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3.23 List the point coordinates of the titanium, barium, and oxygen ions for a unit cell of the perovskite crystal structure (Figure 12.6). Solution In Figure 12.6, the barium ions are situated at all corner positions. The point coordinates for these ions are as follows: 000, 100, 110, 010, 001, 101, 111, and 011. The oxygen ions are located at all face-centered positions; therefore, their coordinates are

11 22

0,

11 22

1,

1

11 22

, 0

11 22

,

1 2

0 , and

2

1

1 1 2 2

1 .

111 222

And, finally, the titanium ion resides at the center of the cubic unit cell, with coordinates

.

3.31 Determine the indices for the directions shown in the following cubic unit cell:

Solution Direction A is a [0 1 1 ] direction, which determination is summarized as follows. We first of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector; then in terms of this new coordinate system x Projections Projections in terms of a, b, and c Reduction to integers Enclosure 0a 0 y –b –1 not necessary z –c –1

[0 1 1 ]

(c) (102 ) . (g) (1 23 ) . We first of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector.40 Sketch within a cubic unit cell the following planes: (a) (01 1 ) . (e) (1 11 ) . which determination is summarized as follows. . b. then in terms of this new coordinate system x Projections Projections in terms of a. and c Reduction to integers Enclosure –a –1 –2 y b 2 1 2 z 0c 0 0 1 [ 210] Direction C is a [112] direction. then in terms of this new coordinate system x Projections Projections in terms of a. which determination is summarized as follows. and c Reduction to integers Enclosure a 2 1 2 y b 2 1 2 z c 1 2 1 1 [112] Direction D is a [112 ] direction. We first of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector. which determination is summarized as follows. (f) (12 2 ) . b. b. and c Reduction to integers Enclosure a 2 1 2 y b 2 1 2 z –c –1 –2 1 1 [112 ] 3. We first of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector. (b) (112 ) . then in terms of this new coordinate system x Projections Projections in terms of a.Direction B is a [ 210] direction.

Solution (h) (01 3 ) The planes called for are plotted in the cubic unit cells shown below. 3.(d) (13 1) . as summarized below. thus. x y z . this is a (322) plane.42 Determine the Miller indices for the planes shown in the following unit cell: Solution For plane A we will move the origin of the coordinate system one unit cell distance to the upward along the z axis.

53 (a) Derive linear density expressions for BCC [110] and [111] directions in terms of the atomic radius R. . x Intercepts Intercepts in terms of a. Solution (a) In the figure below is shown a [110] direction within a BCC unit cell. b. this is a (1 01) plane. and c Reciprocals of intercepts Reduction Enclosure a 3 1 3 b 2 1 2 – – c 2 1 2 3 2 (not necessary) –2 (322) For plane B we will move the original of the coordinate system on unit cell distance along the x axis.Intercepts Intercepts in terms of a. and c Reciprocals of intercepts Reduction Enclosure – – a 2 1 2 y ∞b ∞ 0 0 z c 2 1 2 –2 –1 2 1 (1 01) 3. thus. b. (b) Compute and compare linear density values for these same two directions for tungsten. as summarized below.

Furthermore. the expression for the linear density of this direction is LD110 = number of atoms centered on [110] direction vector length of [110] direction vector = 3 1 atom = 2 4R 2 4R 3 A BCC unit cell within which is drawn a [111] direction is shown below.For this [110] direction there is one atom at each of the two unit cell corners. thus. z is the length of the 3 unit cell diagonal. there is the equivalence of 1 atom that is centered on the direction vector. which is equal to x= z 2 ! y2 where y is the unit cell edge length. which is equal to 4R Thus. Therefore. the length of the vector shown is equal to 4R. For although the [111] direction vector shown passes through the centers of three atoms. which. and. The length of this direction vector is denoted by x in this figure. from Equation 3. the length x may be calculated as follows: x= 4R (4R) 2 ! $ ' $ 3' # & " %2 = 32 R 2 2 = 4R 3 3 Therefore. the linear density is equal to LD111 = number of atoms centered on [111] direction vector length of [111] direction vector . Furthermore. there is an equivalence of only two atoms associated with this unit cell—one-half of each of the two atoms at the end of the vector. using the above equation.3 is equal to 4R . in addition to the center atom belongs entirely to the unit cell. since all of the atoms whose centers the vector passes through touch one another.

