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t is beyond dispute that LEDs will penetrate the public lighting market in the foreseeable future.
The use of LEDs in public lighting – potentials, challenges and pitfalls
LEDs will modify our perception of light as they enable us to light the street and create ambiance in a dynamic way, by varying the colour as well as the lighting level according to our requirements. Likewise from an ecological standpoint LEDs hold the potential to significantly reduce the energy consumption for public lighting. The opportunities are enormous and so are the pitfalls for the lighting engineer as well as the customers. This paper will – from the standpoint of a luminaire manufacturer who manufactures LED luminaires as well a HID luminaires – give a basic introduction into the application of LEDs in public lighting and point out common misconceptions comparing today’s LED performances with HID performances as well as the related life cycle costs in a realistic way. It will also present an overview on current designs of LED luminaires and give an outlook to current projects in street lighting, tunnel lighting and ambient lighting. Pu b l i s h e d s t a t e m e n t s i n c l u d e : “112 W high-power LEDs replace 250 W conventional sodium lamps”, “44 W LEDs instead of 250 W HPS and Metal Halide” or even: “The 38 W LED Lamp can replace a 400 W traditional sodium lamp”. The public lighting community is overwhelmed by this news which mirrors the enormous expectations as well as the incertitude about the disruptive LED evolution. This article will illustrate under which conditions LEDs will be able to replace conventional gas discharge sources today and what the technical and by Steffen Holtz, et al, Rue de Mons, R-Tech
Fig. 1: Evolution of LED efficacy in comparison to other light sources.
economical constraints for a further expansion will be. Efficiency of high-power LED systems – a quick survey In general the efficiency of an LED system is determined by different parameters, which depend on the type of LED, the electronic components, and the LED optics. LED efficacy The efficacy of LEDs has increased tenfold during the last ten years. Today
September 2008 - Vector - Page 21
cool white LEDs (>5000°K CCT) with 100 lm/W are commercially available. LED suppliers generally predict an efficacy of 150 lm/W for commercial products around 2012. In comparison, the efficacy of warm white LEDs (<3500°K CCT) in general is reduced by 30% due to the higher ratio of phosphor conversion. Utilisation coefficient Due to their small size LEDs may virtually be considered as point sources,
Simulations and comparisons based on a 70 W SON-T luminaire LEDs can be collimated precisely and be directed towards the target in a controlled manner.9 lx 1.2 69 % SANS 10098 B3 Table 1. In order to attain a compact design. .2: Evolution of LED efficacy in comparison to other light sources. Good secondary optics have an efficiency of approximately 90% depending on the spread angle. 3): l AC/DC power supply l Constant current source l LEDs mounted on a printed circuit board. Fig. varies from 72% to 85% . the electronic components comprise three modules (see Fig.Page 22 The simulation was done for a typical residential road with photometric requirements according to SANS 10098 Class B3: l Road width: 7 m + 2 sidewalks (2 m each) to be lit l Pole spacing distance: 45 m l Lamps: SON-T. In case the LED unit is protected by a cover glass. another 8% of the luminous flux will be lost by Fresnel reflection at the interfaces between the transparent cover and the surrounding air. The LED distribution is not designed to be integrated into the existing housing: l Beka Lane 70 W SON-T (highpressure sodium) l Beka Strada Supra 250 W SON-T Replacement of a 70 W highpressure sodium lamp > 2 lx > 0. the electronic modules can be placed on different units. In general. 70 W in a Beka Lane luminaire LEDs warm white (3200°K CCT) 80 lm (70 lm/W@350 mA) LEDs cool white (6000°K CCT) 107 lm (93 lm/W@350 mA) Table 1 represents the results of the simulations. Source Lamp power Lamp flux Total luminaire power Eav Emin U0 W/lx Utilised flux ratio 70 W SON-T 70 W 6600 lm 77 W 5. 3: Standard modules for the LED constant current supply. minimising the number of LEDs required to replace the HID solution.3 lx 22 % 13.6 lx 1. the power supply and the constant current source can be September 2008 . Even the warm white LED due to the increased utilisation factor will be able to replace the high-pressure sodium lamp at lower total power consumption. they have to function in a constant current mode. The total efficacy. 35 cool white LEDs with a total LED power of 41 W could replace the 70 W HID source.Vector .6 lx 26 % 9. Depending on the configuration. Instead of using 45 cool white LEDs at increased luminous levels.1 44 % 45 LEDs 3200°K 52 W 3600 lm 61 W 5. the overall lighting efficiency of an LED system can be superior to an HID luminaire.0 lx 1.integrated in one unit or the current control unit is integrated on the PCB.2 69 % 45 LEDs 6000°K 52 W 4800 lm 61 W 6. This is different from extended HID sources where generally a significant ratio of light does not hit the target area. depending on the quality of the components. Fig. despite a lower luminous flux.4 lx Fig.2 lx 26 % 12.however excellent integrated power supply/current control units achieve more than 91%. Efficiency of electronic components In order to operate LEDs in a controlled manner. 2 illustrates how. Replacement of HID luminaires by LED systems – efficacy considerations Two typical South African street lighting luminaires with highly efficient reflector systems were chosen in order to simulate an improved LED distribution. Efficiency of the optical components In general LEDs are used with secondary optics in order to collimate the beam.
