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Table of Content

a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e.

Duties and Responsibilities of Shop Resources 01 Kitchen Utensils 05 Kitchen Native Utensils 05 Tools for mixing and blending 05 Cutlery utensils 05 Measuring and weighing aid 06 Baking Utensils 07 Safety Precaution/Rules in the Kitchen 10 Trade Terms food Process in Cooking 11 Cutting Processes 11 Mixing Processes 11 Partial Cooking Processes 12 Cooking Processes 12 Baking Processes 13 Food and Its Food Nutrients 14 Meal Management 24 Basic kitchen Plan 27 Table Appointment 28 Meat 31 Poultry 43 Vegetable and Fruits 52

Appetizers Salad Desserts 77 Beverages Fish and Shellfish 91 Sauces 100 Food Preservations 110 Cereals 121 History of Baking 128 a. Cookies 130 b. Pies and Pastrys 141 c. Cakes and Cake Decorations 156 d. Bread

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Duties and Responsibilities of Shop Resources

1. MANAGER - Make up and adjust the budget - Set up and use suitable book keeping and accounting records and procedures - Set up and use forms for food cost control - Make regular statement showing patronage and financial status - Plan organization and establish lines of authority 2. ASSISTANT MANAGER
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- Responsible for the manager - Assume the duties of the manager in his absence - Supervise the work of the dishwasher counter, cookers, busboys and other workers in charge of cleaning - Check attendance of employees - Check on the weekly inventory of materials, tools and equipment 3. HEAD OF SECTION OF DEPARTMENT - Assign and divide the work fairly to your assistant - Give all instruction clearly and definitely - See that those assigned to work w/ you are keep busy and are doing their work correctly - See that all food stuffs you will need for the next day are available in the store room and revulsion or places and orders for item you do not have. - Try out new recipes 4. HEAD WAITER Help the manager supervise personnel Screen and hire employees Designate and explain their duties Instruct captain waiters and assign their duties Supervise the work of the captain waiter Help them improve their works Check on the cleanliness Inspect the dining room constantly Act on complaint about food and service Sign time records or employees for payroll purpose

KEEP THE FOLLOWING RECORDS 1.) A time book for all waiters. 2.) A record of all waiters. 3.) A record of all mistakes made by the employees 4.) Take it up check during meeting

- Give the service training to employees to improve and to equip them w/ additional skills their jobs w/ emphasis in proper use of new tools.



5. CAPTAIN WAITER Open the door in the dining room for the guests Greet, receive and place the guests at their proper table Assist the ladies and elderly guest Find a place for a guest See the every guest is provide a copy of the days menu

6. WAITER Punch or fill your card when you report to duty when you leave Dress properly and wash hands before starting to work Secure, check or be used from the cashier Clean and refill the following: Salt and pepper shakers Container for oil or vinegar Dishes for mustard Dispenser for saucer Sugar bowl Prepare and set the table in the dining room

1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.)

7. BUS BOYS - Carry out soiled dishes for the lunch room and stock them carefully by kind - Wipe of table w/ clean sponge or towel and use a recipe table for collecting bits of food to avoid dropping on the floor ASSIST THE WAITER IN : 1.) Setting the table 2.) Changing table linen 3.) Cleaning of food spilled on the floor 4.) Preparing ice and ice water 5.) If experience may help remove the use dishes for guest table 2 6.) To get help needed supply such as napkins, water, sauces and etc. - Bring additional food needed during speak of business from the



kitchen to the counter or cleaning room - See that the drinking facilities is always clean 8. CHECKER - Watch that all food every waiters takes out from the kitchen is accounted for - Indicate the amount of each item on the check - See that the some best and cleanest service is given to every customer - See that the proper plate silver etc. is used w/ the food served 9. CASHIER Check content of tray Operate the cash register rapidly and accurately Know the prices of all served Make accurate changes

10. COOK - Fry cook, roast cook and cold meat chief butcher - Study and plan menu carefully w/ assistant manager and marketers so that each item of food will be reach on time - See the manager for any used to change any of the items in the menu - Check supplies and see that every items for the next day operation is on hand - Use left-over food is more advantage 11. COUNTER COOKER - See that the next counter is immediately clean before during and after serving time - See that the sufficient for the silver are ready before serving time - See that all dishes under the counter are classified and arrange neatly 12. SALAD MAKER - Wash all vegetables and fruits cut into desired size - Prepare all vegetables, fruits and meats and fish salad


- Prepare dressing for salad 13. DISH WASHERS - Scrap and sort all the used dishes, glass wares and silver wares - Prepare soap and water solution and wash in the order glasses, cups and saucer plates and silver wares - Arrange dishes for towel drying - See that all dishes are just away properly - Wash all soiled hand and dish towel hang on the rock to dry 14. CLEANSER - Scrap and sweep the floor or dining room counter and kitchen - Clean the surroundings of the building - Empty and clean all garbage are washed properly as soon as they are dirty - Keep all cleaning supplies in space provided for them 15. STORE ROOM CLERK - Responsible of any items for good in his charges - Receive all supplies and check and weight w/ receipt all the time being received - Unpacked the staple supplies and place them in their proper place - Fill all food equitation promptly and polite one it is approves and signed by the manager on his assistant - Keep inventories perpetual and physical of supplies in his changed



Kitchen Utensils
A. Kitchen Native utensils 1. Cast Iron frying Pan- is used in frying and also toasting rice. 2. Copper Skillet- used in stirring the calamay and stirring the 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

letche plan. Clay Stove- is used in cooking with the use of fire wood. Clay Pot- is used in cooking soup food. Rice winnower- is used in cleaning the rice and also spreading the cooked calamay. Native Bamboo Strainer- is used in straining the boiled mongo. Wooden Breaker- is used in boiling the liquid chocolate Strainer- is used in staining the putong puti.

A. Tools For Mixing and blending 1. Colander- used for draining food such as pasta and rice. 2. Mixing Bowl- used in mixing and placing the food. 3. Eggbeater- used in beating the eggs. 4. Rolling Pin- used in flattening the dough. 5. Sifter- used in sifting the flour and other dry ingredients to remove the dirt and lumps. 6. Juicer- used in extracting the fruits juice, vegetable and wheat glass. 7. Scoop- used in scoping the ice cream, fruits and vegetables. 8. Party Blender- used in blending the pastry. 9. Cake Turner- used to make it easy to turn cakes over without creating a crumbly mess.

