the food service at your university  your university’s image in the community and ways to improve it  your community’s strengths and weaknesses in attracting new businesses Choose one topic and write a report. Clark Nicholson as a potential client of the bank. Write a report about the consequence of introducing 20 new buses (bought from Icarus) on the already existing routes of your transport agency. read the report in your group and discuss the quality of the report you wrote. Write a report to the Board in which you highly recommend Mr. d. Give arguments for the choice of the three bank officials. make some notes on the topic. the manager of the loan department of a commercial Bank. Link this project to your future plans of expanding your business. h. a financial magazine). etc. You are John McGuiver. Suggest that the bank committee may trust him in offering a loan of $ 200. They have much knowledge in the field but they don’t have experience at all in business. cultural facilities – theatre. Mention the fact that you had to hire new personnel (15 bus-drivers) and to train them. The second group operates part-time computing consultancy for two years already but they still have to improve their market strategy. Highlight his qualities as a businessman and mention some of his profitable businesses. Write a report about the meeting between three bank officials and two groups of students. e. Draft the report to your MD. Write a report about the leisure facilities in your native town. The first group wants to open a small shop selling CDs. f. c. Consider the following topics for reports:  a demographic profile (age. museums. Include: sport facilities. make a list of the sections you are required to include in your report. First. find elements that may fit in the blank spaces.Business Reports Consider the specific guidelines under which you are working. Afterwards. Imagine that your managing director asked you to investigate the use of paper in your company’s offices and to make recommendations for improvement. write the report. residence. Only after you have all the necessary information. gender..

2. What are the characteristics of a technical report? 5. What is the difference between a letter report and a memorandum report? 4. Write a report about the impact of mass media in the Romanian business environment. 9. 10.Business Communication Topics Test your report writing skills 1. 138 . Advise your company on the advantages and disadvantages of hiring students from the local university. Investigate the problem of unemployment in your town/city and recommend ways to decrease it. Describe the organization of the conventional short report. Recommend for your company a city and hotel for holding its annual meeting of sales representatives. 7. What can your company do to improve the quality of its product or service? 8. 6. Give examples of routine report problems. Report to your company on the ethics and effectiveness of subliminal advertising. 3.

idea-gathering. indicating follow-up tasks  good participating skills: listen actively. directing conversation towards conclusions. clarifying problems. the secretary. BUSINESS MEETINGS PLANNING AND STEPS OF A MEETING BASIC NOTIONS Definition: The gathering together of a group of people for a controlled discussion with a specific purpose. 1. training AGENDA (list of points) Essential elements of a meeting MEMBERS: the chairman. Discussion . PURPOSE: Problem-solving. sticking to the point  good language skills: asking for repetition and clarification. summarizing  good behavioural skills When should you call a meeting? Debate upon the importance of the meetings for the business environment. the other participants RESULT (the goal of the meeting) REPORT: the minutes of the meeting Prerequisites of a good meeting:  good chairing skills: controlling. controlling decision-making. keeping an eye on the time. paraphrasing. preventing irrelevance.XVI. stopping people talking. bringing people in.

Schedule a 40-minute meeting if that's the amount of time it takes to cover the subject. All of us already attend too many meetings. When participants have the agenda and access to background information before the meeting. If attendees come to the meeting prepared. Reading Read the following guidelines for leading a meeting. Our advice? Being realistic is the best way to allocate an appropriate amount of time for a meeting. Introduce each agenda item by mentioning who will speak next and what will be discussed. Start your meeting on time! Even if all the attendees haven't arrived. When scheduling your meeting. Many people will automatically allocate either 30 minutes or a full hour when scheduling a meeting simply because these quantities of time are common and expected. You'll end up going overtime and attendees will become frustrated. These individuals will be thankful for that one extra meeting they DIDN'T have to attend that week. As the meeting begins. don't schedule too much time or the meeting may become slow-moving and get off-topic. 3. ask attendees if they have any agenda item requests. Adhering to the schedule sends out a message that you're serious about the meeting and expect attendees to arrive on time. Only invite those whose attendance is absolutely necessary. Don't feel pressured to fill an hour if you don't have an hour of issues to cover. A Lead the Meeting B Provide the Meeting Information C Schedule the Meeting D Wrap-up the Meeting E Create the Meeting Information F Distribute the Meeting Information Leading a Meeting 1. but whose attendance isn't absolutely necessary. begin when you said you would. less time will be spent answering background information questions and more time for discussing the important issues. This provides direction for the meeting and reinforces what needs to be accomplished during this time. send them a quick e-mail outlining the outcomes of the meeting. Don't get caught up on halves and wholes. you can distribute the agenda to all of the attendees before the meeting begins. 140 . the agenda must be created at least one day before the meeting is scheduled. Once the agenda items have been requested. When distributing the agenda. consider the information that must be covered. then allocate an appropriate amount of time. remind participants that it's their responsibility to come prepared to the meeting! 4. Find the title (A-F) that best suits each group of paragraphs (1-6). provide an overview of agenda items and introduce the overall objective of the meeting. On the other hand. Carefully consider who should be attending the meeting. 2. This also saves time during the meeting. When sending invitations to a meeting. Don't try to cram too many agenda topics into a 30-minute meeting. If there's someone who should know what happened in the meeting. it gives them sufficient time to prepare for any discussions or decisions that will occur during the meeting. This way.Business Communication Topics 2.

Assign a particular individual or group to follow-up on each action item. This acts as a reminder to all participants of who's responsible for what and by when. Because you were responsible for note-taking during the meeting. it's best to address what's possible in the meeting but consider hiring a professional facilitator for the next meeting – a neutral leader who's trained to deal with high-pressure. the leader should review the action items.asp) Compare the information you have just got from the text with the following steps of the meeting: OPEN THE MEETING invite introductions from participants (if necessary) explain purpose present agenda discuss ground rules (who speaks. etc. If you have difficult personalities in the room or opposing views. Perhaps our time would be best spent working towards a compromise. Items that surface and must be addressed should be assigned during the meeting discussion. everyone has a clear picture of who's responsible for what when the meeting's over. who's responsible and by when. It's also your responsibility to keep the meeting on track." Or. It's also a good idea to include a summary of all the action items assigned during the meeting.effectivemeetings. you're responsible for recording the meeting notes. Any suggestions?" If a meeting becomes particularly heated. "That's a valid point. send the meeting information to all the participants. Whether you provide the notes by e-mail or photocopied hand-outs. flipchart or in a notebook. Comprehension . Once the meeting objective has been accomplished. whether it's on an interactive whiteboard. decision-making. This way. After the meeting is over. This means steering the meeting discussion in a way that fulfills the meeting objectives.Business Meetings As the meeting leader. Even if it's thirty minutes earlier than expected! Don't continue meeting simply because that's what the schedule dictates. "It's obvious there are some opposing views surrounding this issue. This will free participants from the burden of note-taking and encourage richer. Perhaps we should schedule a separate meeting to address it fully. but doesn't directly apply to this discussion.) GO ALONG/ BODY OF THE MEETING move to the first point on the agenda hand over to another person bring people into discussion/stop people talking 141 3. more in-depth discussions. adjourn the meeting. At the end of the meeting. (http://www. high-conflict meetings. Another item that should be addressed at the end of your meeting is the meeting process itself. this can be challenging! Try using sentences such as.com/meetingbasics/before. 5. A deadline and priority level should also be assigned for the action items. Take a few moments at the end of the meeting to discuss what the group did well during the meeting and which areas need improving. sharing this meeting information is vital for proper follow-up. you may be the only one who has this information after the meeting ends. 6.