4 are as follows. often do not take into consideration the reality of road lighting requirements. 4: Cumulative cost SON-T vs.67 38.50/kWh LEDs warm white 70 lm/W 61 W 50 000 h 50 000 h 4000 h R9000 R400 R720 R0.However this will slightly compromise the uniformity. which offer a larger ratio of red and green light compared to HPS light .50/kWh Table 3: Assumptions for a realistic life time cycle cost analysis.8 0. Dubious promises. The efficacy threshold for LEDs to replace the 250 W SON-T lamp at the same total electric power will be 100 lm/W. Life time cycle cost In order to estimate the economic advantage of an LED solution compared to a good HPS solution.64/0.1/37. the assumption of 300 highpower LEDs is only a basis for the simulation. thus multi-chip LEDs would have to be used.3 43 % SANS 10098 A3 300 vehicles/h > 0.65 > 40 52/54 17 9. in general based upon inefficient reference luminaires. as well as the cost of energy. this may slightly decrease in case the efficiency of the electronic components exceeds 85%.4 52/54 17 12.65 38.5 43 % 225 LEDs 6000°K 260 W 24000 lm 305 W 32. some life time cycle cost evaluations were done. In fact. Beka lane SON-T 70 W Total power Lamp replacement cycle Ballast/power supply replacement cycle Total annual utilisation Investment cost Lamp exchange cost Ballast exchange cost Energy cost 77 W 18 000 h 50 000 h 4000 h R1200 R180 R360 R0. l Road width: 7 m l Pole spacing distance: 45 m l Lamps: SON-T. They also do not consider the fact that under mesopic vision the eye's sensitivity will be higher for white LEDs.2 Ul [%] Ti [%] W/lx Utilised flux ratio Table 2: Simulations and comparisons based on a 250 W SON-T luminaire.66/0.Page 24 lamp’s lifetime. 250 W in a Beka Strada Supra luminaire LEDs warm white (3200°K CCT) 80 lm (70 lm/W@350 mA) LEDs cool white (6000°K CCT) 107 lm (93 lm/W@350 mA) The resulting simulations are shown in Table 2.6 > 50 > 20 U0 [%] 41. Consequently the efficacy will be even lower.1/37. Fig. LEDs cannot seriously replace 250 W HPS lamps to achieve comparably efficient luminaire designs.4 0. this will lead to comparisons much more advantageous for LEDs. Under these current assumptions. if we examine the luminous efficacies which are commercially available today.4 54/58 14 7. Source Lamp power Lamp flux Total luminaire power Eav [lx] Lmin [cd/m ] 2 250 W SON-T 250 W 32 000 lm 278 W 36.50/kWh LEDS cool white 93 lm/W 48 W 50 000 h 50 000 h 4000 h R8500 R2000 R720 R0. The assumptions for the calculation in Fig. an LED . the September 2008 . the LEDs would have to be operated at higher currents.8 0. Obviously the increase of flux ratio of the LED solution cannot compensate for the current gap between the luminous efficacy of the SON-T lamp (128 lm/W). As soon as these considerations are integrated into national and international standards. The comparisons above do not take into account that white light from LEDs will lead to a better colour rendering and in some studies result in a higher acceptance by the residents .1/40.Vector . Replacement of a 250 W highpressure sodium lamp Typically the Beka Strada Supra luminaire with a 250 W SON-T lamp is used on important urban traffic roads according to SANS 10098 Type B3. which are based on the cost of a luminaire. Apparently.6 36 % 300 LEDs 3200°K 350 W 24 000 lm 410 W 32. the lamp and ballast/ electronics exchange cost. In order to integrate this LED power into a luminaire. LED – realistic scenario.64/0.
