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1 2 3 4 5 Content Words and the Position of Nouns .................................................................................. 3 Nativization of Borrowed Nouns ................................................................................................. 7 Borrowing of Verbs................................................................................................................... 10 Adjectives and Lexical Adverbs ................................................................................................. 14 References ............................................................................................................................... 17
2 .Faruk Samet Agu brahim Çelik Abstract This essay tries to explain the integration process of loan words into a recipient language. Some of those examples are from other sources and some are directly written by the authors. ideas are given with related examples. Throughout the whole essay. The essay divides the issue into chapters related to nouns. verbs. adjectives and lexical adverbs.
sub-families and the calculation of the division of the languages. pronouns. The generic concepts are resistant to borrowing because each and every community has such vocabulary items in their own languages and they do not need to borrow the relevant labels from languages of neighboring communities. The analysis of borrowing are carried out on the basis of the method lexico-statistics. These sample analysis support the idea that some vocabulary items are resistant to borrowing. body-related activities. The lexicostatistics method creates the foundations for researchers to compare borrowings among languages to understand the hypothesis about language families. There generic concepts is the most relevant vocabulary about the human nature and independent from the environment. 3 . one of the main beginning points for the researches of linguistics.LEXICAL BORROWING 1 Content Words and the Position of Nouns Borrowing can be made in all levels of language structure but there is a generally accepted idea that some vocabulary items to some extent resistant to borrowing. interrogatives and basic concepts for nature and geography. In this field a well know researcher Morris Swadesh is one of the pioneers with his list of 207 items about basic vocabulary. Swadesh points out some vocabulary items called generic concepts in his list. Cross-linguistic samples are collected and evaluated on the basic of systematic analysis. close kin. These vocabulary items are the names of the body-parts. This process is defined as glottochronology.
75 nouns represent materials.2 Figure 1. Nahault language borrowed 552 nouns.The idea about the generic concepts and their resistance to borrowing is focused on the gap hypothesis. 80 verbs. nouns have a 4 .9 Quechua 54. 221 nouns represent institutional agents and names of organizations or institutions.8 4.3 2. Swadesh¶s list aims to indicate the generic relatedness rather than to verify the stability of the vocabulary in situations of contact. One of the statistics is the comparison the borrowing of Spanish word classes into three indigenous languages of South America.4 8. The table 1. Word class Noun Verb Adverb Adjective Total Otomi 40.4 65.9 51. The nouns are the largest borrowing area. artifacts and buildings. legal and culture.5 83. 121 nouns are animates such as persons. is carried out and a list of vocabulary items is presented in Field (2002).5 1.0 17. This prominence is described in many statistics. Proportion of content-lexical word classes among Spanish borrowings The survey about the words forms and morphemes that are borrowed from Spanish to Nahault.7 3.7 4. In the situation of contact. 142 nouns represents abstract concepts including religion.1.1 below shows the statistics. Nouns are the most favorite vocabulary items borrowed. animals.2 18. kinship terms. Of some 522 borrowed nouns.6 Guarani 37.3 7. 75 adjectives and 45 adverbs.
The statistics are shown in the table below. It is concluded from the investigation that even European words for objects and concepts have a different degree of borrowability.Percentage of English loans in Japanese by selected. Loveday presents the statistics about borrowing English vocabulary items to Japanese vocabulary.high borrowability and there is an order in the noun classes that are borrowed from least to most favorite classes. In this research Rebuck points out that borrowing is not done not only to fill lexical gaps but also to a need for special effects. trends and synonyms. The Hungarian words make up the 63% of all nouns on the list. most of the words are borrowed from the Hungarian. As a result of the investigation a list of 1430 lexemes is prepared. The loanwords in the Romani dialect of Selice are investigated by Elsik (in press). imitation of fashions. Another research about the borrowing of English words into Japanese is carried out by Rebuck (2002). The terms for living things outrank the terms for artifacts and the terms for animals outrank the terms for plants. Computer Broadcasting Journalism Marketting Engineering Flowers Vegetables Animals Colours 99% 82% 75% 67% 52% 35% 24% 9% F gure 1. 41% of verbs. Because of the high political and commercial interaction. 50% of 5 . specialized semantic domains (from Loveday 1996) American languages are carried out by Brown (1999). The hierarchy is determined by the pragmatic saliency. 42% of adjectives.2.