encouraging hesitant speakers 5. listening actively 7. stopping people talking 6. Let’s begin/ get going. To sum up then… So. first. moving to the next point 13. handling over to another person 4. Tom. to…and secondly to… 142 . how about preparing some figures for the next meeting? B. ladies and gentlemen. indicating follow-up tasks 15. moving to the 1st point 3. Right then. do you think you could…? Tina.Business Communication Topics listen actively/ask for repetition or clarification prevent irrelevance paraphrase summarize (keep eye on time) move to the next point control decision-making indicate follow-up task CLOSE THE MEETING thank participants announce next meeting 4. opening/ objectives 2. summarizing 11. preventing irrelevance 9. I think we should begin. I think it’s about time we got started/ going. keeping an eye on the time 12. controlling decision making 14. Perhaps we’d better get started/ get down to business. closing the meeting PHRASES A. to summarize what has been said so far… C. Right then. shall we? Shall we start/ get started/ make a start? First of all. Well. asking for repetition/clarification 8. paraphrase 10. I think we should begin. I’d like to introduce two colleagues from… Have you all got a copy of the agenda? The purpose of this meeting is. Vocabulary Match the following groups of useful phrases you can use during a meeting with the current steps of the meeting. arranged in logical order according to the table below: STEPS OF THE MEETING 1.

then Nina. So. thank you. Pete. if I understand you correctly… M. Tina? Anything to add. F.Business Meetings We are here today to consider firstly…secondly…thirdly……… The main objective of our meeting is………… I’ve called this meeting first to…. I declare the meeting closed. the next meeting will be on… (date) at…(time) Thanks for your participation Right. That just about covers everything. Would you mind addressing your remarks to the chair? Well. There’s not much time left. What do you think about… Would you like to add anything. / Okay. J. Right. Would you like to begin/ to open the discussion…? Perhaps you’d like to explain/ tell us/ give us… What do you think…? Shall we continue then? Let’s move on. I think you wanted to say something? I. Tom. Keep to the point. We are running short of time. One at a time. I’m afraid that’s outside the scope of this meeting. please. So what you are saying is… In other words…/ So you mean…/ So. Clint. We haven’t heard from you yet. Tom. / Okay. Right. secondly to………. I understand. I think we’ve all got the point now. over to you. I’d like to thank our guest for coming over from…. Paul? G. Would you like to comment here? What about you? E. … Some months / years ago/ yesterday… The situation now is… Right. / That’s interesting. Right. thanks. I see. H. Could we have some other opinions? Right. Tom first. Could you please be brief? K. I think we’d better leave that subject for another meeting. We’re beginning to lose sight of the main point. D. I’d like to propose that…/ the following amendment… Can we take a vote on that proposal? 143 . As some of you probably know. Let’s move on to/look at the first point. Shall we move on? Okay. thank you. As you know. I think that’s clear now. George. please! We can’t all speak at once. L. then Tim. / Right. Mary.

Right. So that motion has been accepted/ rejected by 5 votes to 3. Driscoll. please? What exactly do you mean by…? O. Roles people play in groups (group dynamics) self-oriented Controlling/ dominating others Withdrawing/ group retiring from the 144 . Let’s move on to the next point.. 7. then. would you like to introduce the next point. please? I’m sorry. Very well. Sweeney 1994: 196) 6. Let’s move on. In which category would you include yourself? Bring arguments in favour of your choice. Speaking Identify circumstances in the business activity that can be solved by calling a meeting. thank you. Right. Who’s going to open this one? Well. please? Okay. Language focus (see Brieger. on to item five. (see Ellis. I think that covers everything on that point. Could you go over that again. ) ABILITY AND INABILITY Study the table: Make someone able or something possible Enable Allow Permit Be able Can Be able to Be capable of (+ …ing) Make unable/ impossible Prohibit Prevent Stop (+from+… ing) Be unable Can’t Not be able to/be unable to Be incapable of (+. I don’t quite follow you. we agree with some reservations/ unanimously that… Well. MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIES OF A MEETING BASIC NOTIONS Read about the roles people play in groups. Right.Business Communication Topics All those in favour. Tim. Writing Write the minutes of a meeting you attended. it seems that we are broadly in agreement that… N. ing) 5. Meetings and discussions. Would you mind repeating it. Pilbeam. All those against.

those duties? The leader’s duties:  pacing the meeting  appointing a note taker  following the agenda  stimulating participation and discussion  summarizing the debate  reviewing recommendations  circulating the minutes What do you know about the strategies one should use to make a meeting successful? There are: a. Follow-up: distribute the meeting’s minutes. But the participants have their duties too. What are. in your opinion. ACTIVE PARTICIPATION/ TAKING PART STRATEGIES Active participation involves the use of some typical language functions such as: 145 . sum up decisions. COORDINATING STRATEGIES Preparation: objectives. encourage participation. take the follow-up action agreed to b. Thill 1992: 522) You can read about some of the duties a leader has for managing a meeting. actions. participants. and recommendations.Business Meetings Diverting Encouraging group-maintenance Harmonizing/ reconciling Compromising Initiating Information giving/ seeking task-facilitating Coordinating Procedure setting (Bovée. control the meeting. location. agenda. environmental facilities Conduct: begin and end on time. restate main points at the end.

