By S.K.Ansari (Speaker & Author) Seema Ansari (Co-author) Adeel Ansari (Co-author) Abstract on CNG

CNG is a safe fuel. Being lighter than air, it disperses easily into the atmosphere and does not form
a sufficiently rich mixture for combustion to take place. CNG is 130 octane, which is considerably higher than 93 octane for petrol; consequently, CNG vehicle is more energy efficient. Higher octane rating allows higher compression ratios and improved thermal efficiency4, reducing carbon dioxide emissions. CNG allows the use of catalytic converter more efficiently than diesel. Compared to petrol or diesel, CNG vehicles emit 40% less of nitrous oxide (a toxic gas that creates smog), 90% less of hydrocarbons (which carry carcinogens), 80% less of carbon monoxide (a poisonous pollutant), and 25% less of carbon dioxide (a major greenhouse gas). Further, noise level of CNG engine is much lower than that of diesel. It was estimate a conventional diesel bus is roughly 100 times more harmful than a CNG bus, while diesel engines with particulate filters (Euro IV) still being more harmful than CNG engine by a factor of four. Gasoline and diesel were to be substituted with NG for motor vehicles, which is now a mature technology. Most of the vehicles in Japan run on LPG, but are now opting for CNG. Bangladesh too plans to convert its fleet to CNG mode. Italy has about 300,000 vehicles running on CNG, with a network of 280 filling stations. Pakistan has declared CNG as ‘the fuel of the future’. The conversion process has been going on for the past five–six years and Pakistan is now successfully running about 1,60,000 vehicles on CNG. By converting 100,000 cars to CNG, Pakistan plans to save about US $ 30 million per year. In UK, the market for CNG vehicles has expanded rapidly over the past five years. Korea too proposes 20,000 diesel-powered buses to be replaced by those running on CNG.

Natural Gas Vehicles
When it comes to transportation, one thing has become increasingly clear over the past decade: The world can no longer afford to depend on oil as an energy source. For one thing, the oil supply is simply running out. Demand for oil in both developed and developing countries is rising significantly, and by 2020, the world could face an energy crisis. Even more disturbing is the wellpublicized environmental damage being done by exhausts from gasoline and diesel vehicles. The solution: alternative fuels—the most attractive of which is natural gas. Here’s why: • Natural gas is good for the environment, because it’s one of the cleanest burning fuels available. Using natural gas instead of gasoline and diesel fuel can: o Reduce ozone-depleting greenhouse gases by up to 25 percent. o Reduce airborne particulates by up to 99 percent. o Reduce harmful, smog-producing gases (carbon monoxide by up to 90 percent and nitrous oxides between 60 and 85 percent). • Many countries offer special tax incentives to encourage use of natural gas.

• •

Heavy-duty vehicles using natural gas, especially CNG, have made significant progress toward meeting stringent emission requirements mandated by governments around the world—requirements that conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles cannot meet. Unlike so many other fuels that are reliant on the development of new technology, natural gas is readily—and abundantly—available now from stable sources that offer security of supply.

Pakistan’s Natural Gas (NG)
Pakistan has limited natural gas deposits. At present, recoverable natural gas reserves in Pakistan are 32 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) and reserve to production (R/P) ratio based on current production of 3.7 Billion Cubic Feet per Day (BCFD) is 23 years. One of the significant developments in local gas market is the increase of the natural gas share in primary energy supply mix from about 40% in 1990-2000 to over 52% in 2004-05 in about five years. If the demand /supply trend of past five years is maintained, the R/P (reserve to Production) ratio reduces significantly necessitating urgent need to increase natural gas supply. The Government has accordingly placed the highest priority to (a) enhance indigenous natural gas supplies through intensifies exploration efforts and (b) import natural gas through pipeline from neighboring countries as well as LNG. While the Federal Government I making concerted efforts to enhance natural gas supplies to meet growing demand, it is extremely important to establish a natural gas allocation and management plan to promote efficacious utilization of precious depleting natural resource. Particularly given the dominant role of natural gas in domestic energy landscape. Therefore, the Federal government has set out these policy guidelines for the purpose in the paragraphs that follow

