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Research Council Meeting (6.5.

2011) 11th MEETING OF THE RESEARCH COUNCIL (May 6, 2011)


AGENDA ITEMS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To confirm the proceedings of the 10th meeting of the Research Council held on January 18, 2007 To report action taken on the decisions of the 10th meeting of the Research Council. To present the highlights of research work done during 2007-2010 To place before the Council the list of research projects sanctioned 2011. during 2007 -

To place before the Council the abstracts of the Ph.D. theses submitted and approved during 2007-2011 New items put forth by the Honble Members of Research Council: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Research on Fodder Polyhouse Technology Use of unconventional sources of energy Water harvesting structures. Provision of funds for conducting the research trials of the scientists from headquarter/other station and P.G. students at research stations. Provision of staff and funds for carrying out research activities at out-stations Base line data on Agriculture/ Animal Husbandry and allied areas. Performance indicators for research monitoring. Inclusion of new information on the University Website.

7.

Any other item(s) with the permission of the Chair.

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DETAILED AGENDA ITEMS
Item No.1: To confirm the proceedings of the 10th meeting of the Research Council held on January 18, 2007 Item No.2: To report action taken on the decisions of the 10th meeting of the Research Council. 2.1. Dr. Ranjodh Singh vide Item No. 3.1.2 of the proceedings pointed out that in Himachal Pradesh about 82% area is rainfed and we should have location specific dryland technologies available to help the farming community. On this, the Honble Vice-Chancellor desired to strengthen the research work on locationspecific dryland technology in collaboration with Central Research Institute on Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad for helping the farming community. He further desired to develop dryland technologies keeping in view the soil moisture conservation aspect and right type of crop varieties to be used. The Dean, Post Graduate Studies informed the house that the data generated in this regard in the Department of Soil Science can be effectively used. 1. Different water management practices like conservation tillage,use of different mulches, nutrient and moisture interactions, deficit/supplemental irrigation, planting methods, use of organics, in-situ residual rain water conservation and its carry-over, adjustment in sowing dates/varieties and rain water harvesting in small (70-6000 m2 capacity) polylined ponds and its further recycling for raising cereal and vegetable crops have been evaluated and found useful in raising crops under water deficit conditions. The recommendations have been propagated through different training programmes, published materials and package of practices for rabi and kharif crops. 2. The following concerns are needed to be addressed for efficient utilization of available water resources in rainfed areas of the state: Wild flooding method of irrigation needs to be replaced with pressurized irrigation techniques to save the scarce water resource. Proper land leveling in terraced fields needs to be undertaken for proper soil and water management. The bunds of the terraces are required to be located on contour lines. To check the wastage of water through seepage during conveyenace or storage, use of cost effective sealants is required to be taken up. The cropping pattern adopted should be such that the crops are of short duration with low water requirement and are quite remunerative. Judicious use of biomass manures and composts needs to be done to improve water retentivity of soils. In-situ moisture conservation techniques have to be restored to through all feasible techniques.

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Water harvesting has to be at the top of the agenda to improve water and crop productivity. Vegetative measures need to be adopted to enhance water infiltrability and rejuvenate the springs. A necklace of small check dams or water harvesting structures needs to be constructed to help in recharging the ground water. Use of land has to be undertaken as per the land capability classification. Extension/ training programmes have to be undertaken to highlight the available technology. Stringent laws need to be formulated and implemented so as to make roof top water harvesting mandatory by all. Farmers Participatory Action Research Programme at 100 locations of Himachal Pradesh was approved by Ministry of Water Resources, GOI, New Delhi under Farmers Participatory Action Research Programme in 5000 villages and shortlisting the Agricultural University/ICAR institutions. The budget of the project was Rs 50 lacs and duration of the project was 30 months (April 2008 to September 2010). It was implemented in the farmers fields at selected blocks in H.P. by various Research Stations and Krishi Vigyan Kendras through Directorate of Research and Directorate of Extension Education. The technologies applied in the farmers fields were as: Drip and Sprinkler irrigation, Terrace grading for proper irrigation, Roof precipitation harvesting for vegetable production, Precision and deficit irrigation technology for cropped area and maximizing crop water use efficiency.

3.

2.2.

Dr. A.S. Shandil, Additional Director of Agriculture vide Item Nos. 3.2.1, 3.2.4, 3.2.6, 3.2.8 and 3.2.9 of the proceedings made the following suggestions: Small and marginal farmers of the state need a set of farm activities in the form of Integrated Farming System whereby they are able to earn Rs. 0.91.0 lakh per annum. On this, the Member Secretary, Dr.H.L.Sharma informed that a Task Force on Integrated Farming System modules is working expeditiously in this venture. On this, the Honble ViceChancellor informed that the research efforts are either discipline-based or problem based or there is need for Agri-Horti-Animal Husbandry-PoultryDairy-Handicraft integrated farming system, so as to enable the farmers to increase their income. He also stressed for cultivation of high value cash crops including ornamentals. A multidisciplinary team of University scientists was constituted and a project proposal entitled Development of Integrated Farming System for Hill Agro-ecosystem worth Rs. 3.11 crores was submitted to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for funding through the Honble Vice-Chancellor of this University but the approval of the same has not been received till date. Before that a Task Force on Integrated Farming System was also constituted and a little work was initiated at Kandwari village but much work could not be done due to non availability of suitable financial support to extend the R&D programme on Integrated Farming System Research.

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In the context of energy conservation, zero tillage has not become popular among the farmers of state. Constraints and benefit cost ratio of this technology is required to be identified and matter be carefully looked into. On this, the Honble Vice-Chancellor desired that an Agronomist be deputed to visit G.B. Pant University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Pantnagar for having detailed technical information on zero tillage. Dr.H.N.Verma informed that 4-5 demonstrations on zero tillage can be laid for confidence building among the farmers.

Dr. D.K. Vatsa, Incharge, Farm Implements and Machinery scheme, Dept. of Agril. Engineering visited University of Agril. Sciences & Technology, Pantnagar for having detailed technical information on zero tillage. The report to this effect submitted by Dr. Vatsa is appended here with as Annexure-I for perusal of the honble members of the Research Council. He also impressed upon the importance of On-line Marketing facilities for farming community. To this the Member Secretary conveyed that the Task Force on Marketing will be directed to work out the details for exploring possibilities to provide on-line marketing facility to the farmers.

Before working out the details for exploring possibilities to provide on-line marketing facilities to the farmers of HP, the Team Leader, Task Force on Marketing, had prepared a concept note on on-line marketing which is appended herewith as Annexure-II. Research on development of Maize Hybrids: The Member Secretary informed that at HAREC, Bajaura where All India Coordinated Research Project on Maize Improvement is running, a number of inbred lines have been developed. However, so far we have not been able to hit any superior heterotic combination. The Sr. Maize Breeder at Bajaura will be asked to submit a detailed status report in this regard and futuristic plan of action.

The Maize Breeder, HAREC, Bajaura has submitted a detailed status report on development of maize hybrids and the same is appended as Annexure-III. Further to increase the production and popularization of maize hybrids, a project proposal entitled Demonstration and popularization of single cross maize hybrid seed production technology amounting to Rs. 58.0 lakhs was submitted for funding under RKVY which has been approved by the State Level Sanctioning Committee in its meeting held on 2nd December, 2010 He also desired to know the status of hybrid rice production in the state. The Member Secretary informed that one Hybrid Rice variety at RWRC, Malan under AICRP Hybrid Rice Varietal Trial has demonstrated highest yield potential. He further informed that the research work on hybrid rice will be initiated on priority at Malan.

The work on Hybrid Rice has already been initiated at Rice & Wheat Research Station, Malan. Fourteen cytoplasmic male sterile lines and their maintainers

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have been procured from Barwale Foundation, Hyderabad. The A & B lines were grown during kharif 2007. At flowering crosses were made for maintaining the CMS lines as well as with tester varieties adapted to hill conditions for identifying restorer lines and heterotic crosses, if any. 2.3. Dr. R.G.Sud, Head, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry vide Item Nos. 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 of the proceedings submitted the following two proposals: Establishment of Quality Testing Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology, COBS for monitoring the quality of Biofertilizers presently sold in the market. The Chairman desired that proper negotiations may be made with the Department of Agriculture in this regard.

The proposal on establishment of Quality Testing Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology, COBS for monitoring the quality of Biofertilizers presently sold in the market was made by the Dean, COBS with the Director of Agriculture, Govt. of H.P but the same was not approved with the view that this type of State level facility will be developed in the Directorate of Agriculture, Govt. of H.P. Establishment of Intellectual Property Unit at CSKHPKV, Palampur in consonance with the ICAR guidelines for addressing the issues regarding IPR. The Honble Vice-Chancellor agreed for the same and desired that a proposal to this effect may be sent.

Institute Technology Management Unit (Intellectual Property Management & Technology Transfer/Commercialization Unit) in the University has been established under the Chairmanship of Honble Vice-Chancellor on 5.10.2007. Recently a committee comprising of seven members has been constituted for looking after all Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) related issues at the University level. It calls for IP protection through patents, plant variety protection and other forms of IPR. Public private partnership will play an important role in the advancement of agricultural research under IPR programme.

2.4.

Dr.B.C.Sood, Head, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics vide item No. 3.6.1 of the proceedings presented the following issues. Institutional charges on the evaluation of private company hybrids etc. be reduced to 10% in place of the existing 25%. The Member Secretary explained that at present 25% institutional charges go to the Comptrollers account straightway and since the number of locations for testing private company hybrids is more, hence only 10% may be kept by the Comptrollers office. The Chairperson directed that the proposal to this effect may be sent for proper examination.

Proposal on the issue received from Dr. B.C. Sood was submitted to the Honble Vice-Chancellor but the same was not approved.

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2.5. The Director of Research-cum-Member Secretary vide item No. 3.7 of the proceedings presented the view point that during NARP, Research Advisory Committee meeting used to be held in each Kharif and Rabi crop season atleast at the Regional Research Stations, where the Director of Research, Heads of Departments and the Scientist Incharges/scientists of the respective zones used to monitor the experimentation in the field for further improvements/modification and suggestions. The Chairperson desired to hold meeting with the members of the Research Team and Heads of Departments in this regard. For proper planning, monitoring/ evaluation and futuristic strategies, crop-wise team leaders and members have been constituted and meetings of these teams are being held at regular intervals in which thorough discussions are held on the research programmes being carried out for individual crop to decide Futuristic Research Programmes/ Strategies to be undertaken alongwith the action plan to meet the objectives in respect of different disciplines of the crop based upon previous years experimentation. 2.6. Dr. Ranjodh Singh vide item No. 6.1 of the proceedings suggested that the research programmes of all the scientists, both at the HQ as well as the Research Stations should be discussed with the concerned HODs, Director of Research and the Vice Chancellor. The research programmes/ experiments by all the scientists, both at the HQ as well as the Research Stations are being undertaken after due consultation with the concerned technical Head of the Department who finalizes the research experiments in consultation with the Director of Research. 2.7. Dr. Pradeep Sharma, Dean Postgraduate Studiesvide item No. 6.2 of the proceedings emphasized that the University must fix 3-5 priority areas having clear objectives, be time bound and progress being monitored regularly. The priority areas as finalized by all the Deans of the constituent colleges are appended herewith as Annexure-IV. 2.8. Dr. H.N. Verma, Head, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Dr. Pradeep Sharma, Dean, Post Graduate Studies vide item No. 6.3 of the proceedings suggested that the technologies generated at the Campus/stations must be demonstrated and tested in On-Farm trials and be concluded at the farmers fields by involving the Directorate of Extension Education. The technologies generated at the campus/stations are being demonstrated and tested in on-farm trials through various Krishi Vigyan Kendras under the jurisdiction of the University. 2.8.1. Dr.Vijay Singh Thakur, Associate Director (R&E), Kukumseri vide item No. 6.7 of the proceedings suggested that after the transfer/shifting of scientists from one place to other place, they take the whole record/data of the research projects handled/completed by them. On this the Honble Vice-Chancellor and the Director of Research desired that the Head of the Department/Associate Director/Scientist

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Incharge should first take all the data/record of the research projects from the scientist and only then the scientist should be relieved. Instructions on the above have already been issued to all the scientists. 2.8.2. In the light of above suggestions/opinions, the Chairman vide item No. 6.8 of the proceedings desired that the 3-5 crisp priority areas be worked out immediately, which may be circulated to all the departments. On the basis of these priority areas, research programmes of the respective departments be finalized. Same as given under point No. 6.2 above.

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Item No. 3: To present the Highlights of Research Work done during 2007- 2010 3.1. Technologies Developed by the University During the period under report, the University has developed following 23 varieties of different crops, which have been approved by the H.P. State Seed Sub Committee for general cultivation in different agro-climatic conditions of the State: Crop Maize Rice Wheat Barley Pulses Oilseeds Vegetables Name of Varieties Bajaura Popcorn, Bajaura Sweet Corn and hybrid (HQPM-1) Varundhan HPW-211, HS-420 (Shivalik), VL Gehun-829, HPW-249 (Asmi), HPW236 (Santosh) and HPW-251 (Aryan) HBL-391 (Gokul) GPF-2 (Chickpea),UPU 00-31 (Himachal Mash-1) of Urdbean, C-519 (Himachal Lobia-2) of Cowpea SML-668 (Moongbean) KL-214 (Himani) and KL-215 (Bhagsu) of Linseed Punjab-89 (Garden pea), Palam Lohit (DPO-1) of Onion, DPT-1 (Palam Pitamber) and DPT-2 (Palam Lalima) of Turmeric, DPF-205 (Palam Somya) and Pusa Kasuri of Fenugreek. 3.1.1. Varieties Developed and Released

3.1.2. Other Technologies Developed During the period under report, following 24 technologies have been developed by the University: Cropping system and crop production Recommendation for the introduction of red clover followed by white clover through sheep and goat droppings under wet temperate conditions. Change of recommendations in seed rate of upland paddy: For upland paddy, 60 Kg/ha good quality seed is required. The seed should be sown in rows at 20 cm spacing behind the plough at a depth of 3-4 cm for better plant population and quick emergence. For broadcast sowing, the seed rate has to be increased to 80 Kg/ha. Standardized System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for higher rice productivity in mid-hills. Standardized polyhouse technology for protected cultivation of quality vegetable seedlings. Model Organic Farm has been operationalized at the University headquarter. Package of practices for Modified System of Rice Intensification (MSRI). Microbial retting in linseed.

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New recommendation for pea based cropping sequences under high hill dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh. New recommendation for the management of potato tuber moth (PTM) under field conditions: Spray the crop with 720 ml spinosyn or 600 ml lambda cyhalothrin or 1350 ml deltamethrin (Decis 2.8 EC) or 450 ml cypermethrin (CyperKil 25 EC) or 675 ml deltamethrin (Decis 2.8 EC) + 1125 ml Bt (Dipel 8 L), in 750 L water per ha during 3rd week of March. The spray may be repeated at 15 days interval if the pest still persists. New recommendation for the control of plant hopper (WBPH&BPH) in rice (application of carbaryl 50WP @ 1500g/ha. OR monocrotophos @ 1500 ml/ha). New recommendation for the control of Chaffer beetle in rice (application of Cypermethrin @ 625 ml/ha OR Chlorpyriphos @ 1250 ml/ha at panicle emergence stage of the crop). New recommendation for the control of Green Gram Weevil. Additional recommendation for the management of important insect-pests of mash. Management of greenhouse whitefly in tomato grown under naturally ventilated playhouses. New recommendation for integrated management of fruit borer, foliar and fruit rot diseases of tomato Additional recommendation for inclusion in the package of practices for the management of fruit flies in cucurbits. New recommendation for the control of Karnal bunt of wheat in general crop. Additional recommendation for the control of late blight of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans: Spray the crop thrice with Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb 75 WP) @ 0.25%/Eurofil NT (Mancozeb 35% SC) @ 0.4%/Propineb 70 WP (Antracol) @ 0.25%/Chlorothalonil 75 WP (Kavach) @ 0.20% at fortnight intervals. Additional recommendation for the control of brown leaf spot of rice with the application of two sprays of Tilt 25EC (0.1%) after 45 and 65 days of transplanting. New recommendation for the control of Early blight and Cercospora leaf spot in potato: (Spray Antracol 75WP (0.25%) with the appearance of first symptom or 40 days after planting. Give another spray at 15 days interval. New recommendation for weed management in potato: Spray Paraquat 0.6 kg/ha (Gramaxone 24WSC @ 2.5 l/ha) on emerged weeds when the potato emergence is not more than 5 per cent. Insect-pest management

Disease Management

Weed Management

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Protected Cultivation New recommendation for enhancing storage life of garlic under Himachal Pradesh conditions: Application of borax @ 1000 ppm two weeks prior to harvesting of bulbs for large scale storage and hanging of bulbs in storage for self consumption or seed material. Tips for construction and maintenance of polyhouses in low and mid hills of Himachal Pradesh. Portable low tunnel technology for vegetable nursery production.

3.2: Other Research Achievements of the University AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES


1. CROP IMPROVEMENT: Maize: Bajaura Pop Corn: It is special type maize having the ability to pop twenty times in volume upon heating. Its grains are small, hard, bright and orange yellow flint. It matures in 95-100 days. It is tolerant to turcicum blight and Maydis blight, developed at HAREC, Bajaura and released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2009 for cultivation in low and mid hills of Himachal Pradesh. Its average grain yield is 25-28 q/ha. Bajaura Sweet Corn: It is special type maize. Grains are less shriveled and yellow golden in colour containing 20-22% sugar content. It is tolerant to turcicum blight and Maydis blight, developed at HAREC, Bajaura and released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2009 for cultivation in low and mid hills of Himachal Pradesh. Its average grain yield is 28-30 q/ha. Bajaura Makka (L-201): It is an early maturing composite variety developed and released in 2008 by the Central Variety Release Committee for cultivation in HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand. Its average yield is 40-45q/ha. Hybrid HQPM -1: It is a quality protein maize hybrid and is nutritionally superior as it has double amount of amino acids (lysine and tryptophan) which can solve the problem of malnutrition. This hybrid is highly responsive to fertilizers and tolerant to turcicum blight and Maydis blight. Its average grain yield is 68-70q/ha. It matures in 110-112 days and was released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2009 for cultivation in low and mid hill areas (upto 1200m amsl) of Himachal Pradesh. Vivek-21: It is a hybrid variety identified and released in 2007 for zone -1 by CVRC and is suitable for high fertility conditions. It is tolerant to tursicum leaf blight and its yield is 50-60q/ha. During kharif 2007, 13 maize hybrids supplied by various private companies / organizations were evaluated at six different locations (Bajaura, Berthin, Dhaulakuan, Kangra, Palampur and Sundernagar) in Himachal Pradesh along with two checks, PMZ 4 (Double) of Monsanto Company and Girija composite (CSK HPKV). On the basis of overall performance at all the six locations with respect to seed yield (q/ha), although, none of the entries could statistically out yielded the hybrid check, PMZ 4 (76.55 q/ha), however, the entry X 717 (79.59 q/ha) gave numerically higher seed yield than this check and was found to be consistent in its superior performance over different locations. As many as six entries were statistically at par with the hybrid

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check for seed yield . All the entries, except EHB 1579 (45.14 q/ha) yielded higher than the composite check Girija (48.04 q/ha). As many as nine entries gave significantly higher seed yields than the composite check. The overall maturity duration of the entries ranged from 90 to 99 days. Almost all the hybrids exhibited resistant to moderately susceptible reactions to various diseases under field conditions at different locations The ranking of hybrids, which gave seed yield at par with the best check PMZ 4 (76.55 q/ha were [1] X 717 (79.59 q/ha) [2] DKC 7074 (76.13 q/ha), [3] X121(75.56 q/ha), [4] APOORVA (74.92 q/ha), [5] X-789 (68.70 q/ha) and [6] EMH1000 (67.72 q/ha). During Kharif 2008, 13 maize hybrids supplied by various public/ private companies/ organizations were evaluated at six different locations (Bajaura, Berthin, Dhaulakuan, Kangra, Palampur and Sundernagar) in Himachal Pradesh alongwith two checks, PMZ-4 of Monsanto Company and Girija composite of CSKHPKV. On the basis of overall performance at three locations (Bajaura, Kangra and Palampur) under mid hill conditions with respect to seed yield (q/ha), none of the entries could statistically outyielded the hybrid check, PMZ-4 (87.21q/ha). However, six hybrids viz; Vivek 21 (86.29q/ha), 900MGold (86.26q/ha, 110-08-01 (84.86q/ha), Bisco1141 (80.11q/ha), DKC 7074 (80.09q/ha) and Bisco1111 (77.83q/ha) were statistically at par with the hybrid check PMZ-4 (87.21q/ha) with respect to seed yield. Only two test entries viz; Vivek 21 and 900MGold gave 13.23% and 13.19% increase for seed yield over the composite check Girija, while rest of the entries were statistically at par with Girija. On the basis of overall performance at all the four locations (Bajaura, Kangra, Palampur and Dhaulakuan) under mid as well as low hill conditions with respect to seed yield (q/ha), none of the entries could statistically outyielded the hybrid check PMZ-4 (79.99 q/ha), however, the entry 900MGold (80.01q/ha) gave numerically higher seed yield than this check and was found to be consistent in its superior performance over different locations. During kharif, 2009, eight maize hybrids supplied by various Private Companies were evaluated along with two checks, PMZ-4 of Monsanto Company and Girija of CSKHPKV at six different locations of mid and low hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh (Palampur, Bajaura, Sundernagar, Kangra, Berthin and Dhaulakuan).On the basis of overall performance under mid hill conditions representing four locations ( Palampur, Sundernagar, Bajaura and kangra) for seed yield (q/ha), four hybrids viz; HP 333, 30R77, HiShell and DKC 7074 gave significantly higher yield over the hybrid check, PMZ 4. However, two hybrids viz; 32T25 and Bisco 1840 were statistically at par with with the check PMZ 4 for seed yield.All hybrids were statistically superior to Girija at all the locations except at Palampur where its performance was at par with hybrid Bisco 1840.Under low hill conditions (Dhaulakuan and Berthin), hybrid HiShell and DKC 7074 were found significantly superior over the check PMZ 4 on the basis of overall performance. Whereas hybrid Bisco 2324 was statistically at par with the check PMZ 4. Based upon the overall performance over six locations (Palampur, Sundernagar, Bajaura, Kangra, Dhaulakuan and Berthin), the seed yield of the hybrids HiShell (99.65q/ha), HP 333 (97.22q/ha) and DKC 7074 (94.04q/ha) were significantly higher whereas hybrids 30R77 (92.94q/ha) and 900M Gold (91.30q/ha) gave statistically higher yield with the hybrid check, PMZ 4 (83.73q/ha) under mid as well as low hill conditions, where as all other hybrids were found non significant for seed yield with the composite check Girija.

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During Kharif, 2010, twenty eight maize hybrid supplied by various private companies and one of public sector were evaluated alongwith two checks PMZ-4 (modified single cross) of Monsanto company and a single cross hybrid Vivek 21 of VPKAS, Almora at six different locations of CSKHPKV (Bajaura, Dhaaulakuan, Kangra, Palampur, Sundernagar and Berthin). On the basis of overall performance at six locations (Bajaura, Dhaaulakuan, Kangra, Palampur, Sundernagar and Berthin), none of the hybrids statistically exceeded check PMZ-4(95.47q/ha), however, entries HiShell (91.44q/ha), DKC7074 (91.25q/ha), 900MGold (89.74q/ha), VMH4102(89.38q/ha, PG 2414 (86.21q/ha),P3420(84.11q/ha), 30V92 (83.18q/ha), PG 2465 (82.95q/ha), DKC 9106 (81.36q/ha), PAC 740 (81.29q/ha) and PSC 3322 (80.08q/ha) were statistically at par with the best check PMZ-4. However, hybrid PMZ-4 (95.47q/ha, HiShell (91.44)q/ha), DKC 7074 (91.25q/ha), 900MGold (89.74q/ha) and VMH 4102 (89.38 q/ha) were found statistically superior to single cross hybrid check Vivek 21 (73.56q/ha), whereas rest of the entries were at par with Vivek 21 check.

Rice: Hybrid HRI (ARIZE 6129) : A hybrid from Bayer Crop Science, with an average grain yield of 70.8q/ha having field resistance to blast in mid hills and with 61% superiority in yield over HPR-2143 has been released in 2009 for cultivation under mid hills below 1000m conditions for assured irrigated areas of HP. Based on multi-location evaluation in All India Coordinated Trials conducted at Malan, HPR 2555, HPR 2559, HPR 2598, HPR 2529-4, HPR 2557, HPR 2303 and HPR 2625 have been found promising under irrigated condition. Under rainfed condition, HPR 2558, HPR 2559, HPR 2617 and HPR 2618 have been found promising. At Dhaulakuan, two entries viz. NK 3325 (7795 kg/ha) and UDAY 111 (7580 kg/ha) have been found promising in comparison to HKR-126 (7413 kg/ha).

Wheat: HPW-211: A new high yielding wheat variety having higher tolerance to Karnal bunt with average grain yield of 46.3q/ha in comparison to 45.0q/ha of PBW-343 at research farms has been recommended and released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2007 for cultivation under timely sown irrigated conditions in low hill areas of Himachal Pradesh. In the farmers field, this variety gave an average grain yield of 34.7q/ha as compared to 33.4q/ha of PBW-343. HPW-211 manifested higher degree of resistance to brown rust, yellow rust and powdery mildew. HS-420 (Shivalik): A new wheat variety has been recommended and released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2007 for cultivation under late sown restricted irrigated conditions for low and mid hills of H.P. This variety recorded mean grain yield of 26.7q/ha which is 15.6q/ha higher over HS-295. It is responsive to fertilizer application with protein content of 11.4%. This variety possesses resistance to stripe rust, leaf rust and loose smut. VL Gehun-829: This variety has been released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2007 for cultivation under early sown rainfed conditions in low and mid hills of H.P. It posseses higher degree of resistance against yellow rust, brown rust and loose smut. It gives an average grain yield of 25-35q/ha.

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HPW 249 (Asmi): A new high yielding wheat variety with diversity of postulated seedling resistance genes to leaf rust has been released by the State Variety Release Committee during the year 2009 for cultivation in low and mid hills of H.P. under timely sown irrigated and rainfed conditions. This variety is also earlier in flowering and maturity and has higher degree of resistance to powdery mildew. It has dark green foliage with white spike colour at maturity. It has amber, hard and angular grains with an average grain yield of 49.2 and 26.0 q/ha, under irrigated and rain fed conditions, respectively. It has protein content of 12.72%. HPW-236 (Santosh): A new wheat variety having high degree of resistance to stripe rust and diversity of postulated genes for resistance to leaf rust with a very high degree of resistance to Karnal bunt. This variety was released by the State Variety Release committee during the year 2009 for cultivation in high altitude areas of Himachal Pradesh (above 1500m amsl) under timely sown rainfed conditions. This variety is a replacement for highly susceptible variety HS-365 and alternative to HPW-155 and VL-832. The average grain yield of this variety is 33.9q/ha as compared to 27.4q/ha of HPW-155 under timely sown conditions. HPW-251 (Aryan): A new high yielding wheat variety having high resistance to yellow and brown rust was notified and released by CVRC for cultivation under early sown rainfed conditions of Northern Hill Zone (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir). This variety has also shown higher degree of resistance to Karnal bunt and flag smut diseases. It has dark green foliage with creamish white spike colour at maturity. It yields amber, hard and elonged grains with an average grain yield of 34.43q/ha under early sown rainfed conditions. It has about 11% protein content with better chapatti making quality and has higher iron, copper and manganese content. This variety is responsive to lower doses of fertilizer application and would provide a replacement for earlier varieties like VL 616 and HS 277 and a better alternative to VL Gehun 829. Him Pratham (DH 114): It is the first facultative winter wheat variety of the country developed through doubled haploidy breeding system and is an alternative to earlier variety, Saptdhara for dry temperate zone( Pangi and Bharmour areas of Distt. Chamba, L & S and Kinnaur Districts). Its average grain yield is 37-40 q/ha, having awned spikes and amber, bold & hard grains. The seeds contain 12.79% protein and 7.81% gluten content. It exhibits appreciable resistance to yellow, brown & black rusts and powdery mildew. It is early maturing, semi dwarf and suitable for sowing in October-November and also for regions having poor snowfall due to changed climatic scenario in the North West Himalayan regions. Barley: Gokul (HBL 391): It is a two rowed hulled variety having high degree of resistance to yellow, brown and balck rusts and has been released in 2009 for cultivation in mid hills of Himachal Pradesh under timely sown rainfed conditions. It has slightly broad and dark green leaves and high tillering ability. It has yellow grains. It matures in about 170 days. Its average grain yield is 32.0 q/ha as against 28.5q/ha in check variety, Vimal (HBL-113). Pulses: Chickpea (GPF-2): This variety was released by the State Variety Release Committee in 2009 for cultivation in Sub montane low hills, Sub tropical zone of Himachal Pradesh (Zone 1). It matures in about 158 days which is about 10 days earlier than Himachal

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Channa 1 and almost matures at the same time as Himachal Channa 2. It is a prolific pod bearing variety with long fruiting branches. Its average yield in experimental plots is 1617q/ha and 8-10q/ha at farmers field. Seeds are medium bold and brown in colour. It is easy to cook and good in taste. It is resistant to Fusarium wilt, root rot, Botrytis grain mould and Ascochyta blight and tolerant to cold stress and lodging. Cowpea C-519 (Himachal Lobia-2): Cowpea variety C-519 (Himachal Lobia-2) was released in 2009 for cultivation in sub-montane low hills sub-tropical zone (Zone1) of H.P. It gives an average green pod yield of 45-50q/ha and mean grain yield of 15-16, q/ha. It is succulent, soft tender, stringless and long pods, delicious, good in cooking and eating qualities. It is resistant to cercospora leaf spot, anthracnose, web blight and viral diseases. Urdbean UPU 00-31 (Himachal Mash 1): Urdbean variety UPU 00-31 (Himachal Mash 1) was released in 2009 for ccultivation in sub-montane low hills sub-tropical zone (Zone1) of H.P.It gives an average green pod yield of 45-50q/ha and mean grain yield of 15-16, q/ha. It is synchronomous in maturity and good in taste, resistant to leaf crinkle, anthracnose and powdery mildew. Kulthi: VLG 1: A New high yielding light brown grained variety tolerant to shattering and hailing and responsive to recommended doses of fertilizers viz. 15 kg N and 45 kg of P2O5 . It has consistently performed well in hilly areas of Kullu, Kangra and Sirmour districts compared to Baizu, the presently recommended variety. One bushy type mutant of Kulthi (M-249) has been observed promising both as pure as well as mixed crop with an average yield of 10-12 q/ha.