………………………………………………………………. Set objectives before the meeting! Before planning the agenda for the meeting. write down a phrase or several phrases to 146 . Write a concise summary of each of the six tips. Set Objectives for the Meeting. "Is a meeting the best way to handle this?" you'll cut down on wasted meeting time and restore your group's belief that the meetings they attend are necessary.. To disseminate information you can use a variety of other communication media. 2. One of the keys to having more effective meetings is differentiating between the need for one-way information dissemination and twoway information sharing. wait for the answer (do not answer your own questions don’t’ interrupt encourage complete answers ensure equal opportunity to provide answers 1. you can schedule a meeting to simply answer questions about the information you have sent. such as sending an e-mail or posting the information on your company's intranet. data or information Leading: Questions that suggest answers Encouraging: Questions that help respondents Ambiguous: Questions that suggest two or more answers. If you want to be certain you have delivered the right message. By remembering to ask yourself. 2. Present it to your colleagues. Discussion Discuss about the necessity of calling a meeting. Avoid a meeting if the same information could be covered in a memo. e-mail or brief report.Business Communication Topics getting attention asking for/ giving opinions agreeing/ disagreeing advising and suggesting requesting information/ action checking and confirming information comparing/ contrasting ideas asserting and toning down information connecting and sequencing ideas describing trends Active participation involves techniques of questioning such as: have a definite purpose build clear questions ask well-balanced questions (not too easy/ difficult) use natural tone of asking questions use open direct questions and use of a variety of types of questions such as: Overhead: general questions to the whole group Direct: Question to a specific individual Factual: Asking for fact. Reading Read about effective meetings. Six tips for more effective meetings 1. Don't Meet.

I want the group to… Depending on the focus of your meeting. For example. One benefit of setting objectives for the meeting is to help you plan the meeting. the more focused your agenda will be. For less formal meetings or brainstorming sessions. Ask each group member to think of one possible solution to the problem to get everyone thinking about the meeting topic. Assign Meeting Preparation. Provide all participants with an agenda before the meeting starts. Answers to the second question should be phrased in the form of a suggested action. Assign Action Items. hold another meeting or further examine a particular idea. Listen for key comments that flag potential action items and don't let them pass by without addressing them during your meeting. …leave with an action plan. Don't finish any discussion in the meeting without deciding how to act on it. have all participants recall their biggest success since the last meeting and ask one person to share his success with the group. The more concrete your meeting objectives. …decide on a new widget supplier. By immediately addressing these statements with the suggestion of making an action item to examine the issue outside of the current meeting. Give all participants something to prepare for the meeting. …understand the way we do business with customers. 6. Were you successful in meeting the objectives? Why or why not? Is another meeting required? Setting meeting objectives allows you to continuously improve your effective meeting process. a list of the topics to be covered and a list stating who will address each topic and for how long. Your agenda needs to include a brief description of the meeting objectives. When you send the agenda. to start a sales meeting on a positive note. These tips are sure-fire ways to warm up the group and direct participants' attention to the meeting objectives. Addressing off-topic statements during the meeting in this way also allows you to keep the meeting on track. 3. A second important benefit of having specific objectives for each meeting is that you have a concrete measure against which you can evaluate that meeting. Provide an Agenda Beforehand. or I wonder if we could… are examples of comments that should trigger action items to get a task done. and that meeting will take on a new significance to each group member.Business Meetings complete the sentence: By the end of the meeting. or …solve the design problem. ask the participant to re-phrase the comment 147 . 5. For example. What's the most important thing you should do with your agenda? Follow it closely! 4. if a participant's answer is stated as Jim was too long-winded. your ending to the sentence might include phrases such as: …be able to list the top three features of our newest product. Assign the last few minutes of every meeting as time to review the following questions: What worked well in this meeting? What can we do to improve our next meeting? Every participant should briefly provide a point-form answer to these questions. …have generated three ideas for increasing our sales. you show meeting participants that you value their input as well as their time. have the group read the background information necessary to get down to business in the meeting. date and location of the meeting and any background information participants will need to know to hold an informed discussion on the meeting topic. ask a trivia question related to the meeting topic and give the correct answer in the first few minutes of the meeting. you should include the time. Examine Your Meeting Process. Assigning tasks and projects as they arise during the meeting means that your follow-through will be complete. Statements such as We should really…. that's a topic for a different meeting…. For problem-solving meetings.

Speaking   What makes business meeting ineffective and boring? Analyze different types of meetings taking into account the communication network of an organization (upward. costs and attitudes toward business travel. horizontal/ formal. informal. The statement We should be more to-the-point when stating our opinions is a more constructive suggestion.) 3. teleconferencing. see Meetings in America: A study of trends. Writing Prepare the agenda of a meeting you have decided to call. and their impact on productivity. Remember – don't leave the meeting without assessing what took place and making a plan to improve the next meeting! (http://www.asp.effectivemeetings. 1998. etc. 148 . A network MCI Conferencing White Paper. downward.Business Communication Topics as an action.com/meetingbasics/6tips.) 4.

The compromises you will do should be mutually convenient. draft different scenarios. Be aware of your strengths and weaknesses. Discussion Evaluate the importance of negotiating in business. Be informed. Resist the pressure to cave in. …………………………………………… (adapted from Bovée. 000 is too much . NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS BASIC NOTIONS Consider the negotiating process an exchange of information and opinions whose target is to obtain a mutually acceptable solution. Find satisfactory solutions for both parts.) Practice what you will say. You should mutually benefit from the negotiation process. Make the most of your strong points and minimize your disadvantages.XVII. Know what you hope to obtain Accurate and complete information supports your opinion. Thill 1992: 515) Consider the other person’s needs. / fear of loss: Another customer expressed interest in… / extreme proposals: $10.. Rehearse …………………………………………. time pressure: This sale ends tomorrow. Win concessions by using some ‘tricks of the trade’ (i.e. 1. 000 is my best offer.$ 5. Checklist for improving your negotiating skills Define your goals. Can you imagine business world without negotiations? How would it look like? .

Andres Sundstrom. saying: “The preconditions for establishing a company on businesslike and commercial principles do not exist. said Telia remained a strong and competitive company that could also survive on its own. “It has been impossible to reach agreement on a model that would sufficiently safeguard Norwegian interests. but it became clear that the Swedish interpretation of balance meant Swedish control. .Business Communication Topics What are.” he added. Mr. they wanted a takeover in practical terms”. Ministers in Oslo and Stockholm said negotiations had foundered on the failure to agree on valuations and the management structure in what would have been Scandinavia’s largest telephone company. Hermansen said the Norwegian group would explore partnerships and possible alliances with other partners. although it could remain a stand-alone business. as group chief executive. the discussions were initially blocked by Norway’s minority coalition government. However. The companies began secret talks last year aimed at pooling resources and defending their market share after the deregulation of the Nordic telecommunications market. said there had been a “fundamental breakdown” over how the enlarged company should be run.” But the Swedish group declined to comment on Norwegian claims that it had insisted on locating the company in Stockholm with Lars Berg. its managing director. the most important elements of a negotiation? Is it advisable to negotiate when applying for a job? State your reasons. Tormod Hermansen. Reading Read the following article: Big telecoms merger talks collaps by Tim Burt in Stockholm Talks on a SKr80bn-SKr100bn ($10bn-$12bn) merger of Telenor and Telia. The Norwegian government had offered to inject up to NKr10bn into Telenor to give it financial parity with Telia. “We wanted a 50-50 partnership. 2. Negotiators failed nevertheless to agree on shareholdings or senior management roles. chief executive of Telenor. However. in your opinion. Telenor went further by accusing its larger Swedish rival of altering the negotiating terms in an attempt to secure management control of the merged group. collapsed yesterday amid bitter recriminations between the two companies. Telenor described such claims as groundless. the state telecommunication companies of Norway and Sweden. “We started these talks on the basis of equality. Telia expressed dismay at the collapse of the talks. which feared the creation of an unassailable monopoly.” said Odd Einar Doerum. Industry analysts in Stockholm suggested yesterday that the Norwegians had walked out of the talks because of lingering government disquiet over the merger. It was forced to drop that opposition last month after a threatened parliamentary revolt by opposition parties. Sweden’s industry minister. Norway’s transport and communications minister.

