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Women constitution half of our population & play specific & crucial role either visible or invisible crucial in society & history. A women creates life nurtures it guards & strengthens it on their tasks as mother they play vital role in development of nation. But women’s status has been gradually held to be lower in comparison to their male counterparts. A woman in Bihar as in many parts of world has no identity of her own. She is mother, wife, daughter, sister of the man. She receives her identity through her relationship to a man.
DOWRY & THE LAW
Dowry normally means giving gifts during marriages to son-in-law or his parents in cash or kind dowry today is being demanded and paid without any relation to the brides fathers income and wealth the dowry is prohibited act of 1961 is the first attempt by the government of the India to recognize dowry as a social event to curb its practice. The act modified with dowry prohibition (amendment) act of 1984, which has been again modified with dowry prohibition bill 1986. Women’s organizations have played key role in this process of change. The 1961 act defines dowry and make practice of dowry both giving and taking a punishable offence. Any agreement on dowry is void. If it is given at all, it will be the women’s property. The dowry prohibition (amendment) act, 1984 makes offence coinable by enlarging the meaning of the term dowry. The main features of amendment act are as follows Any property given or agreed to be given in connection with a marriage to the bride or bride groom or any other person is considered as dowry. Any person giving or taking dowry or abetting the giving or talking of dowry is also punishable imprisonment which is not less then 6 months but which may extend to 2 years and with a fine which can extend 10,000 rupees or the amount of value of the dowry which is higher. Neither the bride nor the person giving presents to her at the time of marriage is liable for punishment if the presents have been given to her without any demand on that behalf and presents are entered in the list maintained in accordance with rules. In spite of this significant new amendment of the dowry prohibition act 1961, the bride groom or his parents continued to demand dowry from parents of the bride failing which they take to violence against the bride and some times such violence results in her death.
He was stunned when he saw his sister in a peculiar state with saliva coming out of her mouth. Modern women in the Indian society. They enjoyed. A newly girl of Samastipur was allegedly battered her to death for dowry by her husband and mother-in-laws.1. set to her in caves and consequently she had been positioned by her husband. Modem women are conscious of the fast changing world of competition and are making a sustained effort to rise in life. A newly wed woman of Patna was strangulated to death by her husband as her parents failed to present a TV in dowry. 5. Time changed and. This marked the beginning on' a new era. . On that day her brother had gone to his sister’s house to bring her on the occasion of chath festival. Some women are also going astray in the names of liberation. social respect in the Vedic age but were pushed into the background in Brahmin age. (2) Strangulation. With the coming of Islarrv they completely lost their glory. the Indian women recaptured their dignity. 4. Their position is the society after independence. Women's position in the Indian society in the past. 6. Case study for dowry (1) Poisoning A young woman of samastipur was poisoned to death by her in-laws for dowry. The steps taken by the Government to improve their condition Hindu Code Bill and Hindu Succession Act gave them right to the parental property. With the advent of freedom. Both these attitudes are wrong. (3) Battering. 3. Conclusion. women came in the forefront of national liberation movement. Some orthodox people are scornful of the emergent new woman. On seeing her brother all she could say that he was late in giving TV. 2. The Indian Constitution granted full equality to women. Their participation in the freedom movement. But this change can be perceived only in the cities.