A. Cutlery Utensils

1. Bagel - A glazed, ring-shaped roll with a tough, chewy texture, made from plain yeast dough that is dropped briefly into nearly boiling water and then baked. 2. Can Opener- a manual device or small electric appliance for
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opening cans. 3. Cutting Board - A "board," which may be wood or plastic (acrylic), used for cutting up foods such as meat and vegetables. 4. Egg Slicer - A small implement rather like a cheese slice but with a hollow base to hold a hard-boiled and shelled egg, and multiple wires on a hinged frame which cut through the egg and into slots in the base 5. Garlic Press - A utensil used to crush garlic. 6. Knife Holder - A holder for a folding knife which retains the knife in a folded configuration with blade retention means to maintain the knife blade in a slightly open position so that the knife is opened when it is withdrawn from the holder, 5 where the blade retention means do not contact the sharp edge of the knife 7. Knife' Rest" - something upon which to rest a knife when it is not being used. A metal or wood frame strung with barbed wire for use as a movable road barrier or underwater beach obstacle. 8. Lime Squeezer - This little tool should be in everyone's kitchen drawer. It's inexpensive and does a great job of extracting every last drop of juice from a key lime. You can get through a large pile of key limes in no time flat. Great for making lemonade! 9. Pizza Cutter - A utensil used for cutting pizzas. 10. Vegetable Peeler- A kitchen utensil designed to peel away the outer skin of vegetables. Vegetable peelers come in many designs and are made from a variety of materials. The better ones have a swivel-action blade that conforms to the contour of the vegetable being peeled, thereby cutting away a minimum of skin. 11. Carving Knife - a large knife used to carve cooked meat 12. Knife - edge tool used as a cutting instrument; has a pointed blade with a sharp edge and a handle. 13. Paring Knife - A small knife with a short blade and firm handle, used in paring fruit and vegetables.
B. Measurements and Weighing Aids

1. Measuring Cups - Measure accurately and consistently and you'll be giving your recipes a head start on working out the way you intended, every time. For liquids, measuring cups will give you accurate quantities.
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For solids, use cups only for estimating and for when an ingredient's exact measure isn't critical to the recipe. When you want accuracy in the quantity of solids, use a scale to weigh it. Using a scale is a must when making delicate sauces and pastries, where accuracy is vital. The measuring cups consist of four measurements: 1 cup, 1/2 cup, 1/3 cup, and 1/4 cup. 2. Measuring Spoon - There is no substitute for measuring ingredients accurately. Exact measurements give you consistent results, plus the ability to better taste experimental alterations. Measure Equivalent Drop 1/64 teaspoon Smidgen 1/32 teaspoon Pinch 1/16 teaspoon Dash 1/8 teaspoon Tad 1/4 teaspoon 1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons or 1/2 liquid ounce 1/4 cup 4 tablespoons or 2 liquid ounces 1/3 cup 5 tablespoon + 1 tsp. or 3 liquid ounces 1/2 cup 8 tablespoons or 4 liquid ounce C. Baking Utensils 1. Baking Sheet- are flat and resilient sheets of regular or nonstick aluminum or tinned steel, with a raised rim all around or just on one edge. Used for baking. 2. Cookie Cutters- Made of steel, copper or plastic. Cookie cutters are available in a variety of shapes and sizes, to cut cookie dough into specific shapes. 3. Cookie Scoop- Next to the baking sheets, our cookie scoop is one of our most used baking tools. It looks like a small ice cream scoop. It is used to scoop out equal amounts of cookie dough for making drop cookies. Scoops come in different sizes and because not all manufacturers sizes are the same, be sure


to look at the volume of the scoop before purchasing. 1 1/2 2 Tablespoon sizes are good for drop cookies. 4. Cookie Press- A cookie press or cookie gun is a hollow cylinder with a plunger that pushes dough through a decorative tip at the end of the tube. If you plan on making Spritz cookies then you will need one of these as part of your baking tools. 5. Double Boiler a Double Boiler consists of two pans that nest together. The top pan holds the food to be melted (like chocolate), the bottom pan holds and inch or two of water, which is heated to a simmer. The heat from the boiling water gently melts the chocolate in the upper pan. 6. Electric Hand Mixer- It is not absolutely necessary to go out and buy a Stand Mixer if you don't have one. You should have at least an electric hand mixer in your collection of baking tools. It will take more time but it will do the job. Choose one that has a powerful motor and feels good in your hands. Most of the weight should be up front over the beaters. 7. Food Processor- Here is another handy device to have. A food processor makes quick work of chopping, mincing and grinding. You don't have to go out and buy the big super deluxe model. A 7 basic model will do for most jobs. 8. Grater- A common four sided grater will perform most of the grating and shredding tasks needed for making cookies. Stick with the stainless steel model. It won't rust. We have had ours for 25 years. 9. Metal Cooling Racks- Metal cooling racks are a grid of wires that stand on short legs. Their function is to let air circulate underneath and around the cookies to help them cool without getting soggy. You will need enough rack space to cool two baking sheets worth of cookies at a time. A 12x18 Rack is sufficient for this purpose. If counter space is a problem, you can purchase stackable cooling racks like the one in the photo. 10. Mixing Bowls- in graduated sizes are used for a variety of tasks from mixing salad dressing or dough to marinating meats to holding prepared ingredients.



11. Pastry Bag and Tips- Pastry Bags are used for decorating cakes and cookies with icing. There are three types of pastry bags, reusable, disposable and parchment cones. They come in various sizes and can be made of a variety of materials. Decorating Tubes are the tips that fit on the bottom of reusable or disposable pastry bags. They come in different tip designs which produce different decorations when you squeeze the filling through them, called piping. 12. Pastry Brush- This is a small flat brush from 1/2 to 2 inches wide which is used to apply egg wash or glaze to cookies. 13. Rolling Pin- Rolling pins are available in a wide range of sizes and materials. We prefer to have a wooden or marble roller. If you go with wood, wash it by hand with soapy water and then dry it immediately so that it doesn't dry out or warp. 14. Whisks- with its widely spread wires and bulbous shape, is used for beating maximum air into egg whites. 15. Zester- This tool consists of a handle with a blade with sharpedged holes at its end. It is used to remove the zest from citrus. 16. Measuring Spoons- Throwing together a pasta dish does not really require exact measurements and often consists of a "pinch" of this and a "armful" of that. However, measuring tools, such as measuring cups for both liquid and dry ingredients and measuring spoons are essential to successful baking. Cups for measuring liquid are typically made of either glass or plastic, while spoons and 17. Dry Measuring Cup cups for dry ingredients can be made from a variety of materials including metal, glass, plastic and even 8 ceramic. 18. Measuring Cups- They are used in measuring dry ingredients in large amount. However, you can also use it in cooking and baking. They are made in stainless, plastic and glass. 19. Spatula- essentially extensions of your hand, come in several sizes, shapes and materials. For folding, mixing, scraping and smoothing batters or for blending sauces or pures, choose sturdy, pliable rubber or silicone heads.



20. Cake Pans- Used for baking layer and other kinds of cakes. It has different shapes like, Rectangular Pan, Square Pan, Heart Shape Pan, and Round Shape. 21. Pie Pan- It is used in baking the pie crust. 22. Cheese Cloth- It is used in double thickness for straining fine particles from stocks or cooking liquids. It is also used for wrapping fish for poaching to ease lowering it into and removing it from the cooking liquid. Chef's knife chops, minces, dices and slices quickly and efficiently. 23. Colander- is used for washing or draining. Graters/shredders are sturdy, hand-held stainless-steel tools with holes for grating. 24. Knives- It used for cutting. See also carving knives, chef's knives, paring knife, and serrated knife. 25. Sauce Pan It may be tall and narrow or wide and shallow, in sizes ranging from 1 to 4 quarts. Use saucepans for making soups, sauces and small quantities of stock, and for cooking vegetables, grains and beans.

