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Business Administration Fratica Anda Avram Hristiana Year III, Group 8891


1. History
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.


The process of obtaining yogurt ........5 Types of yogurt ................................10

Nutritional qualities of yogurt ...........13 Yogurt- healting aliment ....................17 Target market ....................................22 Recommendation ................................25 Conclusions ........................................28 Bibliography .....................................29

Yogurt is a dairy product, which is made by blending fermented milk with various ingredients that provide flavor and color. Although accidentally invented thousands of years ago, yogurt has only recently gained popularity in the United States. It is believed that yogurt originated in Mesopotamia thousands of years ago. Evidence has shown that these people had domesticated goats and sheep around 5000 B.C. The milk from these animals was stored in gourds, and in the warm climate it naturally formed a curd. This curd was an early form of yogurt. Eventually, a process for purposely producing yogurt was developed. While yogurt has been around for many years, it is only recently (within the last 30-40 years) that it has become popular. This is due to many factors including the introduction of fruit and other flavorings into yogurt, the convenience of it as a ready-made break-fast food and the image of yogurt as a low fat healthy food. Manufacturers have responded to the growth in the yogurt market by introducing many different types of yogurt including low fat and no-fat, creamy, drinking, bio-yogurt, organic, baby, and frozen. Traditional yogurt is thick and creamy. It is sold plain and in a wide assortment of flavors. These are typically fruit flavors such as strawberry or blue-berry however, newer, more unique flavors such as cream pie and chocolate have also been introduced. Cereals and nuts are some-times added to yogurts. Yogurt makers also sell products with a varying level of fat. Low fat yogurt, which contains between 0.5% and 4% fat, is currently the best selling. Diet no-fat yogurt contains no fat at all. It also contains artificial sweeteners that provide sweetness while still reducing calories. Creamy yogurt is extra thick, made with whole milk and added cream. Drinking yogurt is a thinner product, which has a lower solids level than typical yogurt. Bio-yogurt is made with a different type of fermentation culture and is said to aid digestion. Yogurt that is made with milk from specially fed cows is called organic yogurt. This type of yogurt is claimed to be more nutritious than other yogurts. Other types of yogurts include pasteurized stirred yogurt that has extended shelf life, baby yogurt made specifically for children, and frozen yogurt.

The yogurt itself has a generally aldehydic flavor, which is a result of the fermentation process. Since it is made from milk, yogurt is rich in nutrients. It contains protein and

vitamins and is a rich source of calcium. In fact, a small container of yogurt contains as much calcium as a third of a pint of milk. In addition to these nutritional characteristics, yogurt is also thought to have additional health benefits. One of the suggested benefits of yogurt is that it acts as a digestive aid. In the body, it is thought that yogurt can encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These organisms help to digest food more efficiently and protect against other, harmful organisms. Another health benefit of yogurt is for people that are lactose intolerant. These people have difficulty digesting milk products however, they typically can tolerate yogurt.

2. The process of obtaining yogurt


Raw Materials In general, yogurt is made with a variety of ingredients including milk, sugars, stabilizers, fruits and flavors, and a bacterial culture.

When the milk arrives at the plant, its composition is modified before it is used to make yogurt. This standardization process typically involves reducing the fat content and increasing the total solids. Once modification occurs, it is pasteurized to kill bacteria and homogenized to consistently disperse fat molecules. (Lactobacillus bulgaricus). During fermentation, these organisms interact with the milk and convert it into a curd. They also change the flavor of the milk giving it the characteristic yogurt flavor of which acetaldehyde is one of the important contributors. The primary byproduct of the fermentation process is lactic acid. The acid level is used to determine when the yogurt fermentation is completed which is usually three to four hours. The suppliers of these yogurt cultures offer various combinations of the two bacterial types to produce yogurts with different flavors and textures. To modify certain properties of the yogurt, various ingredients may be added. To make yogurt sweeter, sucrose (sugar) may be added at approximately 7%. For reduced calorie yogurts, artificial sweeteners such as aspartame or saccharin are used. Cream may be added to provide a smoother texture. The consistency and shelf stability of the yogurt can be improved by the inclusion of stabilizers such as food starch, gelatin, locust-bean gum, guar gum and