again women may consciously seek to avoid another pregnancy after the birth of a male child in order to give maximum attention to the newborn son. RURAL WOMEN AND POOR HEALTH Surviving through a normal life cycle is a resource-poor women's greatest challenge. . Although India was the first country to announce an official Family Planning Programmed in 1952.RURAL INDIAN WOMEN India with a population of more than 1. Conversely. When sick. water. Gender has been the most statistically significant determinant of malnutrition among young girls and malnutrition is a frequent direct or underlying cause of death among girls below the age of five in rural areas. and this Imbalance has increased overtime. If women'' are particularly anxious to have a male child. the deterioration of natural environment and the fact that many of their traditional occupations in rural areas were no longer viable and these were the conditions that were making it increasingly hard for women to continue sustaining their families. its population grew From 361 million in 1951 to 1. Nutritional deprivation has two major consequences for women. such as food. they never reach their full growth potential and are anemic. Insufficient incomes and lack of employment were reported to be their most pressing concerns. Both are risk factors in pregnancy with anemia ranging from 50-70% in rural areas. The most common problems were the lack of basic amenities in the rural areas. little girls are not taken to Doctors as frequently as their brothers. The practice of breast-feeding female children for shorter periods of time reflects the strong desire for sons. as they had done in the past. Indian accounts for 19% of all lives births and 27% of all maternal deaths. Girls are breastfed less frequently and for shorter duration in infancy. The primary issue. was that of every day survival. fodder and health facilities. In addition. This condition complicates childbearing and results in maternal and infant deaths and low birth weight of infants. India is one of the few countries where males significantly outnumber females. India's maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the world's highest. but strong patriarchal traditions persist. with women's lives shaped by customs that are centuries old. From a global Perspective. WOMEN ARE MALNOURISHED Gender disparities in nutrition are evident from infancy to adulthood. A primary way that parents discriminate their girl children is through neglect during illness.02 billion is the world's second most populous country.02 billion in 2001. all women in the Swayam Shikshan Prayog (SSP) were struggling with. The Indian Constitution grants women equal rights with men. fuel. they may deliberately try to become pregnant again as soon as possible after a female inborn. particularly in rural areas.
representing roughly 17% of all married women. CONTRACEPTION USE Women's health is harmed by lack of access to and the poor quality of reproductive services. Uttar Pradesh. is usually treated with home remedies only for three reasons.As adult. Gujarat finds. Orison. fear of child death and poor quality of contraceptives . Studies on attendants in rural primary Health Centers reveal that more males than females are treated in almost all parts of the country. The high incidence of malnutrition present amongst women and their low metabolism . particularly in rural areas due to lack of facilities and trained physicians. Evidence from the state of Bihar. It is also a fact that a large number of illegal abortions are carried out. women get fewer healthcares than men. The study also found that a majority of births were either premature or still births. One village level study of rural women in Maharashtra determined on the basis of physical examinations that some 92% suffered from one or more gynecological disorder. Lack of decision making power in the family. A factor that contributes to India's high maternal mortality rate is the reluctance to seek medical care during pregnancy . registration for maternal and child health services to be as low as 522% in rural areas as compared to 21-51% in urban areas. IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON WOMEN Women's health is further harmed by air and water pollution and lack of sanitation. Rajasthan. The causes of this unmet need remain poorly understood. As a result abortion related mortality rate is very high. A study in a rice growing belt of coastal Maharashtra found that 40% of all infant deaths occurred in the month of July to October. opportunity cost involved in seeking contraceptives. the rice transplanting months. MATERNAL MORTALITY India’s maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the highest in the world. Even a woman. IMPACT OF JOBS ON MATERNAL HEALTH Working conditions result in premature and still births. (a) the decision that a pregnant woman seeks help rests with the mother-in-law and the husband. About 25 million couples. (b) financial considerations and (c) fear that the treatment may be more harmful than the malady.all play an important role. want no more children but are not using contraceptives.it is viewed as a temporary condition that will disappear. who has had difficulties with previous pregnancies. The study attributed this to the squatting position that had to be assumed during July and August. They tend to be less likely to admit that they are sick and they will wait until their sickness has progressed before they seek help or help is sought for them.
It is a complex phenomenon and there are several dimensions to it. the government has not been able to contain the menace. 4. In almost every stratum of our social life they are treated as interior beings. One of the most hideous aspects of our society is the dowry system. Physical outrage. In case she brings an inadequate dowry. As to our legislation. As most of the rural women suffer from anemia which makes them more susceptible to carbon monoxide toxicity. 2. an engineer. women in the Indian society do not enjoy the same rights as men. respiratory problems. How to check this violence. The smoke from household biomass (made up of wood. chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. some of them before marriage because they cannot afford dowry and some after marriage because the dowry is insufficient to quench the rapacity of the in laws. which forces many of them to commit suicide. For women who spend at least three hours per day cooking. Hoardings exploiting the female form should be banned. which is one of the main pollutant in the VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN INDIA Indian society is male-dominated. There should be some restraint on film industry that demonstrates violence. India shed the shackles of slavery long ago. 1. no doubt. even after selling himself to the highest bidder in the matrimonial market. or a civil servant who. We feel indignant at the brutality of an illiterate youth who beats his wife and demands from her parent’s gifts which they cannot afford. 3. often in a poorly ventilated area. Sexual assault that may later blackmail a woman into prostitution. maltreats his wife? Thousands of girls immolate themselves at the altar of this evil every year. We may shout about constitutional equality between men and women but we shall have to go a long way before women will find at quall. dung and crop residues) stoves within a threehour period is equivalent smoking twenty packs of cigarettes. 2. it exposes her to the risk of maltreatment after marriage. It Jedoces a young girl into a saleable commodity and lowers her dignity. The privileged being called man is always there to lord it over women A few brave souls. Maltreatment of married women on account of inadequate dowry. Forms taken by violence against women. for all the anti-dowry measures in its armory. But what should we say about the greed of a doctor. 1. still women in our country continue to be helpless victims of male supremacy. 3. . do now and then stand up to fight against this injustice. but this isolated effort is too feeble to shatter the stronghold of male hegemony. particularly on women wearing ornaments. the impact includes eye problems. Women should organize themselves and fight for their rights. Even so many years after independence. Social workers can play a significant role.and other health problems affect their capacities to deal with stress. safe and honorable place in our society.