Current Position
As on 30th. June 2005, natural gas is being supplied to various categories of consumers that are either connected to the pipeline system or independent pipeline network directly from Exploration and Production (E&P) Companies as per details given below: On the SNGPL/SSGPL System Domestic Sector Commercial Sector Fertilizer Plants Industrial Units WAPDA & KESC Power Plant Cement Plants Captive Power Plants CNG Sub-Total (A) On Independent network Fertilizer Plants WAPDA & KESC Power Plants Independent Power Plants Sub-Total (B) Grand Total (A + B) Percentage load 15.6 2.4 5.2 19.4 32.5 1.2 4.2 0.5 81 Percentage load 8.5 7.2 3.3 19 100

1 Bcfd 6.2 Bcfd Supply 3. from such situation and a full fledge CNG policy was formulated to ensure that investors’ interest are protected. It appears as the CNG Dealers Association and CNG station owners were most benefited from the Ye ar 20 07 20 08 20 10 20 11 20 12 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 20 Demand Supply Short fall . The need for converting public transport to CNG is ever increasing due to the increase in the carbon emissions from public transport. of Pakistan in 1992 which has been enforced with some amendments from time to time as per needs of the CNG Industry.000 6. The Government support the CNG station owners’ untiring efforts and huge investments has enable Pakistan’s CNG industry to attain the topmost position in the world. had shortage of petrol and diesel reserves in the country. Pakistan is extremely fortunate to have extensive gas reserves to meet the needs of the vehicle owners who have invested more than Rs 60 billion to convert their vehicle to CNG out of their merger incomes. investors made huge investments to rescue the Govt.14.000 4. thus creating serious hazard to the life and property of million of people.000 8.3 Bcfd Demand 1.000 10. At that time. It also provided cover to millions of households who had made investments to use environmental-friendly fuel which is cost effective as well.000 0 Shortfall CNG Industry in Pakistan The CNG Industry in Pakistan has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last decade by virtue of friendly policies by the Government and the key role played by CNG station owners and vehicle owners. This policy was formulated at a time when the Govt.000 MMcfd Figures in MMcfd at 950 btu/scf 11.000 12.1 Bcfd 2. the CNG Dealers Association and as well as the CNG station owners. A policy was formulated by the Govt. The CNG Policy of 1992 proved to be viable for all the entities associated with the industry which includes the consumers.

and third largest in the world. a consumer would fuel their vehicle with natural gas. through incentives of $ 250 to each CNG vehicles’ manufactures . Presently. (Ever wonder why the stove in your home doesn't burn gasoline instead of natural gas?) Just take a look at the chart below for some interesting facts: CNG Industry in Pakistan Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. the gas is compressed and stored on the vehicle in pressurized tanks. The Indian Govt. Rather than burn gasoline or diesel fuel. The sales for Landi Renzo were reached to 170. What exactly is CNG? CNG or compressed natural gas is a domestically available. Pakistan is planning to export to the neighboring countries. kit manufacturing and assembling with localization of parts is being encouraged here. Not when you compare the physical properties of Natural Gas and gasoline.000 kits in 2008. utilization of natural gas is urged. Many countries round the world are drafting laws to ensure plethora of car owners to consume CNG. and 1000 more would be setup in the next three years. Tanks that can hold up to 3. It has provided employment to above 30. in USA. Pakistan is producing 15. Argentina and Brazil are the two countries with the largest fleets of CNG vehicles. It will also reduce the consumption of precious fuels (petrol and diesel) for automotive purposes that further aggravate the economic and environmental situation. The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) sector of Pakistan by end of 2007 has attracted over Rs 70 billion investments during the last few years as a result of liberal and encouraging policies of the government. alternative fuel source for vehicles. The fact is that natural gas is a much safer fuel than gasoline. Also.000 people in Pakistan. As of 2005. once again to implement the 1992 policy keeping in view the current shortages of petrol and diesel. Pakistan is the largest user of CNG in Asia. Since meeting with the international standard. CNG Kit in Pakistan In Pakistan mostly kit using are belong to LANDI RENZO by the Italian manufacturer with complete technology transfer to Pakistan.000 CNG kit per month with ultra fine quality to meet with the international standard. economical. Landi Renzo wanted to give proper support to Pakistan and therefore. clean burning. In order to provide enough range.700 CNG stations are operating in the country in 85 cities and towns. has also passed an order resulting in complete shift of public transport to CNG in New Delhi. It is considered to be an environmentally “clean” alternative to those fuels.above mentioned policy as of late they have been pressurizing the Govt. more than 2. . It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. Pakistan is an important market for Landi Renzo in terns of value and volume. It was of the view that Landi Renzo has a market share of 95 percent in CNG kits in Pakistan which are meeting 100 percent requirements of OEM for CNG kits.600 psig.