(Safety Precaution) Rules in the Kitchen



1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Wear a complete uniform. Wash your hands before and after the work. Remove all your jewelries when cooking to avoid bacteria. Use a pot holder in handing a hot surface to avoid burning skin. Prepare all utensils needed when cooking. Use the right utensils for the right job Be sure wash the utensils needed before using it Be sure to wash a sharp knife in slicing the ingredients. Rules

1. Provide a definite place for everything and put everything in the place. 2. Pot holder in the kitchen hang them conveniently 3. Dish towel should be used for dishes only, never for the hands, hand towel is for the hand. 4. Dining room dishes belong to the dining table, do not use them in kitchen us an equipment what is intendance. 5. Used a spoon to taste the food, avoid returning the spoon to cooking mixture unless it is washed a few. 6. Use a few utensils as much as possible to save washing. 7. Work on a small area as much as possible to save energy. 8. Avoid spilling and splashing a food. 9. Keep supplies for immediately after using again. 10. If an equipment is not to be used again wash, dry and berlin to its place, for example egg beater should be washed and keep instead of waiting until of the end of the meal. 11. Concentrate on your working avoid overflowing of burning of foods. 12. Control the used of electricity and soap, it will save money. 13. Clean as your work soak plans, when empty. 14. Keep the risk free of pots, pans, and dishes it work space. 15. Leave the kitchen clean, the sink stove working space and floor.




Trade Terms Food Processes in Cooking

a. Cutting Processes

1.) Cut - to divide the food material by a scissors or knife. 2.) Chop - to cut in fine pieces. 3.) cut-In - to incorporate pat into a flour mixture using a pastry blender, a fork or a knife. 4.) Cube- to cut food into solids of equal sides. 5.) Dice- to cut into cube by inch. 6.) Flake- to break lightly into small pieces. 7.) Grate- to rub foods against a greater. 8.) Grind- to produce the particles by cutting crushing. 9.) Julienne- to cut food into match like strips. 10.) Mince- to cut a chop into very small pieces. 11.) Pare- to cut off the outside covering as apple and potato. 12.) Peel- to strips off the outside covering without the use of knife. 13.) Shred- to tear or cut into small but narrow pieces. 14.) Slice- to cut cross into pieces.
b. Mixing Processes 1. Beat- to make smoother to introduce air by using a break 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

regularly mention lift the mixture over and over. Cream- to rub or shortening the sugar against side of bowl with a spoon or by beating with mixer. Dredge- to sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine substance. Knead- to work dough with a pressing motion accompanied by folding stretching and pressing with the use of hands. Marinate- to let the food stand on acid mixture for added flavor. Mix- to combine ingredients as by stirring. Whip- to beat rapidly or to produce expansion through the incorporate of our and egg whites and add whipping cream.



8. Fold- to combine by using a two motion cutting vertically

through the mixture. Add turning over by sliding the implements across the bottom of the mixing bowl each time. 9. Blend- to mix thoroughly. 10. Coat- to cover with them firm as flour fine substance syrup. 11. Fold In- to cut down through the center batter with edge of spoon rubber scrapper or spatula bringing utensils to bowl then turning over cutting down through again turning bowl of11 quarters turn the same time repeating until are blend.
a. Partial Cooking processes

1.) Baste- to moisten food while cooking. 2.) Blanch- to plunge into boiling water and then in a cold water. 3.) Melt- to liquefy from the heat. 4.) Render- to free fat from connective tissues at low heat. 5.) Scold- to heat milk just below boiling point until forms over the top. 6.) Steep- to extract flavor. 7.) Dissolve-to passes into a solution.
b. Cooking Processes

1.) Deep Fry- to deep in a boiling point. 2.) Fricassees- to braising usually applied to rabbit or meat into pieces. 3.) Plan Fry- to cook into small amount of oil. 4.) Pan Boil- to cook until partially cooked. 5.) Pan Broil- to cook uncovered on hot metal such as grill of frying pan. 6.) Pasteurizer- to partially sterilize of liquid out of temperature 180^F pressured to food with bacteria destroyed. 7.) Porch- to brown with dry heat. 8.) Pot Boast- to braise a large cut in admit covered pot of the meat. 9.) Saut- to cook into small amount of fat in skillet. 10.) Roasted- to cook, dry heat usually in an oven or sometimes in ashes unheated or metal.
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11.) Simmer- to cook in liquid below the boiling point or liquid is simmering when bubbles slowly and break just about the surface at about 180^F. 12.) Stream-cold water vapor maybe applied directly for food as in streamer or pressured cooker to the busses in a double boiler. 13.) Stew- to cook slowly in a small amount of liquid for a long time. 14.) Toast- to brown by directly heat.

c. Baking Processes 1. Bake- to cook in a dry heat on an oven. 12 2. Beat- to mix rapidly. 3. Blend- to combine or mix so as to render the constituent parts

indistinguishable. 4. Chill- a moderate but penetrating coldness. 5. Chop- to cut by striking with a heavy sharp tool. 6. Dissolve- to cause to pass into solution, to reduce into a liquid form. 7. Drain- to cause liquid substance to go out form. 8. Heat- to cook trough the heat. 9. Preheat- to heat beforehand. 10. Stir- to combine together using a one rotation. 11. Blanch-to plunge foods into boiling water for a few seconds or a few minutes, then remove and place in ice water. 12. Melt- to change from a solid to liquid state by the application of heat, pressure, or both. 13. Combine- mixes the two or more ingredients. 14. Cream- the yellowish fatty component of homogenized that tends to accumulate at the surface. 15. Cut-to separate into a part with or as if with a sharp-edged instrument. 16. Fold in- used scrapper gently scrapes down the side and across the bottom of the bowl, then back up through the batter to incorporate it.
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17. Glace- to caramelize or make a sauce. 18. Knead-is a process in the making of bread or pasta dough, used

to mix together the ingredients and add strength to the final product


FOODS - is intended to nourish the body it should be good enough to be enjoyed and eaten. Food has zero 13 nutritional values until it reaches the stomach any matter eaten by man to sustain life and nourish the body. Function of Food in Our Body 1) Provides energy 2) Builds and repairs tissues 3) Regulates body processes Six Basic Food Groups Nutrients 1) 2) 3) 4)

Water Carbohydrates Fats and oil Protein


5) Mineral 6) Vitamin
WATER - is a solvent in the transportation of food and waste

products to form the body tissue, it is composed each molecules of w/c certain 2 atoms hydrogen and oxygen Functions of Water in Our Body 1) Some water is present in the food that we eat. 2) Some by product of oxidation in cell. 3) Some of consumed as drinking of water. 4) Blood is 4/5 of water. The Body Required Water 1.) Fluid is taking in drinking water fruit, juice and drinking.