This classification of the nouns is not a coincidence. industrial and agricultural products are included in the list of most borrowed noun classes.3 Loanwords for three concepts in several languages (inherited terms are marked with a star*) Nouns have the highest borrowability. conceptual innovations. objects and roles are covered by nouns. instruments. The same order of the percentages can be seen in the loanwords from Slovak. social and technological terms. procedures. Innovations have an important role in this 6 . artifacts. The most differentiated domain for labeling concepts. institutions and institutional agents. Technological innovations.adverbs and 23% of function words. The languages with a high foreign interaction borrow some vocabulary items such as institutional. English Albanian Maltese Turkish Hebrew Malay Japanese Hausa Arabic Farsi Swahili University Universitet Universita Üniversite Universita Universiti Yunibashiti Jami a Dzamia* Danesgah* Chuo kikuu* Democracy Demokraci Demokrazija Demokrasi Demokratya Demoktasi Minsei* Dimokurad iyya Dimoqratiyya Demokrasi Kidemokrasi Television Television Televizjoni Televizyon Televizya Televisyen Terebijon Telebijin Tilfizyon Televizyon Televishemi Figure1. The main reason behind this statistics is the function of the nouns.
human agents and more. mother. because verbs may have different forms for different uses. sister. The name of the innovation is borrowed by many languages. cousin. Another feature of nouns that makes them borrowable is the ease of integration to another language. Statistics about the hierarch in the borrowings are represented with the examples of specific kinship terms. In general. products. For Example. This borrowing is shown the table 1. For Example. The terms that closest to the speaker are the most frequently used words.process. 2 Nativization of Borrowed Nouns Nouns have an important place in borrowing concept since they represent the most differentiated inventory of labels for concepts. Some languages change the word according to their own rules and some borrow as the same as the original form. niece. Father. uncle and nephew are loanwords from French. However. Nuclear family terms are used in daily life but the other terms of kinship are not used everyday language and there kinship terms have a higher borrowability than the nuclear family terms. daughter and son are the words from English and Germanic terminology. and 7 . For example. aunt. the kinship terms in English are divided into two groups. Some languages have a wide usage of kinship terms. brother. The society has a resistance to borrow terms used everyday language. they are easier to integrate than verbs. languages use four different way of integrating a word into itself. Kin terms are personal relation words but in some societies extended kinship terms show the relation with outsiders so kinship terms is an interesting area of investigation to understand the process in borrowings. the terms such as grandparents. grandfather and grandmother are used in everyday language in some societies and these terms also have a resistance to change with loanwords. practices. These ways are: (1) To treat borrowed nouns just like native nouns.3 above.
(4) To apply a special integration strategy that marks out borrowed nouns as loans (Matras. The first way which is treating the borrowed nouns just like the native nouns and integrating them into native inflectional patterns can be seen in the languages such as Turkish which shows case. Domari: kart µpostcard¶. The word computer fits into the class of instruments which ends with ±er in German such as kratz-er µscraper¶. ta?rix µhistory¶ is masculine in Arabic. or they can be given a new gender with the effect of an existing structure in the recipient gender.M this card-ACC µHe wrote this card. via Arabic kart from English card Ktib-k-ed-a aha kart-ás Write-LOAN. (2) To avoid integration and maintain just a simplified representation of borrowed nouns. possessive inflection. computer is borrowed as a 8 . Some examples are (Matras. Moreover. they can change the gender of the nouns. Turkish: dünya µworld¶. baransu µbalance¶ kyatto-f do wa eiy -baransu ni cat. They can be assigned natural gender. too. from Arabic/Persian dünya-µn n gelece -I world-GEN future-3SG µthe future of the world¶ b. Since nouns like this in German are masculine. An example of the third way can be given from German language. For example. Languages which have gender in their native nouns assign gender to borrowed noun. 2009): a. A new noun can be assigned a gender in three ways.TR-PAST-3SG.balance DAT Gender is another point that must be taken into consideration in borrowing issue. 2009). they can be accepted with their existing gender. These languages tend to apply these native features into the borrowed nouns as well. but in Kurdish the borrowed noun tarix is feminine.food TOP nutrition. and other forms of nominal inflection.¶ c. Japanese: kyatto-f do µcat-food¶. (3) To integrate nouns along with their original inflection in the source language.integrate them into native inflectional patterns.