Describe the economic conditions of your example and the expected results. Elements of intercultural communication are very important and should be carefully considered in the negotiating process.6bn. 4. It is well known. Can you explain why? Give other examples you know. 3. When the list is ready. 4. Speaking      4. 1. How do you behave when you have to negotiate? 4. Each group should prepare a list with the problems they want to put forth at negotiations.2. Thill 1992: 515) 4.4. in your opinion the key to being an effective negotiator? Here are some tips for achieving this essential business skill. fear of loss (Another customer wants it. It is well known that there are cultures in which a deal is not a deal unless bargaining is involved. 000 – 5. Negotiating interculturally 4.1. What went wrong with these negotiations? Where did they mistake? Who’s to blame? 4. while Telenor reported gains of SKr2. Imagine a situation in Romanian economy where negotiation is essential. Comprehension 4. Then announce your counterpart (another group) that you are ready for negotiations. 2) 3.Negotiating in Business The Swedish company made profits of SKr3.4.6bn on sales of SKr44bn last year. 000 is my best offer) know what you want: define your goals consider the other person’s needs: see that the other person benefits too rehearse: the more you rehearse. Don’t forget that “The negotiating process is chiefly an exchange of opinions and information that gradually leads to a mutually acceptable solution”. Would you find their right sequence?   do your homework: gather information that supports your position resist the pressure to cave in: time pressure (This sale ends tomorrow).3. 1. extreme proposals (You must be crazy to ask for $ 10. 2. Work in groups: some of you will represent the Norwegian part. for example that is not advisable to send a businesswoman to negotiate with your Arab or Japanese partner.5bn on turnover of SKr23. . (from: Financial Times. Explain the italicized vocabulary items from the text either using synonyms or words of your own. others the Swedish part. practice what you will say know your strengths and weaknesses: minimize your disadvantages and make the most of your strong points search for mutually satisfactory solutions: look for compromises that result in joint gain 3. weekend February 21/February 22 1998. but they are not arranged in the order of their importance. (Bovée. the better your performance will be. 3. What is.4. but…). Can you give some examples? 4. p.2. discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each point included. There are people that consider customary and necessary to win some concessions.

warning about consequences Match these functions with the following useful expressions you may use when you negotiate. persuasive. 5. bargaining/ trading b. disagreeing h. making a suggestion f. compromise. Is the language you use important when you negotiate? To what extent? (use a simple. disagreement. listen – attentively. areas of conflict. informal business negotiation.Business Communication Topics 4. discussing consequences j. Do you use special techniques? (rapport – social talk. parameters – confirm the purpose of your negotiation and establish areas of common ground and possible areas of conflict. opposite number. confirm exactly what you have agreed. you should improve the lists). Negotiating is also important when you apply for a job! But how far can you go? What are the right/ wrong questions to ask? How should you formulate your demands without making a bad impression or offending the interviewer/ employer? 4. attitude – be constructive. stating your position: agreeing g. By answering the following questions. emphatic language. you will also improve your negotiating techniques. approach – concentrate on your key points. benefit. asking for a reaction i. ask questions if there is anything you don’t understand) 5. rejecting d. 6. tenacity 6. 1. agreement – at the end of your negotiation. interrupting c. Some suggestions are given to you between brackets. determined to win. clear language. listen carefully. confirm in writing the points agreed) 3. respect. flexibility – consider a range of alternatives. limits. objectives. review – by summarizing and reviewing you check understanding. Vocabulary Choose from the list of words/ expressions below those you consider important in a negotiation. . use short words and sentences. You may combine two functions for one group of phrases. research. Negotiation. How do you prepare for a negotiation? (plan. resolve. select one and highlight its importance in the process of negotiating. if possible. 1. strategy) 2. success. Language functions The most common language functions you use in negotiation are: a. confirmation – in a follow-up letter. concession. asking for clarification e. clear. arrange them in the order of their importance. The only solution is to…. objectives.

We must… I recommend that we should… Have you thought of…ing… I would suggest that we We could always… One solution would be to … 3. I’m afraid I’m not very happy about that. As long as/ if these products continue to come back as returns. / Fine by me. I’m absolutely/ completely against that. Firstly because…. Secondly… I’m sorry but I don’t think… Any further delay is quite out of the question. but that’s not really practical..and secondly to……… One reason is… Another is… My first reason is… My second is… For one thing…and for another… …that’s just not feasible. the new product will never be sold on the Japanese market. I think we all appreciate the problem but… I don’t want to be discouraging but… I appreciate your point of view but… That’s very interesting but… I can see why you want to do this but… 4. I’m sorry. Terrific. . 5. I’m afraid I can’t accept that. I’m sure that’s the best solution/idea. we won’t be able to overcome our competitors. I see no other alternative but to…. / OK by me.Negotiating in Business In my opinion we should… I believe the best…would be… But what about the idea of …. is a good idea. I really can’t accept that. I’ve absolutely no objections. If you put off the decision any longer.and secondly……. That’s a good idea.. / Good idea.ing… How about… 2. And so/Therefore/ Consequently/ As a result. but I have reservations about that. I’m sorry. I suppose that’s OK. First. That seems quite a good idea. /. Unless we… I’m against / for that proposal…because. That’s out of the question. I’m sorry but I really don’t think that…. / Excellent. / Sounds fine. I’m afraid it’s just not possible. due to…. it’ll mean/ it’ll result in/ it’ll lead to bankruptcy. I’d be / I’m in favour of that. I’m completely in favour of that. Some less formal answers are: Great idea. first of all….