Brisbane Transport and Trans-Perth in Australia have both adopted a policy of only purchasing CNG buses in future. but fell into decline after petrol prices receded. It is considered to be an CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in Pakistan. the former purchasing 216 Scania L94UB and 180 MAN 18. According to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. It is stored and distributed in hard containers. locally-produced conversion equipment and a growing CNG-delivery infrastructure. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in Pakistan Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. The government of Punjab. All Pakistan CNG Association (APA) Sana-ur-Rehman confirms that CNG stakeholders have invested Rs. CNG is an environmentally “clean” alternative to those fuels. has mandated that all public-transport vehicles will use CNG by 2007. In the Middle East and Africa. CNG was commonly used in New Zealand in the wake of the oil crises.12 billion liters of petrol every year and saving foreign exchange to the tune of billions of dollars. usually cylinders.167 vehicles are being converted to CNG every month.Over 2 million vehicles were converted to CNG as of march 2009. The CNG sector pays 24 percent sales tax and 4 percent withholding tax to the government. with the latter purchasing 451 Mercedes-Benz OC500LE buses. Egypt was also the first nation in Africa and the Middle East to open a public CNG fuelling station in January 1996. Egypt is a top ten country in the world with more than 63000 CNG vehicles and 95 fueling stations nationwide. Conversion has been facilitated by a substantial price differential with liquid fuels.90 billion in this sector and another Rs 20 billion investment is in pipeline. A ‘Blue-network’ of CNG stations is being developed on the major highways of the Southern Cone to allow for long-haul transportation fuelled by CNG. During the 1970s and 1980s. Bangladesh and India. the most populous province of that country. Pakistan has the third-largest number of natural gas vehicles. the CNG is contributing tremendously towards maintaining the air pollution level lower since it emits almost 85 percent less harmful gasses. The CNG consumers had invested around Rs 60 billion in converting their vehicles to CNG. The CNG was replacing at least 6. Brisbane Transport has also ordered up to 30 articulated CNG buses on MAN chassis’. . zero lead and zero particulate matter.310 models. It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. On average 29. Pakistan. Moreover. including 58 articulated buses. showing an increase of 35 percent yearly.

• Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) has little or no emissions during fueling. which leads to lower fuel consumption. In gasoline vehicles. The octane rating of CNG is far greater than Petrol and if handled correctly it can produce same or more power output from an engine provided the Compressed Natural Gas is compressed properly and accurate amounts of BTU Figures attained. The difference lies in the cost of the station vs. CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of natural gas and the use of high pressures. fueling emissions account for at least 50% of a vehicle’s total hydrocarbon emissions. aluminum. Intervals between oil changes for natural gas vehicles are dramatically extended–anywhere from 10.CNG cylinders can be made of steel.000 to 50. the refueling time. . There are also some implementations to refuel out of a residential gas line during the night. turbo charging and inter-cooling. or plastic. The Maintenance Advantage • • • • Some fleet operators have reduced maintenance costs by as much as 40% by converting their vehicles to CNG. • CNG produces significantly less pollutants than gasoline. The Advantages of Compressed Natural Gas The Environmentally Clean Advantage • Compressed natural gas is the cleanest burning fuel operating today. and three way catalytic converters. While both are stored forms of natural gas. Natural gas does not react to metals the way gasoline does. CNG may be refueled from low-pressure or high-pressure systems. which is a compressed blend of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).000 additional miles depending on how the vehicle is used.CNG Technology CNG can easily be used in Otto-cycle (gasoline) and modified Diesel cycle engines. CNG compared to LNG and LPG CNG is often confused with LNG. Lean-burn Ottocycle engines can achieve higher thermal efficiencies when compared with stoichiometric Ottocycle engines at the expense of higher NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. • CNG vehicles produce the fewest emissions of any motor fuel. • Tailpipe emissions from gasoline operated cars release carbon dioxide.CNG is also often confused with LPG.000 to 25.000 miles. Intervals between tune-ups for natural gas vehicles are extended 30. so pipes and mufflers last much longer. CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive cooling process and cryogenic tanks. This means less vehicle maintenance and longer engine life. especially when combined with EGR. the key difference is that CNG is in compressed form. Electronically-controlled stoichio-metric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output. Lightweight composite (fiber-wrapped plastic) cylinders are especially beneficial for vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when compared with earlier generation steel and aluminum cylinders. This is greatly reduced with natural gas. but this is forbidden in some countries. which contributes to gobal warming. while LNG is in liquefied form.

