Major works

Rousseau 1712 Switzerland lives in Paris influenced Diderot Believes in natural goodness of men roman catholic Ppl better b/4 society Private property and social organization created problems -Profession of Faith of Savoyard Vicar Ppl should be educated in religion. Uses idea of inner light. Everyone has free will. Opposes orthodox Christian. Supports any faith which ID’s G-d as creator. Social Contract- ppl should be governed in order to maintain order and be civilized.

Locke 1632 England Raised Puritan Works w/ Boyle (chem. Guy) Eventually moves to Holland where he writes books.

Hobbes b. 1588 England, met Galileo & Descartes. Flees England and France to escape arrest b/c works controversial.

Montesquieu 1689 France raised w/ peasants which influence his ideas on gov’t and peasants. Studied law and dislikes French gov’t. Raised Catholic and married protestant Inherent leadership and dollars from uncle. The Spirit of the Law- encourages separation of powers, constitutionalism, and talks about social and geographic characteristic of region determine which type of government to be followed. The Persian Letters- satire, composed of letter b/t two “noblemen.”

Smith b. 1723 Scotland, b/c professor at Glasgow, and b/c tutor to Henry Scott

Two Treatises of Government1) criticized divine right of king 2) proposed solution to political upheaval in England. Letter Concerning TolerationArgues for new understanding of the relationship b/t religion and politics

Leviathanall men are evil and fight for multiple reasons. Common power or ruler necc. Otherwise ppl will fight each other.

The Wealth of Nationsfree market is who should monitor business. Argues for Laissez faire policies by governments towards the economy. Theory of Moral Sentimentspeople naturally sympathize with others.

View of human nature is optimistic and believes in natural rights: life. Believes in separation of powers. Believes gov’t shouldn’t be involved in the economy (laissez faire). Ppl naturally bad. b/c of hereditary wealth you force ppl to submit to you Argued ppl have rights.View of man Discourse on political economyTalks about general will. Against absolute not will of majority. needy. through reason. Ppl can’t insure own survival without coming t/g and forming association to protect rights of others. Ppl act according to their own self interest. if one man or person has all power b/c corrupt. Believes in Participation and not representation. and property. property.feels need gov’t. exe. selfish.jud. Born greedy. have innate ideas of beauty and harmony. Which is achieving riches and b/c wealthy. liberty. Absolute ruler ship is necessary to suppress evil No one person should have all power: 3 branches. leg. Men are naturally free & =. Although he believes they are greedy and selfish. Goal they want to satisfy through entire life. Political/ economic philosophy Wealth burdens a man. The vote of majority binds fate of group. Conception of human nature ppl capable of self rule esp. he thinks they are all equal with equal opp to get riches. but of political state. but Without law there is no justice. liberty. Doctrine of Impartial Spectatorconscious determines whether you think something is good or bad. Checks and Balances to maintain balance Wrote Theory of Moral Sentiments which discusses view of man. believes ppl born w/ all their morals. Weakest can kill strongest and strongest can kill weakest. Morality product of nature not reason. Ppl can individually can manage own affairs in way that is more or less consistent with interest of others. All ppl have to accept general will and rule. .

represented by ppl. Different types of gov’t better for different geographic areas (smaller more freedom. There will be chaos without a strong leader or government of strong leaders. larger stronger ruler). of power among branches. By forming gov’t without class structure as much. but that if all do. .ppl naturally act in their own self interest. gives lower classes more power. it helps the economy. intent of people.and society should even out disparity among the classes. PPl have right to replace government that does not protect their rights. Evens out economic and political unbalance. Invisible hand of the market.

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