these replicated plural markers and definite articles are not productive and they are mostly doubled through native morphology. Another issue in borrowing is the pseudo-loans. in Turkish evrak µdocument¶ is used as a single noun. Another example can be a Hebrew military slang áfter which means a shortterm evening leave following a day¶s training. but they transform the word into their phonological. it is possible to see the import of some other grammatical markers such as plural markers while borrowing a noun. For example. 9 .masculine noun. When evrak is wanted to be plural in Turkish the plural suffix ±ler. such as komunikatsya µcommunication¶. They include some words that seems like borrowed from another language. which normally derive from Polish or Russian are classified as feminine.European abstract nouns ending with ±atsya. This fact shows that the morphological and phonological shape of the word and the correlation of gender with phonological shapes in the inherited vocabulary influence the gender of the borrowed words. because in Hebrew. As it is seen from the example. but it has an English kind of spelling and pronunciation. However. This creative borrowing shows us a hint about interaction between the languages which mean they don¶t just copy from another language. morphological rules and into their own world view. . In Hebrew. however. There is no morphological or phonological event is such examples. nouns ending with /-a/ are generally in feminine class. -lar is added to the noun and it becomes is added to the noun and it becomes evraklar. German handy µa mobile phone¶ is under the category of psudo-loan words. Although the import of productive nominal inflection is rare. because it only exists in German. but in Arabic it is plural and varak is single. For example. they are coined in the recipient language by the effect of some other borrowed words. there emerges a double plural marking in such a circumstance. Another example can be given from Hebrew.
Morphological modification of the original form of the verb (indirect insertion) 10 . Its alphabet is a kind of syllable based alphabet and it lets only n to be at the end of a syllable. Turkish language nativize word which ends with /-tion/ by changing them into /-s(I)yon/. There is no one and only donor language or a recipient language. There have been some discussions on the ways of verb borrowing. One of the main problems of borrowing a word from a language occurs at the point of phonologic differences. For example. We can give many examples of loan verbs between many different language pairs and groups. Wichmann and Wohlgemuth (2008) hypothesize that the following hierarchy might be identified for the structural integration of loan verbs. Languages make the loanwords pronounceable by changing their phonologic structure and so they fit them into native restrictions on words and syllabus structure. it is important to mention the problems of borrowing a new word into a language. However. No modification of the original form of the verb (direct insertion) b. the issue is that the borrowings of verbs are a little more complex than other borrowings since verbs tend to have a more complex morphology. Japanese has a more interesting strategy since it has a different syllable structure and different alphabet. Japanese change balance into the baransu. 3 Borrowing of Verbs Verbs are among the borrowed words among the languages. All languages share their words with each other. As we gave as examples above.Lastly. English borrowing to demand from French and German borrowing downloaden from English. All of these examples show us that nativization process of loanwords is more than just copypaste process. aksiyon µaction¶ and komunikasyon µcommunication. a. For example.
Mehay language applies a loan verb prefix ±ebe to accommodate loan verbs. In direct insertion. Meyah: belajar µto learn¶. we can see that Manange applies a suffix ±ti to accommodate loan verbs. the suffix ±ev is attached to loan 11 .ebe-belajar 1SG-LV-to learn I am learning b. 2009) Indirect insertion is another strategy to adopt loan verbs into a new language. or imperative-like. For example. 2008): a. Some examples of indirect insertion are (Wichmann & Wolgemuth. Indirect insertion is more widely used than direct insertion. Vietnamese borrow verbs from Chinese without any modification. Insertion of the original form of the verb into a compound construction where it is accompanied by an inherited verb (light verb) d. In some dialects of Romani. in western varieties of Sinti (German Romani). Danish and Dutch use a cognate suffix to accommodate French and Latin loan verbs. from Nepali bolai Bolai-ti lmi ro Call-LV EVD REP He called (for the frog) As it is seen in the example (a). In Quechua. In the second example (b). Many European languages use a loan-verb affix. since both of those languages lack a morphological system. For example. infinitive-like. Spanish verbs are borrowed as µbare¶ forms and it adds its own verbal inflection marker: balura-ni µI value¶ from Spanish valora-r (Matras.c. Import of the original verb along with its original inflection (paradigm transfer) Some languages adopt the new verb without any modification. Germanic languages such a German. For example. borrowed form may be a root-like. Languages applying indirect insertion use generally use an affix to accommodate new loans. from Indonesian belajar Di. but they assign them into a different category of verbs which differentiate them as loans. Imbabura Quechua is can be given as another example of direct insertion. Manange: bolai µto call¶. transitive/causative affixes are used as loan verb affixes.