pectin. These materials are used because they do not have a significant impact on the final flavor. The use of stabilizers is not required however, and some marketers choose not to use them in order to retain a more natural image for their yogurt. To improve taste and provide a variety of flavors, many kinds of fruits are added to yogurt. Popular fruits include strawberries, blueberries, bananas, and peaches, but almost any fruit can be added. Beyond fruits, other flavorings are also added. These can include such things as vanilla, chocolate, coffee, and even mint. Recently, manufacturers have become quite creative in the types of yogurt they produce using natural and artificial flavorings. The Manufacturing Process The general process of making yogurt includes modifying the composition of and pasteurizing the milk; fermenting at warm temperatures; cooling it; and adding fruit, sugar, and other materials. Modifying milk composition

When the milk arrives at the plant, its composition is modified before it is used to make yogurt. This standardization process typically involves reducing the fat content and increasing the total solids. The fat content is reduced by using a standardizing clarifier and a separator (a device that relies upon centrifugation to separate fat from milk). From the clarifier, the milk is placed in a storage tank and tested for fat and solids content. For yogurt manufacture, the solids content of the milk is increased to 16% with 1-5% being fat and 1114% being solids-not-fat (SNF). This is accomplished either by evaporating off some of the water, or adding concentrated milk or milk powder. Increasing the solids content improves the nutritional value of the yogurt, makes it easier to produce a firmer yogurt and improves the stability of the yogurt by reducing the tendency for it to separate on storage.

The milk substance is fermented until it becomes yogurt. Fruits and flavorings are added to the yogurt before packaging. Pasteurization and homogenization After the solids composition is adjusted, stabilizers are added and the milk is pasteurized. This step has many benefits. First, it will destroy all the microorganisms in the milk that may interfere with the controlled fermentation process. Second, it will denature the whey proteins in the milk which will give the final yogurt product better body and texture. Third, it will not greatly alter the flavor of the milk. Finally, it helps release the compounds in milk that will stimulate the growth of the starter culture. Pasteurization can be a continuous-or batch-process. Both of these processes involve heating the milk to a relatively high temperature and holding it there for a set amount of time. One specific method for batch process pasteurization is to heat a large, stainless steel vat of milk to 185 F (85 C) and hold it there for at least 30 minutes. While the milk is being heat treated, it is also homogenized. Homogenization is a process in which the fat globules in milk are broken up into smaller, more consistently dispersed particles. This produces a much smoother and creamier end product. In commercial yogurt making, homogenization has the benefits of giving a uniform product, which will not separate. Homogenization is accomplished using a homogenizer or viscolizer. In this machine, the milk is forced through small openings at a high pressure and fat globules are broken up due to shearing forces.

Fermentation When pasteurization and homogenization are complete, the milk is cooled to between 109.4-114.8 F (43-46 C) and the fermentation culture is added in a concentration of about 2%. It is held at this temperature for about three to four hours while the incubation process takes place. During this time, the bacteria metabolizes certain compounds in the milk producing the characteristic yogurt flavor. An important byproduct of this process is lactic acid. Depending on the type of yogurt, the incubation process is done either in a large tank of several hundred gallons or in the final individual containers. Stirred yogurt is fermented in bulk and then poured into the final selling containers. Set yogurt, also known as French style, is allowed to ferment right in the container it is sold in. In both instances, the lactic acid level is used to determine when the yogurt is ready. The acid level is found by taking a sample of the product and titrating it with sodium hydroxide. A value of at least 0.9% acidity and a pH of about 4.4 are the current minimum standards for yogurt manufacture in the United States. When the yogurt reaches the desired acid level, it is cooled, modified as necessary and dispensed into containers (if applicable). Adding other ingredients Fruits, flavors, and other additives can be added to the yogurt at various points in manufacturing process. This is typically dependent on the type of yogurt being produced. Flavor in non-fruit yogurts are added to the process milk before being dispensed into cartons. Fruits and flavors can also be added to the containers first, creating a bottom layer. The inoculated milk is then added on top and the carton is sealed and incubated. If the fruit is pasteurized, it can be added as a puree to the bulk yogurt, which is then dispensed into containers. Finally, the fruit can be put into a special package, which is mixed with plain yogurt upon consumption. The finished yogurt containers are placed in cardboard cases, stacked on pallets, and delivered to stores via refrigerated trucks.

