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INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Yacon is a root crop abundant in Nueva Vizcaya.

It is regarded as a wonder-plant in South America and Europe because of its numerous medicinal properties. It is also popular among obese people, because of its sweet taste but low calorie content. Studies show that consuming yacon lowers blood pressure, reduces cholesterol level and discourage clot formation. Diabetes is a debilitating disease. It causes the body to be incapable of burning sugar as a fuel. It is estimated that 171 million people are afflicted of this disease. It possesses a serious threat because of its long and arduous treatment. It is estimated that it causes 193,000 deaths annually. Those who are afflicted by it have difficulty eating most foods because of their high sugar content. With this formation the researchers wanted to test yacons effectiveness as a bloodglucose lowering sweetener. Statement of the Problem Generally the researchers aimed to determine the effectiveness of yacon sugar as a blood-glucose lowering agent. Especially the researchers aimed to: Determine the glucose level of rats before exposure to the three treatments Determine the glucose level of rats after exposure to the three treatments Compare the glucose level of rats before exposure to the three treatments Compare the glucose level of rats after exposure to the three treatments Significance of the Study: This study is significant in the area of science and technology. This produces an alternative sugar which is healthier and less harmful to the health of an individual. This study is important to our society because this reduces the case of diabetes. Moreover, it helps people to indulge themselves with the sweet foods they crave for without putting their health at risk. This also helps people to prevent from having diabetes due to high blood-glucose level. This study is also relevant to the countrys economy. Though this kind of sugar cost higher than ordinary sugar, people still find it better and worth buying for.

Scope and Delimitation: This study was conducted within the vicinity of Tuguegarao. It took the researchers two months from August to September to accomplish the research. This study aimed to utilized yacon as an effective lowering sweetener. It did no cover other uses of yacon except as a bloodglucose lowering sweetener. Statement of the Null Hypothesis: Ho1: the yacon sweeter increases blood-glucose level of mice Ho2: there is no significant difference in the blood-glucose level of mice in the three groups before and after treatment

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Yacon The yacon is a perennial plant grown in the Andes for its crisp, sweet-tasting tuberous root. The texture and flavor have been described as a cross between a fresh apple and watermelon which is why it is sometimes referred to as the apple of the earth. The root is composed mostly of water and fructo-oligosaccharides. It has recently been introduced into farmers markets and natural food stores in the US. Although sometimes confused with jicama, yacon is actually a close relative of the sunflower and Jerusalem artichoke. The plants produce two types of roots: propagation roots and storage roots. Propagation roots grow just under the soil surface and produce new growing points that will become next years aerial parts. These roots resemble Jerusalem artichokes. Storage roots are large and edible. These edible roots contain insulin, an indigestible sugar, which means that although they have a sweet flavor, the roots contain fewer calories than would be expected. Yacon plants can grow to over 2 meters in height and produce smell, yellow inconspicuous flowers at the end of the growing season. Unlike many other root vegetables domesticates by the Inca (ulluco, oca), the yacon is not photoperiod sensitive, and can produce a commercial yield in the tropics

Chemical properties of yacon Several carbohydrates: fructose, glucose, sucrose, low polymerization degree (DP) oligosaccharide (DP 3 to 10 fructans) and traces of starch and insulin (Asami et. al. 1989; Ohayama et. al. 1990). Oligo fructans with a lower DP (Average 4.3) may account for up to 67%

of the dry matter content at harvest (Asami et. al. 1991). Oligosaccharides purified from yacon have been identified as beta (2-1)- fructooligosaccharides with terminal sucrose (Insulin type oligofructans; Goto et. al. 1995). The root contains 86-90% water and only traces of protein and lipids. It is high in oligofructose (also called fructo-oligosaccharide), a dietary sugar, which the human body does not metabolize, hence its potential use for diabetes and in body weight control. Moreover, increased intake of oligofructose has been associated with improve gut health because of the stimulation of (beneficial) bifidus bacteria in the colon. Fructooligosaccharide Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) also sometimes called oligofructose or oligofructan is an oligosaccharide used as an artificial or alternative sweetener. FOS used emerged in the 1980s in the response to consumer demand healthier and calorie-reduced foods. The term oligosaccharide refers to a short chain of sugar molecules (in the case of FOS, fructose molecules). Oligo means few, and saccharide means sugar. FOS is extracted from fruits and vegetables like bananas, onions, chicory root, garlic, asparagus, barley, wheat, jicama and tomatoes. The Jerusalem Artichoke and its relative, yacon have been found to have the highest concentrations of FOS of cultured plants. Diabetes Mellitus A lot of people have diabetes and they live long time with it. In the U.S. 4 million diabetics or people who have diabetes. About a third of them at anytime are diagnosed this figure constitutes about 2% of those over 64, and then rapidly increase. Diabetes can develop at any age. Susceptibility gradually increases up to age of 40, and commonly affects woman than men. History of Diabetes Diabetes has been known for several thousand years, because people with this disease, when untreated, may urinate frequently copiously, the Greeks named it diabetes meaning siphon. In the late 17th century, the name mellitus meaning sweet has added in early days, diagnosis was made by testing the urine. The sweetness is caused by the presence of sugar (glucose) in the urine; its presence distinguishes diabetes mellitus from the much rarer diabetes insipidus, an entirely different problem. Discovery of Insulin Late in the 19th century, when diabetes was well recognized as an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism, several scientists discovered that the experimental removal of certain cells, the islets of Langerhans, from the pancreas, produce diabetes in dogs.