2.) Food Solid - most food contain some amount of water and some such as tomatoes and strawberry have high water content. 3.) Metabolic Water is produced by the oxidation of food stay in the body. 12

3 Important Source of Water W/ Body Tissues 1.) 2.) 14 Water taken from water resources sweetened and vegetable. Water taken from beverages or liquids.

3.) Water produced in the body in combination of food water passes one from the body carbohydrates.
CARBOHYDRATES is a large group of organic substance

containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen w/ the last two components present in some proportion on water. 2 Types of Carbohydrates 1.) 2.) Starch Sugar Forms of Hydrates
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1.) 2.) 3.)

Simple sugar in monosaccharides Sucrose - is the sugar from salt or sugar. Lactose - sugar from milk of animals. Maltose sugar found during sprouting of animal.
Proteins essential constituent of all cells and most abundant

of all cells.

PROTEINS FOOD IS: Meat Butter Peanut Egg Cheese - Beef - Chicken - Hotdog - Sausages - Hamburger

KINDS OF PROTEINS ACCORDING TO USE 1.) COMPLETE contains 22 essentials acids. 2.) INCOMPLETE does contains essential acids. Fats And Oil are chemically the same but in common usage fats are solid room, temperature but stay liquid. Classification of Fats and Oils According To Appearance 15 1.) 2.) Visible are those easy seen and free greasy like butter. Vegetable those hidden and not easy to recognize. Functions of Fats and Oils 1.) 2.) 3.) Maintaining body tissues. For supplying energy for body activities. For supplying important salty acid and fats suable vitamins.

MINERALS inorganic elements that remain as when food is

burned originate those are at minerals essentials to the body.

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Kinds of Minerals
a. Iron is important constituent hemoglobin the coloring of the red

blood cells is important for building and maintaining the blood supply and giving this red color. 1.) 2.) 1.) 2.) 3.) Function of Iron Formation of red blood cells Present anemia Lack of Iron You will have nutritional anemia. Generally weak. As female no. menstruations. Food Sources of Iron Liver Kidney Meat Dried beans Shellfish - Green leafy vegetables - Peas - Dried fruits - Chicken - Eggs

CALCIUM The development of strong bones and good health. Normal blood clothing. Regulating activity of the muscle. Prevention search.


Function of Calcium 1.) 2.) Essentials for growth and maintenances of bones. Regulate body processes.

Food Source of Calcium Milk Milk product Smoked and dried fish Bagoong Alamang - Shellfish - Soy beans - Tokwa - Okra - Fish



VITAMIN are called body regulates are chemical substances

necessary for health and development. Kinds of Vitamin A B B2 C Functions of Vitamins D E G K

1.) Important for growth. 2.) It forms the functioning of the eyes, bones, teeth, skin, nervous, membrane and for resistance of infection. 3.) It helps appetite. 4.) It also proves vitality. Sources of Vitamins Leafy green and yellow vegetable Malunggay Mustard Kangkong Ripe papaya Deficiency of Vitamins 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) You will have dryness early wrinkles Your eyes cannot see in the dark They may have eye disease Low body resistance and related growth - Milk - Ampalaya - Egg yolk - Spinach


IODINE is essential to the normal function of the thyroid

glands. Lack of iodine in water and food cause enlargement of thyroid glands or goiter. Function of Iodine 1.) 2.) 3.)

Necessary for normal activity of thyroid glands Prevent goiter Lack of iodine phosphorus

Food Sources of Iodine Seafoods Fish Shellfish Vegetable - Daily protein - Liver - Fruits - Cereals

PHOSPORUS - it give rigidity to bones and teeth, it help in the

absorption of fats and oil, is important to body tissues. Function of Phosphorus 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) Essential in the formation of teeth and bones It maintain normal functioning of various glands It maintains normal reaction of the blood Essential in the formation of the cell in structured Maintain normal activity of the muscle

Lack of Phosphorus 1.) 2.) Grow would be slow Your grow will depictive and bones

Sources of Phosphorus Meat Egg Milk product Nuts - dry fish - beans - liver - poultry 18

VITAMIN A- is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of a

specific metabolite, the light-absorbing molecule retinal, that is absolutely necessary for both low-light (isotopic vision) and color vision. Function of Vitamin A 1.)

It is important to your growth


2.) It is form the functioning of the eyes bones, teeth, skin, and nervous membrane and for the resistance to affection 3.) It helps appetite 4.) It also proved vitality Deficiency of Vitamin A 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) You will have dryness, early wrinkle of the skin Your eyes cannot see in the dark are sensitive to bright light They may have eye diseases caused xerophedma Low body resistance and retarded growth

Sources of Vitamin A Leafy green and yellow vegetable Malunggay Mustard Kangkong Ripe papaya Milk Ampalaya Camote tops Baguio beans - egg yolk - pechay - spinach - carrots - butter - pepper - liver - cream

VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE) is important for maintaining good

appetite. Function of Vitamin B1 1.) It is important for maintaining good appetite and normal digestion. 2.) For growth 19 3.) Normal nerves functioning 4.) Prevention of beri-beri Food Resources of Vitamin B1 23

Pork Sausage Nuts Pili Kidney

- patani - corn - sitaw - pepper leaves - liver


Mango Dried beans Preas Lean meat Egg

- pinipig - sprouted mongo - milk - peanuts

VITAMIN B2 (RIVOFLOVIN) important for growth and health

of the skin and eyes. Function of Vitamin B2 1.) To promote generally health 2.) Prolong active life plan Deficiency or Lack Of Vitamin B2 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) Your skin will be shiny and rough Your skin will be oily Your forehead legs and arms will be shiny Your face will be a black face Your eyes will be itching and burning You will have sores at the corner of your mouth

Food Sources of Vitamin B2 Liver Corned beef Native white cheese Fish Meat Goat meat Milk Legumes Saluyut Soy beans Pork Tonigue Leafy green vegetable

How Brown Up Are You 20 1.) Boosting about your self 2.) Dispraising your self 3.) Snubbing girls who arent in the group at school 4.) Dressing in extreme styles or talking loudly just to attract attention
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5.) 6.) 7.)