Quality Control

Milk products such as yogurt are subject to a variety of safety testing. Some of these include tests for microbial quality, degree of pasteurization, and various forms of contaminants. The microbial quality of the incoming milk is determined by using a dye reaction test. This method shows the number of organisms present in the incoming milk. If the microbial count is too high at this point, the milk may not be used for manufacture. Since complete pasteurization inactivates most organisms in milk, the degree of pasteurization is determined by measuring the level of an enzyme in the milk called phosphatase. Governmental regulations require that this test be run to ensure that pasteurization is done properly. Beyond microbial contamination, raw milk is subject to other kinds of contaminants such as antibiotics, pesticides or even radioactivity. These can all be found through safety testing and the milk is treated accordingly. In addition to safety tests, the final yogurt product is also evaluated to ensure that it meets the specifications set by the manufacturer for characteristics such as pH, rheology, taste, color, and odor. These factors are tested using various laboratory equipment such as pH meters and viscometers and also human panelists.

3. Types of yogurt

Yogurt products come in a wide variety of flavors, forms and textures. Here are the common terms associated with yogurt products available today. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established some of the definitions while others were determined by the manufacturers.

Lowfat and nonfat: There are three types of yogurt: regular yogurt, lowfat yogurt and nonfat yogurt. Yogurt made from whole milk has at least 3.25 percent milk fat. Lowfat yogurt is made from lowfat milk or part-skim milk and has between 2 and 0.5 percent milk fat. Nonfat yogurt is made from skim milk and contains less than 0.5 percent milk fat. Lite (light) yogurt: 1/3 less calories or 50% reduction in fat than regular yogurt. Swiss or custard: Fruit and yogurt are mixed together for individual servings. To ensure firmness or body, a stabilizer, such as gelatin, may be added. These products are also referred to as "blended" yogurt. Frozen yogurt: Frozen yogurt is a non-standardized food and, therefore, is not subject to Federal composition standards, as is the case for yogurt. In order to qualify for NYAs Live & Active Cultures seal, frozen yogurt must be a product made by fermenting pasteurized milk (can include skim milk and powdered skim milk, plus other ingredients), using traditional yogurt cultures, until the proper acidity is reached. Many manufacturers, according

to their unique recipes, will then mix this (the "yogurt" component) with a pasteurized ice cream mix of milk, cream, and sugar, plus stabilizers or other ingredients needed for desired consistency. This frozen yogurt base mix can then be blended with fruit or other ingredients and then frozen. The freezing process does not kill any significant amount of the culturesin fact, during the freezing process the cultures go into a dormant state, but when eaten and returned to a warm temperature within the body, they again become active and are capable of providing all the benefits of cultures in a refrigerated yogurt product. Not all products termed "frozen yogurt" actually contain live and active cultures. Some so-called "frozen yogurts" use heat-treated yogurt, which kills the live and active cultures, or they may simply add in cultures to the mix along with acidifiers, and skip the fermentation step all together. To make sure that a frozen yogurt contains yogurt produced by traditional fermentation and has a significant amount of live and active cultures, look for the NYA Live & Active Cultures seal. Contains active yogurt cultures: Yogurt labeled with this phrase contains the live and active bacteria thought to provide yogurt with its many desirable healthful properties. Look for the National Yogurt Association's (NYA) Live & Active Cultures seal to ensure that the yogurt you buy contains a significant amount of live and active cultures. Heat-treated: Yogurt labeled with this phrase has been heated after culturing, thereby killing the beneficial live and active yogurt cultures. Liquid or drinkable yogurt: Fruit and yogurt are blended into a drinkable liquid. Made with active cultures: FDA regulations require that all yogurts be made with active cultures. Only those that are not heat-treated, however, retain live and active cultures when they reach consumers. Sundae or fruit-on-the-bottom: Fruit is on the bottom, so that turned upside down, it looks like a sundae. Consumers can mix the fruit and yogurt together to make it smooth and creamy.