shocking that when we talk of our Tromp-bays and Tarapurs. Sex hunger is another. If we want to get a feel of the rottenness of our social milieu. The politicians can at least tighten the reins of our film industry that trades in violence and female molestation. in crowded public places. material culture and a Way of life. In temples. indeed. A very tragic incident occurred in Tulia village under Rajpakar police station of Hajipur when a person poured kerosene all over the body of his daughter-in-laws set her on fire. we appear technological grants. all because they had some yellow metal with them? The race of chain snatchers is increasing. . and in the buses. even in broad daylight. value orientation. As a whole. at fairs and festivals. they are exposed to the vulture eyes of males of all ages and all classes. we appear as social wolves. The time has come for a crusade. motivation. she is black-mailed into a life of vice. But the biggest responsibility will be that on the women themselves. The helpless daughter-in-law screamed but she breathed her last. the process of modernization includes both Tangible and intangible changes. A study of the denizens of red light quarters will amply bear out the general adoption of this modus operandi. CASE STUDY FOR VOILENCE AGAINST WOMENS: *Burning. helpless creatures who need constant watching by their fathers. They have borne the tyranny of man far too long. And once a girl has fallen. Young girl. norms. Greed is not the only motive force behind the crimes against women. Violence against women in India is becoming more frequent and is alarmingly on the increase.No less an evil is the physical outrage on women. we have only to know the experiences of working girls. Are decoyed on promises of a decent job or marriage. these lynx eyed brutes abound and carry on their depredation even where policemen ate on duty. AND Modernization: Modernization is a process which brings desired types of changes in the social structure. It is. It reads today like a fairy tale that in the reign of a certain king. If the way lies through a deserted place. How often does one hear of ladies living in busy localities murdered. URBANIZATION INDUSTRIALIZATION. They must organize themselves. We persist in our wretched belief that women are weak. a woman laden with ornaments could move freely without any fear. but when we think of our attitude towards women and enumerate the crimes against them. The journey from home to the office is nothing short of a nightmare. Public display of big hoardings only serves to excite the young minds. A heavy responsibility falls on the shoulders of our social workers. From the starting bus stop to the place of their work. husbands and sons at different stages of their life. there is always the danger of facing a potential mokster. brothers. MODERNIZATION.
WOMEN AND URBANIZATION . (2) Exposure to media is directly related to modernization process. Further. It is based on the division of labors and on specialization and uses of mechanical. as well as organizational and intellectual aids in production. Women and Modernization As far as women are concerned Indian society is one of the most custom bound and traditional social set-ups. are bound to give up their jobs which affect not only her but the entire family. (1) Democracy and mass-participation and modernization are positively related. due to their lack of mobility. "Industrialization is the system of production that has arisen from the steady development. The importance of women in the labors force in industry has been on the rise. However. Women and Industrialization Industry has been the fastest growing of all sectors in developing countries over the post-war period. women are losing their jobs. The lives of Indian women have been circumscribed by 'Dos and Don'ts' regarding dress. The situation is changing. activities.Industrialization: According to the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences. Married women. Hence. A higher degree of political socialization and political participation suggest a higher degree of modernization. Women are more vulnerable to loss of employment and to the deterioration of working conditions when market condition tightens up. Growth has created general employment opportunities from which women have been benefited. technological and environmental aspects of life in a given society. Let us now consider the impact of these three concepts on women. education etc. It is seen that there is a concentration of women at the lower level of employment which indicates that they are assigned mainly unskilled jobs and that they are not easily offered promotion within the factory. Women have suffered disproportionately from dismissal during cyclic downturns and during the world recessions. Urbanization: Urbanization is a process which reveals itself through temporal. whenever a modern capital-intensive technology is introduced. economic. chemical and power driven. study and use of scientific knowledge". spatial and sect oral changes in demographic. Industrial employment is not limited to factories. women's greater participation has also played a significant role due to their lesser status and rewards in industrial production than men. social. Much production takes place in the informal sectors where women are employed. women lose out because men are preferred as they are believed to adopt the new technology more easily. We find a few vital areas which are affected and changed by the process of modernization.