Seeking or pouting Blaming other people for your failures Be listening people ideas or accomplishment

Helping Your Self 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 9.) Improve study habits Learn more about suitable make-ups clothes Take better care of your health Improve your school know how Develop your skill in some part Keep youre self-informed about current words appear Learn some of the new dance style Give more times attention to good growing Begin a new activity in music handicraft or dramatic

VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID) - is important for the formation

of blood cell resistance to ingestion and the prevention of scurvy Function of Vitamin C 1.) 2.) 3.) Improve resistance to inflowing Help produce good health Prevent scurvy

Deficiency or Lack of Vitamin C 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) You will use your weight You will have anemia Black patches of particles before and after menstruations Generally weak You will have scurvy Your gums will be spongy and will bleed easily

Food Sources of Vitamin C 23

Cashew Guava Cabbage Papaya

- Leafy green vegetables 21 - Beef - Liver - Heart


Siriguelas Pepper (red/green)

- Kidney - Green peas

Niacin or Nicotine Acid 1.) Important for growth 2.) Proper function of the digestion and nervous system health of the skin 3.) Prevention of pellagra Food Source Liver Milk Poultry Enriched rice - Dried fruits - Rich polish - Soy beans - Malunggay

VITAMIN D ( ANTIRACHETIC) 1.) 2.) Necessary for bones and teeth development Prevent Richet

Food Sources of Vitamin D 1.) 2.) 3.) Egg yolk Liver oil Immediate foods VITAMIN E ( ANTI-STERILITY) 1.) Necessary for reproduction

Function of Vitamin E 1.) Prevent sterility

Food Sources of Vitamin E 23

Wheat grain


Green leaves Corn Peanut Oil VITAMIN G (RIBOFLOVIN)

1.) 2.)

To promote general health Prolong active life plan

Food Sources of Vitamin G Cream Liver Cheese Kidney Milk - Heart - Leafy green vegetable - Legumes - Soy beans


Function of Vitamin K 1.) 2.) 3.) Prevent hemorrhage Essential for circular respiration Essential for hemorrhage in human being

Food Sources of Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables Egg yolk Cabbage Liver Rice brown

Meal management
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1. Meal Management is the efficiency due of available resources

in providing meals that are nutritionally adequate sanitary economical and esthetically pleasing to the family.
2. Meal Planning is the process of thinking or deciding the series

of activities in meal management. It includes menu planning, purchasing and storage of food supplies, preparation and cooking of food, table setting and food service and cleaning up of the table and dining area.
3. Menu Planning is the thought provoking task or listing down

specific food or dishes desired for the one meal such as breakfast, lunch or supper or throughout the day including snacks or even for all days of the weeks. Menu plans may even make for two or three weeks. Menu planning may also refer to the decisions as to want to serve for special occasions for a special person, regardless of what the menu plans are for or for how long it is planned for it is essential that house wives make it a habit to plan menus.

Determining the Food Budget

1. Income a family w/ higher income can allow bigger amount of

money for food, although this may still represent only small percentage of the income. 2. Size And The Composition Of The Family a big family may acquire more money for food hence a greater percentage of the income may allot for the food budget. 3. Food Like And Dislike Of The Family Members some families spend a large sum of money for snacks alone w/c they like to enjoy while watching television. 4. Knowledge And Skills In Homemaker all of the factors may considered a homemakers who knows; the essential of proper money management will be spending less and therefore would be able to feed her family on a small budget.



5. Current Food Prices it is apparent that food cost id rising

everywhere w/o a concomitant increase in the family income. Thus it is imperative that one should adjust hid budget to meet this trend if he wants to maintain the same food requirement for the family. How to Make a Food Plan
First make a list of all foods liked by the family. Classify this food


into broad group depending on how you make use food in your meal. Meat Beef Pork Chicken Fish Sea foods Fruits - Vegetables - Cereals - Breakfast foods - Groceries - Rice - Sugar and Sweets

This classification will be the basis of listing the suggested quantities of food for good nutrition should be included. Second, set-up a table to determine the food need for each member of the family for the period. In determining the food needed use the bread classification above and use the recommended allowances. Thirdly, convert the total food needs into the market units. This will represent the total needs of the family and recommended quantities of food to purchase for the period. Fourthly, assign a certain percentage of the food classification for example the following is suggested. Meat and poultry 20% Fish and sea food 20% Fruits and vegetables 10% Rice 20% Dairy 10%
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Miscellaneous 20%

Total 100%

Estimate the cost of each food group in the food plan. Based on the above allowance in the total budget, adjustment may be made in the selection specific foods to be planned on the menu. Lastly, plan the week menu selecting specific food group in the 25 plan. How to Minimize the Amount of Time and Energy

In order to minimize the amount of the time and energy used in

meal preparation or serve through menu planning the ff: are suggested.

Plan meals according to your capabilities however it is better to

plan on using tested recipes rather than untried one. Plan meals according of efficiency and availability of facility for food preparation of service. If use jam is desired plan on use of food washer. Plan meal so that you do not make excessive use of the same equipment. It takes more time to make one dish to cook before starting on the next, simply because you need to use the same equipment Plan meals so that the dishes will not require last minutes attention for all. When the times on the menu look best when cooked just before serving thaw homemaker is going to be the exhausted unnecessarily. Plan dishes so that you can do retail the preparation according to the available time. Plan dishes so that all will not acquire too much preparation.




The work triangle is arranged into basic kitchen plans. 26

One Wall Kitchen - appliances or lines up against one w/

storage cabinets and counter space between them. It can be separated from the living area by a shading door or it can be in a separate room.

Corridor Kitchen- the appliances with a cabinets and counter

space are arranged in two facing wall. If both ends to the kitchen have doors traffic through the kitchen may cause inconvenience.

L Shape Kitchen - this consist continuous arrangement of

appliances and cabinet on three adjoining walls. Because of three advantages it is highly desirable kitchen plan.

U Shape Kitchen - this consist of a continuous arrangement

of appliances and cabinets in three adjoining walls. It usually has the shortest walking distance between appliances.
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Island Or Peninsula Kitchen this arrangement is used in

large kitchen with one of the other four basic plans. A peninsula or extension of one of counter can also use.

Table Appointment - table appointments are implements used for dining w/c consist of linen, silverware or flatware ,dinnerware 27 or Chinese ware ,glassware and the centerpieces.

LINEN it includes table covering and napkins of all types. Table

linen should durable and servable, attractive and suited to the other appointments reasonably price and easily laundered linen should always be spotless clean.




36 inch square 4 persons 45 inch square 6 persons 72 inch square long 90 Square long for 8-18 persons




PLACEMATS 14 inch square for each persons


NAPKINS 12 inch square long for refreshments 22 inch square long for dinner 18 inch square long for lunch 4 inch or 6x8 for cocktail

TABLE CLOTH before shopping for table cloth measure the

size of the table for a formal table cloth usually 10-15 inch .the only kind table cloth that should touch the floor is the buffet cloth items should be narrow with even straight stitches. 28
PLACE MATS it should be place enough to hold the entire

place setting but they should never lap. They are acceptable for every occasion except the formal dinner table or tea table.

TABLE RUNNERS a new corner to the scene usually runners

are placed on either side of the table to hold numerous place or they may be crisscross for four place setting.

NAPKINS - are often sold with table cloths or placements but

can also be brought separately for elegant setting they are sometimes arranged with napkin holder with ring in varied design.