Characteristics of Diabetes The fundamental problem in diabetes is the bodys inability metabolize glucose, a common form of sugar, fully and continually this is a vital this process in creating a body cell energy. Glucose is a chemical derivative of the carbohydrates in foods after they have been ingested. Carbohydrates are mostly at plant origin and maybe called starch, saccharine sucrose or simply sugar. Glucose is stored under normal condition in the form of glycogen or animal starch, in the liver and muscles for later use, at which time it is reconverted to glucose. Sugar Sugar, a simple carbohydrate produced by most plants and certain organisms. Using the energy from sunlight, plants and other certain organisms-through the process or photosynthesiscombine carbon dioxide from atmosphere and water to make various kinds of sugar. These sugars provide food for the plants and other organisms for the animals feeding on the plants. There are many kinds of sugar. The most familiar in the white substance used to sweeten foods and to make candy. The chemical name of this sucrose and it is obtained commercially from sugar cane and sugar beet. Many foods including fruits, some vegetables and milk-also contain sugar or various kinds. Regardless of its source, sugar is an excellent source of energy. A teaspoon of white sugar, for example, provides 15 calories of energy.(New Standard Encyclopedia 1999) Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are produced by green plants during photosynthesis. In this process CO2 and H2O are converted to carbohydrates using sunlight as energy. In this excess of 1011 tons of carbohydrates are fixed per year of the worlds green plants. The carbohydrate generated in photosynthesis, are converted chiefly to polymers of glucose (that is polysaccharides). A byproduct of photosynthesis is the oxygen required by microorganism and animals to live. DEFINITION OF TERMS: Yacon- a root crop with numerous medicinal properties. It is widely abundant in Nueva Vizcaya and parts of region II. Diabetes Mellitus- a disease that causes the body to be incapable of metabolizing sugar. Glucose-a common sugar found in plants.

Sugar (sucrose)-the commercial sugar obtained from sugar cane and sugar beet. It is white and granulated when refined and crystallized. Sweetener-substance that change or add a sweet taste to food. It can be natural or artificial. Oligofructose-an oligosaccharide used as an artificial sweetener in most foods.

Yaco Tube

Preparatio Extraction Solidificati Yacon

General Acceptability

Blood Glucose Level

Figure 1.1 Productions and Testing of Yacon Sugar Yacon tubers were gathered from yacon plant and were subjected to different processes such as disinfection, extraction, concentration and crystallization to produce yacon sugar. Different test were also conducted such as blood glucose level test and general acceptability test.

METHODOLOGY A.Materials The materials used were, a distilling flask, petridishes, an alcohol lamp, a blender, an iron stand with clamp, wire gauze, filter paper, glass funnel, test tube and a beaker. B.Procedure Preparation: A. Disinfection of yacon tubers 1 kg of yacon tubers was dusted to remove on the dirt on the surface. The tubers were then washed for two times to remove the dried mud. Extraction: A. Extraction of yacon juice 1 kg of yacon was peeled, and then chopped into equal parts. The parts were boiled in 1L of clear water for 5 minutes. After boiling, the yacon was left to cool. Then, it is osterized unto pureed. After osterization, the yacon were strained and filtered to separate the solid pulp from the liquid extract. B. Concentration of yacon juice 1.37 L of the yacon underwent extract the concentration process. The researchers concentrated the extract by distilling it for 3 hours until pure yacon (sugar) extract was left. Solidification The concentrated sugar was placed in a petridish to cool and soliding. Testing A. Blood Glucose Level Test Nine white mice were subjected to a blood glucose level test. The result were recorded and labeled as the normal blood glucose level then three mice were fed with diluted yacon sugar and another three mice were fed with diluted ordinary sugar. After 15 minutes, the mice were again subjected to blood glucose test. The result were recorded and labeled as final glucose test.