Oilseeds: Linseed: KL 214 (Himani): A new yielding variety, moderately resistant to rust, wilt and alternaria blight has been released and notified in 2008 by the CVRC for broadcasting in the standing paddy when the paddy crop is at dough stage i.e. uttera / paira cultivation under zero tillage condition in the State of H.P., Punjab, Haryana and J&K. It gives an average yield of 4.5 to 5.0 q/ha under zero tillage. The oil content in the seed of this variety is 36.4%. KL -215 (Bhagsu): This variety was released in 2009 by the State Variety Release committee for cultivation in all the linseed growing areas of State. It gives an average yield of 5-6q/ha. The oil content in the seed of this variety 36.4%. It is moderately resistant to rust and powdery mildew both under natural and artificial conditions.

A genotype PKDL-91 recorded highest seed yield (10.83 q/ha) as compared to


zonal check LC-54 (8.47 q/ha). It is small seeded with low severity for rust incidence. PKDL-91 was also found highly resistant to rust and powdery mildew.

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Gobhi Sarson ONK-1 (Him Sarson) It is a new variety suitable for cultivation under timely sown irrigated conditions in zone-1 and zone-II areas of the State. It matures in about 304 days, earlier than Neelam. The variety is resistant to white rust, tolerant to Alternaria blight on leaves and moderately resistant to powdery mildew. It has significantly lower incidence of downy mildew, sclerotinia stem rot and aphid infestation. The average seed yield is 14-15 q/ha and oil content is 40.3%. The variety has been identified for release in zone-1 comprising J&K, H.P. and Uttarakhand during 15th Annual Group Meeting of AICRP on Rapesed-Mustard held w.e.f August 7-9, 2008 at Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar. Gobhi sarson strain GS-05-3 gave highest yield of 1417 kg/ha in comparison to national check GSL-1 (1109 kg/ha) and local check, Neelam (1307 kg/ha). This strain was inducted for further evaluation in IVT during 2009-10. Entry CNH-876 of Gobhi Sarson gave grain yield of 1528 kg/ha as compared to 1491 kg/ha of National check GSL-1.

Brown Sarson HPBS-1: It is a new variety suitable for cultivation under timely sown irrigated conditions in mid-hill zone of Himachal Pradesh. The variety is resistant to white rust and moderately susceptible to Alternaria blight. It bears long siliquae with medium bold, round and brown seeds. The variety matures 3-4 days earlier than KBS-3. The homogeneous plant type and synchronous maturity makes it desirable both for farmers requirements and seed certification standards. The average seed yield is 12-14 q/ha with potential yield of 15.15q/ha. The oil content is 39.1%. Mustard: Mustard variety OMK-4 (Heera X RCC-4) was found to be quite promising. It gave seed yield of 750 kg/ha as compared to national check Kranti (602 kg/ha) and local check RCC-4 (510 kg/ha). Karan rai strain DRMR-261 (1714 kg/ha) yielded significantly higher than the national check Pusa Swarnim (1418 kg /ha) but was at par with local check Jayanti (1622 kg/ha). Pusa Swarnim had the highest oil content (43.9 %). Entry DRMR 261 of Karan Rai gave a yield of 944 kg/ha as compared to 907 kg/ha of National check Kranti. Two early maturing strains viz. P9-2-2 and P2-2 with yield potential of 6-8q/ha have been observed to be promising for intercropping. The yield potential of strain P9-2-2 as sole crop is about 15-20q/ha.

Karan rai :

Soybean:

Underutilized Crops: Rice bean: Lines BRS-1 and BRS-2 of rice bean have been found promising with an average yield of 12-15q/ha.

Fababean:

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A febabean line HB- 611 was found promising (21.11q/ha) as compared to local HPFB-1 (18.98q/ha). Genttype HB-649 of fababean has been found to be promising as a dual purpose line with grain yield of 16.5q/ha and that of green pod yield as 18.7q/ha.

Fodder Crops: A Tall Fescue line, EC 178182 has been released in 2009 for cultivation in temperate & sub temperate pastures by the CVRC for Northern Hill Zone comprising HP, JK & Uttrakhand. Its average green fodder yield is (167.7q/ha) with 14.1% CP and tolerant to frost and drought. In Setaria , a clonal selection PS-20 ( 350 q/ha) has been found superior for cool sub-tropical conditions which is nutritive, frost and drought tolerant and low in oxalate content. SSG 4001(Sorghum Sudan Grass) a private sector hybrid gave 730.7q/ha green fodder yield as compared to 602.3 q/ha in check i.e. an increase of about 21.3% for green fodder yield over locations. In white clover variety PWC-3 with average green fodder yield of 236.0 q/ha was found superior for temperate pastures as compared to check variety PLP composite (185.6q/ha).

SEED PRODUCTION AND SEED TECHNOLOGY A. Nucleus and Breeder Seed Production During the year 2007-08 to 2009-10, a total of 125.21 qtls of nucleus seed of recommended and released varieties of different crops were produced by the University. Breeder seed of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, forages and vegetables to the tune of 2120.72 qtls was produced during 2007-08 to 2009-10.

A total of 1784.13 qtls of foundation seed of cereals, pulses and oilseeds was also produced during 2007-08 to 2009-10. In addition, 14802.1 qtls of certified and TL seed was also produced during the year 2007-08 to 2009-10. B. Seed Technology Research Polymer coating followed by Vitavax-200 treatment was found most effective in improving the seed storability of maize. A study conducted during 2009 on standardization of spacing and fertilizer levels for enhancing seed yield and quality in seed corn revealed that a row to row and plant to plant spacing of 60x20cm coupled with ridge planting and a dose of 150 kg N, 75kg P2O5, and 45kg K2O was found best in recording significantly higher grain yield and vigour index in sweet corn variety Bajaura Sweet. Multistage seed proceesing comprising seed cleaner cum grader and specific gravity separators proved best for improving quality of soybean and maize carry over seed.

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In SRI experiment in paddy, transplanting of 9-12 or 13-15 days old planted seedlings at row spacing of 20x20cm recorded significantly higher grain yield of rice compared to 16-20 and 25-30 days old seedlings. Green manuring with daincha and application of vermicompost @ 3t/ha coupled with Eco-neem spray for pest control resulted in highest grain yield (34 q/ha) of wheat variety HPW 249. The lowest wheat yield of 25 q/ha was recorded with the application of FYM (20t/ha) + Azospirillium (5kg/ha soil application) coupled with seed treatment with Trichoderma viridi (2.5g/kg seed). Standardization of vigour tests in wheat revealed that the first and final counts of germination were found to be the good indicators of field emrgence in wheat. In soybean, threshing through tractor treding, resulted in more seed injury followed by tractor drawn thresher and stick beating. Seed Physiology, Storage and Testing The four different packaging materials namely super bag, tyvek bag, jute bag and polylined jute bag recorded very high germination(>95%) after 8 months of storage of seed conditioned to 10,12 and 14% moisture content, however the seed stored in tyvek bag recorded highest germination(95%) after 12 months of storage, irrespective of the moisture content. Further, tyvek bags did not show any insect infestation of the seed even after 12 months of storage, irrespective of the moisture content as compared to other storage material.

C.

In another study conducted on seed coating in hybrid Maize (Makka Vivek 25) revealed that after 12 months of seed storage in cloth and 700 gauze polythene bag, the polymer coating of seed @ 3ml/kg followed by Imidacloprid @ 6ml/kg showed germination (92.7%).Which is above the minimum seed certification standard (MSCS) in both the packaging materials. Super bag has been found suitable packaging material for storing seed of soybean for complete one season at 10-12% moisture content with minimum or no pathogen. Study on storability of wheat seed revealed that the germination (% )and field emergence( %) of the seed of wheat (HPW-155) variety with three different moisture contents viz. 10, 12 and 14 % in super bags remained higher than the other three packaging materials i.e. Cloth bag, HDPE bag and Polylined cloth bag after 12 months of storage. II. Crop Production Under mid hill conditions of Palampur, Maize (Baby corn) + Asparagus beansPea-Summer squash and Maize (Baby corn) + French bean (Pole type) - PeaSummer squash sequences produced significantly higher maize grain equivalent yield (Four year average of 54379 and 51256 kg/ha/annum, respectively) and net return (Rs 275919 and Rs 257574/ha/annum, respectively) over the conventional Maize Wheat (10238kg/ha/annum and Rs 37480/ha/annum, respectively) as well as other vegetable (brinjal and ladys finger) based crop sequences. In maize-wheat sequence, higher maize equivalent yield/maize grain yield was obtained with conventional planting of maize + soybean or maize over remaining treatments. But chemical weed control resulted in significantly higher maize equivalent yield over hand weeding twice. Zero tillage in maize and conventional tillage in wheat resulted in significantly higher effective tillers and grain yield of

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wheat but it was statistically at par with conventional tillage in both the crops in influencing the grain yield of wheat. Chemical weed control significantly increased the effective tillers and grain yield of wheat. Based upon last six years study in babycorn-Chinese sarson-onion cropping sequence, integrated nutrient management comprising of 50% NPK through inorganics and 50% N through FYM resulted in highest baby corn equivalent yield and sustainability index. INM resulted in nearly four times higher baby corn equivalent yield over the management of nutrients completely through inorganic sources. The nutrient management completely through organic sources was next to INM. Based upon the last 18 years experimentation in rice-wheat sequence, significantly highest total productivity and sustainability index were under the treatment where 50% NPK (through fertilizers) + 50% N (through FYM) was applied to rice and 100% NPK (fertilizers) to wheat. Intercropping of gram with wheat under rainfed conditions has been found to result in significanrt reduction (18.3 to 31.5%) in wheat grain yield. On the contrary, pure crop of gram gave 17.51q/ha seed yield and resulted in highest wheat grain equivalent yield (52.53 q/ha) . Wheat+ gram intercropping in 4:2 ratio produced the highest seed yield (4.88 q/ha) of gram as compared to rest of the intercropping ratios. Wheat + mustard intercropping and wheat + mustard mixed cropping increased the system yield by 106.3-112.7% and 98.8-113.8% compared to sole mustard cropping. However only wheat + mustard (3:1) and wheat + mustard (80% + 2020%) could out yield sole wheat that too by (0.9% and 1.4% only. In organic potato-soybean cropping system, integration of FYM 25 t/ha and FYM 37.5 t/ha with Chromolaena mulch behaving statistically similar among themselves resulted in significantly higher potato tuber yield. FYM 25 t/ha and FYM 37.5 t/ha with Chromolaena/ Lantana mulch applied in potato gave comparatively higher soybean yield than other treatments. Seventy five per cent recommended N + inoculation of Azospirillum + Azotobacter resulted in significantly higher green fodder, dry matter yield and net return from Napier Bajra Hybrid. The newly developed gobhi sarson variety ONK-1 gave the highest yield of 1259kg/ha when sown on 24th October at 30cm spacing with 125% of recommended fertilizer application (90:60:40). However comparable yield of 1234kg/ha was obtained at same spacing and fertilizer application under late sown condition on 8th November. In Setaria white clover production system, application of 100% NPK through inorganic fertilizer resulted in highest net returns and it remained at par with application of 75% recommended N + biofertilisers (Azotobacter to Setaria and Rhizobium to white clover).

III. Soil, Water and Nutrient Management. In multi-locational site specific nutrient management trials, no response to Zn application in maize was observed at Palampur, Bajaura and Dhaulakuan during

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2008. However, maize yield increased consistently up to the application of 150% of the recommended NPK at Palampur and Bajaura. Application of lime @ 20% of L R showed significant increase in grain yield of maize. New promising genotypes of maize viz. Bajaura sweet corn, Bajaura pop corn, L173 and EHB-1579 responded significantly up to recommended dose of fertilizer (120kgN, 60kg P2O5 and 40kgK2O) with average yield of 2299kg/ha, 3246kg/ha, 4405kg/ha and 4539 kg/ha, respectively. In rainfed upland rice, a nutrient dose of 60:30:30 kg NPK applied in combination with 15t FYM (fresh weight basis) resulted in significantly higher gain yield than the lower (30:15:15 kg NPK/ha) as well as the higher nutrient dose (120:60:60 kg NPK/ha) applied with or without FYM. This dose (60:30:30 + FYM), however, remained at par with 90:45:45 kg NPK+FYM (15t/ha). Balanced fertilizer use (100% NPK) is absolutely essential for sustained crop productivity. The omission of S (use of sulphur free source of P, DAP) for the last 37 years, resulted in about 51 percent reduction in maize grain yield and 47 percent in wheat; and that of potassium i.e. application of nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) only resulted in about 32 percent reduction in maize grain yield and 40 percent in wheat. Integrated use of organics and inorganics (100% NPK+FYM) in maize-wheat sequence sustained the yields and gave the highest yield of around 55 and 35 q ha-1 of maize and wheat, respectively. The respective yields obtained with the application of NPK alone were 16 and 14 q ha-1 lower than the former, respectively. In acid soils, liming can even substitute FYM as the yield recorded under 100% NPK + lime (50 and 32 q ha-1 in maize and wheat) was comparable with 100% NPK + FYM (55 q ha-1 and 35 q ha-1 of maize and wheat). In acid soils granular urea has been found to be better source of nitrogen in comparison to prilled urea for rice crop. Rice crop also responded to N application through both the sources up to the highest level i.e. 125 % of the recommended dose. Planting of rice with sprouted seeds and SRI increased grain yield over conventional transplanted rice by 41.21 % and 26.67 %, respectively. Application of recommended P and K along with 30 kg N ha-1 at sowing and remaining 60 kg N ha-1 in two equal splits resulted in significantly higher grain yield and WUE than application of recommended P and K along with 30 kg N ha-1 at sowing and remaining nitrogen as per LCC3. Planting with sprouted seeds gave significantly higher water use efficiency compared with conventionally transplanted rice crop. Among different sources of sulphur evaluated at Palampur, Dhaulakuan and Bajaura, gypsum proved to be a better source of sulphur compared to its application through elemental sulphur or single super phosphate application. Sulphur application alongwith recommended NPK in gobhi-sarson and soybean at Palampur, onion, seseame and toria, at Dhaulakuan and peas and garlic at Bajaura increased the yield of these crops significantly. Continued application of chemical fertilizers (LTFE), particularly N through urea has acidifying effect on soil. Organic matter content of soils has either increased or

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maintained at the initial level with continuous manuring and cropping. Available N and K pools of soils have depleted even under optimum application rates. Cauliflower-cauliflower-pea and cauliflower - cauliflower-cauliflower has been found to be best cropping systems for Mandi and Kullu conditions Application of fertilizers as per target yield concept gave the yields of maize, wheat and toria as per prefixed targets (deviation within 10%). At the same time STCR approach proved more remunerative in comparison to the farmers practice and state level fertilizer dose owing to the judicious use of fertilizers. However, in case of soybean, though the yield deviations from pre-fixed yield targets were quite high towards the negative side but even then the net returns were higher over the conventional approach and farmers practice. Thus, STCR equations can also be successfully used for raising soybean. Raised and sunken bed technology can be used for growing arable crops like brinjal, lady finger and chillies along with low land rain-fed rice during Kharif season under high rainfall conditions. Brinjal, ladys finger and chillies yielded higher on raised beds than on flat-bunded beds during rainy season due to improvement in aeration status in root zone. Sowing of wheat by just opening furrows with hand plough and band placement of fertilizer (S2) resulted in higher grain yield during all the years, and the yield was 24.03, 70.83 and 66.45 % higher than that obtained by sowing of wheat with zerotill seed-cum fertilizer drill (S3) during 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09, respectively. Application of phosphorus @ 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 in combination with sulphur 30 kg S ha-1 through phospho-gypsum resulted in synergistic interaction effect on the yield of onion (263.3 q ha-1) and soybean (24.3 q ha-1) and also on the uptake of nutrients. Application of sulphur @ 40 kg/ha through Gypsum along with recommended dose of NPK produced highest yield in Sesame (4.2 q/ha), Toria (6.5 q/ha) and Onion (165.0q/ha). 100% NPK + 20 t/ha FYM has been found to be the best combination for french bean and pea crop, whereas, cauliflower gave highest yield with 150% NPK + 20 t/ha FYM.

Vegetable Production Garden pea line DPPM-64 in mid maturity group has been developed with very long and bright green pods having resistance to powdery mildew disease. In early group, lines DPPA-8-E has been developed having bright green, attractive and well filled pods. Two edible poded lines DPEPP-1 and DPEPP-2 have been identified with green pods and resistant to powdery mildew disease. A new line of dwarf frenchbean DPDFB-1 has been identified and has exhibited better performance in station trials and on-farm trials on farmers fields than standard check Contender. Asparagus bean line DPASB-1 developed through selection has performed well in the experimental trials and at farmers fields.

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A garlic line DPGC-07-1 has been identified and is about a fortnight earlier in maturity than standard check GHC-1. Cabbage hybrid H-702 has been developed by using SI system and is performing better in preliminary evaluation trials. CMS lines in cabbage have been developed and will be utilized for development of hybrids. Gynoecious lines have been developed in cucumber. Some F1 hybrid combinations viz., Plp-Gy-1 X K.Pap , G1 X K Pap, Plp-Gy-1 X DPC-1, EC5082 X EC143934, G3 x 75-2-10 and G3 x Kangra Local-1 have been identified and are in preliminary evaluation trials.

Protected Cultivation: Portable low tunnels (305 m x 1.2 m X 1 m) appeared promising for quality nursery production of different vegetables rather than traditional/polyhouse nursery production. An ideal model of modified naturally ventilated polyhouse having double door, side ventilation, top ventilation, drip system of irrigation, overhead fogging/misting system and top/inside covered with rollable 40-50% UV stabilized green shade nets is being advocated in low and mid hills for efficient and cost effective commercial production of capsicum, tomato and parthenocarpic cucumber. Two hybrids tolerant to bacterial wilt in tomato, one hybrid each in capsicum and parthenocarpic cucumber have been observed promising for commercial cultivation in modified naturally ventilated polyhouses at Palampur. Hybrid combinations 15-2 x Palam Pride, 1-2 x 16-B, DPBTH-44, DPBTH-41 and CLN2116B x 1314G have been developed and have exhibited better performance as compared to a few hybrids of private sector under poly house conditions at Palampur.

IV. Crop Protection A) Disease Management: For the management of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize, foliar spray of validamycin (0.25%) was found better than Tilt (0.1%) and Bavistin (0.1%). Seed treatment with Vitavax @ 2.5g/kg seed + Trichoderma viride @ 5g/kg seed followed by two sprays at 15 days interval of the propiconazole @ 0.01% reduced powdery mildew, leaf blight and loose smut of wheat considerably. Fungicide Tilt 25EC and Contaf 5EC used as foliar sprays @ 0.1% and score@ 0.05% were highly effective against web blight (Rhizoctonia solani) and other foliar diseases in mash. Three foliar sprays of fungicides Tilt 25EC, Contaf 5EC @ 0.1% and score 0.05% were highly effective in reducing leaf and pod infection of Alternaria leaf blight and increasing the yield in Mustard variety Varuna.

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Seed treatment with Trichoderma + 2 sprays of leaf extract of Eucalyptus was most effective in managing Alternaria blight and white rust of mustard but was at par with seed treatment with Apron + two foliar sprays of Mancozeb. Two foliar sprays of Antracol @ 0.25% have been found highly effective against early blight Cercospora leaf spot and late blight of potato. Seed treatment of of pea with Vitavax @ 2.5g/kg seed has been found most effective against root rot complex. Vitavax and Vitavax power (@3g/kg seed) and Carbendazim (2.5g/kg seed) were found most effective in managing pea root rot followed by Thiram. Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 5g/kg + FYM @ 4t/ha. + two foliar sprays of Neem Kernel seed extract @ 3% after 30 and 45 days of sowing were effective aganist maize blight, cowpea wilt/root rot, cowpea Phytophthora blight and anthracnose. Four formulations of identified strains (local) of Trichoderma were found effective against cabbage and pea root rot wilt complex. Three sprays of Ridomil (0.25%) were found highly effective to manage Stemphylium blight of garlic. Avtar 72 WP @ 0.3 per cent and KOCIDE 3000 (@ 0.2%) were found effective against blister blight of tea. Seed treatment with Trichoderma + 2 sprays of leaf extract of Eucalyptus were effective against Alternaria blight and white rust of mustard. Seed soaking in Panchgavya (10%) for 1hr + foliar spray of neem seed kernel extract (3%) resulted in minimum incidence of collar/root rot of cowpea Sudden wilt of sponge gourd identified as major disease causes 100 percent loss in Kangra, Hamirpur, Una and Bilaspur districts of Himachal Pradesh. Management involves one spray of Sevin 2g/l immediately after germination or after transplanting seedlings from polytubes followed by regular sprays of Roket ( 1 ml / l) + Bacterinashak ( 0.3 g/ l) followed by Endosulfan ( 2 ml / l) + Bacterinashak ( 0.3 g/ l) and Sevin ( 2 g / l) + Bacterinashak ( 0.3 g/ l) starting from the initiation of flowering at 15 days interval managed the disease by 60-80 per cent. Sources of resistance to powdery mildew of pea, BCMV, bean anthracnose and angular leaf spot in common bean, taget leafspot and blight of soybean, chilli anthracnose, leaf spot of urdbean have been identified, however, no resistance to ascochyta blight of pea was found. A differential set of 9 pea varieties possessing resistance to powdery mildew have been developed to identify races of powdery mildew. Tea hybrid genotype 4.21 was found highly resistant to blister blight. Inheritance of resistance in pea to powdery mildew is governed by single recessive gene. In common bean, resistance to BCMV was controlled by single dominant gene I and recessive bc genes.

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Fleshy fungi culture extracts have been found to possess anti-dementia, antiparkinson, depression and anxiety activity under in in vitro screening at ITRC, Lucknow. The pathogen of wet bubble disease of Agaricus bisporus perpetuate through casing soil. was observed to

B) Insect-pest Management: For the control of newly identified pest Green Gram Weevil (Pachytychius mungonis) on mash crop, recommendation i.e. Spray 1125 ml Endosulfan 35EC ( endosulfan @ 0.05%0/ 750ml Profenofos 50EC (profenfos @ 0.05%/ 562.5ml Cypermethrin 10EC (cypermethrin @ 0.0075%)/ 600ml Lambda-cyhalothrin 5EC (lambda-cyhalothrin @ 0.004%) in750 litres of warer per ha at pod initiation stage i.e. 40 to 45 days of plant emergence of crop were found more effective and and was included in the package pf practices of Kharif crop. For the management of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the insecticide based management modules were evaluated with emphasis on insecticide resistance management. Four modules comprising of acetamiprid (0.01%), azadirachtin (0.0025%), buprofezin (0.02%), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.004%) and triazophos (0.04%) were developed to fit in various cropping situations. However, observations on the persistence of different insecticides revealed that buprofezin (0.02%) provided significantly better suppression of the pest up to 21 DAT. Among different plant extracts evaluated for the control of lepidopterous insect-pests viz. Pieris brassicae, diamondback moth, cabbage semi-looper and Helicoverpa armigera on cabbage cv. `Varun, 10 % aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) of darek/bakain (Melia azaderach), in two sprays at 10 days interval, initiating spraying at 45 days of transplanting, was found to be most effective Among different plant extracts evaluated for the control of leaf miner on pea cv. Palam Priya under Net Work Project on Organic Farming, two sprays of mixture of Darek/ bakain (Melia azaderach) @ 5% ALE, Kaner (Nerium indicum) @ 5% ALE and cow urine @ 5 %, at 10 days interval initiating spraying at about 40 % leaf infestation, was found to be the most promising treatment. Among different spray schedule evaluated for the integrated management of fruit borer,foliar and fruit rot diseases in tomato (hybrid 7730) for two years (2008 and 2009), a 3-spray schedule consisting of spraying with a mixture of contaf (0.05%) and endosulfan (0.05%) at flowering initiation stage (35 days of transplanting) followed by the spray of mixture of copper oxy chloride (COC) (0.03%) and lambda-cyhalothrin (0.004%) after 15 days of the first spray and third spray with Indofil M-45 (0.25%) only after 15 days of second spray was found to be the most effective and economical schedule giving net additional returns of Rs. 1,19,675 with B:C ratio of 3.77. Integrated spray schedules were evaluated for the management of fruit borer in tomato, greenhouse white fly and leaf miner in pea. Bacillus thuringiensis (@ 1kg/ha, aqueous leaf extracts (10%) of Karvi and bhang (Cannabis sativa) were found highly effective against fruit borer in tomato.

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Survey for the plant parasitic nematodes in different crops covering 7 districts revealed the maximum frequency of Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus and Pratylenchus species. About 42% soil samples collected from maize growing areas of districts Kangra and Chamba were found to be +ve for cysts with population ranging from 0.25 to 13 cysts/200 cc of soil. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of major plant parasitic nematodes in 214 greenhouses in different parts of Himachal Pradesh associated with cultivation of sweet pepper, carnation, cucurbits, tomato etc. revealed the occurrence of three major plant parasitic nematodes including Meloidogyne incognita, Helicotylenchus dihystra and Pratylenchus spp . Cartap hydrochloride (1 kg a.i./ha), carbofuron (1 kg a.i./ha), Neem cake (100 g/m2) and Pseudomonas flurescens (10 g/kg seed) were found effective against M. graminicola in paddy. Paecilomyces lilacinus@ 10 g/Kg seed + Soil application @50 g/m2was found highly effective against M. incognita in polyhouse tomato. Under NAIP project thirty three formulations of botanicals and twenty formulations of Trichoderma were prepared in collaboration with IARI. Out of these, two formulations of Eupatorium, two of Melia and four of Trichoderma were selected for further up-scaling. The bioactive molecules from Eupatorium were characterized. Two isolates of granulosis virus (GV) isolated and characterized at molecular level in Pieris brassicae. These were found effective against the pest under field conditions. The partial nucleotide sequence of Pieris brassicae GV was submitted to NCBI, Gene Bank Nucleotide database vide accession No.FJI51541 it is a first record of granuline gene sequence from India. Potato tubers treated with CIPC 30% (2ml/l) caused 100 % mortality of Phthorimaea operculella moths in storage under laboratory conditions. Metarrhizium anisopliae granules, local isolate of Beauveria bassiana (@ 1014 spores/ha), and carbofuran 3G @750g a.i./ha were found effective against white grubs in potato. In urdbean, imidacloprid (ST) + profenophos foliar spray resulted in maximum reduction in blister beetle population. CHA 5485 @ 30 g a.i./ha and Agrospray oil (1%) were highly effective against various insect-pests of tea.

C) Weed Management: Application of Glyphosate @ 0.75 kg/ha 15 days before transplanting followed by either Butachlor @ 1.5 kg/ha at 0-5 DAT or Bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor @ 0.06+ 0.6 kg/ha being at par with each other controlled the obnoxious weeds like Cynadon and Paspalam sp. effectively and produced significantly higher paddy yield compared to alone applications of Butachlor or bensulfuron-methyl+ Pretilachlor. Applicaton of isoproturon 1.25 kg/ha + 2, 4-D 0.50 kg/ha (30 DAS) behaving statistically alike with isoproturon.1.0 kg/ha+2, 4-D 0.5 kg/ha, isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha +2, 4-D 0.75 kg/ha, clodinafop 60 g/ha followed by 2, 4-D 0.75 kg/ha,

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clodinafop 60 g/ha followed by 2, 4-D 1.0 kg/ha and clodinafop 60 g/ha + metsulfuron 4 g/ha (40 DAS) effectively controlled the mixed weed flora and significantly increased the grain yield of wheat. Carfentrazone 25 g/ha followed by pinoxadin 40 g/ha (30 DAS) was found effective in controlling grasses and broadleaf weeds in wheat. In transplanted rice wheat cropping system, the rotational use of herbicide in rice in integration with 75% N through fertilizer and 25 % N through Lantana in rice and continuous or rotational use of herbicide in wheat being statistically at par with continuous use of same herbicide in rice in integration with 100 per cent N in rice and rotational use of herbicide in wheat and farmers practice in both the crops resulted in significantly higher grain yield of rice over remaining treatment combinations. Irrespective of continuous or rotational use of herbicides in rice or wheat, use of 75% N through fertilizer and 25% N through Lantana in rice resulted in significantly higher grain yield of wheat. In maize- pea cropping system, atrazine 1.5 kg/ha behaving statistically similar with all the weed control treatments resulted in significantly higher grain yield of maize by effective control of weeds. Whereas in case of pea, among the treatments applied in peas, pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha followed by mechanical weeding being statistically at par with mechanical weeding twice resulted in significantly high pod yield of pea by effective control of the weeds. Metsulfuron methyl at 4g/ha and clodinafop at 60 g/ha are compatible and did not cause any phytotoxicity or antagonism. Addition of 0.2% non ionic surfactant also proved effective to get the desirable weed control and higher yield. Tank mix combination of these herbicides applied during wheat season did not have any kind of residual effect on succeeding crops of maize, soybean and mash.

V. Biotechnology 1. Molecular marker assisted pyramiding of powdery mildew resistance genes er1 and er2 in pea (Pisum sativum) Powdery mildew resistance genes er1 and er2 were integrated into the genetic background of the variety Lincoln through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MAB). Three elite lines namely, PPL-25, PPL-66 and PPL-77 had complete resistance to powdery mildew and were selected for seed multiplication and initial varietal trials. 2. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene er2 from a pea genotype JI2480 A recessive powdery mildew resistance gene er2 was identified and mapped from the pea genotype JI2480. The SCAR marker Sc-OPX-171400 linked to er2 can be used for speedy and precise introgression of the er2 into the susceptible pea cultivars. 3. Survey of pea diseases and development of molecular diagnostics for pea wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) In Himachal Pradesh, the diseases infecting peas were found to be wilt and root rot complex (14.6% incidence), powdery mildew (9.6% severity), Ascochyta blight (0.4% severity) and rust (0.8% severity). The pathogens associated with wilt and root rot were F. oxysporum (58.6%), F. solani (18.0%), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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(3.4%) and Rhizoctonia solani (0.8%). Only 6.6% wilted plants were co-infected with both F. oxysporum and F. solani. Cumbersome and time consuming nature of traditional methods for detection of Fop warrants development of rapid but precise diagnostic assays. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers, HPACAPS1380 and HPACAPS2404, were developed to identify the pathogen. The assay was also refined to detect the pathogen in soil and plant. 4. Induced resistance/pathogenesis inhibition based strategy for management of chickpea blight A gene (ASCD1) encoding enzyme scytalone dehydratase leading to melanin biosynthesis and host penetration expresses itself in germinating spores of chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei and its inhibition caused no blight. Based on this finding, an inhibitor of melanin biosynthesis (carpropamid) and an elicitor of systemic acquired resistance (benzothiadiazole) were studied for management of the disease. Under field conditions, one spray of BTH (50 ppm) followed by another of mancozeb reduced the blight severity considerably (81.9%) and increased grain yield by 359.3% compared to no spray . Two sprays of carpropamid (beam) were also effective. 5. Identification of genes involved in cold tolerance in chickpea Genes governing cold tolerance in chickpea were isolated. These genes encode protein kinases, ion transporters, ribosome associated proteins, maturase K, disease resistance genes and unknown proteins. 6. Identification and mapping of a new blast resistance gene Pi-42(t) A new blast resistance gene Pi-42(t) was identified from genotype DHR9. The gene was genetically mapped on to the short arm of chromosome 12. A total of six markers co-segregating with the gene were identified, which can be exploited for the speedy and precise introgression of the resistance gene into susceptible rice lines. 7. A rice doubled haploid line developed through anther culture HPR2625 DHD24 (IET-21375) has shown broad spectrum blast resistance in multilocation screening within the country conducted by Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad. Based on its yield performance in initial varietal trials (IVT) this line has also been short listed for advanced varietal trials (AVT). Generation of doubled haploid by anther culture in Ethiopian mustard. Doubled haploids were generated in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carrinata) by culturing anthers of genotype Jayanti and early maturing line RCC-6-1 to get genotypes with high yielding traits from Jayanti and earliness from RCC-6. Twenty nine double haploid have been handed over to the Department of Crop Improvement for further evaluation. 9. Diversity in micronutrient content in leaves of Chenopodium germplasm and effect of cooking methods on micronutrients retention Deficiency of vitamin A, Ca, Fe and Zn is a major health problem in most parts of the India. Genebank accessions of Chenopodium species from India and abroad rich in vitamin A, Ca, Fe and Zn were identified. C. album ssp. amaranticolor

8.