SILVERWARE silverware or flatware includes fork, knife and

spoons. These are usually sold in sets on open stocks in set 4-623 133

8-12 sterling silver is solid silver and will last for generations. Frequent use prevents tarnish and helps develop sanitary luster. Todays home maker chooses stainless for everyday use and for guest. CARE OF SILVERWARE Wash and Rinse promptly w/ hot water. Drop completely and quickly to retain luster Use mild detergent Stop in tarnish proof planned bags Keep away from rubber bags Use only for intended purpose Use a small, soft brush for cleaning the crevices in ornamental silver

DINNER WARE OR CHINA WARE dinner ware encompasses

china, stoneware pottery and plastic. The basic china ware includes the luncheon plates, bread and butter plates soup, 29 bowls, cups, saucer and platters.

Durability Attractiveness in color, size and shape Suitability Possibility of replacements TYPES OF DINNER WARE

Ceramics Earth ware Stoneware Semi vitrified

Oven ware China ware Porcelain Melamine



GLASSWARE OR BEVERAGE WARE glasswares includes

goblets, tumblers, wine glasses and ordinary glasses. They give a certain sparkle to the appearance of the table however glassware is prepared for its beauty and elegance. I must be for normal settings. TYPES OF GLASSWARE

Lead glass or crystal Lime glass Milk glass or bore silicate

30 MEAT- is a flesh of animals used as food. Its food sense it means any flesh of animals, shellfish, fish, poultry and game. Meat constituted a substantial proportion of even the earliest humans' diet, paleontological evidence suggests. Early huntergatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer. The domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period (c. 10,000 years BP), allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production. The animals which are now the principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations:
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Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with

the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture, likely as early as the eighth millennium BC. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 35003000 BC. Presently, more than 200 sheep breeds exist. Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BC, and several breeds were established by 2500 BC Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus (European cattle) and Bos indicus (zebu), both descended from the nowextinctaurochs. The breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for draught or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BC in modern-day Hungary and in Troy; earlier pottery from Jericho and Egypt depicts wild pigs. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times. Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products. Other animals are, or have been raised or hunted for their flesh. The type of meat consumed varies much in different cultures, changes over time, and depends on different factors such as the availability of the animals and traditions.
Horses are still commonly eaten in countries such

31 as France or Japan. Horses (and other large mammals as reindeers) were hunted during the Late Paleolithic in Western Europe. Dogs are widely consumed in China, Vietnam, the Philippines and Corea. Dogs are also occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Historically, dog meat has been consumed
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in various part of the world, such as Hawaii, Japan, Switzerland and Mexico. Cats are consumed in Southern China, Peru and certain rural parts of Switzerland. Guinea pigs are raised for their flesh in the Andes. Whales and dolphins are still being hunted, partly for their flesh, by aboriginal communities in Alaska, Siberia, Canada, by the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and by two small communities in Indonesia. Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to make animals evolve rapidly towards having the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicize health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of Beef, pork and lamb fell from 2026 percent to 48 percent within a few decades, both due to selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery. Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now also becoming available. Even though it is a very old industry, meat production continues to be shaped strongly by the rapidly evolving demands of customers. The trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. Even more animals not previously exploited for their meat are now being farmed, especially the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.[Examples include the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel, as well as no mammals, such as the crocodile, emu and ostrich. Another important trend in contemporary meat production is organic farming which, while




providing no organoleptic benefit to meat so produced, meets an increasing demand for numerous reasons. Kinds of Sources
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

beef- cow pig or hog- pork lamb- meat of a sheep less than a year mutton- meat of a sheep about 2 years old veal- meat of a young cow venison- meat of a deer game- meat a wild birds and animals poultry- from domesticated fowls chevron- meat of goat

Nutrition of meat Protein- meat is one of the most important sources of quality the protein, are complete that they contain and amino acids needed by the body. Calories- white meat is the most valued its protein and vitamin contents it also furnish energy, the calorie content varies with the fat without different in amount with the kind of meat. Minerals-meat supplies three important minerals
a. phosphorus b. iron c. copper

Vitamins- meat is an excellent source of all vitamins. Structure of Meat

a. muscles fibers b. connective tissue 1. yellow 2. white

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1. fat 2. bones

Changes Produced by Cooking Meat 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. change in color loss in weight contraction in volume changes in fatty tissues changes in structural, protein or connective tissue changes in muscle fiber changes in flavor 33

Ways of increasing and Dereasing the Tenderness Of Meat a. aging b. mechanical alternative of thetissue c. cutting the muscle before its chilled and most of fiber mortis has started d. treatment with enzymes e. freezing f. change in ph g. cooking h. added substance for cooking such as acids, salt, and sugar. Muscle in Living Animals a. pliani, soft and get like vei some what viscous b. vigor morts or muscle vigor Care of Meat- meat is an urtiae of food that spills readity as soon as the salt comes from them market do the ffg. 1. Remove the wrappers and clean it with clean damp cloth. 2. Cover it with wire
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3. Place it in the coldest part of the freezer. Objectives in Cooking Meat 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. To To To To To To To improve the appearance make more dries table digestible retain and develop flavor develop tenderness kill the living organism retain juice as in broiling or roasting extract juices as in soups


Effects of salt in meat before cooking 1. Prevent browning 2. It causes moisture t be extracted from meat. Methods in Cooking Meat
Roasting- it is a dry meat of method of cooking in season

meat with pepper and salt according to desired, flavor. You may add other condiments with fat portion up oven team beat 325 degree to 350 degree until done. Pan Broiling- is done through a heavy skillet of meat is cook slowly with a fat or water when a portion is brown the other side of turned process id repeated until evenly cooked fat must not be allowed to accumulate broil or desire. Pan Fry- Fry meat in cooking oil until both sides are done. Pour with salt and pepper and other continents. Cook over medium fire until done. Cooking Liquid- brown meat in fat or oil spices with salt and pepper and desired condiments. Add water and cover simply boil until done according to refferences and vegetable and cooking briefly. Parts of Pork and Its Definition
1. Head-this can be used to make stocks and soups. After boiling

the ears can be fried or baked and eaten separately.

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2. Spare Ribs/ sapre Rib Joint/ Blade Shoulder/Shoulder Butt-

3. 4.


6. 7.


this is the shoulder and contains the shoulder blade, it can be boned up out and rolled up as a roasting joint or curved as collar bacon., pork butt dispite its hame is from the upper part of the shoulder boston butt or boston style shoulder cut comes from this area and may certain the shouder blade. Hand/Arm Shoulder/Arm Picnic- this can be cured on the bone to make a ham or used in sausages. Loin- this can be used to back bacon or canadian style bacon the loin and belly can be together to give a side of bacon the loin can also be divided up roast (blade loin roast center loin roast and sirloin roast come from the roast center rear of the loin back ribs) (also called baby back ribs or riblets) pork cutlets and porkchop. A pork loin crown roasts is arranged into a circle either boneless or withrib bones prouding upward as points in a crown pork 35 tender loin removed the loin should be practically free or fat. Belly side/ side Pork- the belly although a fattier meat can be used for steaks or diced stir. Fry meat Belly pork may berolled for roasting or cut for steak. Frotters- both the form and hind frotters can be cooked eaten can be tail. Legs/Hams- although any cut of pork can be cured technocally speaking only the back leg in entitled to be called a ham legs and shoulders when used fresh are usully cut bone in for roasting or legs steaks can be cut form the bone three common outs of the leg include the rump. Spare Ribs- are taken from the pigs and the meat surrounding the bones, louis style spareribs have the sternum cartilage and skin meat removed.