Table 1.1 General Acceptability Test Ratings of sample from 1 to 10 Panelist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average Taste Odor Appearance Average

Table 1.2 Testing Results Masses of yacon tuber (g) Amount of H2O added (ml) Amount of yacon Amount of extract (ml) concentrated sugar (ml) Characteristics of yacon sugar

Blood Glucose Level Test

A test was done to found out if yacon can reduce or lower the blood glucose level. This test was done by using laboratory mice. Before feeding it to the mice, the researchers first recorded the results of the first blood glucose level test to establish a base line for a comparison. After feeding the mice after 30 minutes, the researchers repeated the blood glucose level test. The results of the first and second tests were compared to obtain the differences in blood glucose level of each mouse.

Randomized Examples There will be nine experimental subjects: three of each will receive one of three treatments or levels of an independent variables A, B, C. The three subjects receiving a particular treatment will be considered three replicates for the treatments. Sample A will be designated as A1, A2, A3. Sample B will be designated as B1, B2, B3. Sample C will be designated as C1, C2, C3.

Table 1.3 Randomization of Samples Samples A B C A1 B1 C1 Treatments A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3

Randomized complete B Lock Design was used to randomize the samples.

RESEARCH DESIGN Yacon Sugar Rat B.G.L befor e B.G. L after Ordinary Sugar B.G. L after Without Sugar (Control Set-Up) B.G. L after Difference in B.G.L

Differenc Rat B.G.L e in B.G.L befor e

Differenc Rat B.G.L e in B.G.L befor e

Table 1.4 Blood Glucose Level Test Results This table shows how to conduct the blood glucose level test. There were three replication fed to the nine mice. In the first replication, three mice were fed with yacon sugar. In the second replication, three mice were fed with ordinary sugar. In the third replication, the mice were used as the control set up. The blood glucose levels of the mice were measured before and after they were subjected into the three replications. The difference in the blood glucose level was recorded and compared. RESULTS Table 1.1 Testing Results Masses of yacon tuber (g) 250 500 1000 Amount of H2O added (ml) 250 500 100 Amount of yacon Amount of extract (ml) concentrated sugar (ml) 343 685 1370 15 25 50 Characteristics of yacon sugar As sweet as ordinary sugar, slimy substance, brown color, strong odor similar to caramel

Different amounts of yacon tuber underwent the processes of preparation, extraction and concentration. Table 1.2 Blood Glucose Level Test Result

Yacon Sugar Rat B.G.L befor e 2 6 8 159 147 162 B.G. L after 151 138 156

Ordinary Sugar B.G. L after 170 162 158

Without Sugar (Control Set-Up) B.G. L after 136 139 141 Difference in B.G.L 5 5 2

Differenc Rat B.G.L e in B.G.L befor e -8 -9 -6 1 3 7 146 140 137

Differenc Rat B.G.L e in B.G.L befor e 24 22 21 4 5 9 131 134 139

The mice were divided into three groups. Each group is either forced-fed with 1 ml of yacon sweeter diluted in 10 ml of water , 1 ml of ordinary sugar diluted in 10 ml of water, and 1 ml of pure water. Table 1.3 General Acceptability Test Ratings of sample from 1 to 10 Panelist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average Taste 9 9 8 7 9 6 7 8 7 9 7.9 Odor 8 6 7 7 6 8 9 9 7 7 7.4 Appearance 7 8 8 9 7 7 6 8 9 8 7.7 Average 8 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.3 7 7.3 8.3 7.7 8 76.7

The ten panelists rated the yacon product according to its taste, odor and appearance. The product was rated as to:

Highly acceptable: 8-10 Acceptable: 4 Not Acceptable 1-3 Table 1.4 Effects of the treatments in lowering blood glucose level as a result of blood glucose level test Treat ment Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 Effects of blood glucose level Replication 1 -8 24 5 Replication 2 -9 22 5 Replication 3 -6 21 2 Total -23 67 12 Mean -7.67 22.33 4.0

Table 1.5 Analysis of variance on the effect of the three treatments in lowering blood glucose Significance at 0.01 Source of Variation Treatment Error Total Degree of freedom 2 6 8 Sum of Squares 1,368 19.56 1,387.56 Mean Squares 684 3.26 Computed F 209.82 Tabular F (0.01) 10.92