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Santiago Trading Bldg.,Santillan Steet, Tabaco City Tel Nos. 052 4877014 CP No. 09208412235


NAME OF PROJECT : Construction of TB Reference Building

PRINCIPAL/PROJECT OWNER: Department of Health- Bicol, Legazpi City

It is KINGSON CONTRACTORS belief that our people are our most important asset and the preservation of workers Safety and Health must remain a constant consideration in every phase of construction. and health hazards. All workers are responsible for working safely and productively, as well as recognition and awareness of hazards in their work areas. Workers are also responsible for following safe work practices, including the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) where necessary. It is our belief that any safety and health program must have total workers involvement. Therefore, this program has managements highest priority, support, and participation. SAFETY IS A WAY OF LIFE. VICENTE Q. RAOLA Owner/Proprietor We will provide the resources necessary to manage, control, or eliminate all safety

Safety begins at the top and goes downward throughout the company. The primary goal of KINGSON CONTRACTORS is to continue operating a profitable business while protecting workers from injuries, illness or harm. This can be achieved in part by delegating responsibility and accountability to all involved in this company's operation.

Responsibility: Having to answer for activities and results. Accountability: The actions taken by management to insure the

performance of responsibilities. In other words, to reach our goal of a safe workplace everyone needs to take responsibility and be held accountable. Benefits of achieving our goals are:

Minimizing of injuries and accidents Minimizing the loss of property and equipment Elimination of potential fatalities Elimination of potential permanent disabilities Reductions in workers compensation costs Reductions in operating costs Having the best Safety and Health conditions possible in the

construction site.

COMMITMENT The management of KINGSON CONTRACTORS is committed to the company's safety policy, and to provide direction and motivation by:

Appointing ENGR. LEONARDA C. CEMAA Establishing company safety goals and objectives.

as our Safety


Developing and implementing a written Safety and Health Ensuring total commitment to the Safety and Health program. Facilitating workers safety training. Establishing responsibilities for management and workers to Ensuring that management and workers are held accountable for Establishing and enforcing disciplinary procedures for workers. Reviewing the Safety and Health program annually, and revising



performance of their safety responsibilities.

or updating as needed.


The Committee shall consist of representatives from management and nonmanagement workers with Mr. VICENTE Q. RAOLA as the chairman. The committee is a forum, created for the purpose of fostering safety and health through communication. The responsibilities of Safety Committee Members include: Discussing safety policies and procedures with management and Reviewing accident investigation reports on all accidents and Identifying unsafe conditions and work practices and making Plans and develops accident prevention program Conducts safety meetings at least once a month Review reports of inspection, accident investigation and making recommendations for improvements. near-misses. recommendations for corrections.

implementation of program. Submits reports to the manager on its meetings and activities. Provides necessary assistance to government inspecting

authorities. Initiates and supervises safety training for employees. Develops and maintains a disaster contingency plan and

organizes such emergency service units as may be necessary to

handle disaster situations pursuant to the emergency preparedness manual for company of the Office of Civil Defense. All workers of KINGSON CONTRACTORS shall attend and participate in the weekly safety meetings. The Weekly Safety meeting shall be conducted by the Safety Officer. Problems that have arisen or that are anticipated shall be discussed along with any other safety and health topics. The meeting shall be kept a valuable educational experience by: Keeping the meetings moving. Starting and Stopping on time. Using illustrated material and demonstrations to make the point. Discussing each topic thoroughly, providing handouts if possible. Reviewing accidents, injuries, property losses, and near

misses. Evaluating accidents, injuries, property losses, and near misses for trends and similar causes to initiate corrective actions. The Safety Officer must document the meetings using the form in Appendix A.


SAFETY OFFICER The KINGSON CONTRACTORS has designated ENGR. LEONARDA C. CEMAA as our Safety Officer. The office phone numbers are: Office Tel/Fax number: 052 4877014 It shall be the duty of the Safety Officer to assist the Supervisor/Foreman and all other levels of Management in the initiation, education, and execution of an effective safety program including the following:

Introducing the safety program to new employees. Following up on recommendations, suggestions, etc., made at

the monthly safety meetings. All topics of safety concerns must be documented accordingly. Assisting the personnel in the execution of standard policies.

Conducting safety inspections on a periodic basis. Addressing all hazards or potential hazards as needed. Preparing monthly accident reports and investigations. Maintaining adequate stock of first aid supplies and other safety Making sure there is adequate number of qualified first aid Becoming thoroughly familiar with OSHS regulations and safety Defining the the responsibilities appraisal for safety and and health of all

equipment to insure their immediate availability. certified people on the work site. codes. subordinates and holding each person accountable for their results through formal system where necessary, disciplinary procedures. Emphasizing to employees that accidents create unnecessary Provide assistance to government agencies in the conduct of personal and financial losses. safety and health inspection, accident investigation or any other related programs.

DUTIES OF SUPERVISOR/FOREMAN: The Supervisors and/or Foremen will establish an operating atmosphere that insures that safety and health is managed in the same manner and with the same emphasis as production, cost, and quality control. Regularly emphasizing that accident and health hazard exposure prevention are not only moral responsibilities, but also a condition of employment. Identifying operational oversights that could contribute to Participating in safety and health related activities, including accidents which often result in injuries and property damage. routinely attending safety meetings, reviews of the facility, and

correcting employee behavior that can result in accidents and injuries.