in order to be successful negotiators. If they are adamant about the ten dollar price tag. decide on the highest price that you will pay for the item.? Any suggestions? I suggest we should…What do you think? What are your views on this? What’s your opinion? How do you see this? STEPS OF A NEGOTIATION 1. Unless we buy/ If you don’t buy… I won’t be able to finish the project. then you cannot let them know that. we have to know the basics of the game. How would you proceed? 2. Finally. I’d like to hear your ideas on this. Reading Read the following text about the rules of negotiating: Most every day we have a chance to negotiate one if not many types of deals in our lives. Now. Let us say. Do any of you have any suggestions? How do you think we should do this? What would you suggest? What do you recommend? Do you think we should…. you will have to figure out how much you think that item is really worth. offer the seller five dollars. then you can say eight dollars and probably be on your way with your newly-purchased item. And. If they say nine dollars. Rule Number One Know what you want and how much you will pay to get it. This is a great way to get people to lower their prices. then you will need some bargaining power on your side. First. decide on a lower price that you can try for. That is half the original price the seller is asking. He or she might laugh hysterically. but hold your ground and don't be undaunted. By pointing out any flaws. Point out any flaws that you can find in the item. but it is a good place to start. that you want to negotiate or dicker with another person on a price for an item at a garage sale. that makes the item seem like it is less valuable than they think it is. and let us say you will pay no more than eight dollars. You might not care about scratches or tiny dings. Discussion Imagine you have to prepare a negotiation of a very important contract for your company. then your next step is to negotiate it. but if you to get the item for the right price. From there the seller should typically make a counter offer to your five dollar offer.Business Communication Topics 6. If the item is priced at ten dollars and you find that price to be too steep. We must buy a…. for example. Let us say that you decide it is worth a mere seven dollars. You will have saved two dollars off of . Now. and you come up with five dollars. or else/ otherwise 7.

Repeat the offer to the other person in order to verify their terms. Rule Number Three Do not let the other side fool you. Rule Number Two Be prepared. if it sounds too good to be true. know what you want. you two just have to come to terms with each other. Now. when you negotiate. use your good judgment and do not be swayed by their tactics. that you have been offered a job. vacation time. so this list will be a listing of things you would like to receive. he or she offers more sick days. Explain the words written in bold from the text about negotiating. at least you can get a good deal that you can live happily with! (http://nene. Now.essortment. sick days. and be prepared to give and take. 3. Do not let them convince you with a sob story either. This is the part where each of you will be expected to take and to give. for example. You take less pay. No matter what.Negotiating in Business the original price. but what it means is that must first be prepared before you go into negotiations. Next. Do not jump at any offer just because it sounds good. keep in mind that the perfect job only exists on television.htm) Summarize the main points of the text and present them to your colleagues. but in return you can ask for more vacation time. do not be afraid to ask for the highest amount. That might sound like a double use of words. Be prepared to take as well as to give. write down the least you will accept. but it is not exactly what you want. This is a good starting point for you. In successful negotiations. The prospective employer you will be negotiating with will have a list in mind too. Comprehension 4. But what if you are negotiating on a higher scale. Sit down and write exactly what you would like to have in a perfect job. both sides come out contented that they have gotten what they have wanted. then it usually is! Do not listen to statements made by other people that are intended to bully you into making a deal. The pay is too low. and. and there are not sick day benefits in the package deal either. the vacation time is not enough.com/howtonegotiate_rjvf. but less pay. and so on.. and they have all kinds of tricks up their sleeves. be prepared. And. Here again. determine what you can do without. Let us say now.. Think about it carefully first. and do not be swayed by emotional games that some people will try to play. That is. There are plenty of pretty slick Joes out there in the world. take your time. etc. In conclusion. Language focus Useful phrases while negotiating: Persuading You must admit that… You have to agree that… Don’t forget that… Let’s not forget that… Don’t you agree/ think that…? . Also write down if you want benefits such as stock options and other benefits. you must be prepared to give some in exchange for something else. the lowest amount of pay. take your time when negotiating. To help avoid falling into their traps. Remember. even though chances are against you getting the perfect deal. and that is a great start! This is a simple example of a negotiation. Now.

You are the marketing director of “Terapia” pharmaceutical company and you want to expand your business. it’s a sign of power  reject the first offer  not mind the tone of the speaker  avoid using the word ‘never’  concentrate only on the speaker’s words  embarrass your adversary  suggest time away from the table to think about options  make as many concessions as possible for the beginning  emphasize the need to reach an agreement  try to see the situation from the other person’s perspective 3. To win some concessions is considered a sign of your professionalism. Define negotiating. … Even if that is true/ so. … Well. … But still. Marino 1990: 223) Conceding Debate upon the following: In some cultures a deal is not a deal unless bargaining is involved. … In any case. Negotiate with them the terms of providing their services.… Yes. State weather it is true (T) or false (F). I’ll agree with you there. 2. Name some special negotiating techniques 5. … But then again. … Nevertheless. I’m willing to go along with you. Consequently you hire an important advertising company to advertise your products for the next six months. (see Matthews. I’ll go along with that. Test your negotiating skills 1. … Anyway. What and how do you negotiate at a job interview? 4. In that case. Use in your imaginary dialogue as many ‘negotiating’ expressions as possible. … Still. Speaking . In order to have a successful negotiation process you should:  be rigid. you’ve convinced me. … All the same.Business Communication Topics Counter arguing Even so. 5.

Smiling .g. touching RELATIONSHIPS (e. authority) SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR (e. arms. and norms for behaviour. roles and status: intimacy among people varies. interlocutors) distance between Manners of communicating with body parts (head. Cultural differences affect communication in two major ways: differences in body positions and movements differences in attitudes toward various factors of human relationships (time.g. space. etc. beliefs.) body positions and movements Sitting/ hunkering Manners of walking attitudes toward TIME (e.g. attitudes.g. punctuality) SPACE (e. INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION BASIC ELEMENTS Culture: The way people in an area view human relationships.XVIII. intimacy. body odours) FRANKNESS relationships) (e. A shared system of symbols. hands.g. values. expectations.) Eye movement ODOURS (e. women role) VALUES (attitude toward work. directness in Handshaking. superior/subordinate relations. affection.g. etc. employeeemployee relations.