but there is one common truth that when a woman dies. 1993." Universal Declaration of Human Rights is one of the most monumental events in the history of human rights. The Vienna Conference focused on Women's Rights and their integral place in human rights in general. high fertility is a major obstacle to the improvement of living standard. On the other hand. so question arises where and when women's rights begin? What is the importance of women's rights for the development of women? One of the most important milestones in advancing human rights was the World Conference on Human Rights. although important. IMPORTANCE OF WOMENS' RIGHTS All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. drudgery reduction. Lack of schooling and jobs for women result in high fertility. they are in a position to switch over to suitable jobs. industrialization and urbanization on human life in general and in the condition of women in particular. but they are still not enough for dismissal of the concept as non-viable and disruptive. The International Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo in 1994. We know that there may exist vast cultural differences in our world. More effective utilization of potential women power in the urban areas necessitates increasing women's work participation rate and canalizing female labor into genuinely productive task. The positive aspects of changes brought about by modernization. is . Therefore. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. But the negative aspects. nutrition. prostitution and urban slum life. in turn. the loss of women power in conspicuous leisure activities unproductive household tasks or various forms of discussions. are too overwhelming to be dismissed cursorily.Urban women are significant force in the developing countries. High fertility. technological advancement which have benefited women in terms of healthcare. better ways to utilize one's potential and time. more women are given the opportunity to equip themselves professionally. When women's participation in the process of development is seen as a means of increasing per capita income and when the struggle for development is a race between capital accumulation and population growth. In most of the cities and developing countries. held in Vienna (Austria) in June. has exposed migrant women to danger of exploitation. they have brought a large number of scientific. becomes disabled. The effect of rapid urbanization. It defines fines that these fundamental rights are the root of our human nature and are essence of our humanity. unemployment is selfevident. limits education and job opportunity. and exposure to education and knowledge and in short. It is true that industrialization has brought in a number of problems to society and women are too disadvantaged lot because of unfair rules and discrimination. It helped in making the groundwork for historic Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. As we are concerned with women studies. Due to changes in social structural norms of tradition and culture. particularly through migratory movement. Modernization is a process of change which alters social structure.
From the very beginning we observe that women are consistently degraded whatever culture they belong to. Woman was a slave before the slave existed. Due to competing demands on their time and energy and their socialization. In India. It is true that women are getting educated and employed often as a primary income earner. Women are in paid labor force.86% in 1951 to 54. Still there are many shocking indicators of gender insecurity and physical violence. The injustice of legal system treats women as less inheritance than male heirs.S. are not really rights at all'.abused or goes hungry. He felt that physical inferiority and economic dependence were the root cause of women's oppression. it can profoundly affect each of her children. We are to think seriously as to how best we empower women of our country through all spheres of their lives academically. thinkers like Mary Wollstonecraft and J. August Babel. Women also suffer discrimination in obtaining credit to start a business or obtaining house loan and they face more difficulties than men in renting accommodation. a whole neighborhood and an entire community.16% in 2001. implying that still 46% of Indian women are illiterate. said that 'Women were the first human being that tasted bondage'. Women have been marginalized and denied equal pay to that of men. Drop out of girls still continues in the rural and lower class families. Over the four decades (1951 to 1999) female literacy in India has gone up from 8. economically. Women through ages have been provided very little opportunity to develop their minds. More than 70% are employed in agriculture as wage laborers. in his text on Women under Socialism (1879). a vast majority of girl children are kept away from school for providing for the family and taking care of the siblings at home. Inequitable divorce laws compel women to remain in cruel marriages. Rape and sexual assault is the cruelest injustice which trap women and children lives and compels them to go from bad to worse. ACADEMIC SPHERES . In most culture women receive less inheritance than male. They live disproportionately in poverty. her family. the erstwhile First Lady of USA said. Mill. Women are excluded from better paying jobs and denied promotions. The health of Indian women is intricately restricted to the socio-economic status of household. argued forcefully that women had the potential for full rationality and consequently. 'Rights on paper that are not protected and implemented. making 70% of the worlds poor. not knowing to read and write even their names. Women and children are forced to face both physical and psychological insecurity. Majority of women in rural and semi-urban areas do not receive proper healthcare including access to family planning. indicating economic disparity and poverty. Women could not realize their potential as they were deprived of education and confined to the domestic spheres. socially and politically. As early as the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Domestic and sexual violence remain the most serious. women neglect their health. In almost every country domestic violence is one of the leading causes of injury to women. It can be easily said that women's rights are human rights but Hillary Clinton. under-reported and there are widespread human rights violations in the world. were as capable as men of complete moral responsibility.