Spending time with each person hired explaining the safety Ensuring that initial orientation of "new hires" is carried out by Making sure that if a Competent Person is required, that one is Never short-cutting safety for expediency, nor allowing workers Enforcing safety rules consistently, and following company's Conducting a daily, plant-site safety inspection and correcting

policies and the hazards of his/her particular work. the Safety Officer.

present to oversee, and instruct employees when necessary. to do so. discipline and enforcement procedures. noted safety violations.

DUTIES OF THE WORKERS: It is the duty of each and every worker to know the safety rules, and conduct his work in compliance with these rules. Disregard of the safety and health rules shall be grounds for disciplinary action up to and including termination. It is also the duty of each worker to make full use of the safeguards provided for their protection. Every employee will receive an orientation when hired and receive a copy of the Company Safety and Health Program. responsibilities include the following: Reading, understanding and following safety and health rules Signing the Policies and Procedures Acknowledgement included Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at all times when Wearing suitable all ALL work tasks injuries, clothes safely no as as determined directed how slight by by to the their their and procedures. in Appendix B. working in areas where there is a possible danger of injury. supervisor/foreman. Performing Reporting supervisor/foreman. matter supervisor/foreman immediately, and seeking treatment promptly. Workers

Knowing the location of first aid, fire fighting equipment, and Attending any and all required safety and health meetings. Not performing potentially hazardous tasks, or using any

other safety devices.

hazardous material until properly trained, and following all safety procedures when performing those tasks. Serves as members and cooperate actively with the Health and Assist government agencies in the conduct of health and safety STOPPING AND ASKING QUESTIONS IF EVER IN DOUBT Safety Committee. inspection or other programs. ABOUT THE SAFETY OF ANY OPERATION

KINGSON CONTRACTORS seeks to establish and maintain standards of workers conduct and supervisory practices which will support and promote safe and effective business operations. These supervisory practices include administering corrective action when workers safety performance or conduct jeopardizes this goal. This policy sets forth general guidelines for a corrective action process aimed to document and correct undesirable workers behavior. Major elements of this policy include: Constructive criticism/instruction by the workers supervisor/foreman to educate and inform workers of appropriate safety performance and behavior. B. Correcting employees negative behavior to the extent required.


Informing the workers that continued violation of company safety policies may result in termination.

D. Written documentation of disciplinary warnings and corrective action taken. Depending on the facts and circumstances involved with each situation, the company may choose any corrective action including immediate termination. However, in most circumstances the following steps will be followed: VERBAL WARNING informally documented, by supervisor/foreman or safety coordinator for minor infractions of company safety rules. Supervisor/foreman or safety coordinator must inform the workers what safety rule or policy was violated and how to correct the problem.


WRITTEN WARNING, documented in workers file. Repeated minor infractions or a more substantial safety infraction requires issuance of a written warning. Every attempt should be made to re-educate the employee on the desired performance. The workers should acknowledge the warning by signing the document before it is placed in their personnel file. SUSPENSION, for three (3) working days. sufficiently serious. If the worker fails to


appropriately respond or management determines the infraction is TERMINATION, for repeated or serious safety infractions.



In areas where severe bleeding, suffocation, or severe electrical shock can occur, a 3 to 4 minute response time is required If medical attention is not available within 4 minutes, then a first aid trained person must be available on the site at all times

An appropriate, first aid kit/cabinet must be on site. checked weekly on the completeness of required medicine.

It must be

Provisions for an ambulance or other transportation must be made in advance.

Contact methods must be provided. number is not available.

Telephone numbers must be posted where emergency telephone

KINGSON CONTRACTORS has designated concurrently Ms. RIZA C. DOMETITA as SITE FIRST AIDER, having adequate training to render first aid in the event of a medical emergency in areas where emergency response time is in excess of 4-min. They will maintain appropriate first aid kits and check them weekly to assure they are properly stocked. First aid kits are located at the location: Construction Site Field Office

Every worker shall be trained in emergency procedures: o Evacuation plan o Alarm systems


o Shutdown procedures for equipment o Types of potential emergencies It is the companys responsibility to review their job sites addressing all potential emergency situations.

List of Medicines, Medical Supplies, and Facilities

Classification: Hazardous Workplaces Number of Workers: 1 50 I. Medicines 1. Topical Antiseptic, cc 2. Antiseptic eyewash, cc 3. Isopropyl Alcohol, cc 4. Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia, cc 5. Toothache Drops, cc 6. Hydrogen Peroxide Solution, cc 7. Burn Ointment, Tube 8. Analgesic/Antiseptic, Tablet 9. Anti-Hestaminic Tablets 10. Antacid Tablets 11. Anti-Diarrhea Tablets II. Medical Supplies and Equipments 1. First Aid Pamphlet 2. First Aid Box 3. Thermometer 4. Sterile Gauze, pads 5. Gauze Bandage, roll 1 5 1 1 1 10 10 Quantity 60 120 240 30 15 120 1 20


6. Adhesive Tapes 9. Absorbent Cotton 10. Bandage Scissors 11. Triangular Bandage 12. Safety Pins 13. Tongue Depressors Wooden 14. Hot Waste Bag 15. Ice Bag With needles 2.5 cc 17. Rubber Tourniquet 18. Venoclysis Set (IV tubing, Butterfly) 19. Forceps 20. Waste Pail 21. Soap cake III. Medical Facilities 1. N/A Note: 1 16. Disposable Hypodermic Syringes

1 Adequate Quantity 1 1 Adequate Quantity 100 1

1 1 Adequate quantity

1. Any medicine, supply or equipment prescribe in the table may be substituted with one of comparable effectiveness, and shall be replaced with the same quantity immediately after use or consumption.


