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First Part: FUTURE TENSES 1 Future Simple

1.1 Forms
Subject + shall*/will + short infinitive Ex: You will go; We shall eat etc. * We use shall for the first person singular and plural

Subject + shall/will + NOT + short infinitive Ex: They will not swim; I shall not drink

Will/shall + subject + short infinitive Ex: Will you go to school? Shall we leave without him?

1.2 Uses and restrictions

To denote actions to be performed in the future
I shall be 23 next week. How much will you pay for this?

To denote a spontaneous decision

Wait, I shall come with you.

To denote an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the future

We shall hopefully return this week.

To denote a promise
I shall do my homework as soon as I come back.

To denote an action in the future that cannot be influenced

It will snow tonight.

I shall call you when you come back. The car will start if you turn the key.

1.3 Exercises
1.3.1 Put the following sentences into the Future Simple:

Jim asked a fortune teller about his future. Here is what she told him: 1. You (earn) 2. You (travel) 3. You (meet)

a lot of money. around the world. lots of interesting people. you. any problems.

4. Everybody (adore) 5. You (not / have) 7. They (anticipate) 8. There (not / be) 9. Everything (be)

6. Many people (serve)

you. your wishes. anything left to wish for. perfect.

10. But all these things (happen / only)

if you marry me.

1.3.2 Make sentences with the following words using the Future Simple:
1. 2. 3.

they / share / their sweets Positive: Negative: Question: he / pay / cash Positive: Negative: Question: I / close / the door Positive: Negative: 3

4. 5. 6.

Question: Tina / paint / a picture for us Positive: Negative: Question: John / dial / the number for you Positive: Negative: Question: Ben / break / the rules Positive: Negative: Question:

2 Future Continuous/Progressive 2.1 Forms

Subject + shall/will + BE +vb-ing I shall be going.

Subject + shall/will + NOT + BE +vb-ing He will not be eating.

Shall/will + subject + BE +vb-ing Will they be talking?

2.2 Uses
To denote an action that is going on at a certain time in the future
What will Charlie be doing at 2 oclock tomorrow?

To denote an action that is sure to happen in the near future

We shall be skiing in the Alps this winter.

2.3 Exercises
2.3.1 Put the following sentences into the Future Continuous:. 1. At midnight we (sleep) 3. At nine I (watch) 5. They (dance) 6. He (not / play) 7. I (not / work) 8. (eat / you)

. at the beach. the news. for our English test. all night. all afternoon. all day. at six? to London? again?

2. This time next week we (sit) 4. Tonight we (cram up)

9. (drive / she) 10. (fight / they)

2.3.2 Use the words below to make sentences using the future continuous. a) I / to read a book b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

it / to rain he / to repair his bike they / to watch a film the cat /to sleep on the chair Jane and Emily / to do their homework Bill / to wait at the bus stop we / to listen to the radio -

3 Future Perfect Simple 3.1 Forms

Subject + shall/will + have+ 3rd form of verb I shall have seen that movie by 8.00.

Subject + shall/will+ NOT + have + 3rd form of the verb He will not have done his homework by tomorrow. 5

Shall/will + subject + have + 3rd form of the verb Will John have eaten his pudding by the end of the movie?

3.2 Uses
To denote an action completed before something in the future
By next Tuesday, I will have received an answer.

3.3 Exercises
3.3.1 Put the following sentences into the Future Perfect Simple:

1. By 9 o'clock we (cook) 2. They (eat) 4. She (go)

dinner. by then. the Atlantic. home. her work. from his trip by Monday. by 4 o'clock. the washing up by six o'clock?

3. In one week he (cross)

5. Jane (not / finish) 6. Fred (not/return) 8. (do / you) 10. (buy / she)

7. The sun (not / rise)

9. Our boss (not / leave)

the office yet. the new car?

