Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot.

XXXIII/2005 ISSN 0255-965X

BIOLOGICAL, ECOLOGICAL AND AGRICULTURAL INDICATORS OF GRASSLAND FLORA FROM AGHIREŞU AREA, CLUJ DISTRICT
Doina Stana, Rodica Vârban
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, nr. 3-5 Mănăştur St., 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, email doinastana@personal.ro
Review by Mircea Tămaş, Ioan Breazu

Abstract: Within floristical and geobotanical studies in Aghireş area, Transylvania - Cluj district, Romania, beside the phytocenological research, typological studies concerning the grassland communities of the Aghireş have also pursued. During these typological characteristics and the dominant species have especially been considered. Relying upon these findings three local grassland types and seven local variants has been established: 1. The Festuca pratense - Agrostis stolonifera type, with the following variants: a - typical; b - with Deschampsia caespitose. 2. The Agrostis tenuis - Festuca rubra type, with the variants: a - typical; b - with Euphorbia cyparissias and Hieracium pilosella; c - with Nardus stricta. 3. The Bothriochloa ischaemum - Festuca rupicola type, with two variants: a – typical; b - with Astragalus onobrychis and Brachypodium pinnatum. Key words: Aghireş, grassland, vegetal association, biological, ecological indicators INTRODUCTION

The village of Aghireş is situated in the North-Western part of Romania and in West of Transylvania. Most part of the grassland of this village is degraded. The knowledge of the floristical composition, of the soil and the relief condition can lead to some improving measures trough various methods.
MATERIAL AND METHODS

The grassland types were analysed both on the basis of the dominant species as well as according to the floristical composition in general. The variants within the types were established taking into consideration the ecological indicator species, the use and the degrading degree of the grassland. Dominant, subdominant and economically characteristic species have been chosen for the domination of the type and variant. Patches that were analysed according to phyto-sociologic (phyto-cenologic) and pratologic criteria were chosen on the grassland; at the same time the species indicated the ecological conditions of this grassland.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Three types of grasslands with seven variants have been identified on the area in question: 1. The Festuca pratense - Agrostis stolonifera type, with the following variants:

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Table 1 The floristical composition of grasslands Type I II Variants a b a b Agrostis stolonifera +-5 +-3 Festuca pratensis +-1 +-1 +-1 Alopecurus pratensis +-2 + Poa trivialis +-5 + Potentilla reptans + +-1 Ranunculus repens +-2 +-2 Deschampsia caespitosa +-2 4-5 +-1 Galium palustre +-1 Gratiola officinalis +-1 Mentha aquatica + Myosotis palustris + Sanguisorba officinalis +-1 Agrostis tenuis +-4 +-4 Festuca rubra +-3 +-2 Genista tinctoria +-1 Hypochoeris radicata + + Luzula campestris + +-1 Polygala vulgaris + Euphorbia cyparissias +-1 Hieracium pilosella + +-2 Eryngium campestre +-1 Filago arvensis + Hieracium auriantiacum + +-1 Pimpinella saxifraga + Nardus stricta Erigeron acer Rumex acetosella + Trifolium arvense Vulpia myuros Botriochloa ischaemum Festuca rupicola Dorycnium herbaceum Festuca valesiaca Koeleria macrantha Phleum montanum Astragalus onobrychis Adonis vernalis Agropyron intermedium Brachypodium pinnatum Polygala major The abundance and dominance values (Braun-Blanquet: AD = ± 5) III c a b +-1 +-2 + + + + +-1 + +-4 + +-1 + + +-5 +-4 +-3 +-2 +-2 +-1 +-2 +-2 +-2 + +-1 +-2 +-3 +-1 +-1 +-5 + 8 .typical.Festuca rubra type.with Deschampsia caespitose.with Euphorbia cyparissias and Hieracium pilosella. The Bothriochloa ischaemum . The Agrostis tenuis . b . c . ecologic and economic indicators of the main plant species are identified in table 3. b . 3.a . The floristical composition.with Nardus stricta.typical. b .with Astragalus onobrychis and Brachypodium pinnatum.Festuca rupicola type. with the variants: a . 2. the abundance and dominance values are rendered in table 1 and table 2 and the biologic. with two variants: a – typical.