Where feasible, workplace hazards are prevented by effective design of the job site or job. Where it is not feasible to eliminate such hazards, they must be controlled to prevent unsafe and unhealthy exposure. Once a potential hazard is recognized, the elimination or control must be done in a timely manner. These procedures include measures such as the following: Maintaining all extension cords and equipment. Ensuring all guards and safety devices are working. Periodically inspecting the worksite for safety hazards. Establishing a medical program that provides applicable first aid

to the site, as well as nearby physician and emergency phone numbers. Addressing any and all safety hazards with employees.


Fire prevention is an important part of protecting workers and company assets. Fire hazards must be controlled to prevent unsafe conditions. Once a potential hazard is recognized, it must be eliminated or controlled in a timely manner. The following fire prevention requirements must be met for each site:

One conspicuously located HCFC fire extinguisher (or equivalent) One HCFC conspicuously located fire extinguisher (or equivalent) A conspicuously located, HCFC fire extinguisher for everywhere Generators and internal combustion engines located away from Site free from accumulation of combustible materials or weeds. No obstructions or combustible materials piled in the exits. No more than 25-gallons of combustible liquids stored on site.

for every floor. for every 3000 sq. ft. more than 5-gallons of flammable liquids or gas are stored. combustible materials.


No LPG containers stored in any buildings or enclosed spaces. Fire extinguishers in the immediate vicinity where welding,

cutting or heating is being done.



Training is an essential component of an effective safety and health program addressing the responsibilities of both management and employees at the site. Training is most effective when incorporated into other education on performance requirements and job practices. Training programs should be provided as follows: Initially when the safety and health plan is developed For all new employees before beginning work When new equipment, materials, or processes are introduced When procedures have been updated or revised When experiences/operations show that employee performance must be improved At least annually

Besides the standard training, employees should also be trained in the recognition of hazards - be able to look at an operation and identify unsafe acts and conditions. A list of typical hazards employees should be able to recognize may include:

Fall Hazards - Falls from- Floors, Roofs and roof openings,

Ladders (Straight and Step), Scaffolds, Wall openings, Tripping, Trenches, Steel Erection, Stairs, Chairs







Overloads, Overhead High Voltage, Extension cords, Portable Tools (broken casing or damaged wiring), Grounding, Metal Boxes, Switches, Ground fault circuit interrupters(GFCI)

Housekeeping Issues - Exits, Walkways, Floors, Trash, Storage Fire HazardsOily-Dirty Rags, Combustibles, Fuel Gas

of Materials (Hazardous and Non-Hazardous), Protruding Nails etc,.

Cylinders, Exits (blocked) Trips/Slips Stairs, Un-even flooring, Electrical cords, icy walkways

Health Hazards- Silicosis, Asbestos, Loss of hearing, Eye injury

due to flying objects


Employees trained in the recognition and reporting of hazards and supervisors/foremen trained in the correction of hazards will substantially reduce the likelihood of a serious injury.



In the event of a fatality (death on the job) or catastrophe (accident resulting in hospitalization of three or more workers) contact ENGR LEONARDA C. CEMAA - Safety Officer. The office phone numbers are: Office: 052 4877014 The Safety Officer will in turn report it to the OSHS - DOLE Region V Office, DOLE BUILDING, Dona. Aurora Street, Albay District, Legaspi City at (52) 480-5831, within 24 hours after the occurrence. If an injury or accident should ever occur, you are to report it to your supervisor/foreman as soon as possible. A log entry and summary report shall be maintained for every recordable injury and illness. The entry should be done within 7 days after the injury or illness has occurred. The OSHS Rule 1050 or equivalent shall be used for the recording. An OSHS recordable injury or illness is defined as an injury resulting in loss of consciousness, days away from work, days of restricted work, or medical treatment beyond first aid. First Aid includes: Tetanus shots Band-aids or butterfly bandages Cleaning, flushing or soaking wounds Ace bandages and wraps Non-prescription drugs at non-prescription strength (Aspirin, Tylenol, Etc.) Drilling fingernails/toenails Eye patches, eye flushing and foreign body removal from eye with Qtips Finger guards Hot or cold packs Drinking fluids for heat stress

An annual summary of recordable injuries and illnesses must be posted at a conspicuous location in the workplace and contain the following








establishment address, certifying signature, title, and date. If no injury or illness occurred in the year, zeroes must be entered on the total line. The OSHS logs should be evaluated by the employer to determine trends or patterns in injuries in order to appropriately address hazards and implement prevention strategies.


Supervisors/Foreman Provide first aid, call for emergency medical care if required. If further medical treatment is required, arrange to have an employer representative accompany the injured employee to the medical facility. Secure area, equipment and personnel from injury and further damage. Contact Safety Coordinator.

Safety Officer Investigate the incident (injury)--gather facts, employee and witness statements; take pictures and physical measurements of incident site and equipment involved. Complete an incident investigation report form (Included in Appendix C) and the necessary workers compensation paperwork within 24 hours whenever possible. Insure that corrective action to prevent a recurrence is taken. Discuss incident, where appropriate, in safety and other employee meetings with the intent to prevent a recurrence. Discuss incident with other supervisors/foremen and other management. If the injury warrants time away from work, insure that the absence is authorized by a physician and that you maintain contact with your employee while he/she remains off work. Monitor status of employee(s) off work, maintain contact with employee and encourage return to work even if restrictions are imposed by the physician.

When injured worker(s) return to work they should not be allowed to return to work without return to work release forms from the physician. Review the release carefully and insure that you can accommodate the restrictions, and that the employee follows the restrictions indicated by the physician.