Parts of the Beef and their Definition Upper Half 1. Chuck- one of the most common sources for hamburger. 2. Rib- short rib, rib eye steak. 3. Short Loin- from which part house. 4. Sirloin- less tender than short loin but more flavorfull 5. Tenderloin the most tender from which fillet mignumtop sirloin. 6. Five(5) Round- lean cut moderately tough lack of fat marbling does not all us round steak to tenderize quikly.
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Lower Half 1. Brisket- often associated with barbeque brisket. 2. Shank- used primarily for stews and soups but its not usully srved another way due to its being toughest of cuts. 3. Plate- produced tpe of steak such as shirt steak (pagitas) and hanger steak is a typically a cheap tough fatty meat. 4. Flank- long and flat the flank steaks on the market it is substically toughter than the loin and ribs steaks, therefore many flank recipes.







Recipes for meat

Pepper Steak Stir Fry Ingredients 1 pound boneless beef sirloin steak, 3/4 inch thick 3 tablespoons cornstarch 1 (14 ounce) can Swanson Beef Broth 1 tablespoon soy sauce 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 2 cups fresh or frozen green or red pepper strips 1 medium onion, cut into thin wedges 4 cups hot cooked regular long-grain white rice, cooked without salt Slice beef into very thin strips. Mix cornstarch, broth, soy and garlic. Stir-fry beef in nonstick skillet until browned evaporate. and juices

Preparations 1. 2. 3.

Add peppers and onion. Add cornstarch mixture. Cook and stir until mixture boils and thickens. Serve over rice.



Tip: To make slicing easier, freeze beef 1 hour. Stuffed Veal breast Ingredients 1/4 cup vegetable oil 1 cup sliced mushrooms 1 cup grated carrot 1 cup chopped celery 1 cup chopped onion 2 cloves garlic, minced 1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley 2 eggs 1/2 cup water, or as needed salt and pepper to taste 8 cups cubed white bread 5 pounds veal breast 1 teaspoon paprika 1/2 teaspoon onion powder 3/4 teaspoon garlic powder salt and pepper to taste 38

Preparations 1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). 2. Heat vegetable oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Stir in the mushrooms, and cook for 1 or 2 minutes until they begin to soften. Add the carrot, celery, and onion; cook and stir until the carrot begins to soften, 5 to 10 minutes. Turn the heat off, and stir in the garlic and parsley; set aside. 3. Beat the eggs and water with salt and pepper in a large bowl. Fold in the bread cubes until they absorb the egg mixture, then fold in the cooked vegetables; set aside. Cut a deep pocket into the veal breast with a long, narrow knife. Stuff the veal with the bread and vegetable mixture, and season with paprika, onion powder, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Place onto a roasting pan, and cover loosely with aluminum foil.



4. Bake in preheated oven for 3 1/2 hours, then remove the foil, baste with pan drippings, and continue cooking 30 minutes more. When done, tent with aluminum foil, and allow the veal breast to rest for 15 minutes before slicing.


Danish pork chop Ingredients 2 pound pork chop Salt and pepper 1 tsp. curry 1 pound lean bacon 2 tart apples 2 yellow onions 1 cup plain yogurt Paprika powder 1 teaspoon butter (Rice and green salad for side dish) Preparations 1. Cut onion, bacon and apples into strips. 2. Saut in butter over low heat 3. Brown the chops in butter 4. Pour in the yogurt, cover and fry the chops slowly for 5 minutes.
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5. Distribute the fried bacon, onion and apples on the chop and serve with boiled rice and green salad.


Potato-Topped Chili loaf Ingredients 3/4 cup diced onion 1/3 cup saltine crumbs 1 egg 3 tablespoons milk 1 tablespoon chili powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 1/2 pounds ground beef TOPPING: 3 cups hot mashed potatoes (prepared with milk and butter) 1 (11 ounce) can Mexicorn, drained 1 (15.5 ounce) can kidney beans, rinsed and drained 1/4 cup thinly sliced green onions 1 cup shredded Cheddar or taco cheese, divided




1. Combine the first six ingredients; crumble beef over mixture and mix well. Press into an ungreased 9-in. square baking pan. Bake at 375 degrees F for 25 minutes or until no longer pink; drain. 2. Combine the potatoes, corn, beans, onions and 1/2 cup of cheese; spread over meat loaf. Sprinkle with the remaining cheese. Bake 15 minutes longer or until the potato layer is lightly browned and heated through.


Sunday Meat Loaf Ingredients 1 cup stewed tomatoes, chopped 1 egg, beaten 3/4 cup quick-cooking oats 1 medium carrot, grated 1 celery rib, diced 2 bacon strips, cooked and crumbled 1 envelope onion soup mix 2 1/2 pounds lean ground beef Ketchup Preparations 1. In a large bowl, combine the first seven ingredients. Crumble beef over mixture and mix well. Shape into a loaf in a greased 13-in. x 9-in. x 2-in. baking dish. Drizzle with ketchup. Bake,
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uncovered, at 350 degrees F for 1-1/2 hours or until meat is no longer pink and a meat thermometer reads 160 degrees F. Using two large spatulas, carefully transfer meat loaf to a serving platter.

42 Poultry-is applied to all domesticated bird use as food. Is a category of domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or killing for their meat and/or feathers. These most typically are members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes(which includes chickens, quails and turkeys) and the family Anatidae (in order Anseriformes), commonly known as "waterfowl" (e.g. domestic ducks and domestic geese). Poultry also includes other birds which are killed for their meat, such aspigeons or doves or birds considered to be game, like pheasants. Poultry comes from the French/Norman word, poule, itself derived from the Latin word Pullus, which means small animal.