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accession IC341710 with the highest content of -carotene and considerable amount of iron; IC469275 (C. album ssp. amaranticolor) with maximum iron; IC 108086 (C. album ssp. amaranticolor) with maximum zinc; and IC258254 (C. album) with maximum calcium were ideal to alleviate nutritional deficiencies. The IC341710 was overall best as it had high contents of calcium, iron and zinc apart from -carotene.Of the two cooking methods, stir-frying and pressure cooking, stir-frying was better for retention of nutrients. Using physical and chemical mutagenesis, varieties HPKC-2 and VLG-1 of horsegram resulted stable early flowering mutants with determinate growth habit, which have been characterized. Efficient micropropagation protocol for Picrorhiza kurroa has been developed and some QPM has been distributed to the farmers for cultivation in Chamba. Hormonal combinations Kinetin (2 mg/l) and Kinetin + IBA (2 mg/l + 0.5 mg/l) showed best results in inducing multiple shoots when leaf segments were used as explant, whereas in case of nodal segments the multiple shoots were formed on the medium supplemented with Kinetin (2 mg/l) and the basal MS (control). Besides, the nodal segments showed induction of somatic embryos in the medium supplemented with TDZ + IBA (0.11 mg/l + 0.5 mg/l). Two putative sex linked markers (OPD14~1000 and OPD14~400) were identified in sea buckthorn that enabled differentiation of male and female plants from Phura( Lahaul & Spiti). The study has implications in early diagnosis of sex in sea buckthorn seedlings and also for collection of germplasm in native stand and to develop strategies for a breeding program. ITS sequence analysis of nrDNA revealed distribution of H. salicifolia in Kinnaur region of Himachal Pradesh Developed cross-genera microsatellite markers for lentil breeding. Transferability of EST and genomic SSR markers from related taxa like Medicago truncatula (Mt), Pisum sativum (Ps) and Trifolium pratense (Tp), which are relatively well characterized genetically, was 36.0%, 62.0% and 25.0% for Mt, Tp and Ps-derived markers, respectively. A total of 22 Mt ESTSSRs produced 21.96% polymorphism, whereas, 98 BAC-SSRs produced marginally higher (24.14%) polymorphism. This implies large-scale development and identification of SSR markers from related genera which can be used for studying genetic diversity and construction of lentil genetic map and for tagging of various traits of agronomic importance for marker-assisted breeding. A microsatellite marker linked to rust resistance locus in lentil has been identified at LG-2, which can be used for precise screening of breeding material and also for MAS. Under Indo-Canadian project, 96 new EST-SSRs from Lens transcriptome have so far been developed using next generation sequencing technologies in

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collaboration with NIPGR and PBI-Saskatoon (Canada) and are being validated for their use in lentil breeding. SNP development for GMM-QTL analysis in Trifolium pratense AIL populations is in progress using 454 sequencing platform with Japanese collaborator.

VI. Organic Agriculture Twenty four varieties of various crops were identified to be promising under organic system. In Pea, Punjab 89 was found to be the most suitable that gave an yield of 130.28 q/ha as compared to 51.44 q/ha of Palam Priya. Homa environment was found to inhibit the growth of seven soil borne pathogens but maximum range of inhibition (29.7-79.4%) was recorded under agnihotra environment. Homa ash inhibited the growth of three pathogens and four bioagents in vitro but the degree of inhibition of pathogens was more (14.6-31.5%) compared to bioagents (9.3-18.2%). In pea, biodynamic calendar based sowing of Matar Ageta and Arkel varieties out- yielded under moisture stress conditions Evaluation of different composts in potato under organic condition in Black gram-potato cropping sequence showed that that BD 10 t, VC 20 t or FYM 30 t/ha are the best composts for optimum potato production. Seed treatment of pulses i.e. gram, lentil and peas with Rhizobium & PSB in combination with the application of either of the compost i.e. FYM 15 t, VC 10t or BD 5t/ha resulted in 14.1 to 24.2% increase in gram, 26.1 to 38.3% in lentil and 9.8 to 30.6% increase in peas over FYM Bio-sol (liquid manure) sprays at 30 & 60 DAS in wheat + gram intercropping system yielded 15.1% higher wheat equivalent yield over unsprayed plots. Neem oil (0.1%), 15-20 days old cow urine and fermented buttermilk (1:1) @10%, panchgavya (10%) and their different combinations were found to manage most of the insect pests and diseases under organic farming. Seed treatment with CPP and beejamrit improved significantly the germination percentage and reduction of seed borne microorganisms. In paddy mechanical weeding with cono- weeder was more effective and time saving as compared to the hand weeding Soybean intercropping in maize along with one mechanical/hand weeding resulted in 37.1 and 78.6% higher yields over that of maize + soybean (no weeding) and unweeded check, respectively.

VII. Farm Mechanization Paddy Thresher The paddy thresher has been evaluated at the farmers field. The average threshing capacity was observed 1.5q/h with 2hp motor. The cost of operation was Rs. 35/q of grain. The capacity of this machine is 4 times higher as compared to traditional system (bullock treading) and resulted in saving of

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77% cost of operation. The paddy thresher can be operated with motor as well as power tiller. The cost of machine is about Rs. 6,500/- without motor. Three farmers have purchased this machine from the university (Agril. Engg. Workshop) and using on hiring basis. Manual Seed drill FLD of manual seed drill was carried out at farmers field in many villages for sowing of wheat crop. The capacity of this machine was observed 0.03 ha/h and it was found very useful for line sowing of wheat. The cost of machine is Rs 1000/-. Numbers of farmers have purchased this machine from the university (Agril. Engg. Workshop). Centre for Geo-informatics, Research and Training, CSK HP Agriculture University , Palampur is engaged in generating spatial informations of Himachal Pradesh especially required for agriculture landuse management for better decision making and policy planning using modern GIS and RS technologies. It has generated informations on macro scale and now the Centre is integrating the spatial and non-spatial informations in the form of Interactive User Interfaces. Some of the significant achievements are: An Application Software Agriculture Spatial Information and Decision Support System Software (Beta version) developed by Centre for Geoinformatics, Research and Training, CSK HP Agriculture University ,Palampur under a Department of Science and Technology funded project was released by Honble Vice Chancellor, Dr. Tej Partap in Agriculture Officers Rabi Workshop held on 31st Oct 2009. This system, developed in a geographic information system (GIS) framework, allows scientists, managers, planners, researchers, students and farmers to rapidly assess land attributes and link these attributes with maps and related infrastructure. Hence, it can facilitate efficient use of existing resource information. This software is initiative taken to change the perspective of understanding the agriculture land use pattern at the planning level. This application provides the resource managers, policy makers and scientists ready and quick information on their desktop for decision making in the field of agriculture. Another version of this software is a web based application, which contains the some basic layers which can be switched on or off to be viewed, providing access of spatial information for anyone having access to the Internet. In the project Impact, adaptations and vulnerability of Indian Agriculture to climate change, funded by Indian Council of Agricultural research (ICAR), the Impacts of climate change were simulated in soybean and mustard crop after validation of models under sub temperate sub tropical conditions of H.P. The simulations for 20 years showed 10th June to be best planting windows for soybean. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide showed an increase by 5% and 10.2%. The temperature rise alone and in combinations with carbon dioxide showed increase in yield. Rainfall reduction of 10 percent increased the yield by 8.4 to 12.7%.

VIII. Geo-informatics

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The simulated results revealed that 9th November to be the best planting window for mustard crop but this planting shifted to early date to 20th October under two and three irrigations conditions. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide 420 and 470 ppm levels of carbon dioxide showed in general increase in yield. Under rainfed and two irrigations conditions yield of mustard decreased with rise in 10C and 20C temperature whereas it was higher in under irrigated conditions. The rainfall reduction with rise in temperature showed decrease in yield .Farmers perceptions revealed the natural advancement in apple flowering and fruit set in dry temperate conditions of Spiti valley H.P. by one week due to climate. Under the climate literacy programme total 156 school students from 17 schools and 50 college students participated in One day awareness program on Climate change. In the project Application of Extended Range Forecast in Crop Planning and Operations under Sub-humid and Temperate Wet Conditions of H.P., long range weather forecast for a period of three months were validated for two study districts Kangra and Kullu. Forecast verification of temperature: o The forecast verifications for Long range forecast was carried out for Himachal Pradesh. The temperature and rainfall forecast were validated for target districts of Kangra and Kullu. The mean temperature forecast derived from IMD climatology values showed deviation of -1.2oC for January, -2.8oC for February and -5.2oC for March. Lower temperature values were forecasted than observed. The difference was more when compared with block data.The forecasted value showed deficit of rainfall to the tune of 74.3% in January, +9.3% in February and 69% in March compared to observed rainfall for HP. The higher value of forecasted rainfall was predicted during January and March. The Kullu rains forecast 2009 for September showed the same direction and magnitude. The feedback with regard to long range weather forecast was analyzed which revealed that most of the farmers are not interested in daily forecast however, the quantity of forecast on weekly basis at least 20-30 days in advance is very important for a seasonal forecast. IX. Tea Husbandry Tea genotypes 2.18, 4.15, 8.1, 13.5 and 18.15 appear to be the best hybrids on the basis of adaptability, quality parameters and disease resistance against blister blight. Long term studies of biofertilizers with and without inorganic fertilizers showed that the treatment combination of nitrogen @ 90 kg/ha, FYM @ 20 tons/ha and Azotobacter inoculation @ 10 8 cells ml/culture (N90F20Ai) gave the significant higher yield (50%) over control. Amongst different sources of Sulphur, the application of ZnSO4, Potash Alum and Gypsum @ 80 kg/ha exhibited comparatively higher yield to the tune of 28, 26 and 22 per cent, respectively over control.

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Responses of Zinc-Sulphur interaction studies showed that interaction of Zinc @ 7.5 kg/ha and S @ 90kg/ha produced the highest yield of 67% increase over control. The plant population of 37037 / ha, with spacing of 90 cm x 30 cm recorded the highest yield of 2814 KMTH (231 % increase) over the lowest population of 4444 / ha (150 x 150cm) in early stages of plantation.The study of organics and chemical fertilizers observed highest yield of 2045 KMTH (51% increase) with the application of Tea Skiffing litter @ 4 tons/ha in combination with N90 P45 K45 kg/ha.So it can be concluded that if we use tea skiff compost as an organic source of N nutrition in tea crop along with chemical fertilizers on 50:50 basis, we can save chemical fertilizers up to 50% to get the maximum yield of made tea. Studies on effect of compost and vermicomposts on yield and quality of tea showed that the treatment - vermicompost @ 90 kg N equivalent/ha gave the highest yield to the tune of 90 percent followed by compost @ 90 kg N equivalent over control. The tea skiffings were found to be the best material for composting and vermicomposting and most successful in tea gardens as there is a high availability of recyclable bio-resources whole the year compared to other crops. Tea Skiffing litter makes the best vermicomposts with high N content. The micronutrients were found to be highest in the treatments of compost and vermicompost @ 90 kg N equivalent/ha Application of vermicopmpost and compost from different bio-resources (tea skiff litter, albizzia litter and weed flora) at the rate o 4.50t/ha resulted in significant improvement in tea liquor quality over the control. Application of compost and vermiciompost at the rate of 3.0t/ha and 4.50t/ha resulted in significant improvement in the physico-chemical properties of young tea soil. Among the different treatment of organic manure, the treatment 4.50 t/ha tea skiff vermicompost and compost resulted in highest number of primary branching and registered increase of 89.58 per cent and 128.6 per cent at the end of first year (S3) over the initial The application of 3.00 t/ha and 4.50 t/ha of compost and vermicompost respectively, resulted significant increase in number of primary branches over the control. The maximum numbers of secondary branches (53.70) were recorded with tea skiff vermicompost (4.5T/ha) with maximum increase of 647.56 per cent and 604.41 per cent (compost) at the end of second year (S3) over the early growing period (S1) of planting year A significant increase in total biomass and yield of made tea was observed in all the treatments during both the years over the control. The maximum total yield of made tea, 87.23 kg/ha and 77.36 kg/ha, was observed with 4.5 t/ha (vermicompost) and 4.5 t/ha (compost) respectively, during 2nd year of experiment. All the parameters (bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil aggregates) were significantly influenced by the organics treatments over the

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control. It was observed that bulk density of soil decreases with the increase of organic levels. The per cent increase of saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.046-0.101 per cent & 0.03-0.10 per cent over the initial under vermicompost and compost treatments, respectively. A significant improvement in the soil aggregates was reported by the application of compost and vermicompost Among the different recipes of tea brewing such as boiling, filtering and repeated extraction on the minerals availability in boiled tea resulted in the high contents of available nutrients in comparison to filtering method. Addition of milk resulted in the significant enhancement of the nutrients except Fe, almost non-detectable levels and acidity was nearer to neutral pH (6.3-6.7) of tea brew. Addition of lemon juice resulted in enhancement of acidity and hence it is suggested to avoid the lemon tea during fasting. The repeated extraction resulted in the significant reduction in the minerals contents and electrical conductivity of tea infusion

X. Agroforestry Germplasm collection and evaluation 1. Species under study Toona ciliata and Sapindus mukorosii 2. In Toona ciliata phenotypic evaluation of characteristics of various seed sources revealed eight promising seed sources out of the 25 progeny tested seed sources with respect to increase in diameter, height and spread. Maximum height increment of (46%) was reported in S2 (52%) was seed source followed by S6 and S1 a height increment of 52%was recorded in S3 followed by S7 (48.93%) and S6, and maximum increment in spread was noticed in S7 (48.31%) followed by S4 (45.31%) and S3. 3. A preliminary information on Sapindus mukorosii revealed that the mean average height of selected provenances vary from 6.0 to 10.5 m, the DBH vary from 12.7-22.3 cm, and 100 seed weight ranged between 181.27-167.32 g. 2. Management Practice in Himalayan Tea Based Agroforestry system 1. A maximum of 693 kg/ha of tea yield was obtained in low shade intensity (D1) followed by Medium (D2) and High (D3). 2. The organic carbon percentage was maximum in D2 followed by D1 and D3. 3. The available N was maximum in D2 followed by D3, and Magnesium contents were maximum in D3 followed by D1 and D2. 4. The available phosphorus was maximum in D2 followed by D1 and the potassium availability was maximum in D3 followed by D1 and D2. XI. Horticulture 1. Department of Horticulture has been accredited as one of the Lead Centre for the production of Clonal rootstocks of temperate fruit plants viz. apple, peach, pear, kiwi as well as lead centre for the production of quality planting material of temperate fruits.

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2. Gap filling in the mother stools of apple, viz. M793, MM106, MM111, M7 and M9 in the newly developed nursery area under the project entitled Network project on creation of bud wood and rootstock bank of temperate fruits has been completed. 3. Blocks of peach, apricot, aonla, mango, litchi, guava and pear have been strengthened by gap filling in the vacant spaces. 4. The hardened Tissue cultured plants of Clonal root stocks of apple M793, MM111, MM106 and M7 have been established in the nursery beds. 5. Approximately 1.65 lacs plants of temperate and subtropical fruits like apple, peach, plum, apricot, kiwi, pecan, pomegranate, persimmon and mango, litchi, guava and citrus were sold to the farmers of the state as well as outside to the state. 6. Kernel size(length, breadth and thickness) and weight are most desirable characters which affect oil percentage Wild Apricot. On the basis of the correlation studies, it was found that kernel thickness (0.292) and kernel weight (0.236) was positively and highly significantly correlated with the oil content along with the stone thickness (0.211). However, kernel weight has positive and highly significant correlation with all the stone and kernel characters. XII. Social Sciences: The analysis of the factors that promoted the process of crop diversification in the state reveals that the adoption of development strategy incorporating mountain specificities in terms of breaking the barriers of inaccessibility and marginality, the creation and nurturing of a vast network of R & D institutions catering to the needs of requirements of high value cash crop growers and creating a fairly good network of marketing infrastructure in terms of regulated markets were the most important macro drivers of crop diversification. Most important challenges endangering the ecological sustainability and economic viability of the whole process of crop diversification are, degradation of soil health in terms of depletion of micro and macro nutrients, slow but perceptible change in weather and climate, outward looking policies manifested in a more liberal trade regime, inadequate infrastructural facilities in terms of markets and market yards and low as well as stagnant productivity of both apple plantations because of their old age and vegetable crops. These emerging challenges, therefore, call for suitable policy interventions to ensure ecological sustainability and economic viability of the whole process of crop diversification in the state. In the mountains of Himachal Pradesh, it was found that farmers were using high seed rate in all crops except paddy also with very low use of chemical fertilizers and chemicals. Majority of the farmers reported many problems in adoption of improved animals. These were more feed and fodder requirement, grazing problems and unsuitability of certain breeds for local conditions. To achieve holistic and sustainable agricultural development in the state, zonespecific, varietal development, seed multiplication, timely supply of critical inputs, micro-irrigation, protected cultivation, water harvesting, market and irrigation development and tackling stray animals and monkey/ wild animals

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menace need to be included as the part of comprehensive strategy. The average yield of spring maize in Una district of Himachal Pradesh was found to be 15 q/ha higher than that of 46 q/ha obtained in case of kharif maize which was mainly due to longer duration of crop, high photosynthesis, reduced pests & diseases, favorable grain stalk ratio, etc. The cost of cultivation was higher in case of spring maize (Rs 38,099/ha) as compared to Rs 33,261/ha in kharif maize. However, a reverse trend was observed in case of gross returns (Rs 46,005 from kharif and Rs 59,958/ha from spring maize) over different costs. Most of the potato growers in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh expressed their high extent of training need in the sub area of time of application of chemical fertilizers, identification of insect/pest/diseases, doses of chemical fertilizer/plant protection chemicals/ weedicides and time of application of plant protection chemicals. In Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh inadequate knowledge was perceived as a major constraint in the adoption of seed treatment, plant protection measures, improved varieties, nursery raising and FYM. High cost and untimely supply of inputs like plant protection chemicals, improved varieties and fertilizers were reported as barrier in their adoption of modern technology. Inadequate guidance and inadequate storage facility were also expressed as major constraints by the respondents. It was found that willful default was one of the main reasons for overdues according to different sources. Hence, to ensure proper utilization and avoid defaults, supervision of agricultural credit should be done by the lending institutions. The benefit- cost ratio ranged from 1.34 to 1.72 and pay-back period ranged from 7.2 months to 4.10 years in a study of polyhouses in Una district of Himachal Pradesh. More than forty per cent of the polyhouse farmers reported production related problems. And about 50 per cent farmers were facing problem in handling of produce due to its perishable nature. During survey in Kangra, Kullu and Mandi districts it has been found that most of the farmers reported about the non-availability of effective biopesticides in the market and expressed apprehensions about non availability of market for sale of vegetables produced using biopesticides. Very small stock of Spodocide, Mycojal, Achook, and Neem Ban, etc was found in the sale centers. Similarly Trichoderma and Trichogramma were used by a few farmers in Kangra district located in the periphery of State Biocontrol Lab Holta (Palampur). The trees of darek (Melia azedarach) were found in all the sample villages of three districts, whereas Kalibasuti (Eupatorium adenophorum) was available only in sample villages of Kangra district A survey in the command area of Shahnehar Major Irrigation Project revealed that the potential of the irrigation water is under-utilized because of non construction of kuhl network, leakage in pipes, unleveled land, sandy soil and water percolates immediately, mechanical faults in tube wells/ lift irrigation .The cumulative response of these problems was estimated to be 92 per cent.

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The implementation of District Agriculture Plans (DAPs) will register a growth rate of 16.82 per cent per annum in the gross value of output in the agriculture sector in the state.

VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES I. Animal Genetics and Breeding Coat Color pattern of Hill cattle in Himachal Pradesh: Hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh have six different types of coat color and among them pure black is dominant. The overall percentage of pure black , brown, black brown red, reddish brown and black with white patches were found to be 54.4, 19.6, 8.6, 3.1, 11.6, 2.6 and 51.7, 19.9, 12.0, 4.1, 9.0, 3.1 per cent in male and female, respectively. The observation recorded made it clear that black with white patches is the least found coat color (2.6% in male and 3.1% in female) in hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh. Characterization and conservation of Red Jungle Fowl under Natural Environmental conditions in H.P: The birds of the red jungle fowl were observed to be small to medium in size weighing 760.38107.75 grams (female) and 1169.5774.92 grams (male). The colour of these birds is a mixture of red, orange, black green colors. The male has bright shades of these colors whereas, females have black buff and reddish brown coloured body. The males found in this region have black feathers on the lower side where as, golden or orange red constitute the upper plumage. Males have 14 number of tail feather which are horizontally placed in both the sexes and eclipse molt with long black feather across the middle of the back and red orange on the rest of the body have been observed in some of the birds. Males have bright red single comb, however, the comb is missing in females. These birds are very social and remain in groups. One of the males acts as leader of the group and takes care of all other birds. It raises alarm during emergencies. They rest under thick bushes during day but they prefer to sit high on the branches of the trees during night hours.Females lay nearly 7 9 eggs weighing about 25 -30 grams each under the bushes and hatch them for 21 days. The chicks comes out of the egg on 21st day and weigh about 15 16 grams. The females have very good mothering ability and they do not allow any body to approach chicks. Ginger supplementation @ 500g/q of food in poultry broilers increased the profits up to 21.19 per cent as compared to that of antibiotics supplementation. It decreases serum cholesterol and fat of breast and thigh meat. Turmeric supplementation @ 500g/q of food resulted similarly as in the above case with higher protein content in breast and thigh meat. Rose pomace and apple pomace can be used as a substitute of energy and protein at 5-10% level of the concentrate feeding and grain in weight, feed conversion efficiency and increases the profit per broiler rearing. Seabuckthorn leaves can substitute the protein of concentrate ration with better results in calves for growth and nutrients utilization.

II. Animal Nutrition

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III. Vety. Microbiology Animal disease investigation: In the animals disease investigation work, a total of 436 samples accruing from cattle (149), buffaloes (4), equines (9), sheep and goats (36), canine (150), poultry (58) and other (30) were examined microbiologicvally and drug sensitivity reports were given for the effective disease treatment. Human samples: Total 206 human samples comprising of urine stool, throat swabs, ear swab, eye, pus, skin scraping and semen samples were examined microbiologically and drug sensitivity profits of the isolated microorganisms were provided to the patients. Serodiagnosis: Total 171 serum samples from Shimla, Tal, Chamba (HP) and Hyderabad (AP) from sheeps and equines were examined for chlamydiosis and brucellosis. Five samples of sheep from Shimla and 5 samples of sheep from Hyderabad were found positive for brucellosis and chlamydiosis, respectively. Rickettsial disease out break investigation: Total 22 samples from bovine ticks, rat fleas and human blood samples from the village, Deol (Baijnath) were tested for suspected Rickettsial diseases outbreak using glt-A gene and ompA gene based PCR tests. Out of these 4 samples from bovine ticks and one sample from rat flea was found to be positive. Further experiments are in progress for identification of the Rickettsial species involved in the outbreak of the disease. A total 266 necropsies were investigated by the Deptt. of Vety, Pathology. Some of the important disease conditions recorded during necropsy examination were: Tuberculosis, traumatic reticulo-pericarditis in cattle, asphyxia, pneumonia with chronic obstruction of jejunum in sheep & goats; Colibacillosis, hydropericardium syndrome, coccidiosis, CRD, mycotoxicosis, acute pulmonary edema & ascites, rickets in poultry and encephalitozoonosis & hepatopathy leading to cardio respiratory impairment in rabbits. Two outbreaks of PPR in sheep & goat were investigated by the faculty of the department in association with other team members in Indora area of Kangra District. Visceral samples and biopsies were investigated where benign fibroma with parakeratosis in Gaddi Goat was found to be a unique finding. Studies on the susceptibility of avian species for hydropericardium syndrome revealed that athe chicken are highly susceptible followed by Japanese quails while duckings and adult pigeons are resistant. Mycotoxicosis Studies on the combined effects of fumonisin B1 and moniliformin, in Japanese quail revealed that the mycotoxins in combination can cause higher mortality. Although, individually moniliformin was found to be cardiac toxic while fumonisin as hepatoxic. The ultra structure study unfolded their mechanism of action.

IV. Vety. Pathology

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V. Vety. Parasitology Forecast & surveillance Lab. for parasitic diseases in H.P.: 138 samples suspected for different parasitic diseases were examined in the department of Parasitology during the period under report. These samples belonged to Palampur and to surrounding areas. The representative animal species were cattle, buffalo, sheep/ goat, dog/equines/rabbit and human beings. During the period overall parasitism in this area was found to be 39.13%. In cattle 24.73% animals were found positive for amphistomes, strongyles, haemoprotozoans and ectoparasites. In sheep and goats 19 (95%) samples out of 20 were positive for parasitic infections. The strongyles were found predominantly followed by coccidian. In dogs out of 10 samples, one each was found positive for Babesia sp. and Demodex canis .From rabbits coccidian and from equines amphistomes were recorded. To study the prevalence of various gastrointestinal helminths in canines a total of 236 faecal samples from different places of Himachal Pradesh were screened by using standard techniques. Out of 236 samples, 125 (52.90%) were found positive for one or the other type of infection. Ancylostoma sp. (19.06%) was the dominant species followed by Dipylidium caninum (16.10%), Taenia (8.47%), Toxocara sp.(5.93%) and Trichuris sp (3.38%). Incidence of ecto parasites in dogs was studied in various parts of the Himachal Pradesh. The over all incidences of ecto-parasites in dogs was found to be 60.57%. The highest incidence was of ticks (27.94%) followed by fleas (13.28%), lice (10.59%) and mites (8.82%). The conception rates in Jersey cross cows were improved up to 10% by artificial insemination twice with in 24 hrs. Single injection of PGF2alpha administered during diestrus in silent estrus cows effectively induced estrus and fixed time inseminations at 48 and 72 hours resulted in conceptions, thereby reducing the inter-calving intervals. Norgestomet implants (Crestar) induced estrus in anestrus cows and heifers and the conception rates were 35-40%. Supplementing semen extenders with anti-oxidants (Ascorbic acid) and membrane stabilizer (chloroquine di phosphate) improved conception rates of frozen thawed semen upto 5-10% in cows of H.P. Norgestomet implants induced estrus in Gaddi Sheep during non breeding season. The abattoir ovaries were useful material for retrieval of good quality oocytes for in-vitro maturation and fertilization. The slicing of ovaries yielded a comparable number of good quality oocytes as obtained by aspiration however aspiration was more time consuming. The presence of C.L. adversely affected the quality and number of oocytes retrieved. Estrus sheep serum was economical and effective media additive for IVF of immature sheep oocytes.

VI. Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology & Obstetrics

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The increasing incidence of repeat breeding was mainly attributed to faulty A.I. Adequate training of persons involved in A.I. programme, proper sterilization of equipments, aseptic A.I. procedure and preventing untrained/unauthorized persons (peons & daily paid workers) performing AI in cows would reduce repeat breeding in cows of H.P. Biostimulation of genitalia (elitoral stimulation) at the time of A.I. improved conception rates thereby reducing number of inseminations per conception in cows. Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin & Enrofloxin had high in-vitro sensitivity against microbes isolated from uterine discharges of endometritic cows. Streptopencillin also demonstrated good inhibition zones in uterine discharges collected from buffaloes. Ciprofloxacin & Gentamycin at therapeutic dose were effective for treatment of endometritis in cows. Fungi have rarely been incriminated as a cause of endometrities, however, fungal isolates were also recovered from genital discharges of endometritic cows suggesting it to be one of the important causative agents. Lugols Iodine given 30 ml intrauterine for these days was effective against these fungi. Uterine biopsy gave more conclusive information regarding endometritis than uterine discharge. Metestrual bleeding was identified as an emerging cause of repeat breeding amongst cows of H.P. Though management of the malady with progesterone treatment has yielded encouraging results, the investigations are in progress to suggest most effective method to manage the malady under field conditions. In the present study, a total of 187 dogs were screened for the presence of anaemia. The overall incidence of anaemia was recorded as 37.97%. Helminthic infection due to Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis caused anaemia in 25.35% dogs. Hepatic insufficiency occurred in 18.31% cases, mineral deficiency in 14.04% dogs, ectoparasitic infestation in 8.45% dogs, haemoprotozoan in 2.82% dogs and renal insufficiency and pregnancy in 1.41% dogs, each. Miscellaneous causes such as gastro intestinal disturbances, epilepsy, pyometra, physical trauma, stomach ulcers and tumors were associated with anaemia in 28.17% of the cases. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia occurred in maximum number of cases (59.68%), followed by normocytic hypochromic (19.35%), microcytic normochromic (14.52%) and macrocytic hypochromic in 6.45% cases of anaemia. Oral and parenteral iron therapy showed a marked improvement in mild to moderate anaemic dogs. Blood transfusion proved a valuable therapeutic tool in critically anaemic dogs. Management of Status Epilepticus in Canine: Status epilepticus, which is a life threatening condition of dogs, was successfully managed by intravenous Diazepam, dexamathasone and fluid therapy in acute phase followed by combination of oral phenobarbitone and phenytoin.

