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Introduction: There are different methods of production. An entrepreneur always selects a method which suits his financial resources and other factors. With the introduction of modern technology, now refined and large quantity of production can be obtained within a short period of time. The Government of Pakistan is taking measures to increase the use of modern machinery in the cultivation process. Definition of Mechanization: “Mechanization can be defined as the use of machinery to replace human or animal labor, especially in agriculture and industry.” Farm Mechanization: “Farm mechanization means the use of machines for conducting agricultural operations, replacing the traditional methods which involve human and animal labor.” Farm mechanization is one of the packages of green revolution technology. Farm mechanization implies the use of mechanical technology in the varied farming operations like sowing, harvesting, thrashing, leveling, watering spraying, and weeding, etc. Farm mechanization includes: • Chemical Technology: It refers to the use of chemical fertilizers, sprays, pesticides, etc. to enhance productivity and protect the plants. • Hydrological Technology: It refers to the use of machinery in the irrigation process, like tube wells. • Mechanical Technology: It refers to the use of machinery in cultivation, like tractors, thrashers, bulldozers, etc. When all the farming operations are done by machines displacing animal labor, it is called complete mechanization. When machines are used along with traditional methods of cultivation, it is called partial mechanization.
BY: M. SALMAN SHAHID
Arguments for farm mechanization
The arguments which are advanced in favour of farm mechanization are as under. To Encourage Multiple Cropping To cultivate more than one crop in a season is called multiple cropping. It is the intensive use of land. Only farm mechanization encourages multiple cropping which was not possible under traditional farming. A minor crop with a major one can be sown in the same season. Reduce Dependence on Animal Power The dependence upon animal power has been reduced due to farm mechanization. The animal power method of cultivation is expensive and slow in operation but the farm mechanization method is less costly and timesaving. Greater Area Under Utilization The barren areas can be converted into cultivable land with use of bulldozers, tractors and other tools. Thus the farm mechanization is used for leveling and preparation of land which helps in brining more land under cultivation. Increase Efficiency With the use of tools and machines, the efficiency of farmers increases which leads to increases in the yield per acre. Reduction of Cost With the use of farm mechanization, the efficiency of farmer s increases and total productivity also increases. By the increase in production, the cost of production decreases. Adequate Water Supply The rains and canal irrigation facilities can not fulfill the requirement of water in agricultural sector. Due to hydrological technology, the tube wells can compensate the water shortage. Timely Spray The plant diseases can be controlled by timely spray of chemicals and 15% to 20% productivity can be increased. BY: M. SALMAN SHAHID
Increase in Income By use multiple cropping pattern, fertilizers, chemical spray, supply of water etc. the total productivity increases which is a cause of increases in income of the farmers. To Control Water Logging and Salinity A large area of irrigated land in Pakistan is being destroyed by the problem of water logging and salinity. The water logging has been decreased by the adoption of SCARP programme under WAPDA. While the salinity problem has decreased by the use of chemicals. Increase Living Standard About 63% of the population is living in rural areas. The living standard or rural population can be improved by increasing efficiency and productivity due to farm mechanization. Agricultural Development Pakistan is an agrarian economy which is backward. By farm mechanization the productivity of all crops increases which adds to increase the growth rate of agriculture sector.
(B) Demerits / Arguments against farm mechanization
The main arguments advanced against farm mechanization are as below. Increase Unemployment The use of mechanization technology is a capital intensive technique. It is a cause of unemployment due to displacement of labour force. Pakistan is already facing the problem of disguised unemployment in agriculture sector. Uneconomic Holdings It is difficult to use farm mechanization in scattered and uneconomic holdings. The farmers have to bear high cost of production when it is applied to small farms. Problem of Urbanization The surplus labour force migrates from agriculture sector to other sectors due to farm mechanizations. The migration creates a problem of urbanization in the cities. Social Disparity BY: M. SALMAN SHAHID
The farm mechanization is a capital intensive technique and the big farms are a position to adopt it. Therefore, it will create an economic and social disparity between big and small farmers. Diversion of Capital A huge amount of capital is required to adopt farm mechanization therefore; it requires a diversion of capital from industrial sector to agriculture sector. But it is difficult because already, there is a lack of capital in the economy. Economic Dualism There are regional disparities in Pakistan. Economic dualism can be created through farm mechanization because certain regions are developed and others are underdeveloped. It creates a gap between rich and poor. Inadequate Power Sources The power sources like electricity, oil, gas, coal etc. are inadequate and farm mechanization technology cannot be adopted. Lack of Education and Training In rural population, illiteracy is a main problem. The farmers have lack of know-how and training facilities to adopt farm mechanization policy easily. Poison Penetration By the use of chemicals like spray and fertilizers, a little amount of poison penetrates in food, fruits and vegetables. Therefore, it is also a cause of various diseases in the population. Foreign Exchange Different parts of machines and chemicals are imported for the use of farm mechanization. Thus, a huge amount of the foreign exchange is spent for this purpose. SUMMING UP The farm mechanization is desirable and is necessary to increase the production and living standard of the people but it requires a long-term planning.
BY: M. SALMAN SHAHID