No worker is expected to undertake a job until that person has received adequate training. All workers shall be trained on every potential hazard that they could be exposed to and how to protect themselves. No worker is required to work under conditions which are unsanitary, dangerous or hazardous to their health. Only qualified trained personnel are permitted to operate machinery or equipment. All injuries must be reported to your supervision/foreman. Manufacturers specifications /limitations /instructions shall be followed. Particular attention should be given to new employees and to employees moving to new jobs or doing non-routine tasks. All OSHS posters shall be posted. Emergency numbers shall be posted and reviewed with employees Each worker in an excavation/trench shall be protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective system. Workers working in areas where there is a possible danger of head injury, excessive noise exposure, or potential eye and face injury shall be protected by Personal Protection Equipment (PPE).

All hand and power tools and similar equipment, whether furnished by the employer or the employee, shall be maintained in a safe condition. All materials stored in tiers shall be stacked, racked, blocked, interlocked, or otherwise secured to prevent sliding, falling or collapse. The employer shall insure that electrical equipment is free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to workers.

All scaffolding shall be erected in accordance with the construction safety standard (OSHS). Standard guardrails for fall protection and ladders for safe access shall be used.

All places of employment shall be kept clean, the floor of every workroom shall be maintained, so far as practicable, in a dry condition; standing water shall be removed. Where wet processes are used, drainage shall be maintained and false floors, platforms, mats or other dry standing places or appropriate waterproof footgear shall be provided.


To facilitate cleaning, every floor, working place, and passageway shall be kept free from protruding nails, splinters, loose boards, and holes and openings.

All floor openings, open sided floor and wall openings shall be guarded by a standard railings and toe boards or cover. The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. All equipment left unattended at night, adjacent to a highway in normal use, or adjacent to construction areas where work is in progress, shall have appropriate lights or reflectors, or barricades equipped with appropriate lights or reflectors, to identify the location of the equipment.

No construction loads shall be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the loads.

A stairway or ladder shall be provided at all personnel points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more, and no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or personnel hoist is provided.



Emergency escape procedures: Immediately leave the building


through the closest practical exit. Meet up at the foremens truck.


Critical plant operations: shut off the generator on your way out if possible, otherwise evacuate the building. Accounting for Employees: Foreman/Supervisor is to account for all employees after emergency evacuation has been completed and assign duties as necessary. Means of reporting fires and other emergencies: Report the location of the emergency and provide directions to the responders. Further Information: Contact the Safety Coordinator or further




information or explanation of duties under the plan. ALARMS SYSTEMS/EVACUATION: The company shall establish the call: Fire, Fire, Fire: Sunog, Sunog, Sunog by any employee, as the signal to immediately evacuate the building/facility for: fire and other emergencies. TRAINING: Before implementing the emergency action plan, a sufficient number of persons to assist in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees will be designated and trained. The plan will be reviewed with each employee covered by the plan at the following times: 1. Initially when the plan is developed or upon initial assignment. 2. Whenever the employee's responsibilities or designated actions under the plan change. 3. Whenever the plan is changed. The plan will be kept at the worksite and made available for employee review.



Dat e: Topics: Job Name:

Action Items:

Meeting Attended By:

Print Name





I have read and understand the attached company policies and procedures and agree to abide by them. I have also had the duties of the position which I have accepted explained to me, and I understand the requirements of the position. I understand that any violation of the above policies is reason for disciplinary action, suspension up to and including termination.

__________________ Worker (Print Name) Date: ________________

____________________ Signature



INCIDENT INFORMATION Date of Accident Time Day of Week Shift Job Site

Name: Address: Age: Phone: Job Title: Supervisor/Foreman Name: Length of Employment at Company: Length of Employment at Job: Employee Classification: Full Time Part Time Contract Temporary Nature of Injury Bruising Dislocation Other (specify) Strain/Sprain Fracture Laceration/Cut Treatment First Aid Emergency Room Dr.s Office Hospitalization Scratch/Abrasion Internal Amputation Foreign Body Remarks: Burn/Scald Chemical Reaction Name and Address of Treating Physician or Facility

Injured Part of Body:

Property, Equipment, or Material Damaged Object or Substance Inflicting Damage: Describe Damage

Describe what happened (attach photographs or diagrams if necessary)

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (Check All that Apply)

Unsafe Acts Improper work technique Safety rule violation Improper PPE or PPE not used Operating without authority Failure to warn or secure Operating at improper speeds By-passing safety devices Guards not used Improper loading or placement Improper lifting Servicing machinery in motion Horseplay Drug or alcohol use Unnecessary haste Unsafe act of others Other: Unsafe Conditions Poor work area design or layout Congested work area Hazardous substances Fire or explosion hazard Inadequate ventilation Improper material storage Improper tool or equipment Insufficient knowledge of job Slippery conditions Poor housekeeping Excessive noise Inadequate guarding of hazards Defective tools/equipment Insufficient lighting Inadequate fall protection Other: Management Deficiencies Lack of written procedures or policies Safety rules not enforced Hazards not identified PPE unavailable Insufficient worker training Insufficient supervisor training Improper maintenance Inadequate supervision Inadequate job planning Inadequate hiring practices Inadequate workplace inspection Inadequate equipment Unsafe design or construction Unrealistic scheduling Poor process design Other: 27

Using the root cause analysis list on the previous page, explain the cause(s) of the incident in as much detail as possible.

How bad could the accident have been? Very Serious Serious Minor

What is the chance of the accident happening again? Frequent Occasional Rare

Describe actions that will be taken to prevent recurrence. Deadline By Whom Complete

Signature Name Position



If any substance is found of unknown origin, company policy is to LEAVE IT ALONE! Immediately evacuate the area, and contact the nearest hazardous material response team. Do not allow employees on site until declared safe by the response team.