VII.Clinical Medicine: Investigation on anaemia in dogs

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VIII. Veterinary Surgery and Radiology Studies on the distal strangulated intestinal obstruction in bovines: The distal strangulated obstruction was created in 12 calves, which were divided into three groups of four animals each. The animals of group 1 were untreated control group. The animals of group II which were given conservative therapy on 3rd post obstruction day. The animals of group III were corrected surgically on 3rd post obstruction day and these animals were also kept on conservative therapy till the end of study. The blood, peritoneal fluid and ruminal fluid samples were collected on 0, 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6th day post obstruction day. Clinical, physical, cytological, haematological and biochemical alterations in body fluids were studied before and after the induction of distal strangulated intestinal obstruction and following conservative/surgical treatment. Animals of all three groups were showing clinical signs of acute pain following creation of distal strangulated obstruction. These signs remain visible up to 24 hours and the severity of pain was during initial 4-6 hours of obstruction. The progressive debilitation continued in the animals of group 1 which was evident by dry lusterless hair coat and general appearance. Rumination ceased completely at 24 hours following the creation of obstruction. There was decrease in the ruminal fluid pH (6.64+ 0.081) on 3rd day and increased capillary refill time (0.793+ 0.617). There was marked hyperproteinemia (10.33+0.772 mg/dl), azotemia (BUN: 18.84+ 2.445 mg/dl and creatinine 1.72+0.268 mg/dl), hypochlorimea (75.01+ 667 mEq/L), Hypokalemia (3.84+0.101 mEq/L), increased alkaline phosphatase (149.58+7.209IU/L) and increased AST (121.83+11.032 IU/L) after 3rd post obstruction day. A significant increase in peritoneal fluid protein (4.94+0.215 g/dl) concentration and nucleated cell count (3690+182.3 cell/cumm) was observed at 3rd post obstruction day. There was marked decrease in sodium (89.70 +3.161 mEq/L), potassium (20.03+1.341 mEq/L) and increase in chloride (51.113+3.115 mEq/L) concentration in the ruminal fluid at 3rd post obstruction day. The criteria for surgical and medical intervention were based on above findings which have a significant prognostic importance. The treatments were instituted when plasma chloride has not falledn below 75mEq/L, plasma potassium has not declined below 3.8 mEq/L and haematocrit has not risen above 42 per cent. During treatments efforts were being made to maintain the concentrations at above mentioned optimal levels. Rinders solution and potassium chloride were being given to maintain the optimal concentration of chloride. When the electrolyte levels were restored, the normal saline, 5 per cent dextrose normal saline and calcium borogluconate were administered to cater the fluid deficit due to dehydration. Post operative supportive therapy comprising of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, ruminal motility rejuvenators, and transfaunation aided in improving the prognosis in intestinal obstruction. The effectiveness of conservative treatment in group II and surgical treatment along with conservative treatment in the animals of group III was evidenced clinically. The conservative treatment given to the animals of group II reduced the pace of deterioration of the pathophysiology and increased the life span of the animals as compared to the animals of group I. Haemoconcentration and other signs of dehydration were delayed in the animals of group II and subsided in group III following treatment. The concentrations of total protein decreased and blood electrolytes increased in the

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post treatment period when compared to the day of treatment distal intestinal obstruction (3rd day). IX. Fisheries Polyculture fish model technology evolved by the department of Fisheries is being disseminated vigorously to the farmers of the state as such about 150 farmers in Distt. Kangra, Hamirpur and Solan have already adopted and integrated for which the package of practices have been standardized. In second phase under the programme on Empowerment of women farmers of the state, ten motivation camps and three training camps (two for district Shimla and one for district Solan) of three days duration were organized at the University fish farm in order to disseminate fish farming technology to the women farmers of both the district. As a result about 210 ladies were benefited out of which 108 were trained in this technology at the University fish farm. Nine demonstration trials in different villages were set ,as a result till date 30 women already started this venture in their own field and some of them are on way to adopt this technology.

In view of ever-increasing cost of fish feed ingredients, it was envisaged to use the probiotics i.e. yeast powder as one of the feed ingredient for enhancing the growth of fish. The different replicate experimental trials conducted revealed that the impact of yeast powder mixed feed is more on common carp and silver carp as compared to grass carp resulting the enhancement of 16% in total production as compared to the control. . Further it was also noticed that under same environmental condition the impact of vermicompost on growth of major carp is higher by 19% than the control one (Cow dung). The vermicompost most probably helpful to produce algal food web on which Grass carp and Silver carp grew well but common carp grew poor. These findings will be validated during next two years. Genetic improvement of mirror and scale carp by selective breeding has improved the production and breeding efficiency of these species significantly in term of growth performance, survivability and fecundity as a result the production per unit area has been enhanced up to 5 tones/hac. In Mahseer feed, the fishmeal can be replaced up to 57% by roasted soybean and feed conversion ratio is found almost similar in both the diets. Further, it was observed that the Mahseer cannot tolerate the temperature above 320C when water level is less than 3feet. Study of migratory routes of fish species of Beas drainage system revealed that 15 sites out of 36 selected sites are good breeding ground of Mahseer, snow trout and other endemic fish species, which needs protection. As the habitat is deteriorating due to urbanization, release of effluent, disposal of human wastes and human excreta. The extractions of riverbed materials at 14 sites were noticed, which frequently shifted the substrate, thus threaten the fish species inhabited in these water bodies. Till now 14 fish species have been reported from these sites. Silt deposition in Suketi khud at Rani Ki Bain (Sundernagar) and Dehar khud at Har village and near Katha factory are threat to breeding ground, as it suffocates the eggs, embryos and their food. The fishes stop to migrate from reservoir to Nakher Khud (Dehra) due to silt deposition and pollution.

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X. Vety. and Animal Husbandry Extension Training Aspirations of livestock farmers of Himachal Pradesh were identified. Most farmers wanted to have training on Basic knowledge about management of common diseases of livestock (22-05%). The other most useful areas of training identified are: Fodder Production (21-02%); Making cattle feed at home (20.0%); Veterinary First Aid (16.6%) and Knowledge about common house-hold remedies for common diseases (13.58%). Constraints (as perceived by livestock farmers of HP) in way of adoption of Dairy Farming as a profession were evaluated. The most critical constraints identified were: Low milk yield (25.47%); Lack of accessibility of Artifician insemination facilities on time/need (17-16%); Fodder nonavailability (15.39%); Disease threats (14.98%) and Parasite (ecto-and endo-) Problems (14.71%). Dairy animal feeding patterns of HP farmers were documented. Mineral mixture is fed regularly by 3.85%, while commercial cattle feed is used by 48.6%. A good number of farmers (38.10%) fed both commercial cattle feed and mineral mixture, while 11.54% did not give either of the two to the dairy cattle. Indigenous Animal Health Management Practices used by HP livestock farmers against 19 most prevailing disease conditions and husbandry practices were identified. Under the research project Evaluation of Pesticide Levels and Nutritional Quality Attributes of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Produce 259 genotypes received from various ACIRP centers recorded significant variations in 1000 seed weight, moisture, protein, oil, total sugars, lignin and oxalate contents. Linoleic acid and oleic acid ranging from 27.59-46.18% (AVT-07, IVT-10) and 28.42-47.56% (CST-2001-03), respectively, emerged nutritionally desirable collections with respect to fatty acids. A new research project Studies on Attributes of Polyphenols from Kangra Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze] was started w.e.f. June, 2007. Fresh green tea shoots of three local cultivars-Kangra local (KL), Kangra Asha (KA), Kangra Jawala (KJ), exhibited significant variations in levels of total polyphenols (KL: 122.246 to 221.897 g/kg, CD at 5% = 12.84; KA: 111.598 to 249.827 g/kg, CD at 5% = 20.85; KJ: 163.894 to 292.791 g/kg, CD at 5% = 22.74) and condensed tannins (KL: 53.651 to 102.199 g/kg, CD at 5% = 8.39; KA: 34.672 to 112.447 g/kg, CD at 5% = 9.93; KJ: 60.305 to 141.398 g/kg, CD at 5% = 11.02) contents during 2007. The pH values (KA: 4.4 to 5.7; KA: 4.5 to 5.5; KJ: 4.5 to 5.6) of their infusions were comparable. Fresh green tea shoots whose enzymatic activity was stopped by heat treatment exhibited higher free radical scavenging potency compared to made black orthodox tea. Physiological and molecular studies on amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) genotypes:In a pot study on 15 genotypes of A. hpochondriacus and A. cruentus, it was observed that genotypes of A. hypochondriacus attained maximum plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, partitioning coefficient of leaves and SLW where as A.cruentus recorded

BASIC SCIENCES

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highest stem girth, total dry matter accumulation, partitioning coefficient of root, shoot and inflorescence, CGR, NAR, RGR, LAAR, grain yield and harvest index and methionine, trytophan and lysine contents. With growth parameters, the grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with RGR, CGR, SLW and LAR showing the contribution of these parameters towards yield. In general long duration genotypes recorded higher grain yield. The harvest index also played significant role in grain yield. The RAPDs were 43.48 per cent polymorphic showing less genetic variability. The generated dendrogram gave rise to four clusters and the overall similarity among genotypes of different clusters varied from 18.1-34.2 per cent. The most significant point emerging from this investigation is that although the two species of Amaranthus used in this investigation were genetically less diverse yet they showed variation in different physiological and biochemical parameters. The genotypes of A. cruentus adapted more efficiently under Palampur conditions and resulted in higher grain yield in comparison to that of genotypes of A. hypochondriacus. In the College of Basic Sciences a Herbal Garden, financially supported by National Medicinal Plant Board, New Delhi, has been establishment. About 147 species of medicinal and aromatic plants have been planted/tried in the garden. These are herbs, shrubs and trees (including a few Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms). Some endangered/threatened species like Cinnamomum tamala, Curculigo archioides, Dioscorea deltoidea Rauwolfia serpentine etc. are also available in the garden which requires special care and attention. Presently the garden is serving as a living repository of medicinal and aromatic plants of the regional importance and a few exotic one.

HOME SCIENCES
Two products namely Salty Nutritious porridge (dalia) and Pancake (Cheela) were tested for hypoglycemic effect and found suitable for diabetic patients. Preserved food products from seabuckthorn viz. clarified juices, Ready to Serve Beverage (RTS), Carbonated beverages, Alcoholic beverages, Squashes, syrups, Jams, Jellies and marmalade. The suitability of the seabuckthorn powder was also assessed for the preparation of weaning, supplementary and bakery items. Value added products from tribal crops viz. Amaranths, Buckwheat, Finger millet- Ragi, Rajmash, Peas, Kala zira etc. were prepared as per consumers acceptability. Medicinal and aromatic plants like tulsi, brahmi, ashwagandha, stevia, aloevera, mint etc. were utilized for the preparation of value added products. Kachnar and Lesora being good source of fibre components and various minerals were used for developing value added products such as pickle, chutney and candy. Products dried after sulphuring at 50C in mechanical drier was the best treatment in terms of rehydration, chemical characteristics and cooking quality, can be safely stored for six months at ambient temperatures. Vegetables namely carrot, cabbage and okra given different blanching treatments, drying methods and storage period affected quality of dehydrated vegetables. Blanched cabinet dried treatment exhibited maximum value of

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chemical constituents and excellent rehydration characteristics, the blanched solar dried treatment was also found at par in relation to analyzed parameters. Whey, a by-product of dairy industry being a good source of lactose, total solids, solid-not-fat and most of vitamins and minerals was utilized for preparation of value added products using locally available mango. The nutritious and delicious products with less cost can serve as nutritional supplement both at household as well as on commercial scale. Under AICRP, social activities of adolescent girls (age group 11-18 years) were reading books / magazines, going alone to their friends house and interacting with the members of opposite sex. All adolescent girls participated in fields along with their mothers. Girls emphasized that they wanted their partner to be of right age, employed, educated, small family and good looking in marriage aspects. The study was conducted in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh on the school going children. (12-14 years). Perusal of the results showed that sample population followed almost normal curve on intelligence as maximum respondents belonged to average category followed by above average and below average categories. Our educational system is taking care of this average population. In case of multiple intelligence while respondents were tested for linguistic intelligence, 33.33 per cent were above average and approximately 50 per cent were average. The study was conducted on 150 pregnant women who enrolled themselves in the Zonal Hospital, Dharamshala and Civil Hospital, Palampur for their antenatal checkups. The data were collected with the help of interview schedule and standardized scales. Caste was significantly associated with the stress experienced during past one year whereas, age, income; qualification had a significant association with stress during the life time. The health problems of expecting mothers were significantly and positively correlated with the stress experienced in the past one year. The study on Socio Emotional Development of school going children (6-11 years) in female headed households in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh was undertaken with specific objectives, to judge the socio emotional development of the school going children in female headed households, to study the effect of socio economic status with socio emotional development of school going children. The occupation, type of family and caste were significantly associated with communication skills whereas marital status, occupation and income of mother had significant association with daily living skills and marital status, education and caste also had significant association with social skills of the children. Cotton material was dyed with four different natural dyes extracted from Bidens, Litchi, Lantana and Eupatorium. On the basis of best results obtained on cotton, Bidens and Litchi were selected for dyeing of silk material. Concentration used for dyeing of silk material with Litchi was 5 and 7% whereas in case of Bidens 5 and 8%. Four different mordants i.e., copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, alum and stannous chloride were used in different concentration for dyeing.

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The dyed silk fabrics were assessed for their colour fastness with three agencies i.e., colour fastness to washing, sunlight and rubbing. Survey work was also conducted in four different zones of Himachal Pradesh in order to get information about agro and animal based fibers.

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)

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Item No. 4: To place before the Council the list of research projects sanctioned since 19.01.2007 The summary of research projects sanctioned from 19.01.2007 to date is given blow for kind perusal of the members of the Research Council and the detail of these projects is annexued as ANNEXURE-V: Summary of research projects sanctioned from 19.01.2007 to date: Name of the College/ Department/Cenre/Station College of Agriculture Crop Improvement Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management Soil Science Plant Pathology Entomology Agricultural Engineering Vegetable Science and Floriculture Agricultural Economics, Extension Education and Rural Sociology Agricultural Biotechnology Organic Agriculture Seed Science and Technology Horticulture Tea Husbandry and Agroforestry Total College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Dean, COVAS Animal Nutrition Animal Genetics and Breeding Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology Veterinary Microbiology Livestock Products Technology Fisheries Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 3 1100.00 5.00 63.60 80.00 104.75 125.13 0.53 3.75 10.65 83.40 7 3 7 8 3 2 5 10 5 6 4 7 2 69 207.48 12.05 328.02 136.83 368.83 138.30 137.99 63.33 103.64 400.96 616.00 213.65 4.80 2731.88 No. of Projects Sanctioned Total Budget (Rs. in lakhs)

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Veterinary Surgery and Radiology Total College of Basic Sciences Dean, COBS Chemistry and Biochemistry Microbiology Biology and Environmental Sciences Centre for Geoinformatics Research and Training Total College of Home Science Food Science and Nutrition Textile and Apparel Designing Family Resource Management Total Research Centres/Stations HAREC, Dhaulakuan HAREC, Bajaura Kukumseri RWRC, Malan MARES, Salooni KVK, Una Total Grand Total 4 2 1 1 2 1 11 114 123.57 73.83 12.17 14.41 56.64 14.67 295.29 4852.07 4 1 1 6 16.24 7.92 7.70 31.86 1 1 2 1 6 11 25.00 3.00 39.59 40.00 78.64 186.23 1 17 30.00 1606.81

In addition to this, nine NAIP projects with a total budget outlay of Rs 1420.33 lakhs were also sanctioned in favour of the University during the period under report and the details of the same have been given in ANNEXURE-VI.

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Item No. 5: To place before the Council the abstracts of Ph.D theses submitted and approved from 19.01.2007 to date. (as pdf)

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Crop Improvement 1. Title of Thesis : Genetic characterization and selection parameters for yield, morphophysiological and quality traits in land races, japonicas and new plant type rices. Vijay Kumar (A-2002-40-10) Dr. P.C. Katoch

Name of the Student Salient findings

Name of the Major Advisor :

The present investigation was undertaken to study the variability, associations among traits, selection indices and diversity among 57 rice genotypes comprising of 21 land races, 18 new plant types and 15 japonicas alongwith three checks China 988, RP 2421 and Naggar Dhan. The experiment was conducted during two consecutive years i.e. Kharif 2004 and 2005 at RWRC, Malan and experimental farm of the Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, CSK HPKV, Palampur. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation for all he characters studied during the years and combined over years at both locations within and among families. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for harvest index at Palampur in land races; for total tillers per plant, effective tillers per plant, spikelets per panicle and grains per panicle at Malan in new plant types; and for spikelets per panicle and grains per panicle at both the locations in japonicas. Heritability estimates were also high for most of the quality traits. At phenotypic level, grain yield per plant exhibited positive and significant associations with total tillers per plant, effective tillers per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index in land races; with plant height, biological yield per plant and harvest index in new plant types; and with spikelets per panicle, grains per panicle, biological yield per palnt and harvest index in japonicas at both the locations. Genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the phenotypic ones. Selection indices revealed that the combinations of four characters viz., panicle length, effective tillers per plant, spikelet fertility and biological yield per plant in land races; grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight in new plant types; and panicle length and spikelets per panicle in japonicas were more efficient than direct selection for yield. D2 statistics grouped 57 genotypes in to 13 diverse clusters in 1st year, 2nd year and combined over years at Malan, whereas 16, 9 and 10 diverse cluster in 1 st year, 2nd year and combined over years, respectively at Palampur. Molecular markers (RAPD) grouped the genotypes in eight different clusters. Clustering pattern did not necessarily follow their geographic or location distribution. The genotypes present in different groups (land races, new plant type and japonica type) were generally present in separate clusters with a few cases of overlapping with both the methods. Days to flowering, days to maturity, grain length and grain width contributed most towards divergence at both the locations. Variation for morphological descriptors was present only in land races and local japonicas. High amount of variation was present for iron content in the grains among land races and new plant types ranging from 0.53 ug/g to 31.27 ug/g and 0.16 ug/g to 48.79 ug/g, respectively, while variation was less in case of japonicas. Variation for zinc content present in grains was in general low.

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


2. Title of Thesis Name of the Student Salient findings The present study was undertaken to gather information on general and specific combining ability, gene action and heterosis for yield and other traits, including seed and seedling traits in maize (Zea mays L.), following line x tester analysis. The experimental material, comprising 24 diverse inbred lines, three broad based testers, viz., Early Composite, Girija and KH-2001, their 72 crosses and one standard check (PMZ-4), was grown in a simple lattice design with two replications at the experimental farm of Seed Production Unit, CSK HPKV-Palampur, Himachal Pradesh during Kharif 2004 and 2005. Each plot consisted of 5 rows of 4 meters length spaced at 60cm distance. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation for all the traits except seed density. Genotypes showed differential response across the years for all the traits except ear height and seed density. Preponderance of non-additive gene action was observed for all the traits. The combining ability study revealed that six lines viz., lines-4,5,1,2,7 and 9 were good general combiners for grain yield and other traits and five lines viz., 3,4,10,8 and 13 performed consistently better for accelerated aging test, osmotic stress test, 100-seed weight, 100seed volume, germination percentage and field emergence. Eleven cross combinations viz., line-13 x Early Composite, line-22 x Early Composite, line-24 x Early Composite, line-3 x Girija, line-9 x Girija, line-20 x Girija, line-22 x Girija, line-13 x KH-2001, line-17 x KH2001, line-19 x KH-2001, line-21 x KH-2001 were observed to be good specific combiners for grain yield and other attributes. From drought resistance point of view, two cross combinations viz., line-6 x Early Composite and line-1 x Girija were observed to be promising as these revealed significant and positive SCA effects for two most important features of drought tolerance i.e. accelerated aging test and field emergence. Line-16 x Early Composite, line-23 x Girija, line-11 x KH-2001 and line-12 x KH-2001 also revealed significant and desirable SCA effects for field emergence. Cross combinations viz., line-2 x Early Composite, line-6 x Early Composite, line-19 x Early Composite, line8 x Girija, line-12 x Girija, line-14 x Girija for low cob placement and more kernels per row; line-5 x Early Composite, line-21 x Early Composite, line-13 x Girija, line-20 x Girija, line-4 x KH-2001 for high cob placement, more kernels per row and more ear length; line-23 x Early Composite, line-22 x Girija, line-8 x KH-2001 for low cob placement and more kernel rows per ear; line-13 x Early Composite and line-3 x KH-2001 for high cob placement, more kernels per row, high 100-seed weight and 100-seed volume; line-10 x Early Composite for early pollen shedding, high cob placement, high kernels per row, high 100-seed weight and 100-seed volume; line-19 x Girija low cob placement, high kernel rows per ear and high circumference; line-19 x KH-2001 for low cob placement, more kernels per row and kernel rows per ear were observed as highly heterotic. Low incidence of leaf blight and brown spot was observed under natural conditions in ten cross combinations, line-3 x Early Composite, line-5 x Early Composite, line-10 x Early Composite, line-13 x Early Composite, line-15 x Early Composite, line-19 x Early Composite, line-18 x Girija, line-5 x KH-2001 and line-18 x KH-2001 and line-19 x KH-2001.The cross combinations, line-13 x Early Composite and line-19 x KH-2001 besides showing heterosis, high SCA and per se performance also exhibited resistance towards leaf blight as well as brown spot diseases under natural field conditions. : : Genetic assessment of maize inbreds for the development of desirable hybrids Jagdish Kumar Jenjiha (A-2002-40-08) Dr. B.C.Sood

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Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


3. Title of Thesis Name of the Student Salient findings The present investigation were undertaken to exploit the scope of induced mutagenesis in ricebean. The study encompasses the exploration of induced mutagensis in generating variability for yield, yield contributing and other specific traits of importance in ricebean breeding. Knowing comparative efficacy of the two mutagens used and identification of potential mutants for yield, maturity and other traits were also the goals. Seed of two varieties of ricebean viz.; BRS-1 and Totru local were treated with different doses of gamma rays (30,40 and 50 kR) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) (0.50, 0.60 and 0.70%). The immediate effect of mutagenic treatments on seed germination and plant survival in M1 generation showed that, both the mutagens reduced germination and plant survival. Five types of chlorophyll mutants viz; viridis, xantha, albina, chlorina and alboviridis were observed in both the genotype in M2 generation only. Mutants for leaf shape, seed colour, pod colour, plant height (dwarf), fertility (semi-sterile), spreading types in non-spreading and non-spreading in spreading type parental genotypes were got in M2 and M3 generation. EMS was found to be more effective and efficient than gamma rays and both effectivness and efficiency decreased with the increasing doses of two mutagens. Analysis of variance revealed that after mutagenic treatments, enormous variability was generated in both the genotypes for all the fifteen traits studied viz; days to flowering ,days to maturity, plant height (cm) , clusters of pods/ plants, pods/ plant,seeds/pod , pods/plant, pod length (cm), nodes/ plant, internodelength (cm), number of primary branches/plant, 100 seed weight(g) ,seed yield /plant(g), biological yield/plant(g) and harvest index (%). Analysis of variance for individual dose effects pointed that all the individual doses were effective in generation of variability both between and within line, pointing selection tobe more effective in the former. Among the fifteen characters studied , seven characters viz; cluster of pods/plant,pods/ cluster, seeds/pod, pod length(cm), internodelength(cm) numberof primarybranches/plant and100-seed weight(g) showed moderateto highphenotypecoefficient of variation , genotype coefficient of variation, heritability in broad sense and genetic advance , in both BRS-1 and totru local in M2 and M3 generation Under gamma rays, the dose 30 kR for both the genotypes and under EMS, the dpse 0.60% for BRS-1 and 0.50% for totru local were the most suitable doses for producing mutagenized populations with high magnitudes of the above four parameters of variability. Under 30 kR dose, significant additive and dominance effects were observed in different yield component traits (cluster of pods/ plant pod length (cm) and 100-seed weight (g) and other yield contributing traits (nodes/plant, internode length (cm) and days to flowering) in both the genotypes. High magnitude of parameters of variability and shift of mean towards positive direction in mutagenized populations indicated that useful variability has been indused following mutagenic treatments. 4. Title of Thesis : Genetic analysis of morphological, biochemical and molecular traits of some novelty rices of Himachal Pradesh Ritu Sood (A-2004-40-12) : : Studies on induced mutagenesis in rice bean (Vigna umbellate Thunb, Ohwi and ohashi) Madhu Patial (A-2004-40-11) Dr. S.R.Thakur

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Name of the Student

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings Genetic analysis of morphological, biochemical and molecular traits of some novelty rices of Himachal Pradesh was carried out by using 17 red pericarp rices, 19 purple leaved rices and 11 quality rices along with three checks in Randomized Block Design at Rice and Wheat Research Centre, Malan (Kangra). The data was analyzed using statical procedures. Based on overall performance, Achhoo Baldhar , IC3131159, Kijun and tiyun among red pericarp rices; RLC-3 Lal Nakanda-41, R-575 and Purple Baldhar among purple leaved rices and LC99-5B, IC3131155 and Rajpur Basmati among quality rices were found to be promising genotypes for further exploitation. Tiyun had high sugar (10.4mg) and high protein content (14.0%). R-575 had high 1000- grain weight (32.1g). IC3131166 and Rajpur Basmati had long slender grain, high elongation after cooking and high brown rice protein. Grain yield had significant positive correlation with grain per panicle, plant height and spikeletsperpanical thus direct selection for those characters will be effective. Based on path coefficient analysis tillers per plant, panical length, grains per panical and 1000-grain weight had high positive direct effects on yield. Molecular analysis based on RAPD markers grouped 41 genotypes into cluster 1,25 of these were grouped into cluster II of ISSR and 33 in cluster I of D2 statistics (combined over years). This suggested similarity in clustering pattern based on these techniques. Grouping of majority of the genotypes into one cluster suggested affinity among the genotypes indicating their origin in same geographical area. Grouping based on pooling two types of makers revealed that majority of the red pericarp rices and purple leaved rices grouped into same cluster. Tremendous variationTremendous variation in anthocyanin pigmentation of different plant parts was present in all red, purple and quality rices. Among check variation was present only in case of size of auricle. Auricles were absent in Achhoo and Achhoo Baldhar. Varieties namely, china purple, HPR-1194, HPR-2089,HPR-2178, Palampur purple and Nagrota Purple had dark purple leaf blade, purple auricle, purple stigma and purple apiculus. Achhoo Baldhar had long grains with dark red pericarp, whereas IC3131171 and IC31311`59 had light red pericarp and long grains ` 5. Title of Thesis : Genetic analysis of some important morphophysiological and quality traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Shailesh Paul Sood (A-2004-40-13) Dr. (Mrs.) S. Bhateria : Dr. R.P. Kaushik

Name of the Student Salient findings

Name of the Major Advisor :

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) commonly known as Alsi is one of the important cultivated oilseeds both for seed and fiber. The seed give oil (33-45%) and cake and the stem is used for the extraction of valuable bast fibre. The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature and magnitude of gene action for important morphophysiological and qualitative traits and to study the nature of inheritance of flower and seed colour. Ten diverse parental lines, their five cross combinations (F1,F2 &F3) and back crossed (B1 &B2) were raised in compact family block design (RCBD) with three replications in two environments during rabi 2006-07 at two locations i.e. CSKHPKV, Palampur and RWRC, Malan. Sufficient genetic variability has been generated through hybridization. Additive dominance modal was found to be Adequate in case of Him Alsi2x Chambal for seeds capsule in both the environments showing the presence of additive gene action hence while breeding selection for these traits in early generation is effective.

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Duplicate type of gene action was observed for eleven characters in cross Him Alsi-2x chambal and minimum for five characters in Aoyagi x TL-33 and Turkey x Surbhi. The non additive gene action can be exploited by growing large segregating populations and using biparental mating to break undesirable linkages for obtaining transgressive segregants. Additive x dominance (j) coupled with complimentary epistatic interactions were noted for retted- straw weight only in Solinx Janaki at both the locations. On crossing the brown seeded (Aoyagi &Janaki) with yellow seeded (TL-33& Solin) the F1 seed was brown and in F2 it segregated in ratio of 3 (Brown)Yellow) and on backcrossing with recessive parents1:1 ratio of brown and yellow seeds was observed revealing that the brown seed colour is under dominant monogenic control. The blue flower was found to be dominant over white flower on the basis of segregation pattern in f2 and backcross. Only five parents (Aoyagi, TL-33, Canadian Line, Turkey & Surbhi) gave resistant reaction to powdery mildew in both the locations Him Alsi-2x chambal was observed to be an ideal purpose cross based on its performance at two locations. Tannin content ranged from 427.33 to 798.33mg/100 and it was correlated with the appearance of powdery mildew disease. The content of linolenic fatty acid was found to be high in the breeding material indicating the oil to be of industrial and therapeutic importance. 6. Title of Thesis Name of the Student : : Genetic analysis of seed yield and other attributes in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Naresh Kumar (A-2005-40-4) Dr. B.C. Sood

Name of the Major Advisor : Salient Findings

The present investigation entitled Genetic analysis of seed yield and other attributes in lentil (Lens Culinaris Medik.) was undertaken to gather information on the nature and magnitude of gene action, combining ability and heterosis for important qualitative and quantative traits, using triple test cross and line x tester analysis. The experimental material comprised of 15 inbred lines and three testers namely, Vipasa (L1), PL-406(L2) and F1 of Vipasa X PL-406(L3). The testers (Vipasa and PL-406) used in the present study were 73.6% genetically diverse as observed by RAPDs and ISSRs markers. The analysis of variance revealed the presence of sufficient genetic variability in the material for exploitation through recombinant breeding. The preponderance of additive gene action was observed for plant height, biological yield per plant, harvest index, protein content and tryptophan content indicates that early generation selection by using pedigree method will be useful for their improvement. Whereas, the preponderance of dominance variance was observed for days to 50% flowering, fertile nodes per plant, pods per plant, seed yield per plant and 100-seed weight indicates that selection should be deferred to later generations. Combining ability studies revealed that the lines L-658,L-666, L-407 ,L354 and PL-406 were good general combiners for seed yield and most of its component traits, whereas L-617, L-737,L-635,L-412 were good general combiners for seed yield and quality component and L-649 was good general combiner for earliness. Among specific cross combinations Vipasa x L-412,PL-406 x L-617, Vipasa x L-620, Pl-406 x L651, Pl-406 x L-630, Vipasa x L-649, PL-406 x L-635 for seed yield and most of its important traits. Based on the comparison made in the light of per se performance, sca effects and standard heterosis, the cross combination PL-406 x L-649 was best for days to 50%flowering; Pl-406 x L-651 being best for pods per plant ; Vipasa x L-652 and Pl-406 x L-354 was found best for protein content . the promising cross combination, PL-406x L-

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


649 can be exploited to develop early maturing genotypes and PL-406 x L-6451 could be exploited to develop high yielding cultivar in lentil whereas, Vipasa x L-652, PL-406 x L354 can be exploited for the improvement of quality traits in the lentil and Vipasa x L-658, Vipasa x L-642, Vipasa x L-737 for polyphenol oxidase activity. The early flowering genotype identified in the present study may be exploited for the development of drought tolerant genotype in future. 7. Title of Thesis : Physical mapping of some triticale x wheat derived rye chromatin introgressed wheat recombinants through fluorescence in situ hybridization. Samuel Jeverson, M(A-2006-40-4) Dr. H.K. Chaudhary

Name of the Student Salient Findings

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A study on Physical mapping of some triticale x wheat derived rye chromatin introgressed wheat recombinants through fluorescence in situ hybridization was conducted in the Department of Crop Improvement, CSKHPKV, Palampur during rabi 2007 to rabi 2009 to investigate the double haploid production efficiency following chromosome elimination approach utilizing maize- and Imperata cylindrica- mediated systems and detect and characterize the rye chromatin introghressed into triticale x wheat derived wheat recombinants through fluorescence in situ hybridization and sort out wheat like recombinants having the desired rye chromatin with minimum linkage drag. For double haploid production, triticalex wheat derived recombinants in different generations comprised of F1, F2, F3, F4, BC1F1, BC1F2, BC1F3, BC1F4 and BC2F3 were used. The haploid embryos were cultured in MS medium with different mineral constituents and hormones. All the generations responded for different parameters of haploid induction following maize- and Imperata cylindrica-mediated systems. Advanced generations responded better than early generations for haploid induction through both the systems. For all the haploid induction parameters, Imperata cylindrica performed significantly better than maize. Molecular cytogenetic analysis was executed for identifying rye chromatin/chromosome translocation, substitution and addition in 43 triticale x wheat derived stable lines (BC1F7 and F7 generations) and four triticale x wheat derived doubled haploid lines using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization and GISH (Genomic in situ hybridization) techniques with different molecular probes. Most of the triticale x wheat derived stable lines were associated with 1BL.1RS translocation, 1R and 5R substitutions. The stable lines were screened for disease resistance using two races each of leaf and yellow rusts. These lines exhibited differential reaction, that is, highly resistant to highly susceptible for the rusts. The present investigation enunciated that double haploidy breeding combined with molecular cytogenetics has proved to be an innovative technology for producing double haploids and identifying the alien introgressions in diverse triticale x wheat derived recombinants in different generations with enhanced precision and efficiency. 8. Title of Thesis : Imperata cylindrica- mediated induction of haploids in various cereals and enhancement of the system in wheat through colchicines manipulations Ms. Tisu Tayeng (A-2007-40-03) Dr. H.K. Chaudhary

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The research endeavour entitled Imperata cylindrica -mediated induction of haploids in various cereals and enhancement of the system in wheat through colchicines manipulations was executed in the Deptt. of Crop Improvement, CSKHPKV, Palampur during the year 2007-08 to 2009-10 with the mission to induce haploids in wheat and other cereals using Imperata cylindrica as a pollen source and efficiency enhancement of the chromosome elimination-mediated system of double haploidy breeding in wheat through various colchicines manipulations at in vivo and in vitro level. For the execution of wide hybridization, five cereals viz.,wheat, rice, maize and oat involving various promising lines/ genotypes were utilized and for colchicines manipulation experiments at in vitro and in vivo level, various formulation and combination of time, duration and colchicines were formulated and executed in DH 100x DH 40 derived F1 hybrid of bread wheat. The result obtained in the present investigation in respect of wide hybridization of different cereals with I. cylindrica showed that I. cylindrica was an efficient and effective pollen source for haploid induction in bread wheat and durum wheat. Pseudo seeds and embryo like structures were recovered in barley and rice upon hybridization with I. cylindrica. However, green plants could not be regenerated in both the cases. Maize and oat did not respond well butthere can be a ray of hope for the induction of haploids in these cereals also if more refinement and manipulation is done in hybridization techniques and culture protocols. In the in vivo colchicines manipulation experiment, colchicines concentration ranging from 2000 ppm to 10,000 ppm at 48, 72, and 96 hours after pollination have yielded response to chromosome doubling. Application of injection of single dose of 2000 ppm colchicines concentration at 48 hours of pollination has given most stable results in doubling the chromosome number. Hence, it can be recommended as the best dose for achieving fruitful results and save time and energy spent on this exercise through earlier techniques. In the in vitro colchicines manipulation experiment, the colchicines concentration ranging from 300 ppm to 3000 ppm of 48 , 72 and 96 hours of treatment induced doubling of the chromosomes. The outcome of the present endeavour can open new vistas for enhancing the efficiency of DH breeding in wheat and other cereals with enhanced precision and efficiency. Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management 1. Title of theses : Increasing water use efficiency through rainwater management and crop establishmentmethods in rice grown under limited irrigation resource Ajay Gupta (A-2002-40-01) Dr. Kahan Bassi

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The present field investigation was carried out to study the effect of raising bund height and crop establishment methods on rainwater effectiveness, water expense efficiency, yield and economic parameters in rice grown under limited irrigation resource. The study revealed that diversion of surface runoff in rice from maize plots of double the size of rice plot could save up to 10-11 irrigations in rice whereas, the highest mean grain yield and value cost ratio were observed in continuous submergence treatment. Transplanting method had the least water expense but recorded significantly higher water expense efficiency in comparison to the other two methods of establishment. It also recorded significantly higher growth and yield attributes, grain yield, gross and net returns and value cost ratio in comparison to direct seeding +halod and sprouted seeding methods.