Table 2 More frequent species within grassland Types Variants Poacee Briza media Bromus commutatus Bromus mollis Cynosurus cristatus Danthonia provincialis Holcus lanatus Lolium perenne Poa pratensis Trisetum flavescens Cyperacee. Juncacee Carex caryophyllea Carex hirta Carex pallescens Carex tomentosa Juncus conglomeratus Juncus effusus Fabaceae Coronilla varia Cytisus albus Lathyrus pannonicus Lathyrus pratensis Lotus corniculatus Medicago lupulina Melilotus officinalis Ononis arvensis Trifolium dubium Trifolium montanum Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Forbs Achillea millefolim Campanula patula Carum carvi Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Filipendula vulgaris Fragaria viridis Leontodon autumnalis Leontodon hispidus Linum catharticum Lychnis flos-cuculi Plantago lanceolata Potentilla arenaria Prunella vulgaris Ranunculus strigulosus Rhinanthus glaber Rhinanthus minor Taraxacum officinale Thymus glabrescens I a + +-3 +-1 1 + +-2 +-1 b + + + +-1 + + a +-1 +-2 + 1 4 + +-3 +-1 + +-1 + + + +-1 + +-2 +-3 + + + +-2 +-1 + +-1 + +-2 +-1 +-1 + + + +-2 +-2 + + +-1 + +-1 + + +-1 + + +-1 + +-2 + +-1 + + + +-2 +-2 +-1 +-2 +-1 +-2 +-2 + + + +-2 + +-1 +-2 +-1 + +-1 +-2 +-1 + + +-1 +-2 +-1 + +-2 +-3 +-1 +-1 + + +-2 + +-1 +-3 + +-1 + +-1 +-3 +-2 +-1 +-3 +-2 + + + +-3 + + + + +-1 + +-1 +-1 + + + + + + +-2 + + +-1 + + + + II b III c a b +-2 + +-1 + + + + + + + + +-1 + + + +-2 + + 9 .

General view of the Aghireş area 10 .Figure 1.