Date Filed: September 8, 2009 Regional Labor Office No. V File Number: ___________ Name of Establishment: KINGSON CONTRACTORS Address: SANTIAGO TRADING BLDG., SANTILLAN STREET, TABACO CITY Nature of Business: CONSTRUCTION Number of Persons Employed: 1 shift : 2 shift : 3 shift : Total: Policy and Male: 16 Male: __ Male: __ Male: 16 Program on Female: 2 Female: __ Female: __ Female: 2 Safety and Health: See attached Type: Position in the Company Project Chairman Safety and Heath

A. B.

Policy/Program (See separate sheets) Composition of Safety and Health Committee: Name Chairman: Members: VICENTE Q. RAOLA ROY LIM RAOLA DIONISIO BOSITO RIZA C. DOMETITA LEONARDA C. CEMAA SITE SAFETY & HEALTH COMMITTEE

Project Engineer
Foreman /Supervisor First Aider Safety Officer/Secretary


C. Technical Information: The company is engaged in construction.

Prepared and Submitted by:


Manager/Owner/ Proprietor (Signature over Printed Name)


Procedures / System of Disposing Waste Arising from Construction Introduction: Responsibly managing waste on a construction jobsite is a vital component of sustainable building. In this context, managing waste means minimizing the construction waste or demolition debris (C&D) that leaves the jobsite for landfill disposal. C&D waste disposal triggers a sequence of adverse effects that are not always apparent to building professionals. These include the loss of useful property, wasted materials and embodied energy, greenhouse gas generation, and environmental stressors associated with producing new materials instead of using existing materials. The number of C&D landfills is declining, which means fewer disposal options, greater hauling distances, and increased fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Capping, closing, and monitoring landfills, and cleaning up leaking or contaminated landfill sites drain public funds. Description: A. Definitions Construction Waste: Waste materials generated by construction activities, such as scrap, damaged or spoiled materials, temporary and expendable construction materials, and aids that are not included in the finished project, packaging materials, and waste generated by the workforce. Demolition Debris: Waste resulting from removing a building from the site by wrecking. Land Clearing Debris: Vegetative waste materials removed from a site. Disposal (or Landfilling, or Landfill Disposal): Depositing materials in a solid waste disposal facility licensed for the subject materials (in this case, C&D materials). Recycling: Introducing a material into some process for remanufacture into a new product, which may be the same or similar product or a completely different type of product.

Salvage: Recovery of components, products, or materials for the purpose of reusing them for the same or similar purposes as their original use. Reuse: The subsequent use of a material, product, or component upon salvage. Deconstruction: The systematic disassembly of a building, generally in the reverse order of construction, in an economical and safe fashion, for the purposes of preserving materials for their reuse.

Source Separation (or Segregation): Keeping materials separated by type from the time they become scrap or waste until the time they are salvaged or recycled. Off-Site Separation: Sorting and separating commingled waste at a location other than the construction jobsite, that location having been established for the purpose of recycling. Commingled: Materials of varied types deposited into the same receptacle or pile, or mixed together during demolition. B. C&D Waste Materials The vast majority of construction waste and demolition debris materials can be reused on site, salvaged for reuse on-site or elsewhere, or recycled. Diverting 90% of construction jobsite waste and over 80% of demolition debris from landfill disposal is not uncommon. These materials include:

Landscape and land clearing debris (green wood materials) Asphalt pavement Gravel and aggregate products Concrete Masonry scrap and rubble (brick, concrete masonry, stone) Metals (ferrous and nonferrous) Clean wood (dimensional lumber, sheet goods, millwork, scrap, pallets)

Plastics (films, containers, PVC products, polyethylene products) Asphalt / bituminous roofing Insulation materials Glass (un-tempered) Door and window assemblies Carpet and carpet pad Fibrous acoustic materials Ceiling tiles Plumbing fixtures and equipment Mechanical equipment Lighting fixtures and electrical components Cardboard packing and packaging Others

Note that disposal of hazardous materials is governed by the prevailing regulations at the project's location, and is not addressed in this context. C. Best Management Practices How waste management, or diversion, is accomplished, and to what extent, depends on specific project requirements and conditions. Several issues contribute to an overall waste diversion strategy. 1. Waste Management Planning Waste management should be an integral part of a project's

development. Each of the principal project participantsthe Owner, their Architectural and Engineering (A/E) services (or Construction Management consultant), the Contractor, and Subcontractorswill engage in waste management to some degree throughout the project. Initially, the Owner and their A/E must establish waste reduction goals and define what levels of diversion are achievable and reasonable under the project's conditions. 2. Facility Design The Contractor is responsible for the means, methods, techniques, sequences, and procedures of construction, which include waste disposal

methods. However, the A/E's design team can contribute to waste reduction in several ways. These include: 1. Observe Value Engineering principals. Perform multiple functions with one material rather than requiring multiple materials to perform one function. Design to optimize systems' and components' use. Avoid extraneous materials that do not contribute to function. 1. Be efficient in area and volume. If less material is required by the design, less waste is generated at the jobsite. 2. Observe standard material and product dimensions. Locate features "on module" to the extent possible to reduce cutting and special fitting, which creates scrap. 3. Where possible, select construction systems that do not require temporary support, shoring, construction aids, or other materials that will be disposed of as debris during the project. 4. Where possible, select materials that do not rely on adhesives, which require containers and create residue and packaging waste. Furthermore, adhesives inhibit salvage and recycling at the end of the component's or building's life. 5. Where possible, reduce requirements and for the applied associated finishes, scrap, laminates, coatings, adhesives,

packaging, and waste. Select materials with integral finishes. 6. Where possible, avoid materials which are sensitive to damage, contamination, environmental exposure, or spoilage on-site, which increase the potential for jobsite waste. 3. Construction Contract Requirements The Owner must determine how their waste management requirements will be represented in the contract documents and incorporated into the project. Several provisions are relevant to the project's overall waste reduction performance. 1. There are essentially three ways to represent waste reduction requirements in the contract documents.