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2. Title of the Thesis Name of the student Salient Findings: The investigation was carried out for determination of genotypic co-efficients of important varieties of maize and barley, simulation and validation of CERES-Maize and CERES-Barley crop models for growth, yield and yield attributes and working out simulation-guided management practices for yield maximization of both the crops. Both the crop models successfully simulated the flowering and maturity stages and grain yield of both the crops. The models were also validated for yield prediction. Thus, both the crop simulation models can be used as Decision Support Systems for working out efficient management practices for yield maximization of crops under different resource base situations as well as forecasting of production and productivity of maize and barley. 3.Title of thesis Name of the student Name of the major Advisor Salient Findings The investigation was carried out to develop best establishment technique of hard seed coated pasture legumes in wet temperate region of Himachal Pradesh.A field experiment comprising of four pasture legumes viz. white clover, red clover, Lucerne and birds foot trefoil and four establishment techniques namely goat droppings, sheep droppings, broadcast and dibbling was conducted for three consecutive years viz. 2002 to 2004. The introduction of pasture legumes through sheep droppings followed by goat droppings was found to be the promising technique for improving the productivity, quality and seasonal distribution of pasture herbage. The legume introductions through sheep droppings proved better techniques than others. The best quality produce was obtained from red clover, introduced through sheep droppings, goat droppings being the next best option. Red clover introduction through sheep droppings technique was found a profitable and viable preposition for improving the productivity and quality of pastures of wet temperate regions. 4. Title of thesis : Studies on rice productivity as influenced by organic manures and nitrogen levels under different tillage methods and its residual effect on succeeding wheat crop. Kuldip Singh (A-2003-40-2) Dr K. Bassi : : : Studies on techniques for establishment of pasture legumes under wet temperate conditions. Gurudev Singh (A-2001-40-3) Dr B.R.Sood : : Simulation and Validation of CERES-Maize and CERES-Barley models Naleeni Ramawat (A-2002-40-03) Dr H.L. Sharma

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Name of the student Salient Findings

Name of the Major Advisor :

The investigation was carried out during the Kharif season of 2004 to Rabi 200506 to study the effect of organic manures and nitrogen levels under different tillage methods in rice crop and carry over effect on wheat crop. Total number of tillers, dry matter accumulation and straw yield in rice crop was higher in conventional tillage during first year. Amongst organic manure treatments, Sesbania green manuring (in-situ) produced

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


significantly highest number of tillers (347 and 344), dry matter accumulation (1092.3 and 951.1 gm-2 ) and grain (38.10 and 35.81 q ha-1) as well as straw yields (71.14 and 59.30 q ha-1) during the year 2004 and 2005 respectively. Nitrogen application @ 60 kg N ha-1 produced significantly taller plant (70.2 and 67.7 cm), more number of tillers (337and 327), high dry matter accumulation (1072.7 and 948.5 g m-1 ) and grain (37.04 and 34.67 q ha-1) as well as straw yield (70.23 and 60.18 q ha-1 ) over control. Total number of tillers, dry matter accumulation and grain yield (38.85 and 30.69 q ha-1) as well as straw yield (70.13 and 55.10 q ha-1) of wheat during first and second year respectively in reduced tillage was significantly higher as compared to conventional tillage. Similarly the residual effect of FYM application on all the growth parameters, grain yield (40.08 and 31.75 q ha1 ) and straw yield (70.73 and 57.79) was superior to Sesbania green manuring. Higher productivity by 4.7 per cent 3.3 per cent and profitability by 10.2 per cent and 9.1 per cent of rice-wheat sequence during first and second year was obtained in reduced tillage over conventional tillage methods. Organic manuring with Sesbania or FYM gave higher ricewheat productivity by 26.3 per cent and 29 per cent than control plots during both the years. Nitrogen application @ 60 and 90 kg ha-1 gave almost equal productivity and profitability in rice-wheat sequence. On the basis of two years study, it is concluded that under both the tillage methods the rice grain yield increased with increasing nitrogen levels up to 60 Kg N ha-1 in control as well as FYM treated plots and up to 30 Kg N ha-1 in Sesbania green manure plots. Rice yields at all the levels of N were higher in organic manured plots than respective nitrogen levels in control plots indicating supplementary effects of organic manuring. After harvest of rice crop, soil bulk density decreased and infiltration rate increased in reduced tillage as compared to conventional tillage method. Organic manuring also decreased the soil bulk density and increased the infiltration rate. Organic manuring and nitrogen levels improved the organic carbon content and available NPK. 5.Title of Thesis : Studies on integrated nutrient management through vermicomposting in direct seeded Rice-Wheat sequence Jatinder Kumar (A-2002-40-2) Dr. B.D. Kalia

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The investigation was carried to find out the suitable level of vermicompost in direct seeded rice-wheat sequence, to find out the effect of vermicompost with different levels of NPK fertilizers in direct seeded rice-wheat crop sequence and to study the economics of various treatments under investigation. The field experiment consisting of 13 treatment combinations of 4 vermicompost levels viz., no vermicompost, vermicompost @ 2 t/ha, vermicompost @ 4 t/ha and vermicompost @ 6 t/ha and three levels of chemical fertilizers viz., 1/3rd of recommended NPK, 2/3rd of recommended NPK and recommended NPK and one absoulute control was conducted at experimental farm of Department of Agronomy, CSKHPKV, Palampur during Kharif 2003, Rabi 2003-04, Kharif 2004 and Rabi 2004-05. The study revealed that application of vermicompost @ 6 t/ha proved to be sufficient in direct seeded rice-wheat sequence. With the increase in level of vermicompost from no vermicompost to vermicompost @ 6 t/ha, the grain yield of paddy increased from 1766, 1979 kg/ha (1st year, 2nd year) to 2446, 2797 (1st year, 2nd year), respectively with an increase of 27.8, 29.2% over no vermicompost during both the crop seasons. Application of recommended dose of fertilizers resulted in 12.9 and 17.6% increase in grain yield over 1/3rd and 2/3rd recommended NPK levels. Application of 6

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


t/ha of vermicompost to paddy resulted in significantly higher residual effect on wheat grain yield, straw yield and NPK uptake. Fertilizer levels did not showed any residual effect on grain and straw yield of wheat during both the years of study. Application of 6 t/ha of vermicompost alongwith 2/3rd of recommended NPK was found to be most suitable and a saving of 33% of chemical fertilizers can be obtained. 6. Title of thesis : Standardisation of round the year management techniques for the control of Lantana (Lantana camara {L.} var. aculeate) Rohit Sharma(A-2003-40-03) Dr J.P. Saini

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Lantana camara is an exotic ornamental perennial shrub native of tropical America, reached India in early half of the 19th century from Australia categorized as one of the ten worst weeds of the world. This weed has posed a serious threat and spread like a wild fire in recent years in hilly terrains of Himachal Pradesh and covering almost all the uncultivated land up to 2,000 m amsl. Cutting of Lantana bushes in July or September and spray of glyphosate 0.5% one month after cutting controlled the Lantana bushes most effectively and economically. However, if somehow, spray is delayed up to two months, glyphosate 1.0% is needed. Further delay in spray could not control this weed effectively. 7. Title of thesis : Effect of long term integrated nutrient management system on soil and crop productivity in rice-wheat crop sequence. Renu Sharma(A-2004-40-01) Dr H.L. Sharma

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Along-term permanent plot field experiment was initiated during Kharif 19991 at the Research Farm Bhadhiarkhar, Department of Agronomy, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, to study the integrated effects of FYM, , dhaincha as green manure and wheat cut straw vis--vis graded levels of chemicalfertilization in ricewheat system. The 15th and 16th crop cycle was studied and reported in the thesis which indicate that the conjoint use of FYM to supplement 50% N through FYM to rice + 50% NPK and 100% NPK through fertilizers to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice but statistically it was as good as application of 50% N through green manure or wheat cut straw to rice and application of 1005 of recommended NPK through fertilizers to wheat. The rice-wheat system was found to be sustainable with all the nutrient management practices, maximum being with FYM application. 8. Title of thesis : Studies on Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) in garden pea based cropping systems under dry temperate high hill conditions. Vishal Sharma (A-2004-40-02) Dr B.D. Kalia

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The field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Highland Agricultural Researh and Extension Centre, Kukumseri (Lahaul & Spiti), of CSKHPKV during Kharif 2006 and 2007 to study the integrated nutrient management (INM) in garden pea based cropping systems under dry temperate high hill conditions. Application of FYM 2.5 t/ha + Rhizobium in integration with 150% of recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers was found to be significantly superior in increasing the growth, development, yield of garden pea-buckwheat/ sarson cropping system. Soil Science 1. Title of thesis Name of the student Salient Findings The present study was conducted on farmers field at village Kandwari with four levels of S (0, 15, 30, and 45 kg/ha) applied in onion through SSP in two sets i.e. without and with 25 tons of FYM/ha. to study the residual effects of treatments. The study revealed that 30 kg/ha dose of S and 25 tons/ha. of FYM individually increased the onion buld yield significantly over their respective controls. Other yield parameters namely; plant height, harvest index, dry and stable yields as per cent of fresh yield and nutrient (N, P, S) uptakes were also similarly affected. Sulphur-FYM interaction was positive at lower and negative at higher S levels. The highest results for most of the parameters were obtained from plots receiving either 30 kg S/ha in absence of FYM or from plots receiving only 25 t FYM/ha. The residual effects of S and FYM had similar response on the following maize crop except that interaction was non-significant. Optimum S dose (with no FYM) for optimum yield of onion was found to be 27.8 kg/ha, which produced 8.5 t/ha of additional bulb yield over no S. The residual of the same also produced 16.2 q/ha additional maize grain yield, thus, giving 57.8 as the benefit : cost ratio of the onion-maize sequence. It further suggested that application of S along with FYM was not economical. An increase in inorganic S content of soil due to FYM application was noticed. There was no significant change in the status of available, inorganic and total S fractions due to S and FYM application. However, a sharp decrease in available S status of soil was visible compared to initial status irrespective of the treatment. An S dose of 15 kg/ha significantly increased ascorbic acid content in onidon but, only during first year. Use of FYM ( @ 25 t/ha) significantly reduced the moisture loss from bulbs during storage over without FYM. Highest post storage yield was recorded in treatments receiving only 25 t FYM/ha. 2. Title of thesis : Carbon sequestration and nutrient dynamics in a long-term lantana amended soil under rice-wheat system Bharti Raina (A-2003-40-6) Dr T.S.Verma : : Sulphur nutrition affecting yield and quality of onion in onion-maize sequence Sanjay Kumar Raina (A-2002-40-13) Dr R.C. Jaggi

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The present study was undertaken from Kharif 2004 to Rabi 2005-06. The soils of the experimental site were acidic and classified taxonomically as Typic Hapuldalf. Soil samples from 0-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m soil depths were taken after the harvest of Rabi

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


wheat 2004-05 and were analyzed for different active, slow and passive pools of SOM, active and passive pools of N, P and S besides this, different physical, chemical and biological properties of the soils. Out of the total organic matter added through lantana addition from 10 to 30 t ha-1over the last 17 years, the average sequiestration in the soil was only about 19 per cent out of which about 60 per cent was retained in passive pools and only 11 per cent in active pools. Continuous lantana addition and fertilizer application has also increased total C stock, C stock ha-1yr-1 and retention of all active and passive pools of C in the soil.With increasing/improvement in all the pools of N, P and S as well as physical, chemical and biological properties of soil with increasing levels of lantana addition and fertilizer application, the maximum rice and wheat yield as well as uptake of N, P and S was obtained under 20 t ha-1 lantana addition alonwith 66 per cent of N and K addition to rice indicating a saving of 33 per cent N and K to rice and N, P, K to wheat grown in a sequence. Among different SOM pools, WS-CHO and SMB-C and among N, P and S pools, SMB-P, Available-N and WS-OC were found to be the most important for rice and wheat production. The Roth-C-26.3 model could be used to predict the soil carbon dynamics as it fitted well with the observed data in the present experiment.

3. Title of thesis

Integrated Nutrient Management Studies on Yield and Quality of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in an Acid Alfisol Dhanbir Singh Tandon (A-2003-40-07) Dr S.P. Dixit

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The present investigation was conducted during Kharif 2004 and 2005 to study the turmeric growth, yield, quality, nutrients uptake, benefit:cost ratio and also chemical properties of the soil. The study revealed that growth parameters, turmeric rhizome and straw yield, nutrients uptake and also the quality parameter viz., curcumin, starch, protein, essential oil and curing percentage increased due to 20 t FYM ha-1 as soil mulch over control, 100% NPKS over 100% NPK and integrated nutrient management treatments over 100% NPKS. Although by and large 100% NPKS+20t FYM ha-1as mulch performed the best; however, starch, protein and curing percentage was maximum in 100% NPKS + 20t FYM ha-1 as incorporation. Rhizome yield in 100% NPKS+15t FYM ha-1 as mulch was statistically same as that in 100% NPKS + 20t FYM ha-1as soil incorporation thus saving 5t FYM ha1 in mulched treatment. The highest net returns (Rs. 63,566 ha-1) were recorded in 100% NPKS + 20t FYM ha-1 asmulch followed by 100% NPKAS + 20t FYM ha-1 as incorporation (Rs. 63,006 ha-1). Hihest B:C ratio was realized in the treatment 100% NPKS (2.99) followed by 100% NPK (2.86). The pH changed very narrowly from 5.5 in control to 5.7 in 100% NPKS +20t FYM ha-1as mulch. Build up of organic carbon and available nutrients N,P,K and S was higher in 100% NPKS + 10, 15, 20t FYM ha-1as incorporation and mulch than 100% NPKS and in 20t FYM ha-1 as incorporation and mulch over control. There was not significant difference between 100% NPKS and 100% NPK in terms of organic carbon, available N, P and K status in soil. In contrast to this, in available sulphur there was increase in 100% NPKS over 100% NPK. Exchangeable

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acidity decreased due to 20t FYM ha incorporation and mulch over control. However, pH dependent acidity decreased only due to 20t FYM ha-1 as soil incorporation over control. Although there was significant increase in pH dependent and total acidity in 100% NPKS treatment over 100% NPK, but there was not significant change in exchangeable acidity. Treatment involving integrated nutrient management witnessed decrease in different forms of acidity over 100% NPKS. Exchangeable, extractable aluminium and iron also decreased following addition of FYM at the rate of 20t ha-1either as incorporation or mulch over control. Although their content remained the same in 100% NPKS and 100% NPK. Treatment of 100% NPKS+20t FYM ha-1was adjudged the best in lowering down in exchangeable as well as extractable aluminium and iron. 4. Title of thesis : Characterization and Evaluation of Cereal Growing Soils of Awa Watershed in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh Bannu Sood (A-2005-40-07) Dr. V.K. Sharma
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Salient Findings Soil surveys aim mainly at characterizing and classifying soils formulating sound land management programme to sustain agricultural productivity. In order to determine site characteristics, properties and taxonomic classes of cultivated soils and evaluate their capability to grow the cereals and other locally preferred crops through soil properties. based methametical models present investigation has been carried out in Awa watershed representing high, mid and low hill conditions of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Such type of information is of limited availability in Himachal Pradesh Generally, soils of Awa watershed are very shallow to very deep, slightly acid to strongly acid in pH, brownish yellow to strong brown in colour, sandy loam to clay loam in texture, granular to massive in structure and soft to extremely hard in consistence. Available N,P, K and S status was low to high, low to medium, low to medium and low to medium, respectively. Based on soil characteristics and properties studied, soils of Awa watershed were classified into nine soil series viz Berni, Kolani, Nanahar, Rachhiara, Dharaman, Chhatar, Kilhi, Machhuin and Tikri. Productivity indices worked out by storie (1978) and Riquier et al.s(1970) approaches were correlated significantly and positively with the grain yields of Maize, Paddy and wheat. Therefore, any of these indices can be used to compare soil productivity potentials. However, Riquier etal.s approach has an added advantage of working out productivity potential with future management. The coefficient of Improvement revealed that soil productivity could be enhanced to the extent of 1.5 to 5.7 times in the watershed with the adoption of scientific land management practices. The land capability subclasses vary from IIec to VIIe. Erosion proneness, land slop and erratic rainfall are the major constraints affecting soil productivity in Awa watershed. Terrace soils of low and mid hill zones Rachhiara, Dharaman, chhatar and Tikri) were found to be highly suitable to moderately suitable while the remaining soil series viz. Berni, Kolani, kilhi and Machhuin were marginally suitable to not suitable for growing maize, paddy and wheat. A similar trend of results was obtained with the other locally preferred crops viz. soybean, peas, potato, tomato and also for tea.

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


5. Title of thesis : Studies on Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) in meeting phosphorus needs of okra-wheat sequence in a Typic Hapludalf Sudhir Kumar (A-2004-40-6) Dr. C.M. Sharma

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The present investigation entitled Studies on Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrizae (VAM) in meeting Phosphorus needs of Okra- wheat sequence in typic hapludalf was carried out in Randomized block design with thirteen treatment replicated three times, during Kharif 2005 & 2006 (Okra as test crop) and rabi 2005-06 & 2006-07 (Wheat as test crop) in the experimental farm of Soil Science department , CSKHPKV, Palampur . Four level of P (0, 50, 75 and 100% based on STCR approach in combination with three different VAM culture viz, local (Glamus Sp.), TERI (Glomus introradices) and IARI (Glomus Mosseae) were tested with Okra and wheat in comparison with control. Soil samples taken from surface soil (0-15cm), after the harvests of okra as well as wheat during both the years of experimentation were analyzed for available NPK,DTPA extractable micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) and soil pH using standard methods of analysis. Different forms of Phosphorus were also determined in the soil samples collected at the termination of entire experiment. yield attributes, crop quality, root mass, root mass density, economic yield and nutrient uptake of okra as well as wheat increased significantly and consistently with increase in P application from 25 to 75% of recommended P2O5 along with VAM culture and highest value was recorded with application of 100% P2O5 as per STCR approach. Higher value of VAM infection was recorded in treatment comprising 755P2O5 application as per STCR approach along with VAM culture. Significant improvement in the status of available NPK was recorded over the control. However, within certain treatments differences were not significant. In case of P, its status improved from initial value in treatment comprising 75% and 100% P2O5 application as per STCR approach. Phosphorus fractions varied in the order Fe-P>AlP>Ca-P>>saloid-P and these fraction have shown significant and positive correlation with available P, marketable fruit yield of okra, P uptake by uptake by okra crop, grain yield of wheat and P uptake by wheat crop, comparable B:C ratio was recorded in treatments comprising 75% P2O5 applied as per STCR based approach. From the finding of these experiments it may be conducted that in okra- wheat cropping sequence hill farmers can apply 75% P2O5 as per STCR based approach along with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal biofertilizer VAML (Glomus Sp.) (Rs. 20/- per kg) or VAM1 (Glomus introradices) (Rs. 20/- per kg) in place of VAMT (Glomus mosseae) (Rs. 500/-perkg) as cost of this culture is high. 6. Title of thesis : Effect of vegetation on runoff production and utilization of stored water to evolve profitable vegetable crop sequences. Sheetal Sharma (A-2004-40-5) Dr. O.C. Kapoor

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The present study Effect of vegetation on runoff production and utilization of stored water to evolve profitable vegetable crop sequences was conducted at the experimental farm of Department of Soil Science, CSK HPKV, Palampur from kharif 2005 to rabi 2006-07. The vegetative covers in the catchments included maize, soybean and grasses during kharif and gobhi sarson. Wheat and grasses during rabi season. For efficient utilization of stored water, the treatments included four cropping sequencs viz. okra-radish-green onion, brinjal-radish-pea, brinjal-brocoli-green onion and okracauliflower-french bean, with mulch and without mulch. The weather remained drier duting the first study year as compared to the second year. The total runoff during first and second year was 261.8 and 318.5 cm. The mechanical composition of the soiol of experimental site showed that soil texture was silty clay loam. Bulk density increased and saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased with depth from 0-0.15 to 0.30-0.45m. The results show that the volume of runoff available for harvesting was the highest from maize, followed by soybean and grass cover, during kharif season. During rabi season the volume of runoff available was the highest from wheat, followed by gobhi sarson and grass cover. Rainfall correlated well with runoff during both the years of study. To increase the productivity of stored water, mulch was applied to the vegetable crops. Soil moisture in 0.0-0.15m soil layer under mulched treatments was higher by 0-13 per cent in okra, 2-12 per cent in brinjal, 10-18 per cent in radish, 11-14 per cent in broccoli, 21 per cent in green onion, 9-12 per cent in pea and 2431 per cent in French bean, over the unmulched treatments. Mulching maintained soil moisture at a quite high potential over the no mulch treatments at all the depths under all the vegetable crops. Minimum soil temperature increased by 0.3-1.6oC and maximum soil temperature decreased by 0.4 to 6.7oC under the vegetable crops where mulch was applied over the unmulched treatments. Leaf water potential was higher during morning hours as compared to afternoon hours under all the crops. Mulching led to increase in leaf water potentials of the vegetable crops over the unmulched treatments. Leaf area index and root growth viz. fresh root mass density, dry root mass density, root length density and root volume density were higher in the treatments where mulch was applied for okra, brinjal, broccoli, cauliflower, pea and French bean, during both the years. Total root water extraction rates (R2) were lower under mulched treatments compared to unmulched treatments in all the crops. Mulching reduced fresh mass of weeds by 79 to 85, 53 to 72, 9 to 27, 64 to 73, 22 to 57, 33 and 38 to 67 per cent in lkra, brinjal, radish, broccoli, cauliflower, pea and French bean, respectively, during 2005-06. Similar trend was followed during 2006-07. The total consumptive use (Et) was higher in unmulched treatments as compared to mulched treatments. Mulching increased crop yields by 14-47 per cent in okra, 10-39 per cent in brinjal, 11-56 per cent in radish, 37-39 per cent in broccoli, 37-47 per cent in cauliflower, 45-71 per cent in green onion, 19-51 per cent in pea and 17-42 per cent in French bean, during both the years. Okra equivalent yield of okra-radish-green onion-french bean rotation was significantly the highest and mulching significantly increased okra-equivalent yield over the unmulched treatment. Application of mulch to vegetable crops saved 8-16, 8, 4-20, 4-16, 8-16 and 8-16 cm of irrigation water in radish, broccoli, cauliflower, green onion, pea and French bean, respectively, during both the years. Water use efficiency was higher under mulched treatments over the unmulched treatments. Mulching reduced cost of cultivation and increased net returns and benefit:cost ratio over no mulch treatments. The highest net returns and benefit: cost ratio was obtained from okra-radish-green onion-french bean cropping sequence with mulch. The runoff from 100m2 catchment under maize-wheat cropping sequence is sufficient to

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


irrigate okra-radish-green onion-french bean cropping sequence in 400m2 area if mulch is applied. Entomology 1. Title of thesis Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings Bee poisoning and pesticide residues in honey are serious problems worldwide. Keeping this in view, toxicity studies of newer pesticides against foragers of Apis cerana cerana Fab. and Apis mellifera L. were carried out in the Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, CSKHPKV, Palampur to replace existing highly toxic pesticides to honey bees with comparatively environmental safe, newer ones. Toxicity study revealed the following order of safety to A.c. cerana: benzoylphenyl urea = azadirachtin = Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki > spiromesifen > thiacloprid > endosulfan >spinosad > imidacloprid > cypermethrin > lambda cyhalothrin, whereas it was benzoylphenyl urea = azadirachtin = B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki > spiromesifen > thiacloprid > endosulfan > imidacloprid > spinosad > cypermethrin > lamda cyhalothrin for the foragers of A.mellifera. Field studies were also carried out during rabi, 2003-04 and 2004-05 to study the persistent toxicity and residue dissipation of pesticides in nectar and pollen of mustard ( Brassca juncea (L.) Czern.). Persistence studies showed that imidacloprid seed treatment ( @ 21 g a.i.ha-1), spiromesifen (@ 225.00 g a.i.ha-1), B. thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki (@ 78.75 g a.i.ha-1) and endosulfan ( @ 525,00 g a.i.ha-1) were relatively less toxic to honey bee foragers. Dissipation studies showed that more than 90 per cent residues of tested pesticides viz. lambda cyhalothrin. Spiromesifen and endosulfan in nectar and pollen of mustard crop dissipated to more than 95 per cent in five days. So honey bee colonies should be shifted from the sprayed area for five days to avoid any toxic hazard to bee colonies. DDT, HCH, Endosulfan, Dicofol, Fenvalerate, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Quinalphos, Malathion and Dimethoate residues were recorded in 49.02 per cent of honey samples collected from different localities of Himachal Pradesh. However, only 5.88 per cent samples had residues above MRL (maximum residue limit). Therefore, in general, present investigation is helpful to select pesticide with minimum hazard to bees in place of already existing toxic pesticides and to maintain the international standards of honey from Himachal Pradesh for the export purpose as per WTO requirements which will provide maximum economic returns to the beekeepers of the State. 2.Title of thesis Name of the Student Salient findings The present investigation was undertaken during the summer and rainy seasons of 2005 and 2006 at experimental farm of Department of Entomology, CSKHPKV, Palampur and farmers fields, Kachhiari (Kangra). The studies revealed that at Palampur, 18 different pest species were associated with okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moeench, : : Integrated Pest Management in Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench Aditi Badiyala (A-2003-40-10) Dr. Desh Raj : : : Toxicity of some new pesticides to honey bees and their residues in honey and pollen Amit Choudhary (A-2001-40-22) Dr D.C. Sharma

