Utopia?

VOCABULARY AND LISTENING

An ideal home? 1. Look at the photos and discuss what it would be like to live in each of the places shown. Write down ten words that come into your mind when you think about apartments, houses, towns and cities. 2. Find out where each of your partners lives. First ask them to describe their bedroom... then the rooms adjoining it... then the building... then the street... and finally the district they live in. During your discussion WRITE DOWN any useful new words you come across and note down any questions about vocabulary that you want to ask your teacher later. If you have any difficulties with vocabulary, ask your partners or consult a dictionary. 3. You’ll hear six people talking about their present homes (in Britain) and where they’d like to live. Match the name of the speakers to the points they make. • American houses have screen doors to keep the flies out. • Catharine • American houses take up more land than British houses. • Melinda • My home isn’t in the country, but it seems like it. • Brain • My house is very isolated. • Kate • My ideal home would be an old house in the country. • Richard • My ideal home would have a large living room, with a bed. • Karen 4. Find out how your partners reacted to what each speaker said and the ideas they expressed. Then find out: • why your partners like their present home • what the differences are between homes in their country and Britain • what their ideal living room would contain • about the advantages and drawbacks of living alone.
READING AND LISTENING

The perfect society? 1. Read the article on the next page and MAKE NOTES on what you think are the most desirable and least desirable features of Aldous Huxley’s Pala (GOOD and BAD POINTS). 2. Compare your notes. • Do you agree which features are good and bad? • Which is the best feature? • Which is the worst feature?

is partaken of consciously to heighten individual consciousness still further.G. especially out of bounds to merchants. Export crops were discouraged: the islanders were fed first. is an amalgam of the best in every society that Huxley knows. intellectuals on the tropical island of Pala used to put in a couple of hours hard digging every day. i. radical changes were brought about. What. unfortunately. he included among his cast of characters a group of spiritual fakes. . k. to stop the leakage. Huxley is the God of Pala. is there worth saving in family life? And what is constraining about it? Huxley doesn’t polarise the issue into pro-family or anti-family camps. How are real people in real countries to shift to this paradisal willingness to live cooperatively? For instance. Where was this utopia? Only. everything. but also made sure he didn’t consider himself superior to people who got their hands dirty.. ………………. Only suitable people are allowed to have children. Politicians are not elected by the people. The personal and social integration achieved were. Palanese society. g. Aldous Huxley’s final novel. The result is Pala. It is their constant awareness of the here and now – a phrase popularised more by Island. Wells or H for James Hilton in the space beside each feature. between the covers of Island. ………………. Within the walls of the island fortress. The men can choose their occupation. The result was a hell on earth. Wells’s A Modern Utopia (1905) James Hilton’s Shangri-La (1933) Match the features below to each ‘perfect society’ by writing P for Plato. than by any other book – that does the trick. He concocts his own variation of a family that accommodates both the closeness and security that come from a two-parent set-up as well as the variety and freedom that come from a child having several homes to choose from. In Huxley’s Brave New World. Huxley’s heaven on earth. they remain inspired by the glimpse of the ideal. Money was wasted neither on status symbols nor on weapons. everything from muzak to mechanical sex was used to blot out consciousness and turn people into manipulable zombies. worth more than the time and money spent on making the changeover. ………………. for the Palanese. Dangerous waters. the usual links between the developing world and the West. in everything they do – eating dinner. f. missionaries and media-men. not enemies. Huxley showed how colonialism had carved out a false channel for most developing countries. W for H. The government bought no armaments: there was no army. Anuradha Vittachi 1. There is an army of well-educated men.. when they return to the material world. And jobs didn’t define personal worth. Huxley takes. whose spirituality is infused matter-of-factly into their everyday lives. Being a doctor for six months and then a farmer for the rest of the year not only made a Palanese a more rounded person. politicians. making love. ………………. He advocated a siege economy. Nobody does any work. wealth was shared more equally – the richest Palanese earning not more than four or five times as much as the poorest. The king is chosen by the people. You’ll hear four short talks about these ‘perfect societies’: Plato’s Republic (360 BC) Thomas More’s Utopia (1516) H. In it he detailed his prescription for a sane society – especially for Third World countries short on money but rich in human resources. draining them of their wealth and their culture. newspapers. Menial work is done by machines. Tests determine each person’s future career. Pala was closed to the outside world. charismatic guru figures who use their followers’ gullibility to gain political power and line their pockets. ………………. c. ………………. Huxley sets these vigorously apart from the genuinely spiritual. religious and scientific beliefs. Perhaps to forestall critics tempted to dismiss Huxley as a dreamy 1960 mysticism-junkie. Many of the ideas were so advanced that they are only now being widely recognised – like Huxley’s insistence that Western medicine and holistic health care techniques should be allies. For example. ideas about family life – and examines it to find its value. The book that spelled out the ingredients for Utopia LONG BEFORE JOGGING in Central Park became the fashion. ………………. Pala is fiction. one at a time. every important social ingredient that he can squeeze into a 300 page novel – schools. But the Palanese were very advanced in matters of health: they didn’t separate minds from bodies. But there is one huge snag. They have all experienced a transpersonal dimension where they are part of a universal oneness. Everyone lives for a long time.Island. ………………. First published in 1962. e. since the Palanese swapped jobs regularly. a. His islanders have evolved inwardly. ………………. There is no money. Palanese thinking was very advanced. In economic matters too. surely. d. M for Thomas More. therefore.G. ………………. b. Menial work is done by slaves. j. coping with an injury. Island had a powerful influence on the young idealists of the day. They weren’t obliged to. including sex and drugs. ………………. for … example. venerating brains at the expense of the whole human organism. In Island. h. it might not help a real country to adopt a siege economy: who would stop the big bad unequal world outside the fortress walls from being reproduced within the walls as a small bad unequal world? Huxley’s answer leads him out of the political realm into the realm of spiritual values.