Contractor's own initiative to achieve them. This may be effective if the Owner and Contractor share a good working relationship, and encouraging the Contractor is sufficient for them to "do the right thing."

Specify definitive

minimum waste and debris diversion

criteria. This is commonly incorporated into the Demolition specification as a numerical criterion, such as "divert from landfill disposal a minimum of 75% of the non-hazardous construction waste generated at the jobsite."

Develop incentives to reward the Contractor. This may be implemented as an award-type incentive based on the diversion rate, or by including Options in the Bid Schedule for each of several ranges of diversion rates. Require the Contractor to submit a C&D Waste Management Plan. Typically, the Plan includes the following:

2. Name of individual(s) responsible for waste prevention and management. 3. Actions that will be taken to reduce solid waste generation. 4. Description of the regular meetings to address waste

management. 5. Description of the specific approaches to be used in

recycling/reuse. 6. Waste characterization; estimated material types and

quantities. 7. Name of landfill and the estimated costs, assuming no salvage or recycling. 8. Identification of local and regional reuse programs. 9. List of specific waste materials to be salvaged and recycled. 10. 11.

Estimated percentage of waste diverted by this Plan. Recycling facilities to be used. Identification of materials that cannot be recycled or reused.


Description of the means by which any materials to be

recycled or salvaged will be protected from contamination. 13. Description of the means of collection and

transportation of the recycled and salvaged materials.

Require the Contractor to document their actual waste diversion performance throughout the project. The Waste Management Plan, therefore, should also include progress reporting procedures to

record actual diversion and cost corresponding to each diversion and cost estimate.

As the accepted Plan is a part of the contract document, it should be incorporated into the Contractor's Quality Control and Owner's Quality Assurance processes. Some public Owners go so far as to specify that progress payments will not be approved until updated actual diversion performance reports are submitted.

Vest title to debris and waste materials to the Contractor, and allow the Contractor to accrue the economic benefits. These include cost avoidance through reduced debris tipping expenses, revenues from salvaged and recycled materials, and cost avoidance by using materials taken from the jobsite back into the project.

4. Jobsite Waste Reduction There are a variety of ways a Contractor can divert construction waste or demolition debris at the jobsite. The following general practices are common: 1. Up to 10-12% of a project's construction waste stream can be cardboard alone. While protecting new materials is necessary, the Contractor can direct their subcontractors and suppliers to reduce extraneous packing and packing.

Purchase materials in bulk where possible. Avoid individual packaging for volume purchases.

Use returnable containers and packing materials Reuse non-returnable containers on the jobsite to the maximum extent possible. Develop one-hundred-and-oneuses for plastic barrels, buckets, and tubs.

Give away non-returnable containers. Contact local and community organizations (schools, youth groups, community service groups, others similar).

Use scrap in lieu of cutting full new materials. Direct subcontractors

and trades to collect and keep scrap at cutting and fabricating locations. Collect paints and liquids from almost-empty containers; avoid disposing of useable materials simply because there is not enough in one container to finish a job. 3 For materials that are heated, mixed, exposed to environmental conditions, or otherwise subject to spoilage, limit preparation of these materials to quantities which can be installed within their expiration

times. Working in smaller batches will reduce the necessity to throw out expired or spoiled materials. Ensure volatile materials, and materials that degrade when exposed to heat, cold, or moisture are protected from spoilage and are not wasted. 4 5 Recycle Establish damaged a return components, or buy-back products, and materials, with or disassemble them into their constituent materials for recycling. arrangement suppliers. Alternatively, unused, or used but serviceable materials and products can be sold to architectural salvage or used materials retail outlets. 6. The Contractor may contract with a C&D recycling firm who accepts commingled debris. At the recycling site, concrete and masonry rubble are separated out of the debris for crushing into aggregate products. The remaining debris is typically crushed or shredded, then conveyed along a pick line for sorting and recycling. Recycling commingled debris and waste off-site requires virtually no adjustment in practice on the Contractor's part. C&D waste recyclers generally describe their fees as "competitive" with landfill disposal, which means a modest savings over prevailing landfill tipping fees. This method typically achieves a very high diversion rate. However, clean wood is frequently sold for boiler fuel, and some agencies do not allow incineration to be counted as diversion. 7. The Contractor may contract with individual recycling firms who deal in specific materials, in addition to a general waste hauler. This requires the Contractor, subcontractors and tradespersons to segregate waste, deposit it in the appropriate receptacles, and guard against contamination by other materials. The key to effective jobsite segregation is to place receptacles in the path of least resistance to the workforce, training the workforce to observe segregation practices, and policing the jobsite to prevent contamination. The construction process lends itself to on-site segregation. As trades enter and leave the jobsite, each generates a relatively homogeneous waste stream, given the specific tasks and the materials with which they work. As the recyclable materials are segregated, the recycling firms generally offer a higher price for the material (if the contractor hauls), or a lower hauling rate (if the recycler hauls). Alternatively, the Contractor can contract with a waste hauler who provides receptacles for recyclable materials and debris, and hauls all materials as a one-stop service. While some contend site separation increases the cost of construction, efficient

materials movement and site layout should minimize any increased effort. 8. The waste diversion potential in a demolition scenario is

considerable. The building's construction type and project schedule are the two primary factors in determining what and how salvage, reuse, and/or recycling can be accomplished. Consider the following:

Develop the project schedule to accommodate salvage, reuse, or recycling. The quality and quantity of materials salvaged is a direct function to the time available for salvage.