800 collisions. The CNG Cost Advantage • Natural gas is cheaper per equivalent gallon than gasoline (an average of 15% to 50% less than gasoline).000 vehicles found that with more than 278 million miles traveled. NGV’s have superior starting and drivability.The Performance Advantage • • • • • Natural gas gives the same mileage as gasoline in a converted vehicle. even under severe hot and cold weather conditions. The Safety Advantage • Surveys indicate that NGV’s are as safe or safer than those powered by other fuels. CNG has an octane rating of 130 and has a slight efficiency advantage over gasoline. NGV injury rates per vehicle mile traveled were 34% lower than the rate for gasoline vehicles. There were no fatalities reported–even though these vehicles were involved in over 1. A 1992 AGA survey of more than 8. . NGV’s experience less knocking and no vapor locking. Because CNG is already in a gaseous state. Dedicated CNG engines are superior in performance to gasoline engines.

000 18.020 - 1.6 n/a L = 5.Physical Properties of Gasoline.700 . Diesel.4 H = 9.800a 450 .350 -45 87 to 93 125 (min) n/a -100 to 150 104e -300 120e Flammability Limits (volume % in air) L = 1. Btu/gal.000 .07c GASOLINE LIQUID 80 to 420 DIESEL No.000 21.19.1b 8c 1.100 112.7 H = 5.3 H = 14 nontoxic Human Exposure 500 Limit For Fuel (ppm) .0 n/a L = 2.5 49 to 55 6.500 920 1.5 to 7. LPG and CNG PROPERTIES Physical State Boiling Range (oF @ 1 atm) Density (lb/ft3) (lb/gal) 43 to 49 5. 2 LIQUID 320 to 720 LPG (HD-5) GAS -44 to 31 CNG GAS -259a Net Energy Content Btu/lb.300a 22.900 400 .8 to 6.128.6 L = 0.4 H = 7.3 31b 4.000 19.800 82. Autoignition Temperature (oF) Flashpoint (oF) Octane Range (R+M) 2 Number 18.900 123.000 .121.

2 0.3 trace .03 0.0.1 trace .5 0. While the gas from these sources has a similar analysis. dry basis * 0.0.02 Specific Gravity Gross Heating Value (MJ/m3).0.1 .7 0. it is not entirely the same.0.0.3 0.2 2.40.02 trace Analysis Range (mole %) 87.58 37.01 .5.04 trace .6 0.8 0.01 .01 0.1 .Chemical Composition of Natural Gas Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture. including the heat released by condensing the water vapour in the .0 .5.57 . The table below shows the typical components of natural gas on the SNGC & SSGC (Pakistan) are almost the same.01 .2 The gross heating value is the total heat obtained by complete combustion at constant pressure of a unit volume of gas in air. consisting mainly of methane.1.0. Khandhkot Gasfield and Mari gas fieldare the main supplier.1.7 .0.3 0.0.01 1.0 0.0 . While most of the gas supplied to Sui Southern Gas Company and Sui Southern Gas Company of Pakistan is from Sui Gasfield.0 1.03 0.14 trace .5 .06 0.1 0.01 0.5 0.62 36.96. Their chemical analysis report are shown below Component Methane Ethane Propane iso – Butane normal – Butane iso – Pentane normal – Pentane Hexanes plus Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Hydrogen Typical (mole %) 95.

16% (volume % in air) * 1960 oC (3562 oF) † 0. . Natural gas is primarily methane comprised of hydrogen and carbon. It is a fossil fuel formed over millions of years of geological pressures and changes. 3. passes through the high-pressure fuel line and enters the engine compartment. 4. When the driver steps on the accelerator. and is typically 16 to 32 mg/m3. It flows into high-pressure cylinders that are located on the vehicle.combustion products (gas. Natural Gas used for powering vehicles 1. This includes the 4. and combustion products taken at standard temperature and pressure). The properties shown are an overall average on Pakistan Gas System.600 psi to approximately atmospheric pressure. which reduces pressure from up to 3.5 mg/m3. Gas then enters the regulator.9 mg/m3 of sulphur in the odourant (mercaptan) added to gas for safety reasons. lighting and cooking. the natural gas leaves the on-board storage cylinder. Natural gas is compressed and enters the vehicle through the natural gas dispenser or fill post 2. Ignition Point: Flammability Limits Theoretical Flame Temperature (stoichiometric air/fuel ratio) Maximum Flame Velocity Relative density (specific gravity) Wobbe Index (Btu/scf) 593 oC * 4% .58 ‡ 1328 ‡ Natural Gas Natural Gas is an organic compound that is found deep within the earth. Sulphur: In the Pakistan. Typical Combustion Properties of Natural Gas Note that there is no guarantee that the combustion properties at your location will be exactly as shown.3 m/s † 0. Water: The water vapour content of natural gas in the Union Gas system is less than 80 mg/m3. air. It is a safe fuel source that is commonly used in homes and businesses for heating. the typical sulphur content is 5.

