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TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

RADIATION

Ankan Mukherjee (10IP10)

Indian Institute of Science and Educational Research, Kolkata

Abstract:

This report is basically an introduction of cosmic microwave background radiation with the review of

very basic observational characteristics. The observed black body spectrum and the lowering of

temperature due to red-shift in frame work of Friedmann cosmology for homogeneous universe have

been discussed. Then the observed temperature anisotropy has been focused with the detail analysis

of acoustic oscillation, the basic reason of small scale anisotropy.

Introduction:

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is thermal radiation filling the observable universe

almost uniformly. The CMB radiation observed today was radiated at the ‘recombination- stage’ (the

stage of formation of hydrogen atom) of the universe. The early universe was hot, dense and opaque.

Radiation was constantly absorbed and emitted by the early charged particles (electrons and

protons).

The universe cooled as it expanded adiabatically and due to recombination, became transparent. As

the temperature continued to drop, neutral hydrogen atoms formed, the photons could travel without

interaction. These are the photons that reach observer today as the CMB radiation. That is why it is

called the “Relic Radiation”

1.Discovery of CMB:

The cosmic microwave background was 1st theoretically predicted in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph

Alpher, and Robert Herman. Alpher and Herman were able to estimate the temperature of the

cosmic microwave background to be 5K, though two years later they re-estimated it at 28 K.

In the early 1960s, Robert Dicke again theoretically estimated the presence of CMB radiation.

In 1964, David Todd Wilkinson and Peter Roll, Dicke's colleagues at Princeton University, began

constructing a Dicke radiometer to measure the cosmic microwave background.

In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson at the Crawford Hill location of Bell Telephone

Laboratories in New Jersey had built a Dicke radiometer that they intended to use for radio astronomy

and satellite communication experiments.

Their instrument had an excess 3.5K antenna temperature which they could not account for.

Combining this to the theoretical explanation of Dicke it was decided that the excess temperature is

due to the CMB radiation. For this incredible discovery Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize

in 1978.

2. Observed features of CMB:

2.1. Black body spectrum: The observed energy spectrum is detected as a ‘blackbody radiation’

spectrum with a temperature 2.73K. The radiation occurred at 3000K, but due to the 1100 fold

expansion of the universe, these photons have been red-shifted and observed as low temperature black

body spectrum.

Fig 1: Black body spectrum of CMB, peaked at

the microwave region of frequency.

2.1.1.Relation between the red-shift and temperature of radiation :

At T=3000K, there were just enough high energy (high frequency) photons to ionized the particles.

With further cooling lead to recombination.

Recombination temperature T= 3000K. and temperature of the observer radiation spectrum

0

T =2.725K. The relation between T and

0

T is written as

0

(1 ) T T z = +

[ where z is called the red-shift and defined as

0

( )

( )

a t

z

a t

= and a is the scale factor or expansion

factor defined the FRW metric,

0

t is the present time, is the time of radiation.]

Thus with the observed value of

0

T (=2.725K) and statistically estimated value of T (=3000K), we get

z =1100, i.e. due to the 1100 fold expansion of the universe the CMB photons are detected as

blackbody radiation of temperature 2.725K.

2.2. CMB Temperature anisotropy:

The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) consists of the small temperature

fluctuations in the blackbody radiation in the different direction of the sky.

The largest fluctuation estimated is ~200 micro K.

Fig2: Sky Images showing temperature distribution ( Pics: from “Fluctuation in CMB” (NASA))

Without any contrast enhancement in the observing instrument the CMB sky looks like a uniform

distribution of temperature. But with the increasing resolution we can observe the small temperature

fluctuations superimposed on this average.

2.3. CMB Polarization:

The observed CMB photons are polarized. This polarization pattern can be studied in COBE and

WMAP along with the measurement of temperature fluctuation.

Fig3: This image shows the plane of polarization along with temperature anisotropy

3. The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (Primary and Secondary

anisotropy):

Primary anisotropy (due to effects which occurred at the last scattering surface and before.)