………………. Unsuitable babies are killed. READING AND SPEAKING The best of all possible worlds 1. Write a description of your own idea of Utopia. 3. Make notes on the main points and compare your notes with a partner. Children are not raised by their own parents. What were the two most interesting points you highlighted? 4. in the same style you used. ………………. Work as a team to design your own Utopia Decide on these aspects: • the physical environment • food and drink • government • work and employment • possessions and wealth • science and technology • public and private transport • family structures • education system • law and order 5. (about 250 words). Listen to the recording again and MAKE NOTES of the Good points and Bad points of each one. 2. 2.l. Now read the leaflet on the next page and underline what you consider to be the most interesting points. m. . Decide together what would be the main advantages and drawbacks of life in Nosara. You’ll hear the rest of the above letter being read aloud.

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I’m going to buy paper. After leaving school he went to sea. She has some grey hair. I’m going to buy some paper. How many advices do you need? Advices are free. I’m going to buy the paper. After leaving the school he went to the sea. B. So we can say: I need some advice. bone noise brick pain cake paper cloth crime fish glass plastic pleasure religion language life sound space light wood metal . Uncountable nouns (e. C The number of small businesses is increasing. money and advice) can’t be plural and can’t be preceded by a or an. How much advice do you need? Advice is free. U How much fruit was sold? C An orange is a citrus fruit. How many stones were thrown? U She’s away on business. C There’s a stone in my shoe. advice U hint C advices X hints air breath plan reaction engineering coin garment kitchen research information cough gadget harm job joke journey laughter luck luggage peace permit equipment injury work fun travel smile accident suitcase ceasefire permission poetry progress report safety traffic tune water drop university poem exam news guard lightning vehicle music education weather shower architecture behaviour bridge cash clothing cooking experiment fact flu thunderstorm 3. Look at these examples and then write down your own examples for the nouns in the list below. She has grey hair. Business is improving. I’m going to buy a paper. Discuss the difference in meaning between these sentences: A. U Our house is built of stone. Ask a teacher if you have a question. There’s a hair in my soup! There’s the hair – in my soup! C.GRAMMAR Articles 1. depending on their meaning. 2. She has a grey hair.g. we have to refer to two chairs or one table. C What a beautiful painting! I enjoy looking at paintings. Look at these pairs of words and decide which is countable (C) and which is uncountable (U). Ask any teacher if you have a question. furniture. five pounds or ten dollars. or both pieces of advice. She has some grey hairs. Key favourite fruits are oranges and mangoes. There’s hair in my soup! There’s some hair in my soup! Ask the teacher if you have a question. If we need to define an exact quantity. E. Some nouns may be either countable (C) or uncountable (U). The first is done for you as an example. But NOT: I need an advice. U Painting is not as easy as it looks. D.