kabul etmek µto accept¶ from Arabic qub l acceptance¶. but they show the role of the subject as an agent or experiencer.verbs from German: denkevel µto think¶ from German denken. 3SG past tense evidential form of the Turkish verb in ±imi . µTo do¶ is used to accommodate transitive loans and µto be¶ is used to accommodate intransitive loans. Kurdish-Turkish bilinguals frequently use structures like anlam kirin µto understand¶. Turkish has. The same suffix is also used in Romani to make intransitive verbs into transitive verbs. Domari which is an Indo-Aryan language that has been in intense contact with Kurdish. for example includes a light verbs from Turkish and there are many examples like this which show us that etmek and olmak has started to be a suffix for loan verbs. The same process is valid in Turkish as well. for example. in conjunction with the 12 . The interesting point is that Turkish started to apply this light verb strategy to its own inherited verbs as well. Turkish immigrant in Europe are frequently use yapmak µto make¶ instead of the older etmek µto do¶ as a light verb. esuk pu suru µto play truant¶. Light verb strategy includes adding actual verbs such as µto be¶ or µto do¶ to loan verbs. syntactic transitivity is not quite clear in the semantic distinction between the two light verbs. Japanese adds the verb suru µto do¶: sain suru µto sign¶. In some languages. For example. Ke fetmek µto discover¶. based on the participle-like. Light verb strategy is commonly used by bilinguals. Hindi has taqs m karn µto divide¶ from Arabic/Persian taqs m µdivision¶ and Hindi karn µto do¶. and ahit olmak µto witness¶ from Arabic hid µa witness¶. This strategy is used widely in the area stretching from Caucasus and all the way to south Asia. The first etmek indicates that the subject is an agentive role and in the second example olmak indicates that the subject has an experiencer role. Turkish has a verb like bekleme yapmak µto wait¶ which literally means something like doing waiting. Turkish and Arabic which belong to different language families is in the process of grammaticalising its light verbs into affixes or augments.
as with jiriz-o µI return¶ Epirus Romani: Ther-av Have-1SG kati buti ja te some work in order to ker-av akate prin te do-1SG here before COMP jiriz-o to kher return-1SG to Home Borrowing of modals is another phenomenon in verb borrowing. This strategy means treating borrowed verb merely as lexical labels. we have paradigm transfer. 13 . Urdu. As the last strategy of verb integration. Persian and Domari. Spanish tiene que µmust¶ in the Pacific language Rapanui. Arabic l zim µmust¶ in Domari. which replicate a default third-person singular present tense inflection of the donor language. Spanish derived nisisata µneed¶ in the Pacific language Chamorro. Swahili. code-switching and paradigm transfer may be confused. the donor morphology maintains its function in the recipient language. Incipient licensing of original verb inflectional with loan verbs can be observed in Romani dialects of Greece. In some cases. In the Romani dialect of Parakalamos in the district of Epirus in northwestern Greece. as well as Russian Romani. Gurbet Romani in Serbia replicates alongside the Serbian 3SG form mora µmust¶ also the Serbian 1SG moram µI must¶ and 2SG mora µyou must¶. Many examples can be given for the borrowing of modals: Turkish gerek µmust¶ in Kurmanji. Modals are generally borrowed as impersonal forms.infinitive form of the donor language: unterschreiben yapmak µto sign¶ from German unterschreiben. speakers tend to employ Greek morphology with spontaneous insertion of Greek lexical verbs. We can say that Arabic modals have been borrowed widely by many languages such as Turkish. The Greek Romani dialect of Kalamata replicates the 3SG Greek tense and person inflection in both prepi µmust¶ and eprepe µhad to¶. Even in some cases.