Prior to demolition, salvage as much useable material and components as the schedule will allow. Windows and doors, wood flooring, cabinetry, architectural millwork, electrical fixtures, plumbing fixtures, mechanical equipment anything that can be detached and removed can be usually be salvaged and reused. When developing the C&D Waste Management Plan, identify the most accessible and valuable materials, thereby optimizing the application of resources to this task.

Concrete and masonry materials can be recycled to produce aggregate. This may be accomplished on-site with mobile equipment, or rubble can be hauled to a permanent recycling facility. Preferences vary among demolition contractors and recyclers about whether the building should be gutted prior to demolition, leaving only concrete and reinforcing to be crushed, or demolished intact, and the debris sorted as part of the concrete crushing process. Consider how the recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) will be used, what RCA products are most useable, and how the rubble should be processed to produce these products. If aggregate materials are required for the project, on-site recycling can provide these materials at a reduced net cost.

Landscape materials and wood that is not painted with leadbased paint, treated with an arsenic-based preservative, or otherwise contaminated with a hazardous or toxic material can be shredded into mulch, composted, or chipped for boiler fuel. This can be accomplished on-site or off-site. If mulch or

compost is required for the project, shredding on-site can provide these materials at a reduced net cost.

Structural steel and metals are almost universally recycled. This should be standard practice with any demolition contractor.

Old growth timber is a valuable material and will usually justify the time required for a more delicate removal process. Timbers are generally sold through timber brokers to be cleaned and resold for timber framing, or as feedstock for high quality architectural millwork.

Some species of dimensional lumber can also be quite valuable. Wood framed buildings can be partially or totally deconstructed. While this is often a more labor intensive approach, cost avoidance and the value of the materials can offset initial cost. If none of the alternative salvage, reuse, or recycling options are possible, mixed demolition debris can be hauled to a C&D debris recycling facility, as described above.

Application Waste reduction practices are applicable to virtually any construction and demolition project scenario. The goal is to divert materials from landfill disposal to the greatest extent practical under the circumstances.


There are two opinions about whether this is a realistic expectation under real world project conditions. One is that waste reduction costs money, and the other is that waste reduction saves money. As with any construction project, planning and project management will ultimately dictate whether waste reduction is accomplished within the established cost, schedule, and quality parameters. The greatest uncertainty is usually the availability of salvage and recycling services and outlets, and any costs associated with handling these materials. Resources are available to help Owners, A/E and CM professionals, and Contractors familiarize themselves with the salvage, reuse, and recycling industries and infrastructure.

Prior to Erection-All Scaffold Assemblies

1. Jobsite should be inspected to determine ground conditions or strength of supporting structure, and for proximity of electric power lines, overhead obstructions, wind conditions, the need for overhead protection or weather protection coverings. These conditions must be evaluated and adequately provided for. 2. Frame spacing and mud sill size can only be determined after the total loads to be imposed on the scaffold and the strength of the supporting soil or structure are calculated and considered. This analysis must be done by a qualified person. Load carrying information on components are available from the manufacturer. 3. Stationary scaffolds over 125 feet in height and rolling scaffolds over 60 feet in height must be designed by a professional engineer. 4. All equipment must be inspected to see that it is in good condition and is serviceable. Damaged or deteriorated equipment should not be used. 5. Wood plank should be inspected to see that it is graded for scaffold use, is sound and in good condition, straight grained, free from saw cuts, splits and holes. (Not all species and grades of lumber can be used as scaffold plank. Wood planks used for scaffolding must be specifically graded for scaffold use by an approved grading agency). 6. The scaffold assembly must be designed to comply with OSHS safety requirements. Erection of Fixed Scaffold 1. Scaffold must be erected, moved, or disassembled only under the supervision of qualified persons. Hard hats must be worn by all persons erecting, moving, dismantling or using scaffolding. 2. Mud sills must be adequate size to distribute the loads on the scaffolding to the soil or supporting structure. Special care is needed when scaffolding is to be erected on fill or other soft ground. Sills should be level and in full contact with the supporting surface. 3. Base plates or screwjacks with base plates must be in firm contact with both the sills and the legs of the scaffolding. Compensate for uneven ground with screwjacks with base plates. DO NOT USE unstable objects such as blocks, loose bricks, etc. 4. Plumb and level scaffold until connections can be made with ease. Do not force members to fit. Be sure scaffold stays level and plumb as erection progresses. 5. Ties, guys, bracing and/or outriggers may be needed to assure a safe stable scaffold assembly. The height of the scaffold in relation to the