children have left …………. Often …………. One sentence contains NO errors. for example in …………. last moment. 6. only slightly less traumatic than …………. …………. cash deposit of 10% of …………. rented accommodation. whole chain breaks down and no one is able to move.e. their. purchase price.4. building society or bank. same time. builder. smaller house or bungalow. If one deal falls through at …………. home. stressful experience. small flat or house. Find the mistakes in these sentences and correct them. People can usually borrow …………. annual salary. Moving home can be …………. people in Britain tend to move …………. or _ (i. then move to …………. 60% of families in …………. house several times in …………. the. lower income groups are more likely to live in …………. Families in …………. …………. larger house when they have …………. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5. council house or flat. bereavement or divorce. Usually they move into …………. monthly repayments of …………. own homes after borrowing money (known as …………. The first is done for you as an example. Fill the gaps in this passage with this. new estate by …………. sale of one house depends on …………. typical pattern is for …………. other people’s houses or into …………. …………. young couple to start as ‘first-time buyers’ in …………. a. total sum (plus interest) for 20-25 years. UK own …………. where …………. when …………. family and. sum equivalent to three times …………. no article). . lives. mortgage) from …………. They have to make …………. buyer and seller of house are part of …………. whole series of strangers doing …………. but need to put down …………. same thing at …………. ‘chain’. to move into …………. Write down what you would actually say if you were giving someone these pieces of information. new home that has been built on ………….

Read this description of another city and fill each gap with one suitable ADJECTIVE: . MAKE NOTES on what each speaker likes about each place. Texas What do you know about each of these cities? 2.SPEAKING AND CREATIVE WRITING Describing a place 1. Listen to the recording. Have you ever visited any of these cities? Rome New York Amsterdam Austin. 3.

hotels. If you’re very familiar with a place it’s hard not to assume that ‘it’s obvious what it’s like’ – so you may have to try to distance yourself. alleyways.. avenues. Unfortunately.) What are the different areas and what are they like? (old town. distance from coast. etc. the capital city of Brazil..) Where do people gather together out of doors? (squares. commuter travel.) What is the unemployment situation? What facilities are there for secondary and tertiary education? (schools. The one consolation for the very rich is that there are …………………. theatre. French architect Le Corbusier. Utopian city in the 1950s by Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer. avenues. slums and shanty towns. music. university. sunsets.. everyone would have a car. shanty towns on the edge of the city. residential districts. schools. the …………………. suburbs. shops. flights to Rio. Discuss how you would answer these questions about YOUR OWN CITY. airport. bars and cafes.. etc. Brasilia is a purpose-built city twelve hundred kilometres from the coast on a red-dirt plateau where no one lived – or wanted to live. etc. This Utopia is a place people want to escape from.) What are the sights that tourists visit? What might a newcomer from abroad find strange or difficult about living there? How do you fit into all this? What do you like about the place? What do you dislike about it? . even today only one in eight of the citizens of Brasilia has access to a car and the public transport system is …………………. industrial zones. ceremonial buildings and …………………... But looking more closely at the …………………. cinemas. what strikes you about the place? What kind of atmosphere is there? What is special about the place? How big is it and where is it? (population of metropolitan area. buildings you can see that they are falling to bits because they were built on the cheap. etc. nightclubs. flats. etc. It’s a city designed for the automobile with …………………. commercial areas. open-air cafes. suburbs for the middle classes. boulevards. distance from other cities. etc. Most of the time the highways are …………………. in the future. etc.. public sector. multi-lane highways but no pavements or pedestrian crossings because.) What is the style of the architecture? Where do people live? (public and commercial buildings. And the poorer workers and their families are accommodated in ………………….) When is the weather suitable for this? What kinds of roads are characteristic of the place? (main thoroughfares. First impressions Basic facts Districts Buildings Open spaces Roads and streets Transport Entertainment Employment Education Visitors YOU Imagine you’re returning there after being away – as you arrive there. parks. evening classes. etc. shopping centre. It’s the most photogenic city in the world with ………………….BRASILIA. BRASILIA – UTOPIA IN THE HEART OF BRAZIL 4... rail connections. but twice a day they are jammed with cars and pedestrians have to dodge the traffic to get across. museums and galleries. The parliament building.. back streets.) How do people get about within the city and how do they travel in and out? (amount of traffic. commerce. both followers of the …………………. blocks of flats. Try to imagine what it might seem like to a stranger.. indoor shopping centre is not even air-conditioned.) How do people earn their living? (manufacturing. etc.. …………………. In a city where temperatures are normally over 30 degrees. was designed as a ………………….. the university and the ministries are all located in separate zones. TOWN or VILLAGE (or the district you live in if you live in a very large city). restaurants. …………………. public transport. colleges. It’s scarcely surprising that on Friday afternoons all the flights out are fully booked.) What do people do in their leisure time? (sports. .