Secondary anisotropy (due to effects such as interactions of the background radiation with hot gas or

gravitational potentials, which occur between the last scattering surface and the observer.)

3.1. Primary anisotropy:

The structure of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies is primarily determined by two

effects: acoustic oscillations and diffusion damping. Here the 1

st

one has been discussed in detail.

4. Acoustic Oscillation:

Before recombination photons were confined to the electronic distribution by Thomson and Compton

scattering. Due to the Coulomb interaction, electrons were coupled to the baryonic (mainly proton)

system and thus the photons were coupled to the baryon distribution.

Fig4: Coupling of photon and baryon

There was mechanical oscillation in baryon distribution due to the quantum fluctuation leading to the

oscillation of photon distribution. It is called the acoustic oscillation. There were different modes of

oscillation and resultant is the superposition of all the modes.

Fig5: Formation of acoustic wave

The initial baryon distribution was inhomogeneous in large distance scale and formed different

density domains. As photons were tightly coupled to baryon, photon density was different in large

scale. This is actually the reason of large scale temperature anisotropy and it was not effected by

acoustic oscillation. Sound waves in different domains of initial plasma distribution lead to small

scale anisotropy.

Fig6: Different baryon density domain and formation of mechanical wave.

During recombination the electron in the cosmic plasma combine to the protons forming neutral

Hydrogen atoms and thus photons decoupled from the baryonic system and travelled freely. At that

point the phases of the oscillations were frozen-in, and projected on the sky as a harmonic series of

peaks.

This inhomogeneity of photon distribution was projected on the surface of last scattering and

observed as the anisotropy today. (Surface of last scattering: The surface of the sphere centred at

the observer with the radius equal to the co-moving distance of recombination,)

Actually inhomogeneity is observed as anisotropy as we are observing a spherical surface at a

particular time.

Fig7: Projection of inhomogeneity on the surface of last scattering ( 1

st

image adopted form: Lec.Notes on

CMB, Wayne Hu , 2008)

4.1. Oscillation of photon density

The continuity equation ( for non- expanding universe):

……………………..(1)

[ where n

v

is the number density of photon and v

v

is the bulk velocity of photon-baryon plasma]

And considering the expansion the corrected form will be

3 .( ) 0

a

n n n v

a

v v v v

+ +V = ………………….(2)

Since we are interested in small fluctuations around the background, let us linearize the equations by

considering n n n

v v v

o = + and dropping 2nd and higher order terms of ( / n n

v v

o ) the continuity

equation for fluctuation:

( / ) .

d

n n v

d

v v v

o

q

= ÷V …………………..(3)

[ Here the derivative is w.r.t. conformal time q defined as / ( ) dt d a t q = , and further it will be

denoted by dots.]

Now the number density

3

n T

v

· and hence the fractional density fluctuation is related to the

temperature fluctuation as

3 3 ( )

n T

x

n T

v

v

o o

= = O …………………………….(4)

.( ) 0 n n v

v v v

+V =

Hence the continuity equation (3) becomes

1

( ) .

3

x v

v

O = ÷ V …………….(5)

And in Fourier space representation (i.e.

3

3

( ) ( ) exp( . )

(2 )

d k

x k ik x

t

O = O

}

), equation (5) will be

1

( ) .

3

k ik v

v

O = ÷ ……………..(6)

Now the force acting on the photons is in the opposite direction of the photon pressure gradient.

And the momentum density is related to the pressure gradient as

[( ) ]

d

p v forcedensity p

d

v v v v

µ

q

+ = = ÷V

4 1

3 3

v

v v v

µ µ = ÷ V

v

v

¬ = ÷VO

Now in Fourier space the equation is v ik

v

= ÷ O and hence the amplitude is v k

v

= O. Differentiating

the continuity equation (6) w.r.t. conformal time and putting the value of v

v

, the equation we get

…………..(7)

[where

2

1

3

s

p

c

v

v

µ

= = for photon dominated fluid. This is the sound speed in the fluid.]