4. Nutritional Value Of Yogurt

Yogurt is a very popular dairy product, formed by the fermentation of milk by bacterial cultures. Commonly used bacteria used in the formation of yogurt are Lactobacillus

bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These bacteria are also responsible for the high nutritional value and medicinal benefits of this dairy product. Its unique texture and distinct tang is mainly attributed to fermentation of lactose into lactic acid, which acts on the milk protein to produce yogurt. The use of yoghurt in the cuisine culture of people has been known for over 4,500 years. In fact, the product is a staple diet for people residing in the Asian, Central European and South Eastern European zones of the world. Being exceptionally rich in nutrients like calcium, protein, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6, it contributes a lot in the prevention and elimination of a number of human ailments and sicknesses. For your benefit, a Food Rating Chart is provided below, which will help you know more about this exquisite dairy product. Read on and get a better idea of the high nutritional value of yogurt.

Yogurt Nutrition Facts

Nutrients Basic Components Protein Carbohydrates Water Ash Calories Total Calories Calories From Fat Calories From Carbohydrate Calorie From Protein Fiber Sugar Glucose Sucrose Fructose Lactose Maltose Galactose

Amount 8.5 g 11.4 g 215 g 1.8 g 624 KJ 293 KJ 181 KJ 152 KJ 11.4 g 11.4 g 11.4 g 11.4 g 11.4 g 11.4 g 11.4 g

Fats Total Fat Saturated Fat Mono Fat Poly Fat Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin A Retinol Activity Equivalent Beta Carotene Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Betaine Vitamin C Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol) Vitamin E (Beta Tocopherol) Vitamin E (Gamma Tocopherol) Vitamin E (Delta Tocopherol) Folate Vitamin K Pantothenic Acid Minerals Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Selenium Sodium

8.0 g 5.1 g 2.2 g 0.2 g 243 IU 66.2 mcg 12.3 mcg 0.1 mg 0.3 mg 0.2 mg 0.1 mg 37.2 mg 1.2 mg 0.1 mg 0.1 mg 0.1 mg 0.1 mg 17.2 mcg 0.5 mcg 1.0 mg 296 mg 0.1 mg 29.4 mg 233 mg 380 mg 5.4 mcg 113 mg

Zinc Saturated Fats 16:0 Palmitic 18:0 Stearic Mono Fats 18:1 Oleic Poly Fats 18:2 Linoleic 18:3 Linolenic Other Fats Omega 3 Fatty Acids Omega 6 Fatty Acids Amino Acids Alanine Arginine Aspartate Cystine Glutamate Glycine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Proline Serine Threonine Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine

1.4 mg 2171 mg 777 mg 1820 mg 159 mg 66.2 mg 66.2 mg 159 mg 363 mg 255 mg 674 mg 78.4 mg 1664 mg 206 mg 211 mg 463 mg 858 mg 762 mg 250 mg 463 mg 1007 mg 527 mg 348 mg 49.0 mg 429 mg 703 mg


5.Yogurt- healting aliment

More than a refreshing small meal, yogurt is well recognized for its health giving properties. Valued for its nutrition and for its flavor, yogurt has long been considered, quite simply the elixir of life.