4 Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive 4.1 Forms

4.1.1 Affirmative/Positive: Subject + shall/will+ HAVE + BEEN + vb-ing At ten oclock I shall have been working for two hours. 6

4.1.2 Negative: Subject + shall/will+ NOT + HAVE + BEEN + vb-ing In December they will not have been smoking for ten years. 4.1.3 Interrogative: Shall/will + subject + HAVE + BEEN + vb-ing Will they have been sleeping for two hours when the alarm starts?

4.2 Use
This tense puts emphasis on the course/duration of an action

A continuous action taking place before a certain time in the future

By the end of the class he will have been speaking for one hour.

4.3 Exercises
4.3.1 Put the following sentences into the Future Perfect Progressive:

By the end of the week I (work) four months.

here for

By the end of this month we (live) for six years. By the end of the term she (study) years. By midnight we (play) for 48 hours. She (talk) He (play)

together for nine this computer game on the phone for hours. me all night long. soccer all day long. TV all the time.

They (look for)

You (watch) (wait / they)

He (not / sleep)

all morning. for 2 hours?

5 Exercises on Future Perfect Simple and Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive 5.1 Put the verbs into the correct tense (future perfect simple or future perfect progressive)

1. By the time we get to Chicago this evening, we (drive) more than four hundred miles. We are going to be exhausted. 2. When Sarah goes on vacation next month, she (study) German for over two years. She should be able to communicate fairly well while she is in Austria. 3. I have not traveled much yet; however, I (visit) Grand Canyon and San Francisco by the time I leave the United States. 4. By the time you finish studying the verb tense tutorial, you (master)


all twelve tenses including their passive forms.

5. Drive faster! If you don't hurry up, she (have) by the time we get to the hospital.

the baby

6. I came to England six months ago. I started my economics course three months ago. When I return to Australia, I (study) (be)

for nine months and I

in England for exactly one year.

7. Margie just called and said she would be here at 8:00 o'clock. By the time she gets here, we (wait)

for her for two hours.

8. Frank has just changed jobs again. If he keeps this up, he (change) jobs at least four or five times by the end of the year. 9. Come over to my house around 9 o'clock. By then, I (complete) history essay and we can go see a movie. 10. In June, my grandmother and grandfather (be)


married for fifty years.

6 Be Going To 6.1 Uses

Express an action in the near future that has already been planned or prepared I am going to study more next semester.

A conclusion regarding the immediate future It is going to rain today. Look at the clouds!

6.2 Exercise
6.2.1 Put the following sentences into the future using Be Going To The last marketing-campaign was not really successful. The organisers of that campaign have therefore come together to discuss what went wrong. Now they are explaining what's going to be different in the next campaign. 1. Question: What (change / you) campaign? 2. Answer: We (start) earlier. 3. And we (focus)

in the next planning the campaign on a specific target group. that? that much just one clear

4. Question: How (do / you)

5. Answer: We (cram / not) information into our campaign. 6. Instead, the campaign (leave) message.

7. Question: Which target group (reach / you) 8. Answer: Our next campaign (target) housewives aged 30 to 40. 9. Question: How (get / you) buy our products?

? at these prospects to

10. Answer: The campaign (make) these products can make life a lot easier for the housewife.

clear that

7 Be To 7.1 Use

Express an arrangement, immediate plans We are to meet them at the train station. I am to be there tomorrow at 11.

8 Be About To 8.1 Use

Express an immediate future action whose fulfillment is imminent The waitress is about to drop the coffee mug.

9 Present Simple 9.1 Use

To denote future actions (calendars, timetables, programmes):
The plane leaves at 10:24 PM.

10 Present Continuous 10.1 Use

To denote future actions (personal plans):
My parents are coming tomorrow.

11 Exercises on the Future 11.1 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:
1. I (know)

the answer tomorrow. 10

2. By next Sunday my friend (stay) weeks. 3. He (resemble) 5. He (tell) (have)

in bed for two his father in a few years time. due to close on Friday next week. you what you want to know when he enough time.