The solution to the oscillator equation can be specified given two initial conditions (0) O and

(0) O , and the solution is

(0)

( ) (0) cos( ) sin( )

s

ks ks

kc

q

O

O = O + , ………..(8)

[where the sound horizon

0

s

s c d

q

q' =

}

]

This oscillation continued until recombination. At recombination free electron density drops

drastically and the photons freely stream to the observer and the pattern of acoustic oscillations on the

2 2

( ) ( ) 0

s

k c k k O + O =

recombination surface seen by the observer becomes the acoustic peaks in the temperature anisotropy.

Assuming negligible initial velocity perturbations (i.e. (0) 0 O ~ ) we get the temperature distribution

at recombination:

* *

( ) (0)cos( ) ks q O = O ………………(9)

Hence for

*

ks nt = (where 1, 2, 3... n = ) the temperature distribution will have the extrema. In the

limit of sales large compared with the sound horizon ks ≪ 1, the perturbation is frozen into its initial

conditions. Hence large-scale anisotropies measured by COBE directly measure the initial conditions.

Fig8: Large scale anisotropy due to the initial baryonic distribution.

4.2. Gravito-Acoustic Oscillations:

So far we have neglected the effect of gravitational forces in our discussion. Considering the

perturbation to the metric elements the FRW line element for flat cosmology is written as:

2 2 2 2

[ (1 2 ) (1 2 ) ] ds a d dx q = ÷ + + + + u

We can think of this curvature perturbation as changing the local scale factor (1 ) a a ÷ +u ,

and hence

a a

a a

÷ +u. Hence the continuity equation (3) now is written as

( ) 3 3 .

d a

n n n n v

d a

v v v v v

o

q

= ÷ ÷ u÷ V

or,

1

3

kv

v

O= ÷ ÷u …………………….(10)

The time-time piece of the metric perturbation ( + ) modes the momentum conservation equation

and we get ( ) v k

v

= O++ . And now the solution of the forced simple harmonic oscillator

equation is

2

2 2

3

s

k

c k O+ O= ÷ +÷u ……………………..(11)

The solution with adiabatic initial condition and consideringu~ ÷+, can be written as:

[ ]( ) [ ](0)cos( ) ks q O++ = O++ ………………(12)

Now ( O++) is the observed temperature fluctuation. Photons lose energy climbing out of

gravitational potentials at recombination and so the observer at the present will see

T

T

A

= O+ +

Therefore from the perspective of the observer, the temperature field will oscillate with larger

amplitude.

4.3. Baryonic effects:

Now we need to consider the inertial effect of baryon on the fluid as baryon momentum became

comparable to the photon momentum at recombination stage. Baryons add extra mass to the photon-

baryon plasma leading to the enhancement of the momentum density of the plasma. Now the

conserved momentum density of the joint system is written as

( ) ( ) (1 )( )

b b b

p v p v R p v

v v v v v v

µ µ µ + + + = + +

Where ( ) /( )

b b

R p p

v v

µ µ = + + and

b

v v

v

= as photon and baryon were tightly coupled.

Then the momentum conservation equation becomes

[(1 )( ) ] 3 (1 )( ) (1 )( )

d a

R p v R p v p R p

d a

v v v v v v v v v

µ µ µ

q

+ + = ÷ + + ÷V ÷ + + V+ ………(13)

Now combining (13) to the continuity equation (10) we get

2 2

1 1

[(1 ) ] (1 ) [(1 ) ]

3 3

d d

R k k R R

d d q q

+ O + O= ÷ + +÷ + u ………………………(14)

Now for the matter dominated approximation where += ÷u= constant and neglecting the initial

velocity perturbation the solution of (14) is

[ (1 ) ]( ) [ (1 ) ](0)cos R R ks q O+ + + = O+ + + ………………………..(15)

With the modified sound speed 1/ 3(1 )

s

c R = + .