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out of which, 4 viz. Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), Aphis gossypii Glover, Mylabris pustulata Thunberg and Sylelepta derogate (Fabricius) were identifies as the major pests. At Kachhiari, among the 19 pests associated with okra crop, 5 viz. A.biguttula biguttula, A. gossypii, M. pustulata, S. derogate and Earias vitella (Fabricius) were observed to cause major damage to the crop. The population of A. biguttula biguttula varied between 0.60 and 51.02 per 3 leaves with the peak population (39.21 to 51.02/ 3 leaves) appearing in the 4th week of July to 4th week of August at both the locations during the two seasons. The population of A. gossypii varied between 2.15 and 94.65 per 3 leaves with the peak population (54.75 to 94.65/ 3 leaves) observed in the 2nd week of July to 3rd week of August. The larval population of E.vittella ranged between 0.37 to to 2.35 [per fruit and the fruit and the fruit infestation ranged between 1.23 to 35.85 per cent with the peak larval population (2.33 to 2.35/ fruit) as well as fruit infestation (29.64 to 35.85%) recorded in 3rd to 4th week of june. The population of Mylabris spp. Varied from 1 to 35.6 per 10 plants and flower damage varied from 1.18 to 38.52 per cent with the peak beetle population (24.5 to 35..6/10 plants) as well as flower damage (26.90 to 38.52%) noticed in 2nd week of August to 1st week of September. The larval population of S.derogata ranged between 1.4 to 38.1 per 10 plants and rolled leaf infestation ranged between 0.86 to 29.21 per cent with the peak larval population (33.8 to 38.1/10 plants) as well as rolled leaf infestation (25.70 to 29.21%) observed in last week of July to 3rd week of August.. The population/ infestation of major pests revealed significant correlation with one or the other abiotic factors indicating that the combined effect of weather parameters played an important role in influencing the pest incidence at both the locations during both the seasons. Varieties Tulsi and Varsha Uphar proved least susceptible to all the major pests and also registered high marketable yield. Besides, other varieties viz. Arka Anamika, Parbhani Karanti and Panchaali also revealed lower infestation levels by all the major pests. The treatments comprising cypermethrin (0.01%), endosulfan (0.07%), Bacillus thuringiensiss (1.98 x 107 IU /ha) + endosulfan (0.035%) and imidacloprid (5g/kg seed) were effective against the ssucking pests viz. A. biguttula biguttula and A. gossypii. The lepidoptern pests viz. E.vittella and S. derogate were effectively managed by the application of cypermethrin (0.01%), B.thuringiensis (1.98 x 107 IU/ ha) + endosulfan (0.035%), endosulfan (0.07%), B. thuringiensis (3.96 x 107 IU/ha) and T. chilonis (25000 parasitised host eggs ha-1) + B. thrungiensis (1.98x 107 IU ha-1). The coleopteran pest viz. Mylabris spp. was effectively checked by cypermethrin (0.01%),B. thuringiensis (1.98x10-7 IU ha-1)+endosulfan(0.035%) and endosulfan (0.07%). In general, integrated treatment of B. thuringiensis + endosulfan was found efficacious against all the major pests and thus can be incorporated in IPM package of okra crop. Plant Pathology 1. Title of thesis : Molecular characterization of BCMV strains infecting Phaseolus vulgaris L. and evaluation of resistance Renu Kapil (A-2002-40-12) Dr O.P.Sharma

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The present investigation on bean common mosaic disease caused by bean common mosaic virus was undertaken to determine the pathogenic and molecular variability and to evaluate the common bean germplasm to find out the durable sources of resistace against the prevalent strains of the virus.Extensive surveys of commercial

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


common bean growing areas of Himachal Pradesh revealed the occurrence of disease in almost all the potential bean growing areas of the state with disease incidence ranging from 0.50-77.00 per cent. 107 samples of bean mosaic infected common bean plants showing characteristic mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting type of symptoms were collected and categorized into distinct twenty four isolates on the basis of symptomatology. The electron microscopy of different isolates revealed the presence of flexuous rod shaped virus particles measuring ~750 x 15 nm typical of potyvirus group. In DAS-ELISA, the test isolates reacted positively with BCMV polyclonal antiserum only. RT-PCR amplification of coat protein gene using degenerate primers amplified a PCR product of ~1000 bp identical to BCMV cp gene. Results of pathogenic variability studies revealed the existence of two pathogroups viz., PG1 and PGII and four strain groups (Ia, Ib, IIa and IIb) of BCMV in Himachal Pradesh. Out of these four strain groups two (Ia and IIa) are identical to the previously described strains i.e NL-1 and NL-7, respectively, whereas the other two are different or new. Two strain groups NL-1N (Ilb) and NL-7n (IIb) constitute the first record of their occurrence. Reverse phase HPLC peptide profiling of coat protein of BCMV strains (NL-1, NL-1n, NL-7 and NL-7n) revealed that the strain groups under investigation are distrinct strains and thus further confirming the results of pathogenic variability. Cloning and sequencing of the test strain NL-1n revealed that the test sequence consisted of 883 bp and was submitted to NCBI gene bank Nucleotide Database under accession number EF036694. Blasted nucleotide sequence showed that the test sequence comprised of partial Nlb (1-551 bp) and coat protein (552-883 bp) region which after multialignment and phylogenetic analysis showed maximum homology with BCMV NL-1 strain. Sequence of the test NL-1n strain (EF036694) when compared with the sequence of previously characterized NL-1 (EFO36693)strain showed that they have the dissimilarity at the 3 terminal region of coat protein by five nucleotide bases, thereby, differentiating the two strains at molecular level, which were earlier differentiated pathologically and through the coat protein profiles. Twenty two accessions comprising of local land races, recommended cultivars and exotic genotypes were found resistant to two pathogroups (PG 1 and PG II) and some of the important sources of resistance include cultivars Hans, KRC-22, Kentuky Wonder, Premier, Contender, KRC-4, Kailash, Amanda, Improved Tendergreen 4001 and Black Turtle Soup, Monroe, Great Northern UI 123, Sanilac and contender. Strain specific resistance was found in 4 genotypes viz., SR7-4, KR-191, SR-7-6, Red Land Green Leaf C to PG-1 and 4 genotypes viz. E-346, KR175, KR-200, KR-48-6, against PG-II respectively. 2. Title of thesis : Molecular characterization of Ascochyta spp.causing pea blight and evaluation of resistance Vikas Kapoor (A-2004-40-10) Dr R.P. Kaushal

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Present investigationon on Ascochta blight of pea caused b Ascochyta pinodes, A. pisi and A. pinodella was undertaken to correctly diagnose the species involved, study molecular variability and evalue pea genotypes for disease resistance. Ascochyta blight was found to occur across Himachal Pradesh 91002-2007) with an average incidence of 15.77 per cent. High disease incidence was observed in district Mandi (33.37%) followed by Chamba (32.88%) and Kinnaur (32.83%). No single criterion was sufficient to distinguish various species of Ascochyta infecting pea but when considered in combination, 36 were designated as A. pinodes; two as A pinodella and one as A. pisi.

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Identity of two isolates could not be established on morphological basis. RAPD analysis of 40 isolates grouped them into six clusters vis--vis geographic location. Isolates from Sangla (Kinnaur) formed cluster V. two Chamba isolates made a separate cluster I and Jinjhiali (mandi) isolates formed three clusters viz. II, III and VI. This indicated limited exchange of seed from the one region to another and hilly terrain acting as a natural barrier for pathogen spread and maintaining region specific reproductive isolation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of ITS region helped in the confirmation of isolates as Ascochyta spp., overcoming ambiguities classical identification methods. Identity of As2 was finally settled as A. pinodes instead of A.pisi. Similarly, As3 which could not be identified as either A. pisi or A. pinodes was finally designated as A. pinodes. The phylogenetic analysis of 33 isolates grouped them into five different clades. Nucleotide sequence analysis could not differentiate A. pinodes and A. pinodella as there was considerable homogeneity. Net genetic distance between A. pinodella and A. pinodes group was zero forming clade I. A. pisi formed a separate clade II and showed lower mean/net genetic distance with A. rasbiei group than A. pinodesl A. pinodella group indicating its kinship to A. rabiei. Similarly isolate As44 infecting chickpea was clustered in clade III making it distinct species infecting pea. As43 isolated from Vigna mungo formed clade IV. The genetic distance within individuals of a species was 0.007, 0.005, and 0.001 for A. pisi, A. pinodella and A. pinodella, respectively. The lowest genetic distance (0.001) within individuals of A. pinodes indicate capability of A. pinodes to undergo sexual reproduction. This means A. pinodes has a better capability to evolve and thus adapt in changed environmental conditions and better survival in adverse conditions. This could explain A. pinodes to be predominant Ascochyta spp. Infecting pea as compared to the dominance of A. pisi in 1980s in Himachal Pradesh. The evaluation for resistance of three hundred and sixty seven pea genotypes collected from various sources by detached leaf method revealed all the genotypes to be susceptible to Ascochyta pinodes indicating laxk of diversity resistance in pea. Different mutants generated in the Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture did not show any effective resistance. Pea plants treated with 3mM SA exhibited highest PAL and PO activity and delayed the symptom expression indicating its effectiveness in induction of SAR. These preliminary efforts to induce resistance in pea indicate the possibility of exploitation of systemic acquired resistance for ecofriendly management of Ascochyta blight of pea. 3.Title of thesis : Coat protein diversity in Bean Common Mosaic Virus and elucidation of R-genes in Indian Landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Prachi Sharma (A-2006-40-05) Dr. P.N. Sharma

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The present investigations on bean mosaic disease caused by bean comman mosaic virus (BCMV), a member of family Potyviridae were undertaken to study the molecular diversity of different strains of the virus using 3 terminal region and to elucidate the presence of R-gene to find out durable sources of resistance. Symptomatology of different isolates belonging to 4 strains viz; NL-1n, NL-7 and NL-7n consisted of mosaic, blistering , downward leaf rolling, green vein banding, thickening of leaves, reduction of the leaf lamina and leaf deformation. DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR analysis of test isolates established the identity of the virus as BCMV and their reaction on international differential set grouped them in 4 strains. RT- PCR generated an amplicon of ~1300 bp in different isolated whose cloned product after sequencing revealed that it consisted of

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3terminal region having partial NIB, complete cp and 3 UTR. Sequences were submitted in NCBI genbank and their sequence homology, multiple alignment and evolutionary divergence analysis showed that this region could not differentiate the pathogenically variable strains of the same virus. Ninety one accessions of comman bean were found resistant to NL-1 and NL-1n strain. Prediction of resistance genes using tightly linked markers showed the presence of I, bc-I2 and bc-3 gene in resistant cultivars. Vegetable Science and Floriculture 1. Title of theses Name of the student Name of the Advisor Salient findings The present study was undertaken in cauliflower variety PSBK-1 to find out the effect of various weed control treatments on yield and contributing traits alongwith economics. A field experiment with 15 treatments was conducted at CSKHPKV, Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan during Rabi, 2004-05 and 200506. Simultaneously, another study comprising of 14 treatments was also conducted with the objective of determining the most critical period of crop-weed competition. Effect of various treatments was studied on total and species-wise weed count, total weed dry matter, weed control efficiency, crop growth and development, nutrient uptake by weeds and crop, yield attributes and yield of cauliflower. The dominant weeds associated with cauliflower were Coronopus, Poa annua, Cyperus rotundus, Medicago denticulate and Ageratum conyzoides. The results of the study revealed that oxadiazon 1.5 kg ha-1 and mulching with leaves reduced total and species wise weed count and total dry matter accumulation by weeds with the highiest weed control efficiency and thus increasing the yield by improving yield attributes of cauliflower. Oxadiazon 1.5 kg ha-1 and mulching with leaves recorded maximum weed control efficiency of 53.31 per cent, respectively. Oxadizon 1.5 kg ha-1and mulching with leaves being statistically similar with each other resulted in significantly higher marketable yield and B:C ratio ( 136.8 and 130.8 q ha-1) and (1.27 and 1.18), respectively. The percent increase in marketable yield by oxadiaztion 1.5 kg ha-1 and mulching with leaves over farmers practice was 27.51 and 21.96 per cent whereas, over unweeded check it was to the tune of 273.03 and 256.80 per cent, respectively. Another study revealed that the critical period of loss due to weeds was between 30 to 45 days after transplanting of the crop and removal of weeds during that period was most effective in increasing the yield of the crop. 2. Title of thesis : Genetics of bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum ) resistance and some quantitative and qulaitative traits in sweet pepper. Susheel Sharma (A-2003-40-12) Dr. Yudhvir Singh : : : Integrated weed management studies in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis L.) Rajeev Sharma (A-2003-40-13) Dr. T.R. Nandal

Name of the student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

The present study was aimed to obtaian information on the genetics of bacterial wilt resistance, morphological and biochemical traits. In addition, the information was

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gathered on the association of these traits with bacterial wilt resistance and on the extent of heterosis. Six generations ( P1, P2,F1,B1, B2 and F2) of six crosses, evolved by utilizing two resistant (PBC-631 and IHR-546) and two susceptible parents (California Wonder and Yolo Wonder) were evaluated in a Randomized Block Design at the experimental farm of Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur and HAREC, Bajaura during summer, 2006. The genetics of bacterial wilt resistance was observed to be dominant in nature with the degree varying from incomplete dominace. The crosses, PBC-631 x CW, PBC-631 x YW and IHR-546 x CW revealed the presence of monogenic dominance in the inheritance of bacterial wilt resistance, which was further confirmed from their test cross ratios (IR:IS). Sufficient genetic variability was generated through hybridization for all the morphological and biochemical traits. The presence of dominance components for yield per plant in all the crosses along with complementary type of interaction in IHR-546 x YW suggested the exploitation of heterosis for yield per plant. Similarly, positive dominance genic effects recorded in most of the cross combinations for number of fruits per plant further indicated to exploit hybrid vigour. However, negative additive (d) component and positive additive x additive (i) component for average fruit weight in most of the crosses suggested to delay selection for improving this trait. In the present study, the nature and magnitude of gene effect varied with different crosses for most of the quantitative as well as biochemical traits. So, specific breeding strategy has to be adopted for a particular cross to get desired improvement. On the basis of correlation and path analysis studies ascorbic acid content, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, ortho dihydroxy phenols and polyphenol oxidase activity played an important and crucial role in determining the resistance to bacterial wilt. YW x CW was found to be the most promising and consistent heterotic combination for yield per plant, number of fruits per plant, average fruit yield per plant, number of pickings and plant height, however, this cross was highly susceptible to bacterial wilt. Ssince, the fruits of most of F1s were not bell shaped or blocky as preferred by the consumers, therefore, back-cross breeding programme with commercial cultivars accompanied by selection for baterial wilt resistance is suggested. 3.Title of thesis Name of the student Salient findings Garden pea is one of the most leading off-season vegetables in Himachal Pradesh. Irrigation water is a limiting factor iin the hilly regions. Availability of phosphorus is somewhat restricted in the acidic soils. Quality seed is the basic input in any of the production programme. Irriigatonann phosphorus are important to improve the seed yild aswell as itts quality7. Hence, the present invsstgation entitled ffect of irrigation and phosphorus levels on seed production ofgarden pea (Pisum sativum L.)was conduced in the Department of Vegettale Science and Floriculture, CSK Himachl Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyaya, Palampur ( H.P.) during rabi 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08, to study the response of irrigation and Phosphorus levels on growth and development, yield atributess nd yield, seed quality, plant/soil chemical studs and water use efficiency of garden pea. The treatment combinations comprised of fiv main-plot treatments (irrigation levels viz., 11 :water-seeding, 12:11 + irrigation (1cm) at vegetative stage, pea. use efficiency at vegetative stage, 13:12 + irrigation (( 1cm) at 75% flowering, 14:13 + irrigation (1cm) at 75% podding and 15: recommended 5cm irrigation at all the stages viz., pre-sowing, : : Effect of irrigation and phosphorus levels on seed production of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) Sh. Gurpreet Singh Khalsa (A-2004-40-14) Dr. Vidyasagar

Name of the Major Advisor :

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vegetative stage, 75% flowering and 75% podding) and three sub-plot treatments (phosphorus levels viz., P1 :40kg P205/ha, P2 : 60kg P2O5/ha and P3: 80kg P2O5/ha).In all there were 12 treatment combinations. The field experiments were conducted in split-plot design with three replications. The results revealed that water seeding (0.43 cm) irrigation water applied within the rows before sowing) proved better than pre-sowing irrigation of 5cm depth in early emergence of seedlings. Early floweing and seed maturity were recorded in the treatments receiving limited irrigation water at one or more of the critical growth stages (l1 to l4 ) as compared to the recommended (l5). The irrigation levels l5 (recommended irrigation of 5cm depth at all the critical stages) and l4 (water-seedling + 1cm irrigation water along the rows at all the critical stages) along with the highest phosphorus level P3 (80kg P2O5/ha were the best for growth, yield attributes, seed yield and quality traits and nutrient uptake. Water use efficiency was the highest in irrigation level l4 during all the years of experimentation. In conclusion, the best irrigation schedule and phosphorus dose proved to be l4P3. 4. Title of thesis Name of the student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings Genetic analysis for quantitative and quality traits in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was undertaken at the Experimental Farm of Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture during rabi season of 2004-05, to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects on yield and its component traits and to identify horticulturally superior cross combinations on the basis gene effects, leaf miner resistance and heterosis by using generation mean analysis. Experimental material comprising six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of four Intervarietal crosses (Matar Ageta x NDVP9, Palam Priya x NDVP 10, Palam Priya xLMR 100 and Azad P1 x DPP 9418-06) was evaluated in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The data were analysed using simple scaling test (Mather and Jinks (1982). Sufficient genetic variability was generated with the available material. Nature and magnitude of gene effects differed with different crosses characterwise in the present study. In general, non allelic interactions alongwith nonadditive gene effects were observed in majority of the crosses for most of the traits. For earliness, which is indicated by node at which first flower appears, days to 50 per cent flowering and days and days to first harvest whereas complimentary epistasis was observed only for total soluble solids and leaf miner incidence in one or the other crosscombinations. Postive and significant heterosis was observed for pods per plant and green pod yield per plant in almost all the crosses. Cross-combination Palam Priya x NDVP 10 was found to be heterotic in terms of number of pods per plant, green pod yield per plant, protein content, total soluble solids and seeds per pod. 5. Title of thesis Name of the student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings : : : Genetic analysis of some quantitative and quality traits in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Sanjeev Naryal (A-2004-40-15) Dr. K.S. Chandel : : : Genetic analysis of quantitive and quality traits in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) Madhu Chaudhary (A-2002-40-18) Dr. N.K. Pathania

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Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root Vegetable crop grown for its fresh edible roots in both the tropical and temperate regions of the world. In the hills, radish is grown through the year, especially in off- season summer months and brings lucrative returns to the farmers. In Himachal Pradesh, the seed production of European types and some Asiatic types have been commercially taken up. Thus, the crop is of great economic importance in the state. In spite of its great economic importance, no major strive has so far been made for the improvement yield and quality attribute.based on these consideration, the present investigation was, therefore undertaken to obtain the information on the relative magnitude of additive, dominance and epistatic component of genetic variance and average degree of dominance as inferred from the analysis of different traits such as root yield per plots, root length , root girth, root diameter, leaf weight, leaf length , number of leaves, root; top ratio, days taken to marketable maturity, dry matter content, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and nitrate content by following genetic analysis of generation mean progenies involving cultivars of Asiatic and European origin. The experimental material for the present studies consisted of six different and contrasting Asiatic inbred varities of radish viz. Mino Early White (MEW), Japanese White (JW), Chinese pink (CP), Nadauni (N), Hill Queen (HQ), Suttons long White (SLW) and four Europian inbred varieties namely, White Icicle (WI), Pusa Himani (PH), Palam Hirday (PHy) and selection-9 (S-9) and their 45 F1s developed through diallel mating design excluding reciprocals during rabi season 2004-05. Forty five F1 hybrids along with their parents were grown during rabi 2005-06 and further replanted to develop 45B1 45 B2 and 45F2 generations .the six generation mean progenies of different crosses comprising 45 F1s, 45 B1s, 45B2s and 45 F2s along with their parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications at the Experimental Farm, Department of Vegetable Science and flouriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur during rabi 2006-07. Good quantum of genetic variability has been generated through analysis of generation mean progenies with respect to different traits studied as revealed by the highly significant analysis of variance. The generation mean progenies viz; MEW x PHy, JW x WI, CP x PHy, SLW x PHy, MEW x S-9, N x PHy, JW x PH, HQ x S-9, HQ x SLW and HQ x PHy, recorded high mean values and heterotic effects for root yield, quality traits and yield contributing characters over their respective better parents and widely grown cultivars in the region, JW (SC1) and CP(SC2), respectively. Heterosis in F1 hybrids was manifested in all the characters, the cross combinations10,14,31;9,12,17;21,23,23;10,5,43;12,17,27;17,21,31;26,34,29 significantly superseded the better parents and widely grown cultivars in the region JW (SC1) and CP (SC2), respectively for root yield per plot, root length, root diameter, root; top ratio, TSS, dry matter and ascorbic acid content vis--vis 14,27,21,16,38,31,cross combinations recorded significantly low nitrate content and less number of days taken to marketable maturity over the better parents and JW (SC1) and CP (SC2), respectively. The heterotic effects were supported through genetic analysis of generation mean progenies, where the presence of epistatic effects were observed in almost all the characters and the preponderance of non-additive genetic components in characters leaf length, root length root girth, root diameter, root: top ratio, total soluble solids, dry matter content and leaf weight. The prevalence of additive genetic components were observed in traits ascorbic acid and nitrate content. Both the additive and non-additive genetic components were present in characters root weight, number of leaves, days taken to marketable maturity and root yield per plot, suggesting the role of additive and non-additive gene action for the inheritance of these traits which could be exploited through recurrent selection, bidirectional recurrent selection and heterosis breeding for developing superior cultivars possessing high yield and good quality attributes in radish. The outstanding cross

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combinations which recorded high mean values for root yield, root length, root girth, root diameter, root: top ratio, TSS, dry matter, ascorbic acid content along with less number of days taken to marketable maturity and low nitrate content, substantiated by heterotic effects and genetic analysis, were MEW x PHy, JW x WI, CP x PHy, SLW x PHy, MEW x S-9, N x PHy and offer promise to develop cultivars possessing high yield and good quality traits in radish 6. Title of thesis Name of the student Name of the Major Advisor : Salient findings Gene action and heterosis studies involving gynoecious lines in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)was carried out at the Experimental farms of the Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur and Hill Agricultural research and Extension Centre, Bajaura, Kullu during Khari, 2009 to get information on gene action as inferred from the combining ability analysis and magnitude of heterosis for different traits viz., days to first female flower appearance, nodal position of first female flower, days taken to first picking, fruit length, fruit girth, average fruit weight, marketable fruits per vine, marketable yield per vine, harvest duration, number of primary branches, vine length, total soluble solids, incidence of fruit fly and powdery mildew, following line x tester mating design and analysis. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for marketable yield per vine and all other component traits studied at Palampur and Bajaura. Genotype x Environment mean squares were found to be significant for all the traits. The line x tester aalysis revealed significant differences due to lines, testeres and line x tester interaction at both the locations for most of the traits, when tested against error mean squares, indicating appreciable diversity in the experimental material. Estimates of general combining ability effects, necessitates inclusion of lines G-3, G-1, Plp-Gy-1 and EC-5082 and the testers Kpap, Sel-75-2-10, K-90 and KL-1 for making crosses which was corrobated by the superiority of their cross combinations. The estimates of GCA and SCA variances,additive (o2A) and non-additive (o2D) components of variance and per cent contribution of lines, testers and line x tester interactions pointed out that for marketable yield per vine and majority of the important component traits, non-additive gene action was in preponderance or in appreciable magnitude suggesting the exploitation of hybrid vigour in cucumber. There was wide variation in magnitude and direction of heterosis for all characters. Marketable yield per vine, marketable fruits per vine and average fruit weight were the most heterotic characters. Appreciable heterosis over better parent and standard checks was observed for almost all the traits. For marketable yield per vine 51 cross combinations at Palampur, 43 at Bajaura and 50 in pooled environment showed hybrid vigour over better parent. Over SC1 and SC2, 16 and 42, 35 and 43, 42 and 41 crosses revealed positive heterosis at Palampur, bajaura and in pooled environments. The hybrid vigour was mainly on account of increased, fruit number, weight and size. Based on hybrid vigour, vis--vis their mean performance and from consumer view point, the combination Plp-Gy-1 x K-pap, Plp-Gy-1 x K-90, G-1 x Summer Green, G-1 x K=pap and G-3 x Sel-75-2-10 were the most promising one. Agricultural Economics, Extension Education and Rural Sociology : : Gene action and heterosis studies involving gynoecious lines in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Madhu Sharma (A-2006-40-06) Dr. Yudhvir Singh

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1. Title of thesis : Location-Specific and Risk Efficient Farm Plans for Agricultural Development in Mandi District of Himachal Pradesh Vinod Kumar (A-2001-40-11) Dr R.K.Sharma

Name of the student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

An attempt was made in this study to develop location-specific and risk efficient farm plans in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh. The average size of holdings (owned land) was 0.96 ha. 0.53 ha and 1.21 ha out of which 85, 90 and 65 per cent area was operational in low, mid and high hills, respectively. Maize in kharif and wheat in Rabi season were the major crops in all the three regions.The average yield of maize and wheat was higher in mid hills. Among other crops the average yield was high in low hills due to suitable climatic conditions. It was found that farmers in low hills, in general, used more inputs as compared to mid and high hills. Human labour in case of paddy in low hills; seed, FYM & bullock labour for maize and FYM & fertilizer for wheat in mid hills; FYM for maize and fertilizer for wheat in high hills had significant and positive influence on productivity. Majority of farmers were in medium range of efficiency. The total cost i.e. cost D was high in case of vegetables as compared to other crops due to high cost of hybrid seeds and intensive use of manure in all the regions. In some crops (maize+mash, kodo, wheat and barley) grown under unirrigated conditions, negative net returns were observed. The cross-bred cows were more common in low and mid hills. The yield as well as net returns of cross-bred cow were relatively higher than buffalo and local cow. The magnitude of risk revealed that the cereals were found to be less risky than the vegetable crops in respect of area, productivity, prices and gross returns. The risk efficient farm plans formulated on different regions with crop farming revealed that the expected level of returns to fixed farm resources (RFFR) over the existing level could be increased by 47 per cent in low hills, 43 per cent in mid hills and 32 per cent in high hills. The introduction of dairy into product-mix increased the expected level of RFFR over crops only by 12 per cent in low hills, 37 per cent in mid hills and 18 per cent in high hills in plan-1. The introduction of dairy activity reduced the coefficient of variation associated with each level of RFFR thereby indicating its role in stabilizing farm income. The optimum farm production strategy chalked out for different regions with crop as well as crop-dairy farming showed that the area under cereals was only up to minimum restriction imposed in the model. The production strategy with crop farming revealed that brinjal & pea unirrigated in low hills, soybean & mustard in mid hills and rajmash & mustard in high hills were less risky but less remunerative crops also during the Kharif and rabi seasons, respectively. The area under these crops was replaced by tomato & radish in low hills, mash & pea in mid hills and potato & garlic in high hills with increasing profit and risk. The introduction of dairy created additional employment opportunities in different regions. The working capital on different hill situations revealed that crop-dairy farming was more capaital intensive than crop farming. Non-availability of inputs, high cost of inputs, lack of well established market in the area, extension staff not visiting the farmers field and unfavourable weather conditions were the major problems faced by the farmers in the study area. The study revealed that in absolute terms the input use was low and technology available is not being utilized efficiently by the farmers. In general the efficiency of the farmers was also in the medium range. Thus, there is need to improve extension as well as infrastructural services in the area. Due to high variability in productivity area, there is need to implement the watershed schemes and rain water

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harvest techniques to enhance irrigation facilities.Further, the risk in agriculture can be reduced by adopting different risk efficient farm plans. Emphasis needs to be given to maintain cross-bred cows as supplementary enterprise for stabilizing farm income. For this, there is need to establish fodder storage facilities for adequeate sjpply. In addition to this introduction of green fodder trees as well exotic grass species will also help in fodder availability. Problems and constraints were found to be different among different situations. Hence there is need for separate strategies for different regions. 2. Title of thesis : Land-Use Management for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Himachal Pradesh. A Temporal and Spatial Analysis Sonica Gupta (A-2002-40-5) Dr R.K. Sharma

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

The study revealed that during 2003-04, forest land, land for non-agricultural uses, basrren land and other fallow land observed an increase from 1972-73, whereas, in other categories of land a decrease was observed. In culturable waste land & net area sown a decrease was observed. The instability was highest in barren land followed by nonagricultural uses in the entire state. During 2001-03, the concentration of land for nonagricultural uses and culturable waste was highest in Una, current fallow in Hamirpur & Kullu and other fallow in Hamirpur, Una and Shimla. At the household level the results showed that the average family size varied between 5.38 in Zone IV to 7.50 in Zone I. The literacy rate of population varied between 82.40% in Zone 1 to 87.93% in Zone III. Total investment/ha was highest in Zone II followed by Zone IV. Total household income was highest in Zone IV ( Rs. 1.78 lakh/annum) followed by Zone III (Rs. 1.43 lakhs). A decrease in the operational holding was observed from 1.02 ha/farm during 1995-96 to 0.88 ha/farm in 2004-05 in Zone I, the respective figures for Zone II were 0.43 ha/farm and 0.25ha/farm, whereas, in Zone III and Zone IV it remained almost same. Yield of all the crops increased in Zone I, Zone III and Zone IV during 2004-05 over 1995-96, whereas, in Zone II, a decrease was seen for all the crops. The share of waste land to total owned land was 21% in Zone I, 43% in Zone II but only 8% in both Zone III and Zone IV. Among the waste land the share of long term fallow was highest in all the zone except Zone IV. The increase in waste land per farm was highest in Zone II followed by Zone I over a period of ten year (1995-2005). It was very less in Zone III and was nil in Zone IV. Weeds, animal menace and nearby fallow land were quoted as the main reasons for the waste land by the farmers. Monoculture, migration, high off-farm income and low farm income were the main reasons for the land degradation in the study area. The results of component analysis showed that in Zone I, all the factors had positive effect on extent of land degradation, whereas, labour scarcity, leasing -out of land & highest education in the family in Zone II, labour scarcity, off-farm income & the highest education in Zone IIIand off-farm income in Zone IV had negative effect on land degradation. The results of LOGIT analsysis showed that total owned land& highest education in the family in Zone I, labour scarcity & off-farm income in Zone II and farm income in Zone IV had probability that the household would move towards land degradation whereas farm income in Zone I and Zone II, off-farm income and highest education in the family in Zone III and off-farm income in Zone IV had showed an inverse relationship.