Healthy living with plain yogurt The live cultures that can be found in yogurt help build healthy flora in the intestines. However, not all brands contain these cultures. It is recommended a yogurt product that lists live, or active, cultures in the ingredient list. Therapeutic Effect When taken internally, yogurt provides the body with essential vitamins, minerals and protein. Its lactic acid causes healthy microflora to become established in the mucous

membranes of the intestines and keeps harmful bacteria at bay. This significantly improves the absorption of nutrients. Applied externally, lactic acid acts as a germicide and maintains the proper pH of the skin's naturally acidic protective layer. Components Plain yogurt is packed full of nutrition; it contains protein, carbohydrates, lactic acid, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and vitamins a and B2. just 1 cup supplies 20-25 percent of daily protein requirements and as much calcium as a glass of milk. The amount of cholesterol in yogurt depends on whether it is made from whole or skim milk. Restoring the intestinal mucous membranes An unbalanced diet, constipation or misuse of laxatives can harm healthy intestinal flora, severly impairing the body's ability to absorb nutrients into the bloodstream. Nutritional deficiencies and even serious intestinal disorders can result. Yogurt's lactic acid helps restore healthy intestinal flora and prevents the growth of harmful bacteria. Yogurt for calcium deficiency Osteoporosis is caused by a calcium deficiency, but yogurt can come to the rescue. Yogurt is used also for the first aid : To ease the pain of sunburned skin.

Probiotics are bacterial cultures comprising of potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, however lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microbes used. LAB have been used in the food industry for many years, because they are able to convert lactose into lactic acid. This not only provides the characteristic sour taste of fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, but acts as a preservative, by lowering the pH and creating less room for spoilage organisms to grow. Probiotic bacterial cultures are intended to assist the body's naturally occurring flora within the digestive tract to reestablish themselves. They are sometimes recommended by doctors, and, more frequently, by nutritionists, after a course of antibiotics, or as part of the treatment for candidiasis. Many probiotics are present in natural sources such as lactobacillus in yogurt and sauerkraut. Claims are made that probiotics strengthen the immune system.

The rationale for probiotics is that the body contains a miniature ecology of microbes, collectively known as the gut flora. The number of bacterial types can be thrown out of balance by a wide range of circumstances including the use of antibiotics or other drugs, excess alcohol, stress, disease, exposure to toxic substances, or even the use of antibacterial soap. In cases like these, the bacteria that work well with our bodies may decrease in number, an event which allows harmful competitors to thrive, to the detriment of our health. Effects of probiotic dietary supplements There is no published evidence that probiotic supplements are able to replace the bodys natural flora when these have been killed off. There is evidence, however, that probiotics do form beneficial temporary colonies which may assist the body in the same functions as the natural flora, while allowing the natural flora time to recover from depletion. The probiotic strains are then progressively replaced by a naturally developed gut flora. If the conditions which originally caused damage to the natural gut flora persist, the benefits obtained from probiotic supplements will be short lived. Benefits Scientists have found a range of potentially beneficial medicinal uses for probiotics. Briefly, they are described below. Managing Lactose Intolerance: Because lactic acid bacteria convert lactose into lactic acid, their ingestion may help lactose intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than what they would have otherwise. Prevention of Colon Cancer: In laboratory investigations, lactic acid bacteria have demonstrated anti-mutagenic effects thought to be due to their ability to bind with (and therefore detoxify) hetrocylic amines; carcinogenic substances formed in cooked meat. Animal studies have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria can protect against colon cancer in rodents, though human data is limited and conflicting. Most human trials have found that lactic acid bacteria may exert anti-carcinogenic effects by decreasing the activity of an enzyme called -glucuronidase (which can regenerate carcinogens in the digestive system). Lower rates of colon cancer among higher consumers of fermented dairy products have been observed in some population studies.