.... -hearted interviewer doesn’t give candidates a very ....... A.. soft...... very quiet calm a street quiet ear-splitting a hotel room noisy loud wallpaper very noisy an explosion 5... city or village (about 250 words)........... very old a city a game old a dress a carpet new very new historical the latest obsolete up-to-date worn-out a church a flat an idea precarious a hairstyle all the rage ancient run-down traditional D.... Decide which adjective you’d use to describe each of the following: a city a mountain a lake a fortune a crowd a hotel room a ballroom a luxury car a car park a toy gun a mistake an avenue a city square 4.. a palace very pleasant a city a person pleasant unpleasant a flight very unpleasant delightful a view hideous disgusting a holiday a meal agreeable annoying appalling atrocious awful charming delicious dreadful frightful picturesque spectacular splendid wonderful a cocktail a village a beach B... Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard.. Write an article about the positive aspects and the negative aspects of your own town. city...... ware and the programs are known as .... Find someone from another group who does NOT know the place you’ve been discussing as well as you do....... difficult or easy.....copy.. very beautiful beautiful ugly glamorous graceful very ugly grotesque handsome Sylvester Stallone a cathedral attractive enchanting good-looking lovely plain pretty unpleasant a city James Dean Marilyn Monroe Frankenstein’s monster a young child a palace a friend’s fiancee a friend’s husband C.. A computer can save data on a floppy disk but much more can be .5. Find out about each other’s town.. dilapidated disused fresh ultra-modern unfashionable an airport very safe a city block safe dangerous fatal harmful risky secure very dangerous harmless unsafe hazardous vulnerable insecure a drug an apartment the district you live in handy a café unobtrusive the sea isolated deadly guarded protected reliable a castle a friend a flight in an airliner a method a pile of crockery a job a flight in a hot-air balloon New York E. 6.... soft. village or district. Synonyms and opposites 1......ware... 3. Use a dictionary to check the pronunciation of any you’re not sure about.. Computer equipment is known as . Now do the same with the adjectives in bold below: A.. difficult and easy 1...... IDIOMS AND COLLOCATIONS Hard............. Arrange the adjectives in bold into one of these four categories: VERY LARGE colossal large big small very small little miniature insignificant wide majestic big colossal little miniature extensive gigantic immense minuscule minute roomy spacious tiny tremendous vast 2........ A printout from a computer provides the user with a ............ C. for them..... A . B. very far a city far near very near close convenient distant out-of-the-way remote a village peaceful a tie Australia restful faraway your flat silent sleepy a party accessible a long way away nearby next door opposite a grocer’s shop deafening a park a friend’s flat F.. time or makes life ..... Note down the POSITIVE and NEGATIVE aspects of the place you live in... D.....