Business Communication Topics

laughter, emotion, animation displayed)
(adapted from Lesikar, Petit, Flatley 1993 and Bovée, Thill 1992)

Business communication techniques are affected by cultural differences; e.g. letter-writing techniques are not universally acceptable; they’re certain barriers both to written and to oral communication. Communication across cultures could be improved by:  word processing  communications software  translation

1. Discussion
Explain the language equivalency problem as a cause of miscommunication (the huge number of languages used – 3000; their difference in grammar and syntax, words with multiple meanings, difficult equivalency in translation) What can one do to overcome the language equivalency problem? 2. Reading Read about the analysis of business communication practices: Staff Communication. How is internal communication structured? How formal or informal is communication among employees or between employees and managers? Is communication predominantly horizontal or vertical? What are the communication networks (e.g. wheel, chain, circle, all-channel)? What language(s) do they speak? How is performance recognized or encouraged? How do staff communicate (Written communication? Oral?) What are the most common genres used (e.g. memos, emails, bulletin board notices, notices in pay envelopes, progress reports, meetings)? What media are used most commonly (face-to-face interaction, e-mail, print, etc.)? How are these communication practices influenced by the contexts in which the businesses operate? Customer-Company Interaction. How do customers interact with the staff and vice versa? What genres are used to maintain customer contact and to manage customer relations (e.g. face-to-face greetings, letters, emails, notices, menus, tent cards on a table top, blackboards)? How formal or informal is communication between customers and staff? Are there any standards for customer-company interactions (e.g. specific templates, specific greetings, etc.)? How much training do new employees undergo? What is the dress code (if any)? What is it intended to communicate? How are products or services communicated and promoted to customers? How are these communication practices influenced by the contexts in which the businesses operate?
(http://www.education.mcgill.ca/profs/starke-meyerring/ProjectDescription.htm)

Select from the text two questions and give detailed answers. SUGGESTING/ADVISING

3. Comprehension

4. Language focus

Intercultural Aspects of Business Communication

Suggestions involving the speaker Suggestions to another person

Reported suggestions

Other constructions Advice Recommendation

Shall we/ why don’t we/ let’s analyze the matter now? I suggest we/ we should/ we ought to debate the issue now. Why don’t you ask him to leave? How about answering their questions? I suggest you/ (I think) you should write the report. I (would) advise you/ it’s advisable to ask for help. I (would) recommend a trustful counselor. The consultant advised us to improve our training. He recommended/ suggested (that) we (should) finish the report immediately. How about +…ing? How about making things clear? He advised me to improve my writing skills. I recommend that you make a presentation. I recommend (you to make) a presentation.
(see Brieger, Sweeney 1994: 200)

5. Speaking
Select a word with more than tree meanings and imagine you have to explain it to a foreigner. Consider the following topics: job application, negotiating a business, truth in advertising, women’s chances of promotion. What are the prevailing attitudes in our culture toward them?

6. Writing
Make the cultural profile of a Romanian, English, American, German, French, Japanese, etc. businessman. Identify some of the common sources of misunderstanding that occur in written and oral intercultural communication. Make a list of some tips for handling intercultural business communication more effectively.

ANSWER KEY
I. COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS 2. 1. Reading 1-F, 2-A, 3-G, 4-C, 5-B, 6-E, 7-H. 5. 2. Language focus accede – to comply with exceed – to go beyond accept – to take except – to exclude access – admittance excess – too much allot – to distribute a lot – much or many born – given birth to borne – carried complement – complete amount, to go well with c ompliment – to flatter correspondent – party in a divorce suit corespondent – letter writer council – a panel of people counsel – advice, a lawyer defer – to put off until later differ – to be different discreet – careful discrete – separate levee – embankment levy – tax loath – reluctant loathe – to hate material – substance materiel – equipment moral – virtuous, a lesson morale – sense of well-being shear – to cut sheer – thin, steep stationary – immovable stationery – paper waive – to set aside wave – a swell of water, a gesture weather – atmospheric conditions whether – if
(selected from Bovée, Thill 1992: 613)

5. 3. Language focus Advice/advise; later/latter, forth/fourth, device/devise, holey/holy/wholly, instance/instants, lead/led, loose/lose, miner/minor, overdo/overdue, peace/piece, pedal/peddle, persecute/prosecute, precedence/precedents, principal/principle, rap/wrap, residence/residents, right/rite/write, role/roll, than/then, their/there/they’re, to/too/two II. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 2. Reading: 1-f, 2-t, 3-f, 4-f, 5-f, 6-t, 7-t 5. 3. Language focus Suggested connections: the issue of unemployment (discussion of problem and solution) types of personal computers available for sale (classification) how to use a digital camera (illustration) a famous company got bankrupt (cause and effect) advantages and disadvantages of travelling on business (comparison or contrast)

8-d. Reading: 1-c. however. is not entirely a strightforward affair even in principle (the statistical problems of estimation. Reformulating: a. only purchases which provide income for someone else in the community should be included. Student will organize his work so that he can pass all classes. 2. COMMUNICATION STYLES 4. 7-a.nonjudgmental. 7revealing.(A) failure to provide. 9. 5. It is obvious that in calculating a country’s national income via estimates of total expenditure. Reading: 1-b. 5. 2-a.meaning. 1. with reference to = about with a view to = to V.Answer Key 5.really. 1. 4. 4.of. 4-c 4. because on the basis of = by on the occasion of = on with regard to.generates 5. 7. The calculation of total expenditure. IV.such. 6-t. 7. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 2.2. 5-t.choice 4. 10-a. 4. 3-d. 6. 3-d. 5. Vocabulary: 1-paraphrase.(B) on the job. Reading: 1-t.careful. 4. 7-t. 2. 4-a. 3. and in the process of avoiding them the published national income estimates become somewhat complicated. Vocabulary: 1. 3-f. 9. 8. 2. 3. 6.(A) means treating.chopping. 2-t.persuading. b-not needed 4.of. VI. 6.(A) the same as. 1. EFFECTIVE LISTENING 2. 8between. 4-f. 2-a. 4. of course.(B) less favorably than. 2-a. 5-b.verbalizing. Certain pitfalls have to be avoised. 6-c. since in accordance with = by in the meantime = meanwhile in the near future = soon in the neighbourhood of = about in very few cases = seldom in view of the fact that = since. Vocabulary 1-b. 5.either.in.interaction.incorrect. (Nevin 1971: 249) .because. 10. 3.with/to.(A) question arises. 2. 3. AVOIDING DISCRIMINATION IN COMMUNICATION 2. 5. while care should be taken to see that no such purchases are excluded. are very considerable).in. 9-c.(D) primary language. 10. 3-b/c. Vocabulary: 1. III. Language focus along the lines of = like at the present time = now for the purpose of = for for the reason that = because.expectations.unreasonable. 4.. 2.developers.