4.3.1. Effects of Baryon loading:

- The amplitude of oscillations increases by a factor of (1+3R) as

1

[ (1 ) ](0) (1 3 ) (0)

3

R R O+ + + = + + due to the initial condition

2

(0) (0)

3

O = ÷ + .

- Next the equilibrium point of the oscillation is now shifted. So in the plot of effective

temperature the even and odd peaks have different amplitudes. In particular, baryon

loading increases the heights of the odd peaks over the even peaks

.

Fig9: (Adopted from Hu and Drodelson (2002) Baryons add inertia to the photon-baryon plasma displacing

the zero point of the oscillation and making compressional peaks (minima) larger than rarefaction peaks

(maxima).

- The lowering of the sound speed changes the acoustic scale as

* * s

s c q = .

Discussion:

The discovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the most important discovery in the field

of observational cosmology. CMB temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize

our understanding of cosmology. NASA COBE mission (during 1992) clearly confirm the primary

anisotropy. The 2nd peak was definitively detected by WMAP showing the small scale temperature

fluctuation. Works are still going on for complete understanding of the temperature and polarization

field. Here it is a brief discussion of very basic things about CMB revealing the motivation study of

microwave background.

References

1. The Cosmic Microwave Background for Pedestrians: A Review for Particle and Nuclear

Physicists ( Authors: Dorothea Samtleben, Suzanne Staggs and Bruce Winstein).

2. CMB Temperature and Polarization Anisotropy Fundamentals (Author: Wayne Hu).

3. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies (Author: Wayne Hu & Scott Dodelson)

4. Fluctuation in Cosmic Microwave Background (NASA)

5. Book: An Introduction to Relativity (J.K. Narlikar)

6.Book: Modern Cosmology (Scott Dodelson)

7.Wikipedia

Relation between the red-shift and temperature of radiation : At T=3000K.725K) and statistically estimated value of T (=3000K). is the time of radiation. peaked at the microwave region of frequency. and temperature of the observer radiation spectrum T0 =2. these photons have been red-shifted and observed as low temperature black body spectrum. t0 is the present time. . The relation between T and T0 is written as T T0 (1 z ) [ where z is called the red-shift and defined as z a(t0 ) and a is the scale factor or expansion a(t ) factor defined the FRW metric. there were just enough high energy (high frequency) photons to ionized the particles. due to the 1100 fold expansion of the universe the CMB photons are detected as blackbody radiation of temperature 2.725K.1. Fig 1: Black body spectrum of CMB. 2. we get z =1100. 2. i. Observed features of CMB: 2.73K.1. The radiation occurred at 3000K. Recombination temperature T= 3000K.725K.Combining this to the theoretical explanation of Dicke it was decided that the excess temperature is due to the CMB radiation.1.e. For this incredible discovery Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize in 1978. but due to the 1100 fold expansion of the universe. Black body spectrum: The observed energy spectrum is detected as a ‘blackbody radiation’ spectrum with a temperature 2. With further cooling lead to recombination.] Thus with the observed value of T0 (=2.

CMB Temperature anisotropy: The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) consists of the small temperature fluctuations in the blackbody radiation in the different direction of the sky.2. The largest fluctuation estimated is ~200 micro K. 2.3. This polarization pattern can be studied in COBE and WMAP along with the measurement of temperature fluctuation. Fig3: This image shows the plane of polarization along with temperature anisotropy . But with the increasing resolution we can observe the small temperature fluctuations superimposed on this average.2. Fig2: Sky Images showing temperature distribution ( Pics: from “Fluctuation in CMB” (NASA)) Without any contrast enhancement in the observing instrument the CMB sky looks like a uniform distribution of temperature. CMB Polarization: The observed CMB photons are polarized.