9 4 4 3 3 4. D X. 42P 64. D X.9 3 3 4 9 1. M F2. D X. 27.1 5 5 5 5 1 5 1 1 5 5 5 5 1 1 5 5 5 5 1 4. 42P 14.4 8 8 8 8 8 1. D F5 F1 F1 X X F1 X X. 4 1. 22 24 18.4 3. T F1 F3 F3 F4 F1 F1 F1 X X X MF. 3 1.3 7 7 7 7 7.5 3. 4 8.8 3. 3672P 36. M. 45P R 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 1 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 5 5 5 3. T. M X X X. 40 P 22 62-68P 112P 64P 48P 20 20. 5 Biological P D 7 9.4 3. ecological and agricultural indicators of grassland flora from Aghireş Species name Achillea millefolium Adonis vernalis Agropyron intermedium Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis tenuis Alopecurus pratensis Astragalus onobrychis Brachypodium pinnatum Briza media Bromus commutatus Bromus mollis Campanula atula Cardus acanthoides Carex caryophyllea Carex hirta Carex pallescens Carex tomentosa Carlina acaulis Carum carvi Centaurea cyanus Cornus mas Cornus sanguinea Coronilla varia Crocus heuffelianus Cynosurus cristatus Dactylis glomerata Danthonia decumbens Deschampsia caespitosa Dianthus carthusianorum Dorycnium pentaphyllum ssp. 6 1. 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 9. MF D D X. 48P 42-48P 48P 32P 18. 56P 28P 20.M.6 9. 3 I 6-9 3-5 5-7 6-8 6-8 5-7 6-8 6-8 5-8 5-6 5-6 5-7 7-9 3-4 5-6 4-6 4-6 7-9 5-6 6-9 2-3 5-6 5-8 3-4 5-8 5-6 5-6 6-7 7-8 6-8 6-10 7-9 4-7 6-7 5-6 5-6 7-8 7-9 4-6 5-8 5-7 5-8 6-8 6-8 5-8 B H H G H H H H H (Ch) H Th Th H TH H G H G H TH Th M M H G H H H H H Ch Th.4 9. 5 4.8 9. 72P 28P 14 (+B.2. 1 6 6 6 6 7. D X. T X F3 F5 X X. 8 1. 1 6 6 6 7 7 7. 7 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 7 7 6 6 6 6 7 7. herbaceum Erigeron acer Eryngium campestre Euphorbia cyparissias Festuca pratensis Festuca rupicola Festuca valesiaca Filago arvensis Filipendula vulgaris Fragaria vesca Galium palustre Genista sagittalis Genista tinctoria Gratiola officinalis Hieracium aurantiacum Hieracium piloslla 2n 54P (18. 9 8. 4 2 1.MF M. 1 7 1 7.4 5. 72) 16 42P 28P (-46) 28P (+B) 28. 36. M X X N 5 1 5 5 3 7 2 4 3 3 X 4 8 2 5 4 X 2 6 X 5 X 3 3 4 6 2 3 4 2 5 4 3 6 2 2 3 3 6 4 2 2 3 2 2 11 .3 3.27 22 24 14 14 28P+B. 7 4 3.4 3. 28. 4 9. D M.Biological. 28P) 14. 28P 28P 14 14 24.4 3. 4 1. 28P 20 40P 14+B (42) 28. E F2.H H H(G) H H H Th H H H H Ch-N H H H L 8 7 7 8 7 6 9 6 8 8 7 8 9 8 7 7 7 7 8 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 8 6 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 6 8 8 7 8 7 Ecological T U R X 4 X 6 7 X X X 7 5 X 5 6 5 5 5 6 4 5 X 4 X 7 5 5 3 5 X X X 5 7 5 7 X X 7 7 7 7 X X 5 5 7 3 X 3 3 6 X 7 3 4 X 5 X 5 3 4 6 X 7 4 5 X X X 4 5 5 5 X 7 4 3 4 3 3 6 3 2 4 4 5 9 4 X 8 5 4 7 8 X X X 9 7 X X X 7 X X X 4 9 X X X 8 8 9 4 X X 3 X 7 9 8 8 X X 8 8 X X X 4 4 X 4 X Table 3 Agr. D X. (14. 9 8. D X X X. 42) 36 28 30 14 18 14. 3 7. D X. 7 3.8 9. 7 9. 3 1.