8 enclosed. 14 position. 5-g. Reading: 1-c. 5impression. m-not needed Intercultural aspects 2. Vocabulary: 1-b. b. Format: Name and address / Objective / Experience / Education / Personal data / References / Resume submitted in confidence 4. 10-location. 5-c. 21 contact. 1. REWRITE: PR employees will increase communication skills to 2nd grade level. 4. Our sales agents will pass all training classes". WRITING EMPLOYMENT DOCUMENTS Application letter 2. 3 informed. c. 7-following. 7-b. 4 looking for. 3-a. 9-j. 8-d. 2-b. 6 background. 4-f. 20 qualifications. Vocabulary: 1 date. COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT 2. 3-d. 1. REWRITE: With modifications and assistance. 7 position. 6-application. 4-H. IX. 2-b. 10 candidate. 7-i. 8-A 4. They will demonstrate written language skills that include spelling at 2nd grade level. 4-b. Reading: 1-C. VIII. 17 experience. 8-governments. Writing: Tips for writing the perfect resume: • • • • career objective and skills summary are optional be as specific as possible about what you want to do (a broad and flexible goal) summarize your key qualifications state the moment when you are available to start work Education . 6-F.Vocabulary 1-jobseekers. 11 sales. 4-f. 19 welcome. 10-l. 18 effectively. 23 best. 3-information. 2-g. 7-c. 3-a. 2-d. 2-attending. 12 researched. 15 meet. 8-h. 3-E. 2-G. 5-b. 6-a. 9-everywhere. VII. 11-k. Reading: 1-e. Reading: 1-c. 13 development.Business Communication Topics Rewrite: Student will establish and maintain a system for organizing his work and other responsibilities so that he completes required work and assignments and turns them in on time 80% of the time. 16 clients. 4-recruitment. use of complete sentences. 5 organizational. Resume 2. 6-a. 22 leave. 6-d. 2 Ms R. and correct punctuation and capitalization. PRESENTATIONS 2. PR employees will increase communication skills. They will also increase written language skills to 3rd grade level". 3-a 4. 10-c. 9-a. 5-B. 9 experience. 7-D. our sales agents will continue their progress with basic skill activities in marketing and negotiating classes and improve their performance with problem-solving activities in advertising and product promotion by applying problem-solving techniques to at least one such problem in their current activity.

major fields. (adapted from Bovée. honours. Thill 1992: 285) Employment documents Some useful tips for writing recommendations: include in your letter relevant details such as: • the full name of the candidate • the job/ benefit that the candidate is seeking • whether the writer is answering a request or taking the initiative • the nature of the relationshipbetween the writer and the candidate • facts relevant to the position or benefit sought . with the most recent first (name and location. if relevant • list job-related interests and hobbies Reference • list three to five references. address. your gradepoint average. and telephone number WITH the person’s permission to do so) • exclude your present employer if you do not want him/her to knoe you are seeking another position. overall or in your major.Answer Key • • • Work • • • • • • list all relevant schooling and training since highschool. and achievements • list all relevant unpaid activities • exclude mentions of religious or political affiliations Other relevant facts • list other relevant information • mention your ability to operate any machines. if impressive enough to list) list relevant courses in descending order of their importance list any other relevant educational or training experiences (seminars. title. degrees or certificates you obtained. or add “Resume submitted in confidence” at the tob or bottom of the resume. etc) Activities. or offer to supply the nameson request (provide name. workshops) experience list all relevant work experience list full-time and part-time jobs state the month/ year when you started and left each job provide the name and location of the firm that employed you list your job title and describe your functions briefly note on. equipment.the-job accomplishments (awards. or computer software used in the job Personal data • omit data that can be regarded negatively or be used to discriminate against you • omit or downplay references to age if it could suggest inexperience or approaching retirement • describe military service.

Ask about the next step in the process. Listen. 5-b. 7. Smile. 7. 8. 2. 4. D-3. 11. C-2. 9-h. Introduce yourself in a courteous manner. k-not needed.by. give nonverbal feedback to the interviewer.belief. 4. 3-a. 8.and. 1. XIII. Comprehension: a-5. 13.references. 6. X . 7. 5. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE XII. d-6. 6-f. 8-d. Read company materials while you wait.consider. 2-g.not. key: 1.or.for. 9. XI.Business Communication Topics • the overall evaluation of the candidate’s suitability for the job Supplementary information and activities Job-inquiry letter – a letter in which you request an application form Application form – a standardized data sheet containing mainly the applicants’ qualifications Application follow-up letter – a second letter meant to keep your file active References (testimonial or open letter of reference)// Recommendation letter X. 2. Comprehension 1. 2. b-1. The format of the letter depends on the traditions of the organization. Write a thank-you letter to anyone you have spoken to.nervousness. 3. 15. 3. 1. 10. nod. 9.to. Thank the interviewer.on. Dear Mr.1. E-5. e-2. INTERVIEWS 2.as. COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS Discussion 1. 12. BUSINESS LETTERS Inquiries 3. Reading: 1-e. Writing 6. 5. Use body language to show interest.or. 2. 3. 6.professional. B-1. 2. c-4. Have a firm handshake. 3.to. Reading: A-4.a. 2. 6. Arrive on time. 6. 5.portability. 3. 4. 14. 4. Vocabulary: 1.hearty 4. 10.from.Letters perform an important public relations function in addition to conveying a particular message.Style and tone are governed by the relationship between the writer and the reader.the. 7-j.in. 4-i.along. f-3.

Reading: A – 3. Thank you again for your inquiry. We are sure you will be content with their services. you might prefer to………. I give you their address:………Meanwhile.We fond your project of…………very interesting but for the moment we cannot expand our business in this area. B – 1. State clearly what you expect. our parner operating in the Eastern Europe seems to be intersted in your project and we gave them the informmation you sent us. 4. Yours faithfully nnnnn (name) 6. Decide on the emphasis you want to give Do you want to appear threatening. 2. However... reasoning or reproaching? Find some way to view the problem as an honest mistake. Discussion The basic principles of writing a letter of complaint are: be polite state clearly and factually what is wrong support your claim with documents. Should you decide to proceed with your original plan. we would like to wish you…………… Yours sincerely Letter of complaint 1. We would be happy……….. 3. pleading. as far as I know they asked for the following details: is there any demand on the market for this product? is there an adequate labour force available? what is the transport system in the area? Don’t hesitate to ask for their co-operation. Looking forward to hearing from you.Answer Key Thank you for your letter of…. Your project is……. provide a fully detailed description of the problem imply that your claimwill be met as a matter of course summarise your claim. Writing Dear Mr X Proposed …………………… Thank you for……………. After careful consideration we regret that we are unable to help you in………………………. However. if you would like to reconsider the project. . They will communicate whether they agree with your project or whether they need some extra information in a week’s time. Don’t imply that the recipient deliberately committed the error Express confidence that the recipient will grant your request 2. C – 2.but we fear that (in practice)………….