Purely economical reasons will not justify the use of LEDs for street lighting. 8: Typical intensity distribution for a parapet lighting application. 6: Bollard combining coloured ambiance lighting with horizontal lighting. The bollard in Fig. solution does not offer any economic advantage. September 2008 . Presuming an increase of LED efficacy and reliability. a linear function of the flux whereas the price of HID lamps is virtually independent of their flux. also the efficiency advantage cannot be capitalised due to the low energy cost.00/kWh LEDs cool white 93 lm/W 28 W 50 000 h 70 000 h 4000 h R3000 R1200 R360 R1. Furthermore their efficacy increases with their total power. the scenario in Table 4 and Fig. a decrease of the R/lm rate for LEDs and rising energy prices within the next 4 years.Vector .Beka Lane SON T 70 W Total power Lamp replacement cycle Ballast/power supply replacement cycle Total annual utilisation Investment cost Lamp exchange cost Ballast exchange cost Energy cost 77 W 18 000 h 50 000 h 4000 h R1200 R180 R360 R1. For these reasons the life time cycle cost scenario will even be more disadvantageous for LED street lighting luminaires if they are compared to HPS systems beyond 100 W. The LED cost per flux unit is almost Fig.Page 26 Fig. Fig. 6 illustrates how coloured ambiance lighting unites with functional lighting in order to provide facial recognition.50/kWh the return on investment will be reduced to 10 years. Fig.00/kWh Table 4: Assumptions for a future life time cycle cost analysis. Outlook – public lighting applications dedicated to LEDs Compared to standard static street lighting applications. other applications take even more advantage of the design flexibility and the dynamic control of LEDs. At R1. The main reason is the significantly higher investment cost for an LED system. 7: LED tunnel application and according beam shape. LED – future scenario. LEDs can combine creating ambiance as well as a photometric function at the same time. Even in this future scenario the return on investment will occur not before 20 years. 5: Cumulative cost SON-T vs. 5 is challenging but not unrealistic. which is an important contribution to pedestrians’ safety. .
schleritzkoj@beka. January 2008. 9: Dynamic adjustment of the light distribution to the humidity of the road.Vector . Tel 011 238-0000. A good light distribution on a dry surface very often becomes bad or unacceptable on a wet surface: a too bright zone (area) appears in the middle of the road. Whether LEDs will become an economic solution for static street lighting considerably depends on the energy cost level. Fig. 11: Street lighting luminaire with individually controllable LED arrays. Beka. and thanks to a very flat beam profile lead to efficient illumination. References  Pacific Gas and Electric Company. which use these benefits by creating particular photometry. 9. 2005.Page 27 . where the luminaires will be mounted at a height of approximately 1 m. LEDs will be used in parapet lighting solutions. Dynamic LED applications potentially allow the dynamic adaptation of the light distribution to ambient conditions. Report 35. offering dynamic or adaptive lighting or profit from the colours offered by LEDs. 11. leading to a too high value of the average luminance and reducing dramatically the longitudinal and overall uniformities. LEDs in a luminaire system can be dimmed partially in order to create a more acceptable luminance distribution on the surface as illustrated in Fig. pages 15 to 16. Contact Johann Schleritzko. At the current electricity cost in South Africa. 10: Photometry adjusted to the ageing of the road. in order to benefit from their advantages they have to be integrated into concepts.co. which compared to 36 W PLL lamps potentially increases the luminance efficacy. HUT Lighting Loboratory. In tunnel lighting applications LEDs can yield an asymmetric beam.Fig. First installations provide an indication that the yield of the luminance will exceed 35% when using LEDs at 85 lm/W. Consequently. Indeed. The light distribution can be modified according to changes in road surface reflection properties. Conclusion LEDs doubtless will penetrate the public lighting market. which generally becomes more reflective during the use of the road. Fig.za D September2008 . Fig. Application Assessment Report #0714.  Eloholma M Halonen L Performance based model for mesopic photometry. Accordingly the light distribution can be adapted to the specular property of the asphalt. LED street lights will not have any advantage concerning the total cost of ownership. 10 indicates the potential adaptation. A potential luminaire geometry with individually controllable LED units is presented in Fig.
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