Hence.1). wherein the side lengths are equal to the unit cell edge length.23 " 10 9 m!1 (4)(0. thus. Therefore. the area of this square is just (2R 2 ) 2 = 8R2. the planar density for this (100) plane is just PD100 = number of atoms centered on (100) plane area of (100) plane . For this (100) plane there is one atom at each of the four cube corners. (b) Compute and compare planar density values for these same two planes for nickel. and.65 " 10 9 m!1 2 R (2)(0.54 (a) Derive planar density expressions for FCC (100) and (111) planes in terms of the atomic radius R. there is the equivalence of 2 atoms associated with this FCC (100) plane. while the center atom lies entirely within the unit cell.137 nm. 2R 2 (Equation 3. each of which is shared with four adjacent unit cells. The planar section represented in the above figure is a square.65 nm!1 = 3.= 2 atoms 1 = 4R 2R (b) From the table inside the front cover.23 nm!1 = 2. Solution (a) In the figure below is shown a (100) plane for an FCC unit cell. Thus.137 nm) 2 While for the [111] direction LD111 (W) = 1 1 = = 3. the atomic radius for tungsten is 0. the linear density for the [110] direction is LD110 (W) = 3 4R 2 = 3 = 2.137 nm) 3.

which are labeled A through F. the area is equal to Area = 4 R(h) (4 R) (2 R 3 ) = = 4 R2 3 2 2 And. the area of the triangle shown in the above figure is equal to one-half of the product of the base length and the height. Thus. D. thus. the planar density is PD111 = number of atoms centered on (111) plane area of (111) plane = 2 atoms 4 R2 3 = 1 2 R2 3 . and F are associated with this plane (yielding an equivalence of one-half atom). There are six atoms whose centers lie on this plane.= 2 atoms 8R 2 = 1 4R 2 That portion of an FCC (111) plane contained within a unit cell is shown below. C. with one-half of each of atoms B. If we consider half of the triangle. Now. One-sixth of each of atoms A. and E (or an equivalence of one and one-half atoms) for a total equivalence of two atoms. then (2 R) 2 + h 2 = (4 R) 2 which leads to h = 2 R 3 . h.

8° & 2 sin " (2)%sin ( $ 2 ' . (a) Index (i. k.848 " 1019 m!2 2 3 (0. monochromatic x-radiation having a wavelength of 0. give h. the first peak results by diffraction from (111) planes.25 shows the first four peaks of the x-ray diffraction pattern for copper.00 nm!2 = 1. (c) For each peak.125 nm. k.66 Figure 3.e. For the first peak which occurs at 43.2067 nm # 43. the planar density for the (100) plane is PD100 (Ni) = 1 1 = = 16. Therefore. which has an FCC crystal structure. determine the atomic radius for Cu and compare these with the value presented in Table 3. the atomic radius for nickel is 0. Solution (a) Since Cu has an FCC crystal structure.13.1. and l are all either odd or even will appear. Therefore. in order to calculate the interplanar spacing we must employ Equation 3.1542 nm was used. and l indices) for each of these peaks. (b) For each peak.125 nm) 2 3.1542 nm) = = 0.8° d111 = n! (1)(0.600 " 1019 m!2 2 4R 4 (0. only those peaks for which h.48 nm!2 = 1..(b) From the table inside the front cover. (b) Determine the interplanar spacing for each of the peaks.125 nm) 2 While for the (111) plane PD111 (Ni) = 1 2 R2 3 = 1 = 18.

1797 0.1275 0.8 74.1087 0.14 and 3.1274 .1 is necessary for the computation of R for Cu as R = a 2 2 = (dhkl ) (h) 2 + (k) 2 + (l) 2 2 2 = (0.1271 0.2067 nm) (1) 2 + (1) 2 + (1) 2 2 2 = 0.1275 0.1266 nm Similar computations are made for the other peaks which results are tabulated below: Peak Index 2θ d hkl (nm) R (nm) 200 220 311 50.4 0.4 90.(c) Employment of Equations 3.

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