Employment laws relating to maternity benefits. ignorant and shy away from politics. if Human Rights group or women study centers/cells/ forums are formed at schools. prohibition of women in hazardous works. we are to look for unpaid servants . particularly the violation against women's rights among the rural community. 'Women's Day' and 'Human Rights Day' should be celebrated to make women of all ages conscious about their rights. Effective measures should be taken for eradication of poverty. It will be better for the general people. 2. should be taken care of in right earnest 3. especially in the rural and backward areas. Skill formation and training is very essential to enable women to break the shackles of unskilled low paid works of construction and agricultural works. A special monitoring and enforcement agency should be formed in each district to review and assess the crimes against women. 4. There should be 50% representation of women in the Parliament. so they can be empowered and initiated to spread message of ethos of human rights. 5. Special training programmers for women should be undertaken for effective participation in politics as most women are illiterate. old age pension etc. especially illiterate ones. Awareness should be generated among the masses through educative seminars and workshops. 2. credit institutions in order to promote self-employment and entrepreneurship among women. Students are the future citizens of the country. 3. 2. 3.1. The right of child education can be achieved if. .a biological machine for bearing and rearing children and concentrate on women's proper education. Instead of involving women in domestic spheres. colleges and Universities to educate the student community and public about the importance of human rights and women's rights and their value in the society. State Assemblies and Local Self Governments. child labor is banned. POLITICAL AND SOCIO-CULTURAL SPHERES 1. ECONOMIC SPHERES 1. 4. Women should be paid equal wages for equal work. totally. Credit and loan facilities should be expanded through formation of co-operative credit societies.
religious practices. There are women workers of Women's Working Forum (WWF) who work as weavers of cloth. it is more than an annual feature that rural poor are on their migrating journey to the already overcrowded city slums. They work as agricultural laborers on farm lands or they work for their kith and kin. Women's right to’ healthcare should be recognized as an important factor and accessible Health Care Units should be set up. 5. They are providers of their families. dhobis. If they happened to be a part of drought prone areas. women worker's earnings are so meager and irregular that they hardly make both ends meet. particularly for the poor. Thus. Women should be aware of their rights relating to rape. Their landless counterparts in the rural areas suffer equally due to under employment. working in service occupations i. 7. dowry. female infanticide. cooks. Enhancing Women's Capabilities towards Social Transformations . Women are deprived of their right in the name of customs. Further. mats and baskets. low wages. either work alone or collectively in other branches. rural and tribal women. . food processors.e.The Right to Decent Livelihood Being unorganized conglomerations. sometimes with limited work options to even 45 to 60 days in a year. They are integral part of the production process and contribute to the informal economy. it is even worse. cigar or agarbathi rollers. This must be stopped through the attitudinal changes and value based education. water and civic amenities are enormous in the urban slums. wife beating and other forms of violence against women. Unfortunately. in search of new work options and continue to be victims of vicious circles of poverty.4. not to speak of the government's assistance. they have little or no access to fruits of their own labor. sweepers and water carriers etc. values and traditions. 6. Human rights cell should be formed in each district's headquarters and that should be linked with small women forums. their struggle for housing.
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