............... Part A SUNRISE ON VENICE BEACH I wake early at my hotel on Venice Beach...................... PERFECT WORLD An ideal day 1.... .... line.. ! There’s no need to get so worried just because you’re ..................... ware store......-spoken.. Dollars and Swiss Francs (unlike the Gambian Kwacha or the Albanian New Lek) are .........E. so I’d prefer a ..... up – it’s payday tomorrow...........’ Some salespeople favour aggressive ..-hearted and .................. a) Choose places in the world you would go to in the morning....... G.... The article below is by Stephen Berkoff from a series which asks famous people to describe where in the world they would like to be at different times of the day. drink – is there any lemonade? ‘When would you like to come?’ ‘I don’t mind – I’m .......... I’m very thirsty......... Berkoff is a British actor who has appeared in several films including Beverly Hills Cop and Fair Game....... Take it ................ I like to take it .... R.. L... F............. ...... on customers who don’t settle their accounts on time....... -going – I must say I do have a ........spot for him...... O...............when he’s being .. but deep down he’s quite ... sell techniques... N....... A slow jog on Venice Beach.......... I realise that he makes people feel un ...... The sea is shimmering against the rising sun and the distant hills over Malibu are still a deep blue.......... currencies. STUDENT B: You are going to read about his afternoon and evening in Part B on the next page... Q...... P...... . -wearing that it will last a lifetime! You can buy tools and screws and nails at a .......... We should start to take a ............. H.... b) Decide what you would do in each place......... It’s sometimes . I begin a slow jog to the Santa Monica pier... while others prefer gentle persuasion and go for the ................ A paperback is often half the price of a ... This new fabric is so ... in the afternoon and in the evening.. dash downstairs and grab a coffee from Tom’s Cafe next door... STUDENT A: You are going to read about his morning in Part A.... drugs like marijuana..................................... READING 2..... to understand her because she’s rather........... stored on a ..... M....... sell.... Imagine your ideal day........ These aren’t guidelines...... K... Los Angeles.......... back....... I...... disk..... J.................. We’ve been too ........... drugs like heroin are more dangerous than so-called ....... they are ... .-and-fast rules. c) Find other students who would like to do similar things.................... After a hard day at the office..........

which is as clear as glass and warmed by the sun. It’s the bluest sea I have seen. LUNCHTIME AT GLEN COE Since I am not really a lunch eater. freshly-squeezed orange juice and earthy coffee. a deep aquamarine blue.past the other early risers. russet. The mystery and the wildness of the place send the imagination reeling. shimmering Cote d’Azur in the south of France. Afterwards I stroll past giant flowers with open trumpets and throw myself into the sea. deep green – and the eye sees nothing but cloud-capped crags and soft hills. At the open-air gym I do a few dozen dips on the parallel bars and walk back as the scorched red dawn sets everything on fire. The clouds hang low in the heavens and wild deer come down in the winter and sniff around the houses. I’d like to take a long walk along Glen Coe. The moor is covered in all the colours of Scotland – purple. . From the terrace of my hotel I feast my eyes on the wide. BREAKFAST ON THE COTE D’AZUR The morning air is sweet and scented with pine. one of the last wild places in Europe. Breakfast arrives on the marble table-top: a basket of croissants. oleander and roses from the garden and mixed with the distant aroma of the sea and freshly-ground coffee.

you are plunged into another world. We drink more of the firewater and in the end hop on to the floor for some samba. and when you arrive. and on our ascent are treated to a breathtaking sight of Rio stretched out before us. and although it has expanded since I first made its acquaintance in ’78. Which place seems to you: • to have the best things to do? • to have the best scenery? • to have the best food and drink? . a bit bleary-eyed this time. Humous and falafel: both of these foods are made from chick peas Ronnie Biggs: a famous robber ‘exiled’ from Britain From The Sunday Telegraph 3. I’ve built up an appetite for an evening meal at Doyle’s famous fish restaurant. Côte D’Azur Glen Coe Jaffa Sydney Rio Things he does The scenery Smells Food/drink Atmosphere Read your part again and make notes under the same headings as 1 – 5 above. The Arabic back-street cafes are the best places to eat humous and falafel plus hatzillim (aubergine. 5. We take a cab to the cable car. open daily. Then we’ll admire the view again on the way dawn. We decide to watch some samba – on top of one of the sugarloafs that so characterises Rio. 6. and breathtaking it is. my favourite) and small delicious pickles and olives. I still feel totally at home. sprinkled with a liberal dose of sugar and served under a canopy of stars by the open-air pool of the Copacabana Palace Hotel. 2. 3. 4.a samba in Rio Part B AFTERNOON IN THE SOUK AT JAFFA Jaffa has become almost a suburb of the growing city of Tel Aviv but the beach between the two is still worth a stroll. what he feels and what his impressions are. From Doyle’s the view is directly over the harbour to the twinkling skyline of Sydney. what he sees. too. stopping by for a drink. Use your notes to tell each other about each place – say what he does. is in his usual ebullient mood. A cane rum called cachaga is mixed with crushed limes and cracked ice. You watch the towers of the minarets get closer and closer. After frolicking on Bondi Beach. STUDENT A STUDENT B Venice Beach 1. 4. Ronnie Biggs. We enter the club in high and jubilant spirits. I always find something and drag it back to London. LATE NIGHT IN RIO You can’t beat a nice caipirinha. Doyle’s has a calmness and gentleness of spirit. The famous bridge winks its solitary centre light as you sit outside still tingling and glowing from the sea and sun. DINNER IN SYDNEY A drive in warm air round the suburban back streets of Sydney reminds me of England in balmier days. the endless alleyways and medieval staircases of Arabia. although you are only a mile-and-a-half from the bustling city. In the market. 5. Read your part quickly and tick which of the things below he writes about.