yellow or green. According to Berlin and Kay (1996) there is a hierarchy in the borrowing of the colors. They change the inflectional structure. Investigations about the borrowing of comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives are an important area for the understanding of interactions in borrowing situations.4 Adjectives and Lexical Adverbs The borrowability of the adjectives is less than the borrowability of the nouns. red. These colors have the least borrowability than the other colors. The languages that borrow adjectives change the structure and usage of the adjective according to their own morphological and syntactical rules. Blue has the highest borrowability among the colors. The borrowed adjectives undergo some derivational adjustments and they are appointed to a specific inflection class. The order starts with black and white. Maltese borrows only two adjectives correct and straight from Italian. Some languages do not have the adjectival inflection and when these languages borrow an adjective from an inflectional language. After black and white. blue come in this order. For example. they do not carry out the inflection. The second reason is that in some languages the existence of adjectives as a separate word is debated. Colors are an effective measure in the investigation of the borrowing features. The statistics and percentages show the proportion of the adjectives among the total loanwords in the languages. %42 are loan words in Selice Romani. of the total of 1430 adjectives. For Example. One of them is that adjectives form a very small class in many languages. In most 14 . German borrows the adjective ³cool´ and in sentences the adjective is added agreement inflection as ³cool-er´ or cool-en´. There are many reasons behind this difference.
The special features of adverbs in every language differentiate the investigation of the borrowability of the adverbs.languages this derivational change of the adjective is done with an affix. focus particles and phrasal adverbs are investigated under the category of adverbs. specialized particle or through suppletion like bad worse in English. English do not borrow the adverb forms of the adjectives but take the adjectives and add its own suffix ³ly´ to make the French adjectives English adverbs. It is concluded that the borrowability of the forms of derivational adjectives is a hierarchy in itself from the samples of Elsik and Matras (2006) and Matras (2007b). indefinites. In most languages the adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding some particles. For example: The English adverbs commonly and comfortably are derived from French adjectives common and comfortable. belki ± perhaps´. In order to understand the statistics about borrowability of the adverbs. mesela ± for example. 15 . In the situation of contact. Words like place deixis. Turkish borrow such kind of adverbs from Arabic ³Maalesef ± unfortunately. These adverbs qualify the whole statement and they are used as separate words without fixes in the sentences. Some adverbs qualifying the statement of the speakers have high borrowaability. The position of the adverbs in the sentences differs from one language to the other language and adverbs have many functions in the sentences. Adverbs are a different category in the investigation of the borrowings. the weaker language may borrow the derivational form of the adjectives. This feature makes such adverbs easily borrowable. The samples show greater borrowability of superlative markers over comparative markers. a general observation of the different functions of adverbs is required to be investigated. For example. The weaker language take the comparative and superlative forms as in the target language and use these forms as the original forms in the targeted language.
one striking point was that the light verb strategy is so widely used that some language have started to apply it to its inherited verbs. adjectives and lexical adverbs.In this essay we have tried to explain some facts about borrowing of nouns. verbs. We mentioned that borrowing of verbs a little bit more complex than the borrowing nouns. Our essay tries to show that lexical borrowing area is a rich area to investigate and to give some examples to encourage those who are willing to make research on the area. 16 . In verb borrowing issue. because inflections may affect the process of borrowing.
V. In: Matras. 17 . Matras. Wichmann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2002). Y. Elsik. (1999). Language Contact. (2002). (2009). Language Contact. In: Matras. Language Contact. In: Matras. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2009). In: Matras. New York: Oxford university Press . Y. S. Loan Verbs in a Typological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. F. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2009). Y. (In Press). Y. Language Contact. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. M. The Function of English Loanwords in Japanese.5 References Brown. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2009). Lexical Acculturation of Native American Languages. & Wolgemuth. Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Context. (2009). Rebuck. (2009). Loanwords in Selice Romani. Y. Language Contact. C. Y. J. In: Matras.. (2008). Language Contact. Field.
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