MF X X.1 7. 7 4. 2 2 5. MF F2 X X F4. 6 5 1. M. D X. 2 4. 48. D X. MF F4. MF. D X F1 F1 X. 1 7(1) 7 6 7. 4 3 4. 4 3. 28P 30. T X. MF X. MF F2.1 7 7. D X. 32 14. 42P 28.Holcus lanatus Hypochoeris radiata Juncus conglomeratus Juncus effusus Koeleria macrantha Leontodon autumnalis Leontodon hispidus Linum catharticum Lotus corniculatus Luzula campestris Lychnis flos-cuculi Medicago lupulina Melilotus officinalis Mentha aquatica Myosotis palustris Nardus stricta Onobrychis viciifolia Ononis spinosa Phleum montanum Pimpinella saxifraga Plantago lanceolata Poa pratensis Poa trivialis Polygala major Polygala vulgaris Potentilla anserina Potentilla reptans Prunella vulgaris Prunus spinosa Pteridium aquilinum Ranunculus repens Ranunculus sceleratus Rhinanthus minor Rosa canina Rumex acetosa Rumex acetosella Salvia pratensis Sambucus ebulus Sanguisorba officinalis Taraxacum officinale Thymus glabrescens Trifolium arvense Trifolium dubium Trifolium montanum Trifolium atens Trifolium repens 14 8 40P 40P 14 12. 5 4 3 3. 1 7 7 7 7 4 3 3. 1 6.56. 5 3. 4 2. 1 7. MF X. M X X M.5 5 1 5 5 5 5 6 7 6 6 6 7 7. 7 3. 4 4 3.3 6 7. MF F3. MF M. 28P 32P 68P)28. M F2 F4 F3 X.32 36 28P (42-56) 24P(16) 56P 14 14.1 7. 4 3. 3 7 7. 15 42P 18. 3 7 6 7 7 6 7. MF F2.3 6 6 6 7 7 7. 9 3. 7 4. MF 12 .4. 1 6. 28P 42P 36P(40) 12+0-1B 28-124P 14. 1 1. 4 4 3. 16 16 32P 5 1 5 5 5 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 5 1 5 5 5 5 1 1 4. D X. 1 7 6 7. 32P 32P 22 28P 14. 9 3. MF. D F4. D X. 7 4 4. 1 7 7. 1 7. M. M X. 4 3. D F3 F2. 4 3 3 3 1.70) 28. MF F2. 4 9.4 9 4 3. MF F3. T X. 5 5 1 1 5 1 1 5 5 5 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 1 2. 32P 16 36-96P 64P 26 14. 32P 32P 52P 16. 9 3. MF X. 4 3. M X.4. M F2 F1. 3 7. 4 3. 5 3. 3 4 4 4 5-6 6-8 5-6 6-9 5-8 7-9 6-9 5-8 5-9 5-7 5-6 5-9 5-9 7-9 5-7 5-6 5-7 6-9 7-8 6-9 4-8 5-6 5-6 6-8 5-7 5-9 7-8 5-8 3-4 7-9 5-7 6-8 5-7 5-6 5-8 4-7 5-7 6-8 6-9 3-6 5-8 5-9 8-9 5-9 6-8 5-9 H(Ch) H H H H H H Th(H) H H H Th-TH TH H(HH) H H H H(Ch) H H H H H H H(Ch) H H H M G H Th Th N H H(G) H H H H Ch Th Th-TH H Th-TH H 7 8 8 8 7 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 6 7 7 6 6 9 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 8 8 6 7 8 8 5 5 5 5 6 X X X X X 5 5 5 5 X X 7 6 5 X X X X 5 X 5 6 X 5 5 X X X 5 X 5 6 6 5 X 6 5 6 X 7 X 6 5 7 7 3 5 4 X 4 4 6 4 3 8 8 X 3 X 3 3 X 5 7 3 5 6 6 X X X 7 9 X X X 4 4 5 7 5 3 2 5 3 5 X X 4 4 X 7 X X X 7 3 X 8 8 7 X 2 8 X 7 X X X X 8 3 X 7 4 X 3 X 7 X 7 X 2 8 8 X X 6 X 5 8 7 X 4 2 X 4 2 5 3 4 2 X X X 4 5 X 3 3 2 2 X X 7 3 2 7 5 X X 3 X 9 3 9 X 2 4 8 3 8 3 1 4 2 3 7 F2 X X X. MF X. MF. 1 7. 4 3. 24P 14 16 24P 12 24 16. 42P 28.