b) Work with other students who read the same part. coffee 2. . sun 4. orange juice 6. If you need help with vocabulary. Use some similar adjectives to those in the exercise above to talk about a place you’ve been to. Guess their meaning from context and check in a dictionary. WRITING 1. cloud-capped E. 2. 4. How are they pronounced? d) Tell the other students in your group what ‘your’ words mean. You are going to write a description of the place for one of these: A tourist guide. How would you describe each of the places? Examples: fascinating. freshly-ground D. A travel brochure. shimmering A. open-air F. Mark the word stress on the adjectives in A and practise saying them. the town you’re in now) or a place you’ve all heard about. Think of some possible advantages / disadvantages of each as a tourist attraction. Look back at the part of the text you read. sea 7. city 5. breathtaking C. rising B. Have you visited any of the places Berkoff writes about? Are there any you would particularly like to visit? Why? 2. ask a student who read it before. sight 3. e) Now read the other part of the text. freshly-squeezed G. Example: shimmering A B 1. What are your impressions of the place? What makes it distinctive (the traditional festivals. probably rather menacing at night. hills 8. Which of the things in Berkoff’s day would you enjoy / not enjoy? VOCABULARY 1. gym 3.SPEAKING • to have the best atmosphere? 1. Choose a place you all know (for example. the popular entertainment resorts)? 2. Work in groups and look at the photos below. a) Underline up to five or six words or expressions you don’t understand or that are new to you. Can they tell you what the words / phrases mean? c) Find words which no one knows and split them between you. A personal letter. bustling H.

. 2. There’s an abundance of cycling good flat country. Examples: Tourist guide: magnificent gourmet cuisine. 3. Decide on the number of paragraphs. . 4. Locals fill the wooden old tiny two churches every Sunday. the pungent smells. Put each of the adjectives in the exercise above under one of these headings. Example: What are the beaches like? Rewrite your description and show it to other groups. long-established department stores. Write a first draft as a group. We’ve just been to this fantastic place. Decide what main verb forms you will use (present. There are mistakes in the word order of the adjectives in these sentences. 4. what will be in each and what order they will be in. 1. the varied colours. 7. You might want to do a bare summary of your description first. say why you like it) and ask at least two questions about the place. Check them against this language summary. past or future). B. 8. Adjective word order A.. Focus on one or two things that are worth a visit. 5. Sheer cliffs and pointed steep mountains rise on either side of the black huge river. Examples: . Personal letter: the people are tall / dark / very friendly. NUMBER OPINION SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOUR MATERIAL COMPOUND C. Decide on a strong introductory sentence. Read another group’s draft.3. What comes to mind when you think about them? Examples: picturesque market. is an outstanding area of natural beauty. using adjectives to bring the description to life. List some phrases which describe the attractions of the place. Make any comments on the writing (for example. 6. You pass by small terraced green fields in open broad areas where the river branches off. Try to correct them according to what sounds right to you.