Primary anisotropy: The structure of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies is primarily determined by two effects: acoustic oscillations and diffusion damping.) 3.) Secondary anisotropy (due to effects such as interactions of the background radiation with hot gas or gravitational potentials. Fig4: Coupling of photon and baryon There was mechanical oscillation in baryon distribution due to the quantum fluctuation leading to the oscillation of photon distribution. Here the 1st one has been discussed in detail. The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (Primary and Secondary anisotropy): Primary anisotropy (due to effects which occurred at the last scattering surface and before. It is called the acoustic oscillation. Due to the Coulomb interaction. There were different modes of oscillation and resultant is the superposition of all the modes. 4. which occur between the last scattering surface and the observer. electrons were coupled to the baryonic (mainly proton) system and thus the photons were coupled to the baryon distribution.3. Acoustic Oscillation: Before recombination photons were confined to the electronic distribution by Thomson and Compton scattering. Fig5: Formation of acoustic wave .1.

Sound waves in different domains of initial plasma distribution lead to small scale anisotropy. . This inhomogeneity of photon distribution was projected on the surface of last scattering and observed as the anisotropy today.) Actually inhomogeneity is observed as anisotropy as we are observing a spherical surface at a particular time. (Surface of last scattering: The surface of the sphere centred at the observer with the radius equal to the co-moving distance of recombination. During recombination the electron in the cosmic plasma combine to the protons forming neutral Hydrogen atoms and thus photons decoupled from the baryonic system and travelled freely. As photons were tightly coupled to baryon. At that point the phases of the oscillations were frozen-in. photon density was different in large scale.The initial baryon distribution was inhomogeneous in large distance scale and formed different density domains. This is actually the reason of large scale temperature anisotropy and it was not effected by acoustic oscillation. Fig6: Different baryon density domain and formation of mechanical wave. and projected on the sky as a harmonic series of peaks.

.(n v ) 0 a …………………. and further it will be denoted by dots. let us linearize the equations by considering n n n and dropping 2nd and higher order terms of ( n / n ) the continuity equation for fluctuation: d ( n / n ) .] Now the number density n T 3 and hence the fractional density fluctuation is related to the temperature fluctuation as n n 3 T T 3( x ) …………………………….(3) [ Here the derivative is w. Oscillation of photon density The continuity equation ( for non.expanding universe): n . 2008) 4.(1) [ where n is the number density of photon and v is the bulk velocity of photon-baryon plasma] And considering the expansion the corrected form will be n 3n a .(2) Since we are interested in small fluctuations around the background.Notes on CMB.1.(n v ) 0 …………………….v d ………………….r. conformal time defined as dt / d a(t ) .Fig7: Projection of inhomogeneity on the surface of last scattering ( 1st image adopted form: Lec.t. Wayne Hu .(4) ..

(6) 1 (k ) ik ..x ) ). the equation we get 2 (k ) cs k 2(k ) 0 …………. equation (5) will be …………….r.] 3 The solution to the oscillator equation can be specified given two initial conditions (0) and (0) . This is the sound speed in the fluid. and the solution is ( ) (0) cos(ks) (0) sin(ks) .Hence the continuity equation (3) becomes ( x ) .t. And the momentum density is related to the pressure gradient as d [( p )v ] forcedensity p d 4 1 v 3 3 v Now in Fourier space the equation is v ik and hence the amplitude is v k . conformal time and putting the value of v .(5) 1 3 And in Fourier space representation (i.e. ( x ) d 3k (2 )3 (k ) exp(ik . Differentiating the continuity equation (6) w.(8) kcs [where the sound horizon s cs d ] 0 This oscillation continued until recombination. At recombination free electron density drops drastically and the photons freely stream to the observer and the pattern of acoustic oscillations on the . ………..v 3 Now the force acting on the photons is in the opposite direction of the photon pressure gradient.v ……………..(7) [where cs2 p 1 for photon dominated fluid.