including safety. Also the storage systems used for compressed natural gas are infinitely stronger that the gasoline tanks found on cars and trucks today. the inside of the vehicle is not affected. Over-The-Road Trucks CNG for Cars The cylinder used varies according to vehicle type. Airport Shuttle Vans. School Buses. Natural Gas Powered Vehicles Natural Gas an ideal fuel source for many reasons. Delivery Vehicles Forklifts. Natural gas also has a higher ignition temperature. Natural gas mixed with air flows down through the carburetor or fuel injection system and enters the engine's combustion chambers. Natural Gas is lighter than air. Depending on the vehicle type a total volume for instance is sufficient to cover a range of some 350 km. Street Sweepers. 6. Ice resurfacers. The cylinders are often combined into a tank unit. The tank units are normally integrated in the chassis. which is heavier than air. Instead. Refer to the chart above and note the following. This means that it will not puddle (like gasoline) or sink to the ground like propane. Natural Gas will rise and dissipate in the atmosphere. This means that it is much harder to ignite.5. Types of Vehicles use Natural Gas Taxi Cabs. The natural gas solenoid valve allows natural gas to pass from the regulator into the gas mixer or fuel injectors. . Transit Buses.

the weight optimized composite cylinders (Type II and Type IV) can be used to power cars. Full composite cylinders (Type IV) consist of a plastic liner also with a carbon fiber wrap.The tank unit modules including frame and valve as well as high pressure accessories should be design to place in the vehicle as shown in the above figure. A feature of these cylinders is their favorable weight: volume ratio. . Steel composite cylinders (Type II) have a seamless liner of chrome molybdenum steel with carbon fibre wrap. When weight is a significant factor.

Both steel composite and full composite cylinders are equipped with melting fuses at each end. Steel composite cylinders are available in a standard volume range of 60l . These cylinders have a service pressure of 200 bar. whereby the weight of a 190 l cylinder is only about 52 kg. thus offering double safety should the fuses need to be activated. The following example shows a possible unit configuration: Tank unit with 7 cylinders Total volume 1055 7 with 5 cylinders each of 165 l plus 2 cylinders each of 115 l . tank units of full composite cylinders are suited for larger storage volumes and thus longer ranges. of 5 to 9 cylinders each with 190 l capacity.165l. Such units are used for municipal buses and are mounted under a hood on the roof. Due to the low weight.710 l. Tank units including frame and piping along with all high pressure accessories should be installed with extra care vigilance. according to service requirements.CNG for Buses and Mini-Buses Steel composite (Type II). thus the total volume of these units is between 950 l to 1. or full composite (Type IV) cylinders are recommended for the multicylinder fuel tank units for natural gas powered municipal buses or minibuses.The cylinders only weigh some 653 kg (without frame). Full composite tank units consist. . A combination of different sized cylinders can be used to achieve the required total volume.

dispenses gas into the vehicles and measures the amount transferred. 7. iso-butane.used to reduce water content in the gas 3. ASME Storage . Some sources of biogas include swamps. That means that before the natural gas can be transported it must be purified. NGLs include ethane. propane.000 psig. butane. manure and fermentation of biomass. marshes.CNG fueling station Components 1. Methane is also produced by anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic material. butane. this does not mean that they are all 'waste products'. known as 'natural gas liquids' (NGLs) can be very valuable byproducts of natural gas processing.elevates inlet gas pressure from the gas utility to 5. sewage sludge. and as sources of energy. These NGLs are sold separately and have a variety of different uses. landfills.allows for temperature compensation of the gas as well as directs gas flow to storage or to vehicle. associated hydrocarbons. Priority/Sequence Panel . In fact. Natural Gas Process Diagram Natural gas processing consists of separating all of the various hydrocarbons and fluids from the pure natural gas. which is referred to as biogas. 5. Inlet Gas Line (from your local utility) 2. isolated natural gas fields or coal beds. Gas Compressor . Inlet Dryer . . Major transportation pipelines usually impose restrictions on the make-up of the natural gas that is allowed into the pipeline.stores high pressure gas to be dispensed into vehicles. providing raw materials for oil refineries or petrochemical plants. and natural gasoline. Natural Gas & CNG Technologies Natural gas primarily consists of methane and is found in oil fields. Inlet Filtration . and pentanes must be removed from natural gas.filters gas before compression 4. Gas Dispenser . including enhancing oil recovery in oil wells. propane. to produce what is known as 'pipeline quality' dry natural gas. 6. While the ethane.