Cholesterol Lowering: Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a range of lactic acid bacteria to be able to lower serum cholesterol levels in animals, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut, thus inhibiting its reabsorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol). Some, but not all human trials have shown that dairy foods fermented with lactic acid bacteria can produce modest reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels in those with normal levels to begin with, however trials in hyperlipidemic subjects are needed. Lowering Blood Pressure: Several small clinical trials have shown that consumption of milk fermented with various strains of lactic acid bacteria can result in modest reductions in blood pressure. It is thought that this is due to the ACE inhibitor like peptides produced during fermentation. Improving Immune Function and Preventing Infections: lactic acid bacteria are thought to have several presumably beneficial effects on immune function. They may protect against pathogens by means of competitive inhibition (i.e., by competing for growth) and there is evidence to suggest that they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells, increasing or improving phagocytosis as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Clinical trials have demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections and dental caries in children as well as aid in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections (which cause peptic ulcers) in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments. Lactic acid bacteria foods and supplements have been shown to be effective in the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea; decreasing the severity and duration of rotavirus infections in children as well as antibiotic-associated and travelers diarrhea in adults. Reducing Inflammation: Lactic acid bacteria foods and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function. Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in adults, as well as improve milk allergies and decrease the risk of atopic eczema in children. Synbiotics


Although use of probiotic formulations may well help in achieving these benefits, it is also possible to increase and maintain a healthy bacterial gut flora by increasing the amounts of prebiotics in the diet such as inulin, raw oats, and unrefined wheat. As probiotics are mainly active in the small intestine and prebiotics are only effective in the large intestine, the combination of the two gives a synergistic effect. Appropriate combinations of pre- and probiotics are synbiotics. Types The most common victuals in which probiotics are found are unpasteurized dairy products (particularly yoghurt) and probiotic fortified foods. However, tablets and capsules containing the bacteria in freeze dried form are also available. Capsules may be more effective than tablets because some protect the beneficial bacteria from stomach acids. Some common probiotics include:

Bifidobacterium bifidum Bifidobacterium breve Bifidobacterium infantis Bifidobacterium longum Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus casei Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lactobacillus GG

Some commonly used bacteria in products, but without probiotic effect (yogurt bacteria) :

Lactobacillus bulgaricus Streptococcus thermophilus


Some non-existing bacteria (phantasy names, fraud) mentioned on probiotic products () :

Lactobacillus sporogenes Lactobacillus bifidus Lactobacillus caucasicus

Some fermented products containing similar (often non proven to have a probiotic or health effect) lactic acid bacteria include:

Kefir Yogurt Sauerkraut Kimchi

6. Tarket market

The seasonality of the demand can be devided in two categories: During the year , the demand is higher in the summer because yogurt is consumated cold; During the day, yogurt is consumated most in the morning. On the Romanian market, there are brands of yogurt imported from foreing countries, or yogurt produced in the country by foreing companies (like Danone) or local brands (Brenac, Covalact, Danone, Fruchtegut, Frutis, Fruttegurt, Jogobela, Liegeois, LaDorna, Mili, Milupa, Multilacta,Napolact, Napoca, Oke, Prim, Prodlacta, VranLact, Yoginos). The offer of yogurt on the Romanian market is:

The most popular is the yogurt with fruits . The major factors that influence the purchasing of yogurt are: quality, price, shelf life, brand, package, and ingredients. There are two types of buyer : the buyer who is loyal to a brand and buys only that product after checking the shelf life, and the buyer who decides in front of the shelves, after checking all the brands , the price, the ingredients, the package and comparing the products between them. Another important factor is the geographical positioning. People tend to buy the products produced locally.