.. and hence a a . And now the solution of the forced simple harmonic oscillator equation is cs2 k 2 k2 3 …………………….. the perturbation is frozen into its initial conditions. Considering the perturbation to the metric elements the FRW line element for flat cosmology is written as: ds 2 a2 [(1 2)d 2 (1 2)dx2 ] We can think of this curvature perturbation as changing the local scale factor a a(1 ) .v d a or.e.(10) The time-time piece of the metric perturbation ( ) modes the momentum conservation equation and we get v k ( ) .3. ) the temperature distribution will have the extrema. Gravito-Acoustic Oscillations: So far we have neglected the effect of gravitational forces in our discussion. (0) 0 ) we get the temperature distribution at recombination: (* ) (0) cos(ks* ) ………………(9) Hence for ks* n (where n 1. Fig8: Large scale anisotropy due to the initial baryonic distribution. In the limit of sales large compared with the sound horizon ks ≪ 1.(11) .2. Hence large-scale anisotropies measured by COBE directly measure the initial conditions.recombination surface seen by the observer becomes the acoustic peaks in the temperature anisotropy. Assuming negligible initial velocity perturbations (i. 1 kv 3 ……………………. 4. Hence the continuity equation (3) now is written as a a d a ( n ) 3n 3n n . 2.

(15) 1 2 [ (1 R)](0) (1 3R)(0) due to the initial condition (0) (0) . In particular. Photons lose energy climbing out of gravitational potentials at recombination and so the observer at the present will see T T Therefore from the perspective of the observer.3. baryon loading increases the heights of the odd peaks over the even peaks . can be written as: [ ]( ) [ ](0) cos(ks) ………………(12) Now ( ) is the observed temperature fluctuation. So in the plot of effective temperature the even and odd peaks have different amplitudes. Then the momentum conservation equation becomes d a [(1 R)( p )v ] 3 (1 R)( p )v p (1 R)( p ) d a Now combining (13) to the continuity equation (10) we get ………(13) d 1 1 d [(1 R)] k 2 k 2 (1 R) [(1 R)] d 3 3 d ………………………(14) Now for the matter dominated approximation where constant and neglecting the initial velocity perturbation the solution of (14) is [ (1 R)]( ) [ (1 R)](0)cos ks With the modified sound speed cs 1/ 3(1 R) .1. Baryons add extra mass to the photonbaryon plasma leading to the enhancement of the momentum density of the plasma. 4. Baryonic effects: Now we need to consider the inertial effect of baryon on the fluid as baryon momentum became comparable to the photon momentum at recombination stage. 3 3 Next the equilibrium point of the oscillation is now shifted.. the temperature field will oscillate with larger amplitude. Effects of Baryon loading: The amplitude of oscillations increases by a factor of (1+3R) as ………………………. Now the conserved momentum density of the joint system is written as ( p )v ( b pb )vb (1 R)( p )v Where R ( b pb ) /( p ) and vb v as photon and baryon were tightly coupled.The solution with adiabatic initial condition and considering .3. 4.

Narlikar) 6. CMB Temperature and Polarization Anisotropy Fundamentals (Author: Wayne Hu). Here it is a brief discussion of very basic things about CMB revealing the motivation study of microwave background. The Cosmic Microwave Background for Pedestrians: A Review for Particle and Nuclear Physicists ( Authors: Dorothea Samtleben.K. References 1.Wikipedia .. Suzanne Staggs and Bruce Winstein). The 2nd peak was definitively detected by WMAP showing the small scale temperature fluctuation. 3.Book: Modern Cosmology (Scott Dodelson) 7. CMB temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. Discussion: The discovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the most important discovery in the field of observational cosmology. Fluctuation in Cosmic Microwave Background (NASA) 5. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies (Author: Wayne Hu & Scott Dodelson) 4. Book: An Introduction to Relativity (J. NASA COBE mission (during 1992) clearly confirm the primary anisotropy. The lowering of the sound speed changes the acoustic scale as s* cs* . Fig9: (Adopted from Hu and Drodelson (2002) Baryons add inertia to the photon-baryon plasma displacing the zero point of the oscillation and making compressional peaks (minima) larger than rarefaction peaks (maxima). 2. Works are still going on for complete understanding of the temperature and polarization field.

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