Oil and Condensate Removal from Natural Gas to CNG In order to process and transport associated dissolved natural gas. An example of this is the Low-Temperature Separator (LTX). When this natural gas and oil is produced. In these cases. The actual process and equipment used to separate oil from natural gas can vary. it must be separated from the oil in which it is dissolved. This separation of natural gas from oil is most often done using equipment installed at or near the wellhead. and the two hydrocarbons are then processed separately. simply due to decreased pressure. This is most often used for wells producing high . it is possible that it will separate on its own. The most basic type of separator is known as a conventional separator. and the lighter gases. In certain instances specialized equipment is necessary to separate oil and natural gas. where the force of gravity separates the heavier liquids like oil. This is due to the fact that the raw material from different regions may have different compositions and separation requirements. It consists of a simple closed tank. Often natural gas is dissolved in oil underground mainly due to the pressure that the formation is under. separation of oil and gas is relatively easy. like natural gas.

. which expands the gas as it enters the separator. it is necessary to remove most of the associated water. moisture vapor is absorbed on the surface of the tablets. which usually involves one of two processes: either absorption. Wet gas enters the separator. Adsorption occurs when the water vapor is condensed and collected on the surface Single Tower Dehydrators & Dryers Water & Moisture Vapor Removal Process Wet gas from the well enters the centrally located inlet in the lower portion of the vessel where the velocity is reduced and flow direction is changed. Water Removal In addition to separating oil and some condensate from the wet gas stream. This rapid expansion of the gas allows for the lowering of the temperature in the separator. (Note: Solution will not freeze above -20°F. being cooled slightly by a heat exchanger. This basic pressure-temperature relationship can work in reverse as well. The gas then flows into this low-temperature separator through a choke mechanism. the gas is free of liquid waste and moisture vapor is substantially removed. After liquid removal. By varying the pressure of the gas in various sections of the separator. which causes the oil and some water to be condensed out of the wet gas stream. the removal of the water vapor that exists in solution in natural gas requires a more complex treatment.) At the dehydrator outlet. This treatment consists of 'dehydrating' the natural gas. Absorption occurs when the water vapor is taken out by a dehydrating agent. The gas then travels through a high pressure liquid 'knockout'. In this area. or adsorption. which serves to remove any liquids into a low-temperature separator. it is possible to vary the temperature. to extract gas from a liquid oil stream. The water and drying material combine into a solution which falls into the claim area. heavier drops of entrained water are separated and fall into the large-capacity claim area.pressure gas along with light crude oil or condensate. Most of the liquid is removed by simple separation methods at or near the wellhead. the dry gas then travels back through the heat exchanger and is warmed by the incoming wet gas. However. These separators use pressure differentials to cool the wet natural gas and separate the oil and condensate. As the gas moves upward through the bed of drying tablets.