it is unnatural to use more than two or three together in any one phrase. Find three adjectives in the box below which could collocate with each of the nouns in these sentences and put them in the sentence in the order which sounds natural to you. a) ’Frankly. as well as everybody else. (frequency) END (after the verb phrase) She cleaned her teeth quickly. rectangular Russian old beautiful striped weird Italian scruffy suede running lovely leather large oak 19th century new Internet blue exquisite antique brilliant E. a) He stupidly ’talked. a) ’Actually. b) He talked ’stupidly. I don’t like the book we’re using. a) Kate’s ’quite happy. I like your shoes. b) Tom worked so ’hard he eventually made himself ’ill. b) I don’t really ’like her. Adverb position Most adverbs occur more often in one place in a sentence than another. 5. b) The children even enjoyed the ’concert. a) ’Really. it is not a very serious crime. 3. I don’t ’like her. 2. Look at that tree. a) Sue ’only went to the restaurant. 4. b) I told him ’frankly what I thought. (certainty) See you soon. he told her he ’loved her. What’s the difference in meaning in sentences 1 – 8 below? Use the sentence stress marks to help you. (time) For a few of these the position is optional and linked to style. I thought he was ’offended. b) He ’actually told her he ’loved her. 8. In b) it is surprising that the children enjoyed the concert as well as everything else. However. Can you see a rug? 5. b) ’Personally. 1. 4. (place) She’ll probably turn up. a) I thought he was personally ’offended. D. I told him what I ’thought. 6. 7. See if other students can guess what you are describing. It’s an armchair. or before a main verb form like went) He is quite nice. (linking) Arguably. 6. 3. Describe something you can see in the room or out of the window. I’ve got some software.) Some adverbs have more than one function and have to be positioned (and / or stressed) appropriately. (opinion / attitude / viewpoint) MIDDLE (after the first auxiliary.ADJECTIVE WORD ORDER When adjectives come together they normally follow this order. b) Kate’s quite ’happy. Examples: FRONT (before the subject) I like French. (manner) I live abroad. c) He told her he actually ’loved her. . c) I don’t like her ’really. (She cleaned her teeth quickly or She quickly cleaned her teeth. In a) it is surprising that the children. Example: a) Even the ’children enjoyed the concert. However. 1. (degree) He has always seemed so rude. a) Tom ’eventually worked so hard he made himself ’ill. enjoyed the concert. b) Only ’Sue went to the restaurant. Have you read this novel? 2.

in the heart of.g.g. its history)? . where the place is.g. How do they differ in style? Which has more complex sentences? 2. parenthetical statements – extra ideas added to the main sentence) 4 prepositional phrases (e. relative clauses.Practice DESCRIBING PLACES 1. entirely) 3 different sentence structures (e. What are the general aims of a guidebook in contrast to a personal letter to a friend describing a place? a) In the extracts below find examples of: 1 phrases with adjectives 2 intensifying adverbs (e. passives.g. close to) b) Compare the extracts. a) What do you expect a tourist-guide description of a place to include (e.

the weather the views the buildings and monuments the people the atmosphere the food the towns c) How is a holiday brochure different from a tourist guide? d) What tone do you think each should have when describing places? Why? positive-sounding? realistic (good and less good points)? neutral (factual without opinions)? 3. 7. 3. Add others you know. 6.g. Read this extract from a brochure for a holiday in Buenos Aires. There are often several possibilities. a) Where is a positive-sounding ‘flavour’ of the city given? What kind of language is used (e.b) Which adjectives in the box are most likely to describe 1 – 7 below. typical grammatical constructions)? b) Where is detailed practical information given? c) What other typical words / phrases might you find in a brochure? . typical vocabulary. historic relaxing balmy breathtaking mouth-watering exquisite spacious beautifully-situated stunning rich lively quaint 5. 4. panoramic unrivalled 1. 2.

4. This is an extract from a draft of a brochure offering excursions in Iceland. .

into the sea Part of the town is old. ……………………………. 7. 9. ……………………………. ……………………………. 12. β ) Can you improve your draft for a final version? Will it interest people? Are there enough adjectives? What verb forms should be used? . ……………………………. ……………………………. 11. 4. The mountains have snow-clad sides even in summer. 3. ……………………………. The plateau is high and rugged. On this spit lies the principal town in the West Fjord. 6. They penetrate deep into the plateau. fjord: long strip of sea between steep The mountains are craggy. hills inlet: narrow strip of water that goes from The bus is our tour bus. ……………………………. The harbour is bustling. the sea into the land The fjord is small.a) Add the information below and rewrite the extract. 8. ……………………………. ……………………………. 5. It has a long flat spit which protrudes into the spit: long. The fjords are often very wide and very beautiful. ……………………………. ……………………………. Begin: There are many often very beautiful and very wide fjords that penetrate deep into the rugged plateau . thin. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1. The flight lasts 45 minutes. ……………………………. ……………………………. ……………………………. 13. flat beach which goes out sea.. ……………………………. 2. The inlet is broad.. ……………………………. 10. The shores are rugged. The fjords are alluring. ……………………………. ……………………………. ……………………………. ……………………………. ……………………………. The views of the Djup are fascinating.

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