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Urine test is performed for several health goals, may be as a routine checkup procedure, for confirmation of pregnancy or as a diagnostic

test for diseases. Like for instance, urine test is a reliable method for detection of diabetes and confirmation of urinary tract infection (UTI). The fact is that urinalysis test results reveal certain things about the overall health of the candidate. As with any type of test, standard urinalysis normal values are put forth for easy reference. Urinalysis Normal Values and Interpretation If you have undergone a urine test before, you might be aware about the preparatory steps and urinalysis interpretation. Most likely, the doctor will ask for urine sample collection in a sterile bottle in the first morning. The bottle containing urine sample is labeled properly with your name and details, after which it is sent to the laboratory for testing. Urinalysis is done in three steps, viz. visual examination, chemical examination and microscopic examination. The details of the test along with urinalysis normal values are discussed below. Visual Urine Examination This is the first step performed in urine test. The sample is simply analyzed visually to check the urine color and odor. A near transparent or yellowish colored urine signifies normal conditions. While cloudy, turbid or strong urine odor are signs of urine tract infections. Urine sample with reddish coloration can be because of hematuria (blood cells in urine) or eating red colored foods (blackberry and fresh beet). Chemical Urinalysis Normal Values The chemical testing of urine is done with the help of a plastic stick (dipstick) that is already loaded with chemical solutions. Upon reacting with the urine components, the colors of the dipstick may change, which is indicated as abnormal urinalysis

results. The parameters tested by dipstick method and their normal values are given below. Urine pH Urine pH value is a measure of acidity of the sample, and the ideal value is around 6. But, it may range from as low as 4.5 to as high as 8. Fluctuation in acidity levels may indicate infections. Specific Gravity Concentration of urine or urine specific gravity that falls between 1.002 and 1.035 (for random sample) is considered normal. Very low concentration reveals dilute urine, while high value signifies dehydration. Protein For a healthy person, urine protein is present in a very less amount and is rarely detected. Presence of protein in very low concentration, say 10 mg/100 ml or 150 mg/day is normal. Higher protein levels than this is a sign of proteinuria. Glucose Coming to sugar content for urinalysis normal values, the amount is less than 0.1 percent of the total urine volume, or in other words, less than 130 mg/day. A higher sugar value should not be neglected, as it may indicate diabetes mellitus. Ketones Urine sample collected from a healthy person is devoid of ketones. These are a group of compounds (acetone, betahydroxybutyric acid) secreted by the body, when there is a deprivation of simple glucose. This is observed amongst diabetic patients and people who are on a low carb diet. Leukocyte Esterase Leukocyte esterase is released as a byproduct of white blood

cells (WBCs). While negative test result for the same reveals less chances of infection, a positive result is a warning sign for elevated production of WBCs and urinary tract infections. Nitrites In urinalysis normal values, the test for nitrites in urine comes out negative. In case of positive urinalysis results, further tests and urine culture are conducted for presence of gram negative, rod shaped bacteria. Microscopic Urinalysis Normal Values Another step in the urine test is the preparation of a slide with urine sample, and seeing it under a sophisticated microscope. Normal urinalysis test results are absence or presence of very few RBCs, WBCs, epithelial cells, casts, crystals and microorganisms (bacteria and yeast). While speaking about urinalysis normal values in pregnancy, presence of hCG hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin) is used for confirming conception. Since the urinary system involves kidney as a major organ, much of the abnormal test results are related to kidney diseases. Other medical conditions that can be detected from urinalysis test results are infections (bacteria and yeast), diabetes (high urine sugar), liver problem (elevated bilirubin), kidney stones (presence of crystals) and at times, tumor growth in the urinary tract. With this brief information, I hope you have understood all about urinalysis normal values. Refer to the urine test report and you will notice the components present in the actual urine sample along with normal levels on the right side. In case, you are confused about urinalysis interpretation, don't hesitate to ask the concerned medical specialist to clear your doubts.

Urinalysis
Urine Bilirubin Normal Value: Negative

Urine Blood Normal Value: Negative

Urine Ketone Normal Value: Negative

Urine Leukocytes Normal Value: Negative

Urine Micro Normal Value:


y y y

RBCs: 0-2/HPF WBCs: 0-2/HPF RBC Casts: 0/HPF

Urine Nitrite

Normal Value:

Negative

Urine Protein Normal Value: Negative-Trace

Specific Gravity Normal Value: 1.002-1.030

Urine pH Normal Value: 5-7

Urobilogen Normal Value: 0.2-1.0 Ehr U/dl