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3. Title of thesis : High Value Cash Cash Crops Agriculture in Himachal Pradesh. A study in Documentation and Valuation of Environmental Costs Shanta Kumari (A-2003-40-5) Dr H.R Sharma

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

The present study was planned to document the commercialized agriculture led adverse changes in the natural resource base, the strategies adopted by the farmers to minimize adverse effects arising because of soil degradation and climatic change, estimate the monetary cost of these changes and suggest policy measures. The results of the study showed that among two areas environmental cost that includes the cost of degradation in soils and adverse effect on human health was higher in Kullu compared to Theog. More importantly, however, the results showed that the cultivation of apple crop continues to be economically viable even after including both production and environmental costs in Kullu. However, in Theog net returns from two most important vegetable crops, namely, cauliflower and cabbage turned negative when allowance for environmental costs was also made. These findings of the study, therefore, put a question mark on the ecological sustainability and economic viability of the cultivation of these crops in Theog. These findings have serious ramifications towards the livelihood of the local population and also for the population of all other areas which are fast switching over to the cultivation of these crops. The message of the study is loud and clear. Pay attention towards promoting scientific and rational use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals to avoid ill effects on human health and promote balanced use of fertilizer including bio-fertilizer for restoring soil health to protect the livelihoods of multitudes of small and marginal farmers. The government should, therefore, undertake policy measures to strengthen extension facilities to educate the farmers about the impending health problems due to the use of agrochemicals. Enhancing farmers perceptions about the health consequences of pesticide exposures and the use of protection equipments during spraying is crucial. The farmers should also be educated about the importance integrated nutrient management in maintaining the soil health. 4. Title of thesis : Socio-Economic Status and Livelihood Security of Women: Comparative Study of Hills of India and Srilanka. H.W.Shyamalie (A-2005-40-10) Dr. A.S. Saini

Name of the Student Name of Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

Gender equality is one of the constitutional mandates in most of the developing countries. Through contribution of Women in performing agricultural operations as well as in domestic activities is quit high and hilly areas are no exception. Many studies have pinpointed the issues relating to women, but not much attention has been paid to examine their socio-economic status and livelihood security. In view of of the present investigation was planed to throw reasonable light on the various pointers of socio-economic status and livelihood security of women in hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh (India) and Srilanka with

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the specific objectives viz. (i) to identify the key socio-economic pointers contributing to the status of women, (ii) to study entrepreneural behaviour of women and their involvement in various activities/ organizations for women empowerment/ upliftment of the family, community and societyand (iii) to examine livelihood security of women and problems faced by them in socio- economic upliftment. The present study was restricted to tea growing locations of the selected districts. Three tea growing locations were randomly selected from each district, and one village was randomly selected from each selected location. From each sampled village, 25 households were randomly selected, thus making a total sample size of 150 households. Primary data relating to various parameters of socio- economic status, entrepreneurship and livelihood security were gathered through specially desined schedules by survey method for an agricultural year (2006-07). The secondary information was collected from various published/ unpublished sources.Tabular and regression techniques were employed to analyse the data. The study revealed that the decisions rights /power lies more with the women of Nuwara Eliya as compared to kangra. The marital status, education and social participation were the significant pointers determining the status of women in both the study areas. Also, caste was found one of the key pointers in kangra and type of the family was observed as another parameter determining the status of women in Nuwara Eliya. Among the components of entrepreneurial behaviour, achievement motivation, management orientation and risk taking ability in order of ranking were the important pointers for the women of kangra district. Whereas, achievement motivation, management orientation and ability to co-ordinate the farm activities were found to be the important components of entrepreneurial behaviour for women in Nuwara Eliya. Education, farm income, economic motivation and accessibility to market were identified as the key determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour of women in Kangra district. Whereas, age, farm income and information sources were the important determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour of women of Nuwara Eliya. It was found that the proportion contribution women to the household income from farm activities wascomparatively higher in Nuwara Eliya as compared to women of kangra district. Based on the livelihoodsecurity index, overall, the women of Nuwara Eliya district were found better in all the indicators as compared to their counterparts of kangra district. The problems faced by the women being a house manager were found all most similar for both the study areas. The most important problems pointed by women were lack of training programmes, followed by no loan facilities for household infrastructure. As an entrepreneur, the most important problems of women were high cost ofraw materials and lack of knowledge about financial institutions, traing institutions in both study areas. In view of above, it can be concluded that low literacy, sex ratio, calorie intakes is a serious concern which needs to be addressed through concerted efforts and policy support. Further, it was suggested that launching effective public and communication systems to create awareness among the society about the equal importance of male and female child, imparting free education to them up to graduation level as in case of srilanka to enhancethe literacy level of females, imparting training on the said aspect and revising their training courses as per the need of the females from time to time are important policy options that have emerged from the study 5. Title of thesis Name of the Student Name of Major Advisor Salient findings : : : Dynamics of Livestock Development in Himachal Pradesh Atul Dogra (A-2004-40-08) Dr. S.K. Sharma

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Since 1971, when poverty eradication became the main theme of development planning, livestock development has been recognized by the Government of India as an important tool for poverty alleviation. The present study entitled Dynamics of Livestock Development in Himachal Pradesh was based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected from selected livestock rearers from all the zones of Himachal Pradesh, secondary data were collected from Directorate of Animal Husbandry-Shimla (H.P.) and other sources. It was found that at the State level, maximum increase of 25.77 per cent was recorded in buffalo population as against 1.05 per cent in cattle population in 2003 over 1982 census. Mandi and Kangra were the main districts, accounting for more than 16 per cent of the total livestock population of the State during 2003. Cows and buffaloes were the main milch animals across districts. It was found that there were 13 indigenous cows for every cross-bred cow in 1982 at the State level, 5 in 1992 and were reduced to 1.5 in 2003 and the number of indigenous bulls per cross-bred declined from 22 to 12 during 1982-92 dand further declined to 5.9 during 1992-2003. Both goat (43.02 Per cent) and sheep (27.65 per cent) registered an increase in meat production in 2006-07 over1989-90, however, pig meat showed a decrease of 68.28 per cent. In Himachal as a whole desi eggs showed a decrease of 11.38 per cent, improved eggs showed an increase of 127.72 per cent in 2007-08. The overall sex-ratio of the sampled farmers was 842, family size was 5.32 and overall literacy rate was estimated to be 78.46 per cent. Maize in kharif and wheat in rabi season were the most important crops occupying 35.44 per cent and 41.32 per cent of the total cropped area, respectively. The productivity of local cow was highest in Zone 1 (858 litre/annum), followed by Zone IV (795 litre/annum) and productivity of cross-bred cow was highest in Zone I(2, 509 litre/annum), followed by Zone IV (2085 litre/annum). On the other hand productivity of local buffalo was highest in Zone III (1643 litre/annum), followed by Zone I (1, 426 litre/annum) whereas, productivity oc cross-bred buffalo was highest in Zone I (2433 litre/annum), closely followed by Zone II (2409 litre/annum). Mantenance cost for local cow ranged from Rs. 14,513 (Zone IV) to Rs. 15, 426 (Zone I). In case of cross-bred cow maintenance cost was Rs. 25, 389, which was about 69 per cent higher than the maintenance cost for local cow. Maintenance cost for local buffalo was highest in Zone III Rs. 24m 530 followed by Zone II, Rs. 23, 976 while, milch buffalo was absent in the selected sample of Zone IV. In cross-bred buffalo it was highest in Zone I (Rs. 29,504) followed by Zone III (Rs.27, 823). Overall, maintenance cost for cross-bred buffalo was about 18 per cent higher than the local buffalo. The net returns for local cow were negative in all the zones with highest in Zone IV and for cross-bred cow it was positive in all zones with maximum in Zone I (Rs. 13, 421). Similarly, for local buffalo it was negative in Zone II and Zone III and for crossbred buffalo it were positive in all zones with maximum in Zone I (Rs. 10, 597). The results for Cobb-Douglas production function were positive for green fodder for most of the milch animals. There were a number of problems faced by the livestock reares which mainly related to demographic, livestock health, breeding and production, marketing and miscellaneous. Fodder is one of major components of total cost in miolch animals and its demand is always increasing. So there is a need to train farmers of the State and provide them quality planting material so that marginal and sub marginal lands, can be diverted towards grasses and quick growing fodder trees suitable in the area. The local pasture/grazing lands or thasnis and wastelands need to be improved substantially by the introduction of suitable plants/trees. The net returns for the cross-bred milch animals which were positive and clearly indicated that the present cross-breeding policy of the State should continue, and the net returns in case of local milch animals, were negative, yet the species need to be preserved for biodiversity.

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II. COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCES
Food Science and Nutrition 1. Title of thesis : Nutritional status of selected Hypertensive subjects from Palampur region of Kangra District. : : Ms.Sonica (H-2003-40-1) Dr (Mrs) S.R.Malhotra

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

Hypertension or high blood pressure, termed as the Silent Killer has been recognized as a major risk factor for several common cardio vascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the nutritional status of Hypertensive subjects from Palampur region of Kangra District (H.P.). The detailed information was collected using questionnaire cum interview schedule. The findings revealed that majority of the subjects were male (54.61%) and of age 50 & above years (50.77%). Majority of the subjects were of service class, higher literacy level (Graduate) and belonged to high income group (Rs>25000/-). Information regarding Hypertension revealed that majority of the subjects experienced no diagnostic complaints (42.31%), however, headache (30.00%) being the most experienced symptom. Majority, of the subjects had family history (44.61%) of the disease. The mean blood pressure of the subjects were recorded as 141.31+ 0.23 (male) and 138.00+ 0.45/ 88.33+0.22 (female) mm Hg and moreover, majority of the female subjects were found to be pre Hypertensives (54.24%) and male subjects at Stage 1 (50.70%) degree of Hypertension. Majority of the subjects were also found to live a stressful life; family and occupational types being the mostly experienced and majority of the male subjects were in the habits of smoking (56.34%) and drinking (61.97%). Variations were observed with respect to prevalent meal pattern of the subjects and moreover, the frequency of consumption of the selected foodstuffs (associated with HTN) disease condition) varied from weekly to rarely consumption. Majority of the male subjects were found to be non-vegetarian (52.12%) and female were vegetarian (49.15%) and the subjects had liking for moderate salt consumption. The energy intake was found to be higher than the RDA as well as energy expenditure by all the subjects. Better understanding and improvement in the knowledge of Hypertensive subjects participated in the education cum counseling programme was observed. The statistical studies revealed significant (P<0.01) associations of literacy level, occupation, family income with the degee of Hypertension of the subjects, however, non significant with the personal habits of smoking, drinking, stress condition, salt consumption and exercise pattern of the subjects. The correlation studies showed a positive association of systolic as well as diastdolic BP with the energy intake, total fat intake, sodium intake, weight, waist, hip, BM1, whereas, a negative correlation with the potassium intake and height of all the Hypertensive subjects. The findings of the study would prove beneficial to know various aspects/nature of the disease and to plan management programme for Hypertension. 2. Title of thesis Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor : : : Comparative study of immuno-therapeutic properties of bovine and human milk Ms.Sujata Pandit (H-2003-40-02) Dr. Manoranjan Kalia

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Salient findings Breast milk is considered natural and superior for newly borns. Of late, a great deal of emphasis has given in the electronic and print media for breast feeding (especially colostrums) as feeding of colostrums is considered a taboo in some sections of our society, coupled with the reluctance from some figure-conscious mothers. However, there may arise a need to substitute and /or supplement the breast milk under the circumstances of paucity of milk production in the mammary with or without some kind of physiological disorders. Moreover, the human breast milk is found deficient in some aspects and needs supplemental feeding within few months. The incidence of lactose intolerance in some subjects puts further demand on the alternate milk and formulae feeds. Efforts have long been made to circumvent or alleviate some of these problems with of course, limited achievements. Results of the present study have revealed that the cow milk was significant for humanization of bovine milk for the development of infant feed and product development with the addition of carrot, banana and seera constituents. The developed formulations had mean values of moisture content in the range of 82.10 to 87.54% ; protein content 4.28 to 23.13 (%), fat content 5.50 to 65.43(%), carbohydrates 45.01 to 75.43(%) and energy in the range of 249.12 to 505.50 kcal, calcium found in the range of 100.87 to 269.05mg/100g, and phosphorus 112.00 to 280.00mg/100g as per the mean values. Bovine milk contained about 3 to 5 time higher amount of proteins as compared to human milk. Higher levels of casein in bovine milk lead to formation of tough curd in the digestive tract, which tends to increase in empting time in comparison with human milk. And therefore required toning down. Besides the eight essential amino acids recommended, infants required three more amino-acids such as cystine, histidine and tyrosine, which could be introduced during the humanization process itself. Organoleptic characteristic of all developed feed supplements were rated good by the panel on 9-point hedonic scale. In-vitro protein digestibility of developed formulations varied from 64.68 to 78.50 per cent in range as per the mean values. There was no pathogenic microbial growth during storage. The cost analysis revealed viable formulations at the household or in local conditions; commercial production possible but more in-depth study required for viability, feasibility and quality assurance considerations thereupon. 3. Title of thesis : Study on nutritional evaluation of Cassia tora seeds (aelu) and development of value added food products Ms.Nitika Mahajan(H-2005-40-01) Dr (Mrs) S.R.Malhotra

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

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Cassia tora commonly known as Foetid Cassia, the Sickle Senna and Wild Senna, belongs to family Leguminosae. It is an annual herb, 30-90 cm high occurring as wasteland rainy season weed in India. Shape of the seed is irregular rectangularresembling fenugreek seeds. Raw seeds of Cassia tora contain about 15 per cent crude protein, 1 per cent crude fat and 4 per cent crude fibre, 71 per cent carbohydrates. The seeds also contain antinutritional factors like phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and tannin .Biological trial for evaluating the protein quality of Cassia tora seeds was conducted on rats by feeding them diet containing 10, 20 and 30 per cent levels of raw and roasted Cassia tora seeds. High mortality was observed in the groups fed on raw and roasted Cassia tora at 30 per cent levels. The postmortems revealed that the animals died due to hemorrhages of lungs and gastro-intestinal tract. In-vivo protein digestibility was the highest in the control group

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followed by the group fed on roasted Cassia tora at 10 per cent level. Incorporation of Cassia tora seeds in the diets of rats resulted in a decrease in blood cholesterol levels. Some value added food products namely coffee, chutney, missi roti, rice flour chilla, bread pakora, parantha were prepared by supplementing Cassia tora seeds at two different levels. All the products were found acceptable as per the organoleptic evaluation carried out on the basis of a 9-point hedonic scale. However, further research needs to be done to detoxify and recommended a safe level of consumption of Cassia tora seeds for humans. 4. Title of thesis Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings In the present investigation two types of honey (ripened and unripened were heated at 60, 70 and 80oC for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The processed honey samples were packed in glass jars, plastic jars and polypack pouches and analyzed fresh and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage intervals for chemical characteristics, microbiological and consumers acceptability. The values of moisture, acidity and fructose were higher in unripened honey whereas the values of TSS, ash, pH, sugars, glucose, protein, diastatic activity and energy were higher in ripened honey. The results of the study revealed that quality of honey can be improved by processing ripened honey at 60 to 70oC for 12 to 36 hours. The honey processed at 80oC for 48 hours produced dark coloured honey which slightly affected the acceptability of the honey. Among the various packaging materials used honey stored in glass jars was highly acceptable followed by honey stored in plastic jars and poly packs. Although the honey stored in glass jars was accepted more but for economic reasons honey can also be stored in plastic jars and polypacks pouches. For preparation of value added products viz. RTS beverage, squash, biscuits and fruit toffee different formulations were standardized in the laboratory and efforts were made to substitute sugar with honey as sweetener in the ratio of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 and in jam in the ratio of 100:0, 0:100, 50:50, 75:25 and 25:75. The prepared products were also evaluated for sensory evaluation. It can be concluded from the study that the honey can be used as a substitute for sugar in the preparation of products as it improves the overall acceptability of the formulated products. 5. Title of thesis : Nutritional Quality Evaluation of the Papaya (Carica papaya) Based Value Added Products Arun Prabha (H-2004-40-01) Dr Rajni Modgil : : : Nutritional, storage and value addition studies on raw and heat processed honey Ms.Sonia Minhas(H-2006-40-01) Dr Y.S. Dhaliwal

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

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The present investigation was undertaken to assess the physicochemical and nutritional and nutritional quality of the papaya fruit at two different stages of maturity. The papaya was found to be rich in the B carotene content, ascorbic acid, fibre content and mineral elements. Various value added products were prepared from these two varieties of the papaya. The products were prepared by blending of the papaya with mango to enhance the flavour and the nutritional quality of these products. The different blending levels i.e. 100:0, 85:15, 70:30 and 55:45 were tried for the preparation of the RTS, squash

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and jam. Pickle was prepared by the addition of the galgal juice and vinegar but the chutney was made by the ginger and garlic the kofta and dehydrated papaya were also prepared. The products were analyzed fo their chemical and nutritional composition at an interval one during the storage. The blending proportions 85:15 and 70:30 were accepted more organoleptically and even the nutritional quality of these proportions was also good. The chutney with the ginger and garlic and the pickle with the galgal juice were more acceptable organoleptically and nutritionally. The kofta with the basen were more acceptable organoleptically as well as nutritionally. The losses in the B carotene, ascorbic acid content, acidity, total and non reducing sugars were observed in all the products. The packaging of the products in the glass jars was quiet effective in the retention of the nutrients. Among the two varieties of the papaya the seedless variety of the papaya was suited more for the preparation of the value added products and the overall acceptability of the products was higher as well as the nutritional quality of the products was also good. 6. Title of thesis : Counseling of kidney stone patients based on their dietary pattern in the slected areas of District Kangra (H.P.) Madhvi Awasthi (H-2007-40-01) Dr S.R. Malhotra

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

The present study was planned and executed with the specific objectives to counsel the kidney stone patients based on their dietary pattern in the selected areas of district Kangra (Himachal Pradesh). Out of total 130 selected kidney stone patients, majority were males varying in their time of stone diagnosis, symptoms of the disease, recurrence and inheritance of stones and anthropometrical measurements. Majority of patients were non-vegetarian with normal body weight. Their intake of macro nutrient and water was lower than RDA while intake of minerals (sodium, calcium and phosphorus) and oxalates was higher than RDA which may be a contributory factor of stone formation. The assessment of knowledge regarding general nutrition awareness, knowledge regarding kidney stones and knowledge regarding nutrition and kidney stone was done and nutrition education was also provided to patients. There was positive correlation between literacy level and general nutrition awareness and literacy level and nutrition and kidney stones. Correlation study between literacy level and gain in knowledge regarding kidney stones after nutrition education was also positive. Overall comparison of mean gain and quantum of improvement in knowledge of three categories revealed that there was more gain and improvement of knowledge regarding nutrition and kidney stones and more than half of respondents had gain in knowledge categorized as high. The study revealed that if patients are counsled and guided properly in the selection of appropriate foods, much of recurrence and complications of kidneys can be prevented thereby improving the general helath. Proper nutrition can support healthy kidney function and may discourage stone formation.

III. COLLEGE OF BASIC SCIENCES


Microbiology 1. Title of thesis : Diversity of probiotic microorganisms in some traditional fermented foods of Himachal Pradesh Aditi Sourabh (S-2006-40-01)

Name of the Student

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Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings Probiotic potential of 102 bacterial and 24 yeast isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of tribal areas of Himachal Pradesh was studied. On this basis of in vitro tests, such as antagonistic spectrum, tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal juices, ox bile and hydrophobicity property, eleven bacterial isolates were finally selected. The native bacterial isolates produced bacteriocin like inhibitory substances as antagonistic substance. The inindigenous isolates were further screened for probiotic potential on the basis of attributes such as hydrogen peroxide, organic acid production, autoaggregation, bile salt deconjugation, bile slat hydrolase, - galactosidase enzyme, antioxidative activity, exopolysaccharide production and cholesterol reduction (in presence of different bile salts). The bacterial isilates were identified by using traditional and molecular techniques (genus/ species specific primers and 16S ribosomal gene sequence analysis).Ten ribosomal nucleotide sequences of isolates were allotted NCBI Genebank accession numbers. The eleven native bacterial isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium (AdF1, AdF2, AdF3 and AdF11), Bacillus coagulans (AdF4), Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF5, AdF6 and AdF10) and Lactobacillus fermentum (AdF8 and AdF9) on the basis of molecular characterization. 2. Title of thesis : Development of a liquid biofertilizer with indigenous microbial strains of Himachal Pradessh Ajay Kumar (S-2006-40-02) Dr S.S. Kanwar : Dr S.S. Kanwar

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

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From the rhizospheric soil samples of Triticum aestivum (Wheat), Zea mays (Maize), Solanum tuberosum (Potato). Aloe barbadensis (Aloevera) and Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), a total of 156 isolates (Nitrogen Fixers and Phosphate solubilizers) were obtained out of which only 62 were found efficient. The screened isolates were tested for PGPRs traits like IAA, siderophore and ammonia production. On the basis of 16sRNA gene sequencing, the efficient isolates i.e. WT-A2, PT-A1, MZ-AS2, WT-AS3, MZ-P4 and PT-P2 were found to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilla (GU371215), Bacillus licheniformis (GU371216), Azospirillum brasilense (GU371217), Azospirillum brasilense (GU371218), Psedomonas aerugenosa (GU 371219) and Burkholderia cepacia (GU371220), respectively. The most efficient isolates were WT-A2, MZ-AS2 andPT-P2. Out of five liquid carriers tested, Matka Khaad was found to be most effective in the development of liquid formulation. It maintained the microbial population of 9 log CFU/ml upto 240th day of incubation, and 8 log CFU/ml upto 300th day of incubation. The efficient native isolates survived well under stress (temperature, pH and desiccation) conditions in the developed liquid formulation. Chemistry and Biochemistry 1. Title of thesis : Stusies on effect of glyphosate on biochemical attributes of tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze] Bandana (S-2006-40-04)

Name of the Student

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Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings A field experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) consisted of four treatments viz. glyphosate 2.0 kg ha-1, glyphosate 1.0 kg ha-1, glyphosate 0.5 kg ha-1 and control to study the effect of glyphosate on biochemical attributes of tea and its degradation behaviour.Tea and soil samples were collected at fortightly intervals for biochemical and degradation studies. Glyphosate at three levels of application i.e. 0.5 kg ha-1, 1.0 kg ha-1 and 2.0 kg ha-1 influenced the values of all biochemical constituents i.e. total amino acids, amino acid profile, comprising six groups viz. aspartic acid, methionine, phenylanine, leucine, theanine and glutamic acid, polyphenols, catechins, polyphenol oxidase activity in tea leaves influenced significantly up to 15 days after herbicide application except shikimic acid and polyphenol oxidase activity in tea leaves which are affected significantly up to 30 days after herbicide application. However, thereafter no significant effect was observed in any of biochemical constituents under study during both years. The herbicide dose dependent inverse relationship was noticed for all biochemical constituents except shikimic acid in tea leaves. The degradation data generated in the present investigation during both years indicated that glyphosate at three rates of application i.e. 0.5 kg ha-1, 1.0 kg ha-1 and 2.0 kg ha-1 persisted in soil upto 30, 45 and 60 days, respectively. More than 85% of applied glyphosate in soil dissipated within 45 days of herbicide application. Whereas in tea leaves, the residue were detecable only up to 15 days in all three glyphosate treatments. The logarithmicplot of herbicide versus time fitted first order kinetics decay curves during both years. Since, glyphosate concentrations in tea leaves even at zero days sampling were well below maximum residue limit (MRL) for glyphosate in tea (0.5mg kg-1) set by WHO/ FAO (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/food), therefore it can be concluded from the present study that to use glyphosate in tea plantations at three application rates i.e. 0.5 kg ha-1, 1.0 kg ha-1 and 2.0 kg ha-1 is safe both in terms of quality and food safety point of view. 2. Title of thesis Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings The present investigation entitled Biochemical evaluation of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) genotypes was carried out in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Basic Sciences, CSK HP Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur during 2007-2010. The grain samples of fourteen buckwheat varieties/ genotypes were collected during 2007-2008 and the leaves samples were harvested during the year 2009 from Mountain Agril. Research and Extension Centre, Sangla of the University. These grain and leaf samples of buckwheat were evaluated for various biochemical parameters by adoping standard methods. For storage studies, three buckwheat grain samples procured one from Palampur (Market sample) and two promising genotypes; OC-2 and S-B-1 were stored in triplicate at room temperature for one year from December 2008 to December 2009 in different storage structures viz.gunny bags, polythene bags and metallic bins and were analysed at an interval of three months for moisture, fat, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrates, total soluble protein, methionine, tryptophan, in vitro protein digestibility and oxalate content evaluated in the grains of buckwheat genotypes during both the years of experimentation showed the range of : : : Biochemical evaluation of buckwheat (Fragopyrum esculentum Moench) genotypes. Diksha Dogra (S-2006-40-03) Dr. C.P. Awasthi : Dr. Neelam Sharma

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variation from 10.2-10.9%, 1.7-2.8%, 1.5-2.5%, 6.1-9.2%, 62-67.9%, 9.4-13.3%, 57.9103.4mg/gN, 62.0-79.2mg/gN, 66.7-79.5% and 98-152mg/100g, respectively. Besides, overall superior multipurpose genotypes were identified as VL-27 followed by PRB90001, S-B-201 and Wmka in buckwheat grains based on ranking of genotypes for desirable quality attributes in descending and antinutritional factors in ascending order. In the fresh leaves of buckwheat genotypes, significant variation in moisture crude protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, oxalates, in vitro protein digestibility, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, zinc and copper was noticed from 87.492.2%, 22.4-30.4%, 1.8-3.7%, 10.5-15.4%, 12-13.9%, 34.0-42.4%, 25.29.2mg/100g, 1375-1390mg/100g, 53.4-65.1%, 1767.5-2035 mg/100g, 808-910 mg/100g, 232-248.2 mg/100g, 20.4-29.8mg/100g, 3.1-6.1mg/100g and 02-1.4mg/100g, 394-409 mg/100g, 232248.2mg/100g, 20.4-29.8mg/100g, 3.1-6.1mg/100g and 0.2-1.4mg/100g in that order. Based on cumulative grading, IC-323731 followed by Kullu gangetri, VL-27 and S-B-214 emerged out versatile genotypes for buckwheat leaves. The rutin content evaluated in the leaves, grains and hull of promising genotypes ranged from 1.63 to 2.86% in leaves, 0.03 to 1.46% in grains and 0.02 to 0.10% in the hulls and its highest values was found in the leaves (2.86%) and the lowest in hull (0.02%) in the variety Vl-7. Thus, nutritionally superior buckwheat genotypes both (for grains and leaves) for individual quality trait(s) for crop improvement were found out, however, based on genotypic grading versatile genotypes were also identified for further value addition purpose. Storage of buckwheat grains at room temperature for 12 months resulted in relatively the least alterations in biochemical constituents of dietary importance. Metallic bins were found to be superior most packaging material for storage in retaining the nutritional attributes of the grains. 3. Title of thesis Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings Seasonal variations of total polyphenols (TP) in the range: 205.518 to 113.719 g/ kg, 269.529 to 140.210 g/kg and 263.223 to 104.759 g/kg and total catechins (TC) in the range of 110.209 to 40.904 g/kg, 174.774 to 31.069 g/kg and 162.619 to 82.673 g/kg in fresh shoots of Kangra local tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze] cultivar collected at seven day intervals through out the harvesting seasons during three consecutive years (2007, 2008 and 2009) were significant. The variations in the levels of TP and TC ranging between 258.025 to 98.391 g/kg and 173.399 to 76.645 g/kg in bud; 283.011 to 125.101 g/kg and 183.058 to 88.111 g/kg in first leaf and 252.562 to 107.818 g/kg and 159.179 to 85.875 g/kg in second leaf, respectively, during 2009 were also significant. Summer and rainy flush seasons samples of fresh tea shoots, bud, first leaf, second leaf and powders obtained by lyophilizing their aqueous extracts invariably had higher levels of TP and TC compared to first and winter flush seasons. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that mechanisms that induced seasonal variations in the levels of phenolic constituents of tea shoots may include one or all the weather parameters which varied markedly across harvesting seasons over the years under investigation. The variations of flavan -3-ols (percent) in tea powders obtained from fresh green tea shoots, bud, first leaf and second leaf were; (+)-catechin (C): 2.84 to 0.69; (-)epicatechin (EC): 14.05 to 3.54; (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC): 36.01 to 17.62; (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): 59.94 to 38.08 and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG): 24.38 : : : Studies on flavan-3-ols and biological activity of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L)O Kuntze] Arti Ghabru (S-2007-40-03) Dr. R.G. Sud

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to 10.96. The levels of flavan-3-ols were invariably higher in the samples of summer and rainy flush seasons and always varied in the order: EGCG > EGC> ECG> >EC>C. Those aqueous extracts of fresh tea shoots, bud, first leaf, second leaf and tea powder solutions which had higher concentrations of EGCG and ECG were potent2, 2diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavengers, ferrous ion chelators and growth inhibitors of bacterial pathogens: L. monocytogenes (MTTCC-839), P. auroginosa (MTCC-741), B.cereus (MTCC-1272), S. aureus (MTCC-96) and S. mutans (MTCC-890), Teas of summer and rainy flush seasons exhibited superior biological activity compared to first and winter flush. The growth inhibition was found to be bacteriostatic instead of bactericidal. IV. COLLEGE OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES Anatomy and Histology 1. Title of thesis : Gross, Histological and Histochemical changes in Male Accessory Genital Glands of Gaddi goat and Gaddi sheep-A Seasonal Study Shalini Suri (V-2003-40-02) Dr L.S.Sudhakar

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

The study was conducted on the accessory genetal glands of male Gaddi goat and Gaddi sheep (24 each) to record the gross morphology, histology and histochemistry in the different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) of the year. The accessory genetal glands of Gaddi goat and sheep consisted of ampullae of vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Their gross measurements (mean, values) were as follows. The ampulla was a distinct dilatation near termination of the vas deferens and measured 5.04+ 0.11 cm in length and 0.51+ 0.01 cm in breadth in Gaddi goat and 5.00+0.07 cm long and 0.52 +0.01 cm wide in Gaddi sheep. The seminal vesicles were logulated glands and measured 2.58+0.16 cm long,1.70+ 0.08cm wide and 4.19+ 0.34gm in weight in Gaddi goat and measured 2.74+ 0.11cm in length, 1.80+ 0.11cm in breadth and 4.30+ 0.21 gm in weight. The length and breadth of the pelvic urethra that enclosed the pars disseminate were 5.90+ 0.19 cm and 1.30+0.07 cm in length and breadth, respectively in Gaddi goat and 5.65 + 0.16cm long and 1.30+ 0.04 cm wide in Gaddi sheep. The bulbourethral glands were ovoid structures measuring 1.66+06 cm long and 1.40+ 0.06 cm wide and weighed 2.70+0.29 gm in Gaddi goat and 1.35+0.03cm long, 1.15+0.03cm wide.and 2.46+0.21 gm in weight in Gaddi sheep. The histology and histochemistry of all these glands were more or less similar in both Gaddi goat and Gaddi sheep. The ampulla of the vas deferens showed pseudostratified columnar lining epithelium. In its propria-submucosa tubulo-alveolar end-pieces were present. Its lumen showed masses of supermatozoa. The apical border of the epithelium and the sperms in the lumen showed strong reaction for diastase resistant PAS positive carbohydrates in all seasons of the year. The lining epithelium also showed cholesterol whose intensity was maximum in autumn season and minimum in summer season. The other three glands (seminal vesicle, pars disseminate and bulbourethral) were compound tubulo-alveolar glands. Besides tubules and alveoli, solid end-pieces were also found in all these glands. The diameter of the glandular end-pieces and epithelial height of the alveoli and tubules of all the glands were more in the autumn season; these measurements were more or less similar in the winter and spring and were least in the summer. The seminal vesicles were

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium and showed a PAS-positive, diastase resistant substance in their epithelial cells which could be fructose. The pars disseminate (the only part of the prostate gland) extened throughout the length of the pelvic urethra. The glandular Units (mostly serous and solid end pieces) were few at the cranial region of the pelvic urethra and were present on the dorsal region of the urethral lumen. In the middle and caudal regions (of the pelvic urethra) the end-pieces were both serous and mucous. The proportion of the mucous end-pieces increased in the caudal region of the pelvic urethra. The mucous units were lined with tall columnar epithelium while the serous units were lined with cuboidal low columnar epithelium. Both types of the glandular units showed PAS-positive material in their epithelium and in the lumen; the intensity of this material was more in autumn season. The bulbourethral glands were mixed glands being predominantly mucous. The mucous units were lined with tall columnar epithelium while the serous units were lined with cuboidal epithelium. Both types of the glands (mucous and serous) showed PAS-positive material in their cytoplasm whose concentration was more in the mucous end-pieces. The mucous and serous endpieces of both the prostate gland and the bulbourethral gland showed cholesterol in their cytoplasm and their secretions in the lumen. The reaction for cholesterol and the diastase resistant PAS-positive material in both prostate and bulbourethral glands was maximum in autumn season and minimum in the summer season. Animal Nutrition 1. Title of thesis : Nutritional evaluation of some probiotics on the biological performance of broiler chicken under varied stress conditions Shivani Katoch (V-2006-40-01) Dr. K.S.Sharma

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient findings

: :

Use of antibiotic growth feed additives for animal production has been prohibited in most of the developed countries because of its residual effects in final products leading to increased antibiotic resistance. Therefore, in the post antibiotics ban era, probiotics or direct fed microbials have been reported to have the potential to safely and efficiently replace antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry. The board objective of the experiments were therefore to determine the effect on biological performance of broiler birds offered diets containing low density protein, calcium and phosphorus by supplementation of direct fed microbial (DFM)/ probiotics isolated from leopard feces both under normal and stressful management conditions. After, isolation, purification and culturing o0f direct fed microbial from leopard faeces procured from Gopalpur Wildlife Natural Park- Palampur, the microbes/DFM (Probiotic) namely Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were offered in low density nutrient viz. protein. Calcium and phosphorus, formulated diets to broiler birds in sequentially conducted trials of 3 batches from 1 to 42 days of age under varied management protocols devised. It was found that DFM supplemented broiler birds offered experimental formulated nutrient (Ca and P) deficient diet reared as per standard and management protocol exhibited higher growth and biological performance Viz. low cholesterol (good for heart patients), higher dressing percentage and low morality by maintaining a higher count of beneficial microflora in the gastrointestinal tract and increase in nutrient utilization (Ca and P) through improved intestinal enzyme activities and nutrient availability. Effect of isolated DFM/probiotic was more pronounced when the birds were offered mineral (Ca and P) deficient (10 and 20%) diet. It was therefore

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


concluded that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to increase the returns of the poultry farmers by increasing gain in live weight, feed conversion and reduce losses due to morality reducing the need of medicines as well as provide high quality, antibiotic free animal product viz. meat to the local consumers. Veterinary Microbiology 1. Title of Thesis : Cultural, serology and molecular studies on fowl adenovirus serotype-4 causing hydro pericardium syndrome among poultry in Himachal Pradesh Prasenjit Dhar (V-2005-40-01) Dr. Mandeep Sharma

Name of the Student Name of the Major Advisor Salient finding

: :

Two virus isolates recovered from natural outbreaks of Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) in poultry in Himachal Pradesh was grown in different animal cell cultures (CEF, CEL and CEK) and cell lines viz. Vero, HeLa, McCoy and BHK-21. in CEL and CEK cell cultures, CPE were observed from second passage level and were characterized by shrinkage, rounding and complete degeneration of cells. CPE were observed from sixth passage level onwards in Vero cell line and CEF cell culture characterized by rounding, shrinking, clumping leading to complete detachment of the monolayer. Increase in severity of the lesions in embryonated chicks was noticed after virus passage. The tire of the virus also increased following passage in cell cultures. Experimentally induced HPS in birds revealed classical gross pathology and the characteristics basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes which further confirm the adenovirus infection. Comparative evaluation of various serological tests revealed that Dot ELISA and FAT were more sensitive for the detection of viral antigens that other serological tests. PCR amplification (group, hexon and fibre gene specific) could detect the viral DNA in infected tissues, while dot blot hybridization also detected the viral DNA from different samples and were found to be comparable to PCR for detection of virus. A total of eight polypeptides could be detected in SDS-PAGE analysis of the CELO virus isolate while, only seven polypeptides could be detected from FAV-4 isolates. Western blot analysis of the proteins could only detect two immunogenic proteins. Cloned hexon gene PCR product was purified and sequenced, while a fibre gene fragment was sequenced directly. The hexon gene sequencing of the two FAV-4 isolates showed that the isolates were identical to each other and had homology to the Haryana FAV-4 isolate. Fibre gene sequence of the FAV-4 isolate revealed more than 90 % homology with fibre gene sequence of Punjab FAV-4 isolate.