and the results of votes. Vocabulary: 1. 4. (A)as they are spoken. At some point your boss may ask you to take minutes at a meeting. concerned 2. 2. Reading a-6. Don't try to write down every single comment -. COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM Memos 2. After the Meeting. Make sure your tool of choice is in working order and have a backup just in case. circumstances 6. c-7. unreasonable 8. Reading: 1-T. 2-F. g-1. I am glad that the matter had to go no further. d-2. Any person who attends a meeting may be asked to do this. Note the time the meeting begins. accidentally 5.just the main ideas. (C)more cost effective. 4. Write down motions. i. 6-T. (B)in compliance with. no need to write down who seconded a motion. 4-F. Before the Meeting. who made them. 2. You may be interested to know that. if any.e. Yours………. This task isn't reserved for secretaries only. despite the lost opportunities. Read the example below: Dear Mr X Thank you for your letter and the enclosed cheque. or tape recorder. 1. h-4. assurance Note: another type of letter of apology: Letter of reconciliation. Since the minutes will serve as an official record of what took place during the meeting. Writing: The most important steps of attending a meeting and writing the minutes are included in the following text. f-9. j-8. apologies 4. Make note of any motions to be voted on at future meetings. Read it. 3. 3. If I need to hire a car I hope I may call on your services again. Note the ending time of the meeting. 5-T. 6. (A)to write and type faster. enclose 9. Here are some pointers to help you master this skill. Type up the minutes as soon as possible after the meeting. e-3. 7-F 4. I-10. my last visit eventually proved quite successful. consideration 3. Choose your tool: Decide how you will take notes. while everything is still fresh in your mind. you must be very accurate. 5. Pass around an attendance sheet. laptop computer. Get a list of committee members and make sure you know who is who. b-5. Include the name of organization. (A)phonetically spoken words. and am sorry the delay was caused by illness. Minutes 2. 2. (B)will not be able 7. name . placed 7. pen and paper. Use the meeting agenda to formulate an outline. 3-F.Business Communication Topics Letter of apology and settlement 1. negligently 10. XIV. During the Meeting.

. 2.2. b. write the statement of the purpose of your report B. Discussion The report is a management tool. 7-d. annual. complete. 2.heard. 2. 2. Include the time the meeting began and ended. monthly. 1. 11. 2. 1.1..2. 1-c.how.. and purpose of meeting. 1.. Vocabulary: 1. why the issue is important. 8. 7.a.0.enough.lies. 2-d. 13. 4-e. It presents the information in such a way that it will help the reader solve the problem. 3-a. a-not needed 4. 6. 2. 3. (http://careerplanning.1.1.1. Reading: 1-e. honest. a. 3. 2-c. 5-f. 6-c. or special). 1.0. Report writing: Useful tips in writing a report: While writing the report have the following questions in view: Is my main point easy to identify early in the report? Have I carefully described the procedures used? Have I defined unfamiliar or technical terms and clearly explained new concepts? Have I provided a context for the research or is more background information needed? Have I used tables and figures to represent data? Have I summarized my findings? Have I written clearly? Have I stayed on topic throughout the report? XVI.it. 4-I.to. when it started. define the problem: what needs to be determined.nor. 3-f. 2.) C.then. 5-g.2. type of meeting (daily.1. weekly. your report is a document that leaves your control after you have written it. Reading: Purposes of the report: 1-b.make.Answer Key of committe. Develop a logical structure either based on subtopics (in the case of informational assignments) or structured around theories that the report writer plans to prove or disprove during the investigation (the analytical assignments). Organize the study using either the alphanumeric system (I.. BUSINESS REPORTS 1. prepare a work plan: it can be formal/ informal 4. 2.. Speaking 3. 5-b. In a report the information you provide must be accurate. who is involved in the situation.by. 2-e. 1992: 371): A. 15.. where the trouble is located.. 1.. Consider the following steps (Bovée.com/cs/communication/a/minutes. Proofread the minutes before submitting them. outline the issues for investigation: break the problem into a series of specific questions.2. 2.. 5.. 14.about. 10.around. 12. Thill. 3-h. how the situation originated. BUSINESS MEETINGS . 4-d. A. 3.2.. 2. 4.htm) Reports 2.that.. 9further. a process called factoring. 8-g. 9-a 3.1. B.on.2. XV.) or the decimal system (1. 1.

5-f. practice what you will say  know your strengths and weaknesses: minimize your disadvantages and make the most of your strong points  search for mutually satisfactory solutions: look for compromises that result in joint gain  resist the pressure to cave in: time pressure (This sale ends tomorrow). Speaking:  do your homework: gather information that supports your position  consider the other person’s needs: see that the other person benefits too  rehearse: the more you rehearse. 4-a. 9-l. extreme proposals (You must be crazy to ask for $ 10. INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION . XVII. 6-j. the better your performance will be. e-mail or brief report.l. 2. 3-c/g. and that meeting will take on a new significance to each group member. 13-m. 8-f. Provide an Agenda Beforehand. XVIII. Reading: 1-c. 6-g. Assign Action Items. The more concrete your objectives. 5-i/j. Set Objectives for the Meeting. 7-h/d. but…). 6-b. NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS 4. Vocabulary: 1-c. 14a. Before planning the agenda. 5-d. determine the objective of the meeting. 10-b.h. Your agenda needs to include a one-sentence description of the meeting objectives. Assign Meeting Preparation. 000 – 5. 12-o. 4. 2-d. 15-i. Examine Your Meeting Process. 000 is my best offer)  know what you want: define your goals 6. Reading: Meeting Tips Summary Don't Meet. Don't finish any discussion in the meeting without deciding how to act on it. 2-e. 3. Follow the agenda closely during the meeting. 11-j. 7-n. 3-f. Language functions: 1-g/c. 4-f. Avoid a meeting if the same information could be covered in a memo. a list of the topics to be covered and a list stating who will address each topic for how long. Give all participants something to prepare for the meeting. fear of loss (Another customer wants it. 2-e. 4-k. 3-e. Don't leave the meeting without assessing what took place and making a plan to improve the next meeting. the more focused your agenda will be.Business Communication Topics 2.

Harold. 1984. Sweeney. Flatley. IRWIN. Structure et fonction de la communication dans la société. Petit. . Prentice Hall. Practical Written English for the Modern Business World.. Technology. Inc. BBC English by Radio and Television. New York. Business Communication Today. 1973. John V. 1971. Third Edition. Candace. Larousse. Joanne Marino.BIBLIOGRAPHY Beresfor. Grammar and Functions. Edward. Bovée. Lesikar.. The Language of Business English. BBC English by Radio and Television. Brieger. etc. Beresford. N. Thill. New York. Textbook of Economic Analysis. New York. 1995. Nevin. in Sociologie de l’information. textes fondamentaux. Lasswell. 1994. Cynthia. Business Communication. Courtland L. 1992. Cynthia. R. Basic Business Communication.. M. D. and Medicine. Matthew. 1993. Professional Interactions.. S. Illinois. J. Macmillan: London. Paris. Business Communication. Practical written English for the Modern Business World. McGraw-Hill. Prentice Hall. Oral Communication Skills in Science. 1990.

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