minimum base width, wind loads, the use of brackets or cantilevered platforms and imposed scaffold loads determines the need for stability bracing. The following general guides are minimum requirements. 6. OSHS requires that scaffolding must always be secure when the height of the scaffold exceeds for (4) times the minimum base width. 7. The bottom tie must be placed no higher than four (4) times the minimum base width and every 26 feet vertically thereafter. Ties should be placed as close to the top of the scaffold as possible and, in no case, less than four (4) times the minimum base width of the scaffold from the top. 8. Vertical ties should be placed at the ends of scaffold runs and at no more than 30 feet horizontal intervals in between. 9. Ties should be installed as the erection progresses and not removed until the scaffold is dismantled to that height. 10. Side brackets, cantilevered platforms, pulleys or hoist arms and wind conditions introduce overturning and uplift forces that must be considered and compensated for. These assemblies may require additional bracing, tieing or guying. 11. Circular scaffolds erected completely around or within a structure may be restrained from tipping by the use of "stand off" bracing members. 12. Each leg of a free standing tower must be guyed at the intervals outlined above or otherwise restrained to prevent tipping or overturning. 13. Work platforms must be fully planked either with scaffold graded solid sawn or laminated plank, in good sound condition, or with fabricated platforms in good condition. 14. Each plank must overlap the support by a minimum of 6 inches or be cleated, i.e. 8 foot planks on 7 foot spans must be cleated. 15. Plank should not extend beyond the support by more than 18 inches. Such overhangs should be separated from the work platform by guardrailing so that they cannot be walked on. 16. Plank on continuous runs must extend over the supports and overlap each other by at least 12 inches. 17. Spans of full thickness, 2 inch by 10 inch scaffold grade planks, should never exceed 10 feet. Loads on plank should be evenly distributed and not exceed the allowable loads for the type of plank being used. No more than one person should stand on an individual plank at one time. 18. Planks and/or platforms should be secured to scaffolding when necessary to prevent uplift of displacement because of high winds or other job conditions.

19. Guardrails must be used on all open sides and ends of scaffold platforms. Both top and midrails are required. Local codes specify the minimum heights where guardrails are required, however, use at lower heights if falls can cause injury. 20. Toeboards are required whenever people are required to work or pass under or around the scaffold platform. 21. Access must be provided to all work platforms. If it is not available from the structure, access ladders, frames with built-in ladders, or stairways must be provided. When frames with built-in ladders are used, cleated plank or fabricated plank must be used at platform levels to minimize or eliminate platform overhang. Access ladders must extend at least three (3) feet above platforms. 22. Side and end brackets are designed to support people only. Materials should never be placed on cantilevered platforms unless the assembly has been designed to support material loads by a qualified person. (These types of platforms cause overturning and uplift forces which must be compensated for. All frames should be fastened together to prevent uplift an overturning moment compensated for with counterweights or adequate ties). 23. Putlogs must never be used for the storage of materials. They are designed for personnel use only. Special care should be taken when putlogs are used. 24. Putlogs should overhang the support points by at least 6 inches. Use putlogs hangers with bolts fastened to support putlogs on frames. 25. Putlog spans of greater than 12 feet require kneebracing and lateral support. 26. Putlogs used as side or end brackets need special bracing. 27. Bridging between towers should not be done with plank or stages unless the assembly is designed by a qualified person and overturning moments have been compensated for. 28. Scaffold should not be used as material hoist towers or for mounting derricks unless the assembly is designed by a qualified person. 29. Check the erected assembly before use. A qualified person should thoroughly inspect the completed assembly to see that is complies with all safety codes, that nuts and bolts are tightened, that it is level and plumb, that work platforms are fully planked, that guardrails are in place and safe access is provided. Erection of Rolling Scaffolds

1. Height of the tower must not exceed four (4) times the minimum base dimension. Outrigger frames or outrigger units on both sides of the tower may be used to increase base width dimension when necessary. 2. All casters must be secured to frame legs or screwjacks with a nut and bolt or other secure means. Total weight of tower should not exceed the capacity of the casters. 3. Screwjacks must not be extended more than 12 inches above caster base. Tower must be kept level and plumb at all times. 4. Horizontal/diagonal bracing must be used at the bottom and top of tower and at intermediate levels of 20 feet. Fabricated planks with hooks may replace the top diagonal brace. 5. All frames must be fully cross-braced. 6. Only prefabricated plank or cleated plank should be used. 7. Casters must be locked at all times the scaffold is not being moved. USE OF SCAFFOLDS All Scaffolds 1. Inspect the scaffold assembly before each use to see that it is assembled correctly, that it is level and plumb, base plates are in firm contact with sills, bracing is in place and connected, platforms are fully planked, guardrails in place, safe access is provided, that it is properly tied and/or guyed and that there are no overhead obstructions or electric lines within 12 feet of the scaffold assembly. 2. Use only the safe means of access that is provided. Do not climb bracing or frames not specifically designed for climbing. If such access is not provided, insist that it be provided. 3. Climb Safely 4. Face the rungs as you climb up or down. 5. Use both hands. 6. Do not try to carry materials while you climb. 7. Be sure of your footing and balance before you let go with your hands. Keep one hand firmly on frame or ladder at all times. 8. Do not work on slippery rungs to avoid slipping. 9. Do not overload platforms with materials. 10. Working heights should not be extended by planking guardrails or by use of boxes or ladders on scaffold platforms. 11. Do not remove any component of a completed scaffold assembly except under the supervision of a qualified person. Any component that has been removed should be immediately replaced.

Rolling Towers All of the above precautions plus: 1. Do not ride manually propelled rolling scaffold. No personnel should be on the tower while it is being moved. 2. Lock all casters before getting on the tower. 3. Work only within the platform area: do not try to extend overhead work area by reaching out over guardrailing. 4. Do not bridge between two rolling towers with plank or stages. 5. Secure all materials before moving scaffolds. 6. Be sure floor surface is clear of obstructions or holes before moving scaffold. 7. Be sure there are no overhead obstructions or electric power lines in the path of rolling scaffold. 8. Rolling towers must only be used on level surfaces. 9. Move rolling towers by pushing at the base level only. Do not pull from the top.