4. The exhibition (be)

6. They (get) next week. 7. I see that you are wearing your gardening gloves. (you, do)

some weeding?

8. By the time you (come)

home I (finish) the whole work alone.

9. Ill come at three oclock. Good, I (expect) 10. I hope you (not forget) summer.

you. all about me by next

11.2 Translate into English

1. Te voi chema cand va veni. 2. Isi va face baia pana te vei trezi. 3. Stiam ca va sosi la timp. 4. Ce vei face maine pe vremea asta? 5. Il voi vedea saptamana viitoare. 6. Ma vei mai iubi cand voi avea 60 de ani? 7. Pana la ora sapte el va fi studiat de doua ore. 8. Urmeaza sa tina un discurs in Parlament maine.


9. Azi avem repetitie la ora 10.00. 10. Voiai sa spui ceva. 11. De azi intr-o saptamana sunt trei ani de cand s-au casatorit. 12. Iti voi da de veste imediat ce soseste.


Second Part: Conditional Mood and Conditional Clause

Conditional Mood
12 Simple Present Conditional

12.1 Forms
Subject + would + short infinitive Ex: You would go.

Subject + would + NOT + short infinitive Ex: They would not swim.

Would + subject + short infinitive Ex: Would you go to school?

12.2 Uses
To denote actions that might happen
I would close this deal immediately. How much would you suffer for him?

A main clause connected to a conditional clauses type II

I wouldnt do that if I were you.

12.3 Exercise
Put the verbs into the correct form (present conditional). 1. They (walk)

to the station. 13

2. He (tell) 3. I (go)

you the truth. home.

4. They (watch) 5. You (not / say) 6. She (not / do) 7. (give / you) 8. I (not / wait) 9. (wake / she) 10. (help / they)

a scary movie. that. this. him this letter? any longer. me up at six o'clock? him in the garden?

13 Continuous/Progressive Present Conditional 13.1 Forms

Subject + would + BE +vb-ing I would be going.

Subject + would + NOT + BE +vb-ing He would not be eating.

Would + subject + BE +vb-ing Would they be talking?

13.2 Use
To put emphasis on the course/duration of an action that might take place If I hadnt seen them together, would they still be lying to me? 14

13.3 Exercise
13.3.1 Put the verbs into the correct form (conditional progressive). Use would. 1. Usually I (work) 2. The baby (sleep) 3. We (write)

at this time. now. a test now. But our teacher is sick. now. in the

4. If the music were better, everybody (dance) 5. If I had not broken my leg, I (dive) Caribbean now. 6. If the weather were better, we (sit) now. 7. He (watch) plug. 8. She (go out)


TV now if I had not pulled out the

with that cutie if her best friend

had not snapped him first. 9. If you had taken another route, we (not / stand)

in the traffic jam.

10. (wait / she / still) picked her up?

for me now if I had not


14 Simple Past Conditional 14.1 Forms

Subject + would + have+ 3rd form of verb I would have seen that movie if it hadnt been for him.

Subject + would+ NOT + have + 3rd form of the verb He would not have done his homework.

Would + subject + have + 3rd form of the verb Would Jane have eaten her desert?

14.2 Uses
An action that could have taken place in the past
I would have received an answer sooner.

A main clause connected to a conditional clauses type III

I would have called you if I hadnt been so busy.

14.3 Exercises
14.3.1 Put the following sentences into the Simple Past Conditional: 1. They (walk) 2. We (sleep) 3. I (win) 4. He (tell)

to the station. in the tent. the race. her.

5. I (not / open) 6. We (not / say) 8. (do / he)

the door. that. that fast. that? 16

7. She (not / drive)

9. (travel / you) 10. (begin / they)

by train? earlier?

15 Continuous/Progressive Past Conditional 15.1 Forms

15.1.1 Affirmative/Positive: Subject + would+ HAVE + BEEN + vb-ing Jared would have been working. 15.1.2 Negative: Subject + would+ NOT + HAVE + BEEN + vb-ing They would not have been swimming. 15.1.3 Interrogative: Would + subject + HAVE + BEEN + vb-ing Would they have been sleeping?