1 750 PSIG 41 35 30 26 21. Wet gas enters the tower at the bottom.4 14.8 17.7 20.8 20.5 12.7 16.2 14.1 1000 PSIG 33 29 24. type SP and type 10BF Desiccant This chart shows the water vapor content of 100% saturated Natural Gas at the given temperatures and pressures. In the reconcentration system.3 20. and goes to the reconcentration system.7 17. 10 PSIG 80°F 75°F 70°F 65°F 60°F 58°F 56°F 54°F 52°F 50°F 45°F 40°F 35°F 985 834 703 593 499 462 430 401 373 347 287 237 195 25 PSIG 626 531 448 378 318 295 274 256 238221 183 151 124 50 PSIG 382 324 273 231 194 180 167 156 145 135 112 93 76 75 PSIG 279 237 200 169 142 132 123 115 107 99 82 68 56 100 PSIG 220 186 157 133 112 104 97 90 84 78 65 54 44 125 PSIG 182 155 131 111 93 86 80 75 70 65 54 45 37 150 PSIG 156 132 112 95 80 74 69 64 60 56 46 38 32 175 PSIG 137 116 98 83 70 65 61 57 53 49 41 34 28 200 PSIG 122 103 88 74 63 58 54 51 47 44 36 30 25 225 PSIG 110 95 80 67 57 53 49 46 43 40 33 27. Wet gas contacts dry glycol and the glycol absorbs water from the gas.3 300 PSIG 86 73 62 53 45 41 39 36 34 31 26 21.7 250 PSIG 101 86 72 61 52 48 45 42 39 36 30 25 20. the wet glycol is filtered of .9 17.6 12.8 9. The water rich glycol leaves the tower at the bottom. from tray to tray.3 500 PSIG 56 48 41 35 29 27 26 23. The dehydrated gas leaves the tower at the top and returns to the pipeline or goes to other processing units.8 275 PSIG 93 79 67 57 48 45 41 39 36 34 28 23.8 17.3 19.7 10.5 14.5 15.7 17.4 20. is relatively straight forward.5 13.4 22. or through packing material.6 15.Water Vapor Charts for Saturated Natural Gas.9 400 PSIG 68 58 49 42 35 33 31 29 27 24.9 350 PSIG 76 64 55 46 39 36 34 32 30 28 23 19.4 13 10.7 9 7.1 15.5 Glycol Dehydration The dehydration process as shown in the above figure and as described by Natco.2 18. measured in pounds of water per million cubic feet.9 22. Dry glycol flows down the tower from the top.7 16.

In order for natural gas to be economical to use. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) can Transport in Big Tube Trailer Compressed Natural Gas. All tubes come with DOT approval . Since natural gas is a gas at STP. CNG is one of the answers to using natural gas economically. is cooled. Both of these take considerable amounts of energy to accomplish. Natural Gas per unit volume holds less energy compared to other hydrocarbon fuels so there must be more volume. it can be shut down and the desiccant regenerated while another tower is on-line). which are filled with a solid desiccant such as silica gel. Solid-Desiccant Dehydration Solid-desiccant dehydration is the primary form of "drying" natural gas using adsorption. and usually consists of two (or more) adsorption towers. or CNG. Water escapes as steam. The major issue with CNG is in the transport portion. Wet natural gas is passed through these towers where the water is adsorbed and retained and the gas exits (The reason for using two or more towers is so that as the desiccant in one tower becomes saturated with water.impurities and heated to 400°F. is quite simply gas that has been compressed such that it can be transported in pressure vessels rather than by pipeline as is the traditional method. and the purified glycol returns to the tower where it contacts wet gas again. Each tube can be separately closed during transport. The natural gas is then sent through a regeneration cycle. in order for it to become a feasible fuel is to compress the large volume into a smaller storage tank without sacrificing energy volume. and wet gas is diverted back to the wet inlet gas stream. Tube Trailer Tube trailers are available from 2000m3 up to 6000m3 of stored gas at 200bar. it must either be compressed or liquefied. dry gas exits the bed. In this cycle. With an outstanding Quality the trailers are equipped with burst disk and if required safety valves.


two. or three sectors with horizontal and vertical disposition with condensate liquids drains with variable volumes from 400 to 5000 liters water capacity with control and priority panels .Storages Below shows the different models of storage at one.

l.STORAGE “MICROSTORAGE” The equipment denominated “MICROSTORAGE” produced by the company SAFE S. . in version 1200. is finalized to the storage of the natural gas for automotive and is conceived for public and private refuelling stations “microstorage” is an equipment mainly constituted by: A structure containing metallic al panels Storage cylinders plus fittings and hoses.r. Panel with control and protection system. 3600. 2400.




. The switch is also equipped by an acoustic signal (buzzer) This buzzer is switched on when the system is switching into gasoline mode when a low level of CNG pressure is detected or a fault into CNG system occurs. Monitor of the level of CNG in the tank using 5 illuminated led.Parts and Components for CNG Indicator switch Electronic control module with the following functions: 2-positions CNG/Gasoline switch and monitoring of the current fuel in use using two illuminated led.

with water-gas heat exchanger. one-stage diaphragm type regulator.Gas Filter This is located between the regulator and the injector rail and it is used to filter the gaseous-state LPG. / h. gas solenoid valve and safety valve. The filter contains a cartridge that guarantees 80-µm. It is calibrated for a supply pressure that is 2 bar (200 kPa) above the pressure of the intake manifold. two-stage diaphragm type regulator. Maximum operating pressure is 250 kPa. NG1 . filter.This is a compensated. filter. / h. gas solenoid valve and safety valve. with water-gas heat exchanger.This is a compensated. . filtering capacity. It is calibrated for a supply pressure that is 2 bar (200 kPa) above the pressure of the intake manifold. The nominal flow rate is 30 Kg. The maximum flow rate is 22 Kg. Regulator NG2-2 .