Regarding the offers of yogurt on the Romanian market, the similarity of yogurts eases the process of buying:

Nr. crt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Brand Danone

The type of product


Oke Napolact




Natural 150, 500 Natural de baut 350 Natural crema de iaurt 125, 450 Delicios 175, 450 Activia 125 Vitalinea 125 Danonino 50,100 Cremoso 125, 300, 400 Danissimo 135 Danette 125 Iaurt 175, 450, 1000 Lapte batut (punga) 500 Iaurt clasic 200, 470 Iaurt Napoca 480 Iaurt NapoLife 470 Chefir NapoLife 470 Iaurt Extra Crema 200 Cedra - iaurt din lapte de500, 1000 oaie si bivolita Sana 200, 470 Iaurt dietetic 110, 200, 400 Iaurt gras 200, 400 Iaurt de baut 400 Lapte batut (punga) 1000 Iaurt Light 175, 450 Iaurt Extra 175, 450 Crema de iaurt 200 Kefir 175 Sana 175 Fruita 150, 450 Iaurt natural 150, 500 Iaurt de baut 370 Fruttis 125 Drink- yogho 200, 400

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46



Iaurt dietetic Iaurt bifidus Lapte batut Kefir Sana Iaurt dietetic Iaurt extra Lapte batut (sticla) Lapte batut light (sticla) Sana (sticla) Kefir (sticla)

Zott - Jogobella Mertinger - FrchteGut

200,400 400 400 400 400 1000 1000 850 330 500 750 150, 500 150, 500




1. Yogurt is easier to digest than milk. Many people who cannot tolerate milk, either because of a protein allergy or lactose intolerance, can enjoy yogurt. The culturing process makes yogurt more digestible than milk. The live active cultures create lactase, the enzyme lactose-intolerant people lack, and another enzyme contained in some yogurts (betagalactosidase) also helps improve lactose absorption in lactase-deficient persons. Bacterial enzymes created by the culturing process, partially digest the milk protein casein, making it easier to absorb and less allergenic. In our pediatric practice, we have observed that children who cannot tolerate milk can often eat yogurt without any intestinal upset. While the amount varies among brands of yogurt, in general, yogurt has less lactose than milk. The culturing process has already broken down the milk sugar lactose into glucose and galactose, two sugars that are easily absorbed by lactose-intolerant persons. 2. Yogurt contributes to colon health. There's a medical truism that states: "You're only as healthy as your colon." When eating yogurt, you care for your colon in two ways. First,

yogurt contains lactobacteria, intestines-friendly bacterial cultures that foster a healthy colon, and even lower the risk of colon cancer. Lactobacteria, especially acidophilus, promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in the colon and reduces the conversion of bile into carcinogenic bile acids. The more of these intestines-friendly bacteria that are present in your colon, the lower the chance of colon diseases. Basically, the friendly bacteria in yogurt seems to deactivate harmful substances (such as nitrates and nitrites before they are converted to nitrosamines) before they can become carcinogenic. Secondly, yogurt is a rich source of calcium - a mineral that contributes to colon health and decreases the risk of colon cancer. Calcium discourages excess growth of the cells lining the colon, which can place a person at high risk for colon cancer. Calcium also binds cancerproducing bile acids and keeps them from irritating the colon wall. People that have diets high in calcium (e.g. Scandinavian countries) have lower rates of colorectal cancer. One study showed that an average intake of 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day is associated with a 75 percent reduction of colorectal cancer. 3. Yogurt improves the bioavailability of other nutrients. Culturing of yogurt increases the absorption of calcium and B-vitamins. The lactic acid in the yogurt aids in the digestion of the milk calcium, making it easier to absorb. 4. Yogurt can boost immunity. Researchers who studied 68 people who ate two cups of live-culture yogurt daily for three months found that these persons produced higher levels of immunity boosting interferon. The bacterial cultures in yogurt have also been shown to stimulate infection-fighting white cells in the bloodstream. Some studies have shown yogurt cultures to contain a factor that has anti-tumor effects in experimental animals. 5. Yogurt aids healing after intestinal infections. Some viral and allergic gastrointestinal disorders injure the lining of the intestines, especially the cells that produce lactase. This results in temporary lactose malabsorption problems. This is why children often cannot tolerate milk for a month or two after an intestinal infection. Yogurt, however, because it contains less lactose and more lactase, is usually well-tolerated by healing intestines and is a popular "healing food" for diarrhea. Many pediatricians recommend yogurt for children suffering from various forms of indigestion. Research shows that children recover faster from diarrhea when eating yogurt. It's good to eat yogurt while taking