9 = September. L = Light figure 1 = full shadow plant. 3. 7 = myrmecochory. endozoochory and epizoochory. alpine) climate 3 = mostly in cold climate (mountain to subalpine) 5 = intermediate. adventitious embryony) 3 = apomixis – vegetative reproduction 4 = amphimixis + apomixis (agamospermy) 5 = amphimixis + apomixis (vegetative reproduction and polycormy) P = The type of pollination 1 = autogamy (self fertilization). diplospory. „X” designates non-indicator values. HH = hydrophyte TH = hemitherophyte. 5. H = hemichryptophyte. 9 = anthropophily D = The type of dissemination 1 = autochory. 4 = endozoochory. 7 = half light plant 9 = full light plant T = Temperature figure 1 = only in cold (boreal. Th = therophyte I = The flowering period 3 = March. 5 = epizoochory 6 = anthropochory. 3 = shadow plant. 2 = hydrochory. 4 = April. 3 = anemochory. 7 = entomophily 8 = zoophily. but also in acid and basic ones 9 = only in neutral or basic soils 13 . 8 = anemochory.BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION 2n = somatic chromosome number. 5 = half shadow plant. 8 = August. 9 = barochory B = Life form Ph = phanerophyte (N = nanophanerophite M = mesophanerophyte) Ch = chamaephyte. 9. 6 = June. 6 = anemophily. arctic. 7. 4. P = polyploid R = The type of reproduction 1 = amphimixis (sexual reproduction) 2 = apomixis – agamospermy (apospory. 2 = allogamy (cross fertilisation) 3 = proterandry. 10 = October ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION Numbers 2. 5 = May. The symbol. 7 = July. often not well aerated soils 10 = in frequently inundated soils R = Reaction figures 1 = only in very acid soils. 4 = proterogyny. G = geophyte. 3 = mostly in acid soils. concentrated in the hills and submontane belt 7 = mostly in warm climate (plains) 9 = only in very warm climate U = Moisture figure 1 = in extremely dry soil 3 = in dry soils 5 = in fresh soils (under intermediate conditions) 7 = in moist soils which do not dry aut 9 = in wet. 5 = mostly in weakly acid soils 7 = mostly in neutral soils. 5 = hydrophily. 6 represents intermediate features between the basic numbers from the scale 1.

Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România.. 4. Tipul Agrostis tenuis Festuca rubra. Springer-Varlag-Wien-New-York.Hort. Cluj-Napoca. Les associations herbeuses naturells. Ed. b) cu Deschampsia caespitose. Boşcaiu. 1964. ActaBot. Borza. Pe baza compoziţiei floristice. 1979. Redacţia de propagandă tehnică agricolă.Pflanzensoziologie III Aufl. au inclus stabilirea tipurilor de pajişti şi ai indicatorilor biologici. au fost identificaţi diferiţi indicatori ecologici şi agricoli. Braun-Blanquet.1997. N. Les associations vegetales de Roumanie.N = Nitrogen figure 1 = only in soils very poor in mineral nitrogen 3 = mostly in poor soils 5 = mostly in intermediate soils 7 = mostly in soils rich in mineral nitrogen 8 = nitrogen indicator 9 = only in soils very rich in mineral nitrogen (indicating pollution. Kovacs A. Introducere în studiul covorului vegetal. cu variantele a) tipic.Festuca rupicola. Tipul Bothriochloa ischaemum . Academia Română Bucureşti. trees) REFERENCES 1. shrubs. cu variantele a) tipic. Popescu. 10. REZUMAT Cercetările fitocenologice efectuate în comuna Aghireş. 3. Estonia. 2005. ecologici şi economici ai florei pajiştilor. Presses Universitaires de Cluj. Sanda V. a gradului de abundenţă şi dominanţă a unor specii. 5. au fost identificate trei tipuri de pajişti cu şapte variante: 1. judeţul Cluj. 3. ecologici şi economici din zonă.Agrostis stolonifera. Gh. Gh. xxx. 6. b) cu Astragalus onobrychis şi Brachypodium pinnatum.1965. Grassland Science in Europe. cu variantele: a) tipic.. manure deposits or similar) AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION F = Forage plants 5 = Excellent 4 = Very good 3 = Fair (good) 2 = Moderate (mediocre) 1 = Poor X = Worthless M = Medicinal and aromatic plants T = Toxic plants MF = Melliferous plants D = Noxious plants (weeds. 2. Al.. Tartu. b) cu Euphorbia cyparissias şi Hieracium pilosella. c) cu Nardus stricta. vol.. Tipul Festuca pratense . 1. 14 . Indicatori biologici. 1998. 2.. Coldea. Buc. Integrating Efficient Grassland Farming and Biodiversity. De asemenea.

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