CNG MIXER SYSTEM REGULATOR TN 1 / TN 1 SIC Natural gas comes out of the tank through the tank valve and goes to the engine compartment through a high-pressure pipe which is also connected to the refuelling system. 096. Maximum operating pressure is 250 kPa. CNG pressure and CNG temperature are measured into the injector rail. 3 or 4 injectors in order to cover the entire range of possible applications. The injectors are driven with a peak and hold actuation. The injectors are driven by the CNG ECU. located on the intake manifold. The rail allows to install 2. The switch/gauge mod.Injector Rail The CNG fuel stored in the rail is injected by CNG injectors into the intake manifold. The engine compartment contains the regulator where the pressure of the natural gas is reduced from 220 bar to the engine supply pressure. besides its other functions. allows starting always on petrol automatically passing over to gas by means of the Start-Petrol solenoid valve and allows the user to select the desired fuel at any time. From the regulator the natural gas goes to the air/fuel mixer which. the electronic emulator . The high-pressure solenoid valve allows gas to flow through only when the engine is running and the switch is in the gas position. consumption and emissions. displaying the level of natural gas in the tank. meters the flow of gas according to the requirement of the engine (represented by vacuum generated in the mixing devices) so as to ensure optimum carburation in terms of driving. During gas operation.

REGULATOR TN 1 Electronic control device to reduce the natural gas pressure allowing a regular flow of gas every time the engine requires it. It is equipped with three natural gas reduction stages that allow stability at both high and low pressures and a high-pressure solenoid valve upstream from the first stage. injection. taken from parts of the regulator. The flow of gas necessary for engine idling is obtained throught the main gas pipe thanks to the vacuum generated by the engine. whereas during petrol operation the flow of natural gas to the engine is cut off by the high-pressure solenoid valve.5 bar Power supply: 12 V DC . heated with the liquid of the engine cooling circuit.(or the injectors exclusion wiring) cuts off the flow of petrol to the engine. carburettor and turbocharger) Type of fuel: CNG (compressed natural gas) Heating: engine cooling circuit liquid Test pressure: 300 bar Inlet pressure: 220 bar First stage adjustment pressure: 4 bar Second stage adjustment pressure: 1. prevents the natural gas freezing during the fall in pressure phase. It includes an electronic starting device with a built-in safety system that trips and shuts off the gas solenoid valves if the engine is switched off or stalls. The absorption of heat. Regulator type: 3 stages with electronic starting device and vacuum controlled idling at negative pressure Use: automotive (suitable for vehicles with catalytic converter.

096M . Electronic safety device that cuts off supply to the natural gas solenoid valves if the engine stalls. .096M ECO An electronic control module whose main functions are: Gas/petrol selector with 2 positions led gauge indicates the fuel being used.High-pressure solenoid valve coil power capacity: 20W Idling solenoid valve coil power capacity: 14W Versions: TN 1/B (standard): up to 100 kW TN 1 (oversize): from 100 kW to 146 kW TN 2 C (super oversize): from 146 kW to 169 kW TN 2 C/S: from 169 kW to 193 kW TN 3 : over 193 kW TN 1/B Turbo: for turbo-charger engines up to 154 kW SWITCH/GAUGE MOD. Petrol starting automatically passing over to gas on deceleration with overlapping. Display of the level of gas in the tank by means of 5 led.

The emulator model for each car varies depending on the type of injection system involved in the conversion. both equipped with a carburetion adjustment register . Available in normal and oversize version.INJECTORS EMULATORS During gas operation. CNG MIXER SYSTEM REGULATOR TN 1 / TN 1 SIC START-PETROL SOLENOID VALVE This device positioned between the regulator gas outlet and the mixer cuts off the flow of LPG during starting and petrol operation. these electronic devices cut off the flow of petrol on cars equipped with electronic injection and emulate the signal of the injectors or other sensors. ELECTRONIC SPARK ADVANCE CONTROLS These devices change the engine spark advance when running on natural gas and restore the original spark advance every time you switch on to petrol supply. The increase in spark advance during the higher octane gas operation improves engine performance.


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