antibiotics. The yogurt will minimize the effects of the antibiotic on the friendly bacteria in the intestines. Antibiotics kill not only harmful bacteria; they also kill the healthy ones in the intestines. The live bacterial cultures in yogurt can help replenish the intestines with helpful bacteria before the harmful ones take over. It is usually "prescribed" a daily dose of yogurt while a person is taking antibiotics and for two weeks thereafter. 6. Yogurt can decrease yeast infections. Research has shown that eating eight ounces of yogurt that contains live and active cultures daily reduces the amount of yeast colonies in the vagina and decreases the incidence of vaginal yeast infections. 7. Yogurt is a rich source of calcium. An 8-ounce serving of most yogurts provides 450 mg. of calcium, one-half of a child's RDA and 30 to 40 percent of the adult RDA for calcium. Because the live-active cultures in yogurt increase the absorption of calcium, an 8ounce serving of yogurt gets more calcium into the body than the same volume of milk can. 8. Yogurt is an excellent source of protein. Plain yogurt contains around ten to fourteen grams of protein per eight ounces, which amounts to twenty percent of the daily protein requirement for most persons. In fact, eight ounces of yogurt that contains live and active cultures, contains 20 percent more protein than the same volume of milk (10 grams versus 8 grams). Besides being a rich source of proteins, the culturing of the milk proteins during fermentation makes these proteins easier to digest. For this reason, the proteins in yogurt are often called "predigested." 9. Yogurt can lower cholesterol. There are a few studies that have shown that yogurt can reduce the blood cholesterol. This may be because the live cultures in yogurt can assimilate the cholesterol or because yogurt binds bile acids, (which has also been shown to lower cholesterol), or both. 10. Yogurt is a "grow food." Two nutritional properties of yogurt may help children with intestinal absorption problems grow: the easier digestibility of the proteins and the fact that the lactic acid in yogurt increases the absorption of minerals. And even most pickyeaters will eat yogurt in dips and smoothies and as a topping. .

8. Conclusions
Yogurt - Good for Young and Old Yogurt is a valuable health food for both infants and elderly persons. For children, it is a balanced source of protein, fats, carbohydrates, and minerals in a texture that kids love. For senior citizens, who usually have more sensitive colons or whose intestines have run out of lactase, yogurt is also a valuable food. Elderly intestines showed declining levels of bifidus bacteria, which allow the growth of toxin-producing and, perhaps, cancer-causing bacteria. The Future The future of yogurt manufacturing will focus on the development of new flavors and longer lasting yogurts. The introduction of new flavors will be driven by consumer desires and new developments by flavor manufacturers. The suppliers of the bacterial cultures are conducting research that hints at the development of uniquely flavored yogurts. By varying the types of organisms in the cultures, yogurt is produced much faster and lasts longer than conventional yogurt. Additionally, the nutritional aspects of yogurt will be more thoroughly investigated There is some evidence that has shown consumption of yogurt has a beneficial antibiotic effect. It has also been shown to reduce the incidence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal illnesses. Other purported benefits of yogurt include the reduction of cholesterol, protection against certain cancers, and even boosting the immune system.


Helferich, W. and D. Westhoff. Yogurt: All About It, 1980. Hui, Y.H., ed. Dairy Science and Technology Handbook. New York: Wiley VCH, 1992. Robinson, R.K. "Snack Foods of Dairy Origin." In Snack Food. Edited by Gordon R. Booth. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990. Robinson, R.K and A.Y. Tamime. "Recent developments in yoghurt manufacture." In Modern Dairy Technology. Edited by B.J.F. Hudson. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1986. Article reviewed by Sara Bondioli Last updated on: Jan 26, 2011

Ohio State University Extension Chow Line: Check Yogurt Labels for Live Cultures Cornell University: Yogurt Production The Nibble: Yogurt Glossary Ask Dr. Sears: Yogurt 30