15.2 Use
This tense puts emphasis on the course/duration of an action

To put emphasis on the course/duration of an action that could have taken place in the past
Would she have been cooking if she had known that he wouldnt come?

15.3 Exercise
15.3.1 Put the following sentences into the Progressive Past Conditional: 1. He (work) the accident happened. But that day he went home earlier. 2. If the storm had not frightened them, the kids (sleep)


all night.

3. If I had not send them outside, they (sit)

in front of the computer

all day. 17

4. If he had won the race, he (celebrate)

three days in a row.

5. If he had not had to go home, we (play)

chess all night.

6. They (drink) night. But they ran out of money. 7. He (fly) Australia, if he had not missed the plane. 8. She (not / study) Toronto for 2 years if her parents had not wanted her to. 9. We (not walk) around in the woods all night if they had told us it was dangerous. 10. (gamble / he) night long if we had not stopped him?






Conditional Clause or IF Clause



Main Clause Present, Future They will walk in the park Present Conditional Andrea would go to the cinema I wouldnt say anything to him


Conditional Clause PRESENT the weather is nice. PAST TENSE (the verb To BE = WERE for all persons) she had a friend to go with. I were you. PAST PERFECT Emily hadnt stopped us.

if if


Past Conditional We would have eaten the whole cake if

15.4 Exercises
15.4.1 Conditional clause type I.

Put the following sentences into the correct tense:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The table will collapse if you (stand) If I see him I (give)

on it. him a lift. sick. you at once. Frank if they catch him. your eyes. your car if you leave it

If you eat all that you (be) The police (arrest)

If I find your passport I (telephone) If you read in bad light you (ruin)

7. Someone (steal) unlocked. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

What will happen if my parachute (not open) If you mow the grass I (give) If you put on a kettle I (make) If you (not go) I (be)

? you $2. the tea. away Ill send for the police.

very angry if your dog bites me again. late well go without him.

If he (be)


14. Unless you work very hard you (not be) successful.

15.4.2 Conditional clause type II.

Put the following sentences into the correct tense:

1. If I had a typewriter I (type) 2. He (look) 4. If I (know)

it myself. a lot better if he shaved more often.

3. If you played for lower stakes you (not lose)

so much. his address I would give it to you. to this country if it had a better

5. More tourists (come) climate.

6. If I were sent to prison, (you visit) 7. I wouldnt drink that wine if I (be) 8. I (buy)

me? you. shares in that company if I had some money.

9. If he worked more slowly he (not make) mistakes.

so many

10. If someone gave you a helicopter, what (you do) it? 11. If he (clean) road.


his windscreen hed be able to see the

12. If you drove your car into the river, (you be able) get out?


13. Conversation would become impossible if one (say) exactly what one thought. 14. If I (win)

a big prize in a lottery Id give up my job. Greek. enough.

15. I could tell you what this means if I (know) 16. If everyone gave $2 we (have)

15.4.3 Conditional clause type III.

Put the following sentences into the correct tense:

1. If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) 20


2. If the captain had been more careful his ship (not be) sunk. 3. If you (arrive) a seat.

ten minutes earlier you would have got

4. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week. 5. I wouldnt have believed it if I (not see) own eyes. 6. If he had slipped he (fall) 8. The burglars (not do) locked all the drawers. 9. If I (know) cake.

it with my 500 meters. ? so much damage if you hadnt that you were coming Id have baked a

7. If he had asked you, (you accept)

10. I (offer) to help him if I had realized that he was ill. 11. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend)

him the money.

12. If you (speak) you. 14. If I (try)

more slowly he might have understood

13. If he had known the whole story he (not be)

so angry.

again I think that I would have succeeded.

15. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. 16. If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket he (not burn)

a hole in his coat.