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Item No.6: New items put forth by the Honble Members of Research Council S. No. 6.1. 1. Item Justification/ Remarks

Dean, Dr. G.C. Negi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSKHPKV, Palampur Research on Fodder Availability of nutritious fodder in lean season is Polyhouse Technology a major constraint in making dairy farming an economically viable enterprise in our-state. Keeping in view various agroclimatic zones, research on this aspect can be initiated which would go a long way for giving a boost to Dugdh Ganga Priyojna which aims at adoption of commercial dairy farming as a source of self employment by the people of H.P. Grassland on the boundary of uncultivated areas of 66 Acre can be used for erecting the polyhouses for research trials. Fodder thus produced would be utilized in livestock farm in lean season which would minimize the expenditure being done on purchase of wheat straw from plains.

2.

Use of unconventional Electricity is being used for various farm sources of energy operations which add to input cost. It would be worthwhile to meet out partial energy requirement through biogas in livestock farm. Electricity from biogas can also be generated for various farm requirements. Similarly, solar energy can also be harnessed. Water structures harvesting In order to increase the fodder production, entire cultivated area, pastures and grasslands have to be brought under irrigation. Therefore, check dams at various higher locations are required to be constructed in which water can be stored from Koohals in harvesting season when water is not required in the fields and also from rains. This water can be used for irrigation through gravity irrigation

3.

In order to make the livestock farm a model instruction demonstration farm for students and farmers of the State, provision of funds and expertise for undertaking the above technologies are required. 6.2. Associate Director (R&E), CSKHPKV, HAREC, Bajaura. 1. Provision of funds for conducting the research trials of the scientists from headquarter/other station and P.G. At the research station, lot of research trials are received from the scientists of other stations or from the headquarter of CSKHPKV without providing any funds for the conduct of these trials. Similar is the case at the station. Any such

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


students stations. at research research activity including the research trials of P.G. students to be undertaken at any station should be with the consent of the concerned Associate Director of the station and there should also be provision of funds for carrying out such research trials instead of depending upon the funds of that station.

6.3. Associate Director (R&E), CSKHPKV, HAREC, Kukumseri 1. Provision of staff and funds for carrying out research activities at out-stations In the tribal areas of the state, there are four research stations, one Regional Research Station at Kukumseri and three Research Sub-stations at Lari, Leo and Sangla. These stations were established to solve production-oriented location-specific problems of the whole tribal areas. Now a days, these stations are not in position to fulfil its objectives/ mandates due to lack of scientific staff and sufficient funds. Keeping in view its importance for up-liftment and improvement of the socio-economic status of the tribal farmers, these stations must be strengthened on priority basis.

6.4. Dr. O.P. Sharma, Scientist Incharge, IVARI, Regional Station, Palampur and Honble member of Research Council 1. Base line data on Base line data (based on sound research/ Agriculture/ Animal analysis) on Agriculture/ Animal Husbandry and Husbandry and allied allied areas, to clearly bring out (in quantitative areas. terms present status vs. potential, in a very comprehensive manner). This is obligatory for target setting for performance monitoring. 2. Performance indicators The present performance indicators in ICAR (the for research monitoring apex body for agricultural research are: (a) Publications (only peer reviewed journals) and listed in NAAS Impact Factor list. (b) Patents, varieties etc. It is important to adopt at least these two criteria for research monitoring as soon as possible. This would pay long term dividends to the institution, faculty as well as research students in terms of visibility, and competitiveness in national as well as international scenario. 3. Inclusion of new I would suggest that the university website has information on the adequate description of each department/section University Website engaged showing research areas of each faculty

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


member and publications (the latest downwards). Overall emphasis ought to be that the different departments have the faculty as leaders in the areas they are working upon. To begin with a database of each department may be developed/ maintained/ updated periodically (may be quarterly) based ion the feed back obtained on the publications as well as patents (total as well as each researcher). This would be necessary to reflect, introspect and planning. Item No. 7. Any other item(s) with the permission of the Chair.

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


ANEXURE-V
Research Project Sanctioned since January, 2007
S. No. Title of the project Name of the Duration Principal Investigator Budget (Rs.in Lakhs) Funding Agency

College of Agriculture Crop Improvement 1. Evaluation of Urdbean x Ricebean derivatives for disease resistance Application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and chromosome elimination techniques for the genetic up gradation of bread wheat and other hill crops for various biotic & abiotic stresses in the north-west Himalayan region Inducer mediated immunization of garden pea and implication of natural products for the control of powdery mildew disease Assessment of Antimetabolic Effects of protease Inhibitor from Ricebean (Vigna Umbellate) on Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera) and Pulse Beetle (Callosobruchus Chinensis). Bio-technological approach towards forage crop improvement (Development of interspecific hybrids using embryo rescue in trifolium) In-Vivo and In Vitro mutagenesis mediated induction of earliness and Alternaria blight resistance/ tolerance in ethopian mustard Rapid conservation of normal maize inbred to Dr R.K.Mittal 1.5.2007 to 3/2011 1-7-06 to 31.12.2010 5.62 CSIR

2.

Dr.H.K. Chaudhary

77.10 DBT

3.

Dr Rajan Katoch

1.3.08 to 28.3.2011

23.44

DBT

4.

Dr Rajan Katoch

30.07.2007 to 29.06.2010

14.24

DST

5.

Dr V.K.Sood

1.10.2007 to 30.9.10

17.35

DBT

6.

Dr.( Mrs.) Vedna Kumari

03.2008 to 02.2011

17.97

BARC, Mumbai

7.

Dr ( Mrs.)

12.2009 to

51.76

DBT

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


quality protein maize and further enhancement of limiting amino acids in elite inbreds through marker assisted selection ) Swaran Lata 2014

Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management 1. Bioefficacy, phytotoxicity and residue data of atrazine 50WP in Maize and Potato Bioefficacy, phytotoxicity studies of Nominee Gold 10 SC (Bispyribac) to control mixed weed flora in direct seeded upland and transplanted rice National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Dr. N.N.Angiras 10.2008 to 12.2010 5.00 Krishi Rasayan Export Pvt, New Delhi PI Industries Ltd. Haryana

2.

Dr. N.N.Angiras

05.2010 to 04.2012

4.00

3.

Dr. R. Prasad

February 02, 2011

3.05 (2010-2011)

CRIDA, Hyderabad

Soil Science 1. Dissemination of vermincomposting technology for enhancing vegetable production and farm productivity Evaluation of In-situ Moisture conservation techniques for Rainfed areas in Himachal Pradesh Up gradation Testing lab of Soil Dr R.P. Sharma 10.3.2008 to 9.3.2011 12.63 CPRI, Shimla

2.

Dr Sanjeev Sandal

12.2009 to12.2012

19.57

RKVY

3. 4.

Dr. N. K. Sankhyan Dr. N.K. Sankhyan Dr. Sanjay K. Sharma

2010 to 2013 2010 to 2012 05. 2010 to 04 2012

4.99 167.35

RKVY RKVY

Development of Block Level Soil Fertility Map of Himachal Pradesh Preparation of GPS, GIS based soil fertility maps for the selected districts of the country) Preparation of DPRs of Nine Watersheds under IWMP Evaluation of Potash, Magnesium, Sulphur (Patent Kali) PMS Fertilizer for Improving Crop Yield in India

5.

48.56

ICAR, Bhopal

6.

Dr. K. K. Katoch Dr. Sanjay K. Sharma

May, 2010

Deptt. of Rural Dev., Govt. of (15.00+56.82) H.P. 71.82 3.10 (annual) IISS, Bhopal

7.

July, 2010 (to continue)

Plant Pathology

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


1. Molecular tagging of resistsance specificity in KRC 5cv of Kidneybean against C .lindemuthiaum Assessment of genetic diversity in collectrichem capsici using molecular markers and evaluation of resistance in capsicum Characterization of variability in Erysiphe pisi DC on pea and evaluation of resistance sources Culturing of Fleshy Fungi of Western Himalayan Region for Bioactive Molecules Preliminary investigations on biosystematics of macro fungi for domestication of edible species in tribal area of Lahaul Valley in Himachal Pradesh Molecular Mapping of BCMV recessive resistance gene in KRC22 landrace of common bean Dr P.N. Sharma 18.9.0717.9.10 25.97 DBT

2.

Dr P.N. Sharma

1.10.07 to 30.9.2010

17.98

DST

3.

Dr D K Banyal

2007-10

21.63

DST

5.

Dr. B. M. Sharma

Nov, 2008 to Oct., 2011 2010 to 2013

23.05

CSIR

6.

Dr. Subhash Dhancholia

2.50

GBPIHED, ALMORA

7.

Dr. P.N. Sharma

January 28, 2011 (Three Years)

16.75

CSIR, New Delhi Extramural Reseach Division

Entomology 1. Developing technologies for protected cultivation in Himachal Pradesh Formulation and validation of Pest Management Modules for Important Vegetable Crops Refinement of IPM Techniques for the Management of White Grubs in Vegetable Crops Dr P.K. Mehta 12.2009 to12.2012 2010-2012 225.81 RKVY

2.

Dr P.K. Mehta

130.52

RKVY

3.

Dr. R.S. Chandel

2010 to 2013

12.50

CPRI, Shimla

Agricultural Economics, Extension Education and Rural Sociology 1. Agricultural Diversification, Contractual Arrangements and Globalization: Pattern, Process, Determinants and Impacts in H.P. Dr. H.R. Sharma 3/2007 to 3/2009 3.44 ICSSR, New Delhi

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


2. Sustainable Production systems for foods, Nutritional & Livihood Security in mountains of H.P. Modern Agricultural Technology and Crop Diversification in Tribal Areas of Tran Himalayan Region in H.P.: Adoption, Processes, Impacts and Determinants Female Participation and Adoption of New Technology for sustainable tribal Agriculture: A study of female headed households in NWHimalayas Female Participation in Hill Agriculture-Comparative Study of Female Headed and Male Headed Households of H.P. A baseline Study of Farmers Perception of the Problems and Constraints in the Utilization of Irrigation Potential of Shahnehar Irrigation Project in Kangra Distt. of Himachal Pradesh Estimation of Cost of Cultivation of Commercial Crops in Himachal Pradesh Evaluation of Polyhouse/Micro Irrigation Schemes in Himachal Pradesh Social Impact Assessment and Socio Economic Survey on Dhaulasidh Electric Project (66 MV) Dr. Ashok Kumar 3.2009 to 02.2010 3.54 Planning Commission New Delhi

3.

Dr. S.K. Chauhan

10/2007 to 9/2009

9.42

DST, New Delhi

4.

Dr. Sonika Gupta

02.2009 to 01.2011

5.87

DST

5.

Dr. R.K. Sharma

4/2008 to 3/2010

5.10

ICSSR, New Delhi

6.

Dr. Ashok Kumar

2008 (7 Months)

3.75

IPH, Shimla

7.

Dr.Virender Kumar Dr. J.S. Guleria

12.2009 to12.2012 2010-2011

13.91

RKVY

8.

3.70

Deptt. of Agri., Govt. of H.P. SJVNL, Hamirpur

9.

Dr. S.K. Chauhan

July, 2010 (One Year)

9.54

10. Valuation of ecosystem services of Hindu Kush Himalayas: The Livestock Production Functions of Rangeland ecosystems Vegetable Science and Floriculture

Dr. S.K. Chauhan

April, 2011 (7 months)

2.53

ICIMOD, Nepal

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


1. Production of quality seed planting material of potential Vegetable crops of Himachal Pradesh Production of Quality Planting Material of Potential Spice crops in H.P. Planting Material Production in Ornamental Plants Dr. Akhilesh 14.4..2010 to 13.4.2013 1.4..2010 to 31.3.2013 Dec., 2010 (Three Years) 30.00 CPRI, Shimla HTM

2.

Dr. Yudhvir Singh

37.50

CPRI, Shimla HTM

3.

Dr. Desh Raj

10.494

CPRI, Shimla HTM

4.

Construction of Dr 12.2009 polyhouse under earn N.K.Pathania to12.2012 while you learnExperiential Learning under Stream-II of RKVY Strengthening of Dr Facilities For Earn While N.K.Pathania You Learn Programme Production of quality planting material of identified sub-tropical fruit crops and strawberry Dr S.K. Upadhyay Nov., 2010

25.0

RKVY

5.

35.0

RKVY

Horticulture 1. 10.3.08 to 9.3.2011 34.99 CPRI, Shimla

2.

Network project on Dr Jagmohan creation of Bud-wood and Badyal root stock bank for temperate fruits and planting material Network project on Dr Jagmohan production of planting Badyal material (Fruit Crops) Bud-wood and root stock Dr Jagmohan bank and planting Badyal material Planting material of subtropical crops and strawberry Biotechnological Interventions for Improvement of Apple Scionwood in Himachal Pradesh Dr S.K. Upadhyay Dr. J. Badyal

3/20093/2014

38.00

CPRI, Shimla

3.

3/20093/2014 3/20093/2010 3/20093/2010 1.9.2010 to 31.8.2013

20.21

CPRI, Shimla CPRI, Shimla CPRI, Shimla DBT, New Delhi

4.

15.85

5.

6.43

6.

33.57

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


7. Establishment of Mother Dr. J. Badyal Plant Nurseries for High Degree Planting Material of Fruit Crops Farmers participatory Action research Programme in 5000 village and short listing the Agril. University. Development and Dissemination of gender friendly tools and equipment for Improving low level farm mechanization in hills Production of seed and material quality planting in DNA Dr. R.K. Gupta Nov. 2010 (3 Years) 64.60 NHB, Gurgaon

Agricultural Engineering 1. 1.4.2008 to July 2010 50.00 Min.Water Res. GOI, New Delhi

2.

Er. Sukhbir Singh

2010 to 2012

88.30

RKVY

Seed Science and Technology 1. Dr J.K.Sharma Dr. J.K. Sharma Dr. J.K. Sharma Dr J.K.Sharma 3/2008 to 3/2009 20082012 12.2009 to 12.2012 Nov., 2010 10.3.2008 to 9.3.2011 190.00 RKVY

2. 3.

Seed Production Agricultural Crops Setting up of Fingerprinting Laboratory Production of seed

185.00 64.0

ICAR RKVY

4.

quality

42.00

RKVY

Organic Agriculture 1. Production and Frontline Demonstration of Location and Crop Specific Biofertilizers in H.P. Standardization of Processes and use of Organic inputs in Organic Agriculture Development of liquid Biofertilizers and Biofertilizer based integrated nutrient Dr. Y.PDubey 17.06 CPRI, Shimla

2.

Dr.Y.S.Paul

12.2009 to 12.2012

23.82

RKVY

3.

Dr Y.P.Dubey

Dec. 2009 to 12.2012.

40.38

RKVY

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


management in Districts of Kangra 4. A Turn Key Project on Organic Cluster in 1200 ha in H.P. Organic Farming Promotion in Himachal Pradesh Fortification and Demonstration of Enriched compost for use in Organic Farming Dr.Y.S.Paul 2010-2013 28.87 RKVY

5.

Dr.Y.S.Paul

2010-2012

278.34

RKVY

6.

Dr. Rameshwar Kumar

Dec., 2010 (Three Years)

12.49

CPRI, Shimla

Agricultural Biotechnology 1. Dev. SSR markers Dr T.R. Sharma in berseem and exploitation of markers resources of M trunculata for germplasm characterization of berseem for development of high density linkage maps of red clover Probing the molecular mechanism governing cold tolerance during reproductive growth in chickpea Dr K.D. Sharma 11.11.07 to 10.11.10 24.25 DBT

2.

28.12.07 27.12.10

28.75

DBT

3.

Development of Dr. T.R.Sharma high precision QTL detection approach for out crossing species using red clover Alls under India Japan S&T Cooperation Collection conservation, evaluation and identification of high yielding genotypes of Dr.R.K. Chahota

21.07.2009 to 21.06.2011

7.09

DST

4.

11.4.08 to 10.4.11

13.28

Min. of Env. & Forest, N.Delhi

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


kalazira for the sustainable development of tribal communities in cold desert biosphere reserve 5. IndoCanadian Dr. T.R.Sharma Pulse Genomics Initiative (In CANPGI) Germ Plasm collection , and mass multiplication of Tung in Himachal for Development of Elite Planting material and Model Plantation Dr. Rajesh Uppal 20.07.2009 to 20.06.2011 30.27 DST

Tea Husbandry and Agroforestry 1. 2009-10 2.70 NOVOD

2.

Development of Dr. D.K. Sharma Elite Planting Material and Model Plantation of Tung

1.11.07 to continue

2.10

NOVOD, Gurgoan

College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Dean, COVAS 1. Advanced Multidisciplinary Veterinary Services and Farmers Capacity Building Centre Characterization and conservation of local indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh. Estrus Induction and Conception followingExogenous Use of Certain Hormonal Agents in Dean, COVAS 2009-2011 1100.00 RKVY

Animal Genetics and Breeding 1. Dr Sanjeet Katoch Dec.2008 to Nov. 2012 63.60 RKVY

Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1. Dr. Pankaj Sood 1/2008 to 12/2008 0.40 RCFL, New Delhi

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Dairy Cows 2. Postpartum anestrus and its management in cows of Himachal Pradesh Reproductive behaviour and genital disease pattern in Gaddi sheep of Himachal Pradesh Adaptation and facilitation of Livestocks to Impending climate changes through shelter management Strengthening of Animal Disease Investigation laboratory Immunological and Immunogenetic Profiling of Indigenous Hilly (Pahari) Cattle for their Disease Resistance Potential Studies on genetic diversity of Chlamyadophila abortus and Chlamyadophila pecorum species infecting domestic animals (ruminants) and development of recombinant protein based speciesspecies immunodiagnostic assays Network Project on Dr. N.K. Vashisht 20092011 40.97 RKVY

3.

Dr. N.K. Vashisht

20092011

42.03

RKVY

Vety. Physiology 1. Dr. R.Kumar December 2009 to Nov. 2012 80.00 ICAR

Vety. Microbiology 1. Dr. Mandeep Sharma 2009-10 11.0 RKVY

2.

Dr. Subhash Verma

2010-12

85.00

RKVY

3.

Dr. Rajesh Chahota

April, 2010 to April, 2013

17.13

DBT

4.

Dr. Mandeep

2010-

12.00

NRCE,

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Veterinary Type Cultures of Veterinary Microbes Animal Nutrition 1. Cultivation of Malori Plant for Evaluation of its Use as Poultry Feed Additive Dr. Desy Rani 2010 to 2012 5.00 RKVY Sharma 2012 Hisar

Vety. Pharmacology and Toxicology 1. Utilization of Sea Dr.C.Varshney buckthorn byproducts for the development of poultry nutraceuticals 2. Outreach Programme Dr.C.Varshney on ethno veterinary medicine in XI five Year Plan Fisheries 1. Outreach Activity on Sustainable Utilization of mountains fishery ResourcesA Partnership Mode 1. Efficacy of Herbal Formulation AV/LMP/10 in Lean Meat Production in Broilers 1. Studies on Preventive Herbal Medication for Retention of Placenta in Cattle Vety Surgery and Radiology 1. FIST Programme2010 (167) in Department of Vety Surgery and Dr. M.S. Kanwar November, 2010 (Five Years) 30.00 DST, New Delhi Rani Dhanze Feb ,2009 to Jan.2014 3.75 ICAR 1.1.09 to 12.2011 24.75 DBT

2007-08 to 2011-12

80.00

ICAR

Livestock Products Technology Dr. B.G. Mane Oct., 2010 0.53 Ayurvet Limited, Baddi

Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education Dr. Alok Sharma Oct., 2010 (Two Years) 10.65 National Innovation Foundation, Ahmedabad

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Radiology College of Basic Sciences Dean, College of Basic Sciences 1. Fist for COBS, Deptt. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Microbiology and Plant Pathology 1. Evaluation of Nutritionalyy Important Biochemical Costituents of Promising Amaranthus, Buckwheat and Ricebean Genotypes Microbiology 1. Application microbial inoculant extraction of fibre of biofor flax S, S Kanwar 2010 2011 to 2.11 ICAR Dean, COBS 15.7.2005 to 2010 25.00 DST

Chemistry and Biochemistry Dr. C.P. Awasthi 20.7.2008 (Continue) 1.00 (yearly basis) ICAR, New Delhi

2. Development of liquid Bio-fertilizers and Bio-fertilizer based integrated nutrient management in Districts of Kangra

Dr. S.S. Kanwar

Dec. 2009 57.48 to 12.2012.

RKVY

Biology and Environmental Sciences 1. Morphological and Dr. Virendra 03.03 2009 40.00 ecological Singh to 02.2012 characterization germplasm collection and propagation of Sea buckthorn in cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh Centre for Geoinformatics Research and Training 1. Developing Agriculture Information Files for Dr. R.S. Rana 2007 (3 Months) 0.56 JICA (DOA, DBT

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Diversified Agriculture Enhance Income Shimla) to Farm Dr. R.S. Rana 1/2009 to 1/2012 14.41 IIT, CFAS, New Delhi

2. Application of Extended Range Forecast in Crop Planning and operations under Sub humid & Temperate wet Conditions of Himachal Pradesh 3. Impact of Climate Change on Mountain Agriculture in Himachal Pradesh 4. Integrated Geodatabase Model for effective planning of DRDA. 5. GIS Based Agriculture Information System for Himachal Pradesh. 6. Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agrometeorology and Land based observations (FASAL) to Agro Advisory Services at Palampur

Dr. R. S. Rana

2010-2012

44.29

RKVY

Dr Sharda Singh

2010 yearly basis 2010 to 2012

2.00

DRDA, Kangra, H.P.

Dr Sharda Singh

11.204

RKVY

Dr. R. S. Rana

2011 (continue)

1.18

GOI, DAC

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


College of Home Science Food Science and Nutrition 1. Documentation, Nutritional Analysis and Value Addition of Underutilized Fruits and Vegetables of H.P. 2. Nutritional Quality and Value Addition of Amaranthus, Buckwheat and Ricebean Genotypes 3. Supervision Monitoring of Scheme and ICDS Dr. Radhna Gupta 8/2008 (One Year) 1.50 DST (SSD), New Delhi

Dr. Y.S. Dhaliwal

20.7.2008 1.00 (Continue) (yearly basis)

ICAR, New Delhi

Dr. Rajni Modgil Dr. (Ms.) Sangita Sood

1.9.2008 (continue) November, 2010 (Five Years)

1.48 (yearly basis) 7.30

NIPCCD, New Delhi

4. Development and quality evaluation of specialty products prepared by exploiting the local medicinal crops of Himachal Pradesh 1. Exploring potential of fibre plants for value added textile products in mountainous areas of Himachal Pradesh

GBPIHED, ALMORA

Textile and Apparel Designing Dr. Sapna Gautam 15.7.2010 to 14.7.2013 7.92 GBPIHED, ALMORA

Family Resource Management 1. Empowerment of Jatinder 10,2009 to Mountain community Kisthwaria 09, 2012 through Household Eco- Tourism. 7.70 GBPIHED,ALMORA

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


Outstations
Hill Agrucultural Resdeearch and Extension Centre (HAREC), Dhaulakuan 1. 2. Production of quality seed of potential spice crops for the benefit of spice growers of HP. Establishment of Tissue culture facilities for commercializing micropropogation technology of high value cash crops of Himachal Pradesh Popularization of Extra-short Duration Mungbean Cultivars for Poverty alleviation and improved Nutrition Development of water harvesting modules for improving resource use efficiency and productivity of small and marginal farming situations under Himachal hills Marketing of selected high value cash crops in Himachal Pradesh- an analysis of marketing functionaries, costs and Prices in the content of Market liberalization and Globalization. Demonstration and popularization of Single Cross Maize Hybrid seed production technology T.R. Nandal Dr.V.Kalia 10.3.0828.2.11 22.12.06 to 21.12.2008 continuing Dr. Ashwani Kumar Basandrai Dr. A.K. Manchanda 16.7.09 to 09.2010 12.2009 to11.2012 12.97 AVRDC,ICRSAT, Hyderabad RKVY 16.49 66.00 CPRI, Shimla GOI, DAC

3.

4.

28.11

Hill Agrucultural Resdeearch and Extension Centre (HAREC), Bajaura 1. Dr. (Mrs.) Brij Bala 1.1.09 to 15.83 1.04.2010 NABARD, Mumbai

2.

Dr. S.K. Guleria

November, 2010

58.00

RKVY

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


HAREC, Kukumseri 1. Popularization of both refined and improved vegetable production technologies amongst the farmers of Changer area of Kangra Nature friendly formulation and commercialization of indigenous botanicals against major insect pests and diseases in cruciferous crops in H.P. Technology Intervention for Sustainable Development through Selected Aromatic Crops in Chamba District, Himachal Pradesh Establishment of Tissue Culture Lab at Palampur & Chamba for Cultivation of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Flowers and Orchids Production of Quality Multi Crop Nursery/Planting Material Dr. D.R. Chaudhary Dec., 2010 (Three Years) 31.12.0731.3.2011 12.17 CPRI, Shimla HTM

Rice and Wheat Research Centre (RWRC), Malan 1. Dr. Ajai Srivastava 14.41 GOI, New Delhi (MoF&E)

Mountain Agrucultural Research and Extention Station, Salooni 1. Scientist Incharge Dr. T.R. Sharma 29.5 2009 to 4.14 28.5, 2012 2009-2010 52.50 ICEOFF, DELHI NEW

2.

DRDA, Chamba

Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Una 1. Dr. B.N. Sinha Dec., 2010 (Three Years) 14.67 CPRI, Shimla HTM

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


ANNEXURE-VI
NAIP PROJECTS in progesss (Since January, 2007) AS LEAD CENTRE A value chain on seabuckthorn (Happophae L.) A biopesticide mediated value chain for clean vegetables AS CO-OPERATING CENTRE Allele mining and expression profiling of resistance and avirulence-genes in rice-blast pathosystem for development of race-non-specific disease resistance Visioning, policy analysis and gender (v-page) Strengthening 0f digital library and information management under nars (egranth) Enhancement of livelihood security through sustainable farming systems and erelated farm enterprises in n-w himilayas NRCPN, NEW DELHI NCAP, NEW DELHI IARI, NEW DELHI VPKAS, ICAR, ALMORA Dr. A.D. Bindra 321.17 Smt.Vikrma Devi 14.451 Dr. R. Rathore 60.186 Lead centre NAME OF PIS/ COPIS Dr. Virendra Singh Dr.D.C. Sharma Amount in Rs. (lakhs) 317.03 367.50

Dr. K.D. Sharma

15.35

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)


A value chain on enhanced productivity and profitability of pashima fibre Serological diversity and molecular characterization of dichelobacter nodosus and development of vaccine against virulent footrot Harmonising biodiversity conservation and agricultural intensification through integration of plant, animal and fish genetic resources for livelihood security in fragile ecosystems Total SKUAST, SRINAGER SKUAST, SRINAGER NBPGR, NEW DELHI Dr. Y.P. Thkur Dr.Mandeep Sharma Dr. R.P Kaushik 138.673 32.157

154.16

1420.33

Research Council Meeting (6.5.2011)