History Pigeons, ducks, and geese were bred in China more than 3,000 years ago. Chickens, developed from the Asian jungle fowl, were domesticated probably about the same time. In ancient and medieval times in the Old World, chickens were raised primarily for cockfighting. In the 16th century, chickens were introduced into America from Europe, and turkeys were introduced into Europe from America. After cockfighting was outlawed in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain in the 19th century, poultry fanciers raised chickens for exhibition purposes. The modern poultry industry began in the late 19th century in Europe and America as breeders began to stress meat and egg production. Although eggs were artificially incubated in ancient China and Egypt, this method of hatching poultry was not used
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on a commercial scale until the 1870's. The first college department of poultry husbandry was established in 1901 at the Connecticut Agricultural College (now the University of Connecticut). Discoveries and inventions relating to the scientific housing, feeding, and breeding of poultry led to the rapid expansion of the industry after the 1930's. Production and consumption of poultry products increased markedly during World War II when meat from other livestock was scarce. Since 1945, improved methods of storing and distributing poultry meat and eggs have helped stimulate consumption of these foods. Important in the expansion of the poultry industry has been specialization in raising broilers.
Classification of poultry

1. Chicken- are classified according to age and tenderness a. Young tender birds b. Older, lease, tender birds 1. Turkeys- if young and tender may broiler or roasted 2. Young Ducks- are immature birds to 10-12 weeks of age 3. Geese- young and tender for resting 4. Squabs- are young birds for broiling and roasting 43 5. Pigeons- are old less tender birds Markets Forms of Poultry 1. Live 2. Freshly killed 3. Frozen Points to consider in buying live poultry 1. Heavy weight for its size 2. Feather in good condition 3. Fed comb 4. Bright eyes 5. Smooth skin 6. Smooth soft legs free from spills 7. Plump breast 8. Supply wings 9. pliable breast 10. legs feathers in good conditions Selection of Dress poultry 1. age 2. freshness-clean in color
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3. weight-53% to 66% edible 4. sex Trade Term used in Poultry Cookery 1. Drake- male duck 2. Gander- adult male goose 3. Incubator- apparatus for incubating eggs 4. Feed- to take food to eat 5. Keel- breast bone 6. Stewed- fowl (full grown) 7. Giblets- edible internal organ of poultry 8. Squab- young pigeons 9. Tress- legs and wings may be in place during cooking 10. Spring Chicken- 3-4 weeks poultry 11. Thaw- to have frozen part melted 12. Singer- removal spin of spatter 13. Draw- remove spin of spatter 14. Drawn Poultry- remove internal organs entrails head and feel have been removed 15. Crop- part that plunges when fowl is fully fed 16. Capon- constrain cooks 44 17. Pullet- young hen 18. Poultry- which bears the stamps of the government 19. Skewers- pin for fastening meat to spill 20. Dossed Poultry- feathers head and feet are discarded as well as part of the internal organs. 21. Dark meat- part less used 22. Oil bag- found at the top of owl tail. 23. Conformation- covers the general build, from shape and comfort outline of the caress 24. Dry picked- chickens picked without soiling



CUTS OF CHICKEN- chicken pieces are available packages in various forms. If you want to buy whole birds. You can make your choice from the many selected cuts I the market. Some cooking methods are especially suited to specific cuts of poultry. LIVER- this makes a firm favorite wonderful additions pale or salad. DRUMSTICK- a firm favorite for barbecuing, a frying in butter, or rolled in bread crumbs. WINGS- does not supplies much meat and its often barbecuing or fried. BREAST- it supplies much meat and much used. MINCED CHICKEN- is not as strongly flavor red as say ground beef but it may be used as a substitute in some recipes. LEGS- this compress the drumstick and tight large pieces with bones such as this are suitable for slow, cook such as casseroling in poaching. Choose of chicken A fresh chicken should have a plump breast and skin should be creamy in color. The type of a breastbone should be pliable. 45 A bird dressed weight is taken after flocking and drawing and may include the giblets. (Neck, gizzard, heart and liver). A frozen chicken mush is drawn slowly in the fridge or a cool room. Never put it in hot water as this will toughen the flesh and its dangerous as it follow the flesh and it dangerous as it allow bacteria to a multiply. Killing and Dressing Killing- removes birds from coops and crates carefully to reduce bruising. Place the bird in a killing cone or hang it from a shackle. Scalding- dry picking today is usually limited to some waterfowl, processing. Pick these is usually after they have been bleed. Picking- hangs the bird back on the rope or shackle for ease in picking.
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Waxing waterfowl- are often immersed in a container of a paraffin wax to remove small feathers and down after most feathers have been removed. Singeing- its usually not necessary on young birds the more nature chickens and turkeys may have a few hairs which remain after feathers are removed. Equipments needed Table- the prepared table is one that can be more and with a non-absorbent top that drains easily. Galvanized trash Can- cans should hold from 5 to 20 gallons of water and can be used both for scalding and chilling of can cases. Stove- the stove has tub potential uses heating water and singeing feathers if it has a flame to other wise used a butane gas torch. Knives- each person involved in the processing should be given of knife the preferred knife is one with narrow this beads about 6 long a second type of knife has no edge in rounded point its good practice to have a wet stone hardy to keep poultry knives sharpen. Chopping Board- are good container to hold feathers and edible baser the fold backs can be burned in the around after processing.

46 Chicken Tetrazzini Ingredients


1 (12 ounce) package spaghetti


1/3 cup butter or margarine 1/3 cup all-purpose flour 3/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon white pepper 1 (14.5 ounce) can chicken broth 1 1/2 cups half-and-half cream 1 cup heavy whipping cream 4 cups cubed cooked chicken 3 (4 ounce) cans mushroom stems and pieces, drained 1 (4 ounce) jar sliced pimentos, drained 1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese

Preparations 1. Cook spaghetti according to package directions. Meanwhile, in a Dutch oven, melt butter. Stir in flour, salt and pepper until smooth. Gradually add the broth, half-and-half and whipping cream. Bring to a boil; cook and stir for 2 minutes or until thickened. Remove from the heat. Stir in the chicken, mushrooms and pimientos. Drain spaghetti; add to the chicken mixture and toss to coat. 2. Transfer to two greased 11-in. x 7-in. x 2-in. baking dishes. Sprinkle with Parmesan cheese. Cover and freeze one casserole for up to 2 months. Bake the second casserole, uncovered, at 350 degrees F for 20-25 minutes or until heated through.




Sage-Rubbed Roasted Turkey Ingredients 1 (12 pound) whole turkey, fresh or frozen, thawed 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 2 tablespoons McCormick Rubbed Sage 1 tablespoon Lawry's Seasoned Salt 2 teaspoons McCormick Paprika 1 1/2 teaspoons McCormick Garlic Powder 1 teaspoon McCormick Ground Black Pepper

Preparations 1. Preheat oven to 325 degrees F. Place turkey on rack in shallow roasting pan. Brush turkey with oil. Mix seasonings in small bowl. Sprinkle 1 Tbsp. of the seasoning mixture inside turkey. Spread remaining seasoning mixture over entire surface and under skin of turkey. Add 1/2 cup water to pan. Cover loosely with heavy duty foil. 2. Roast 1 hour. Remove foil. Roast 2 to 2 1/2 hours longer or until internal temperature reaches 165 degrees F (175 degrees F in thigh), basting occasionally with pan juices. Remove turkey from oven. Let stand 20 minutes. Transfer to platter or carving board and slice. Reserve pan juices to make gravy or to serve with turkey.




Wild Duck Cream Ingredients 1/4 cup Worcestershire sauce 2 tablespoons olive oil 1/2 teaspoon hot sauce 2 tablespoons minced garlic 1/4 teaspoon black pepper 8 skinned, boned duck breast halves

Preparations 1. Stir together the Worcestershire sauce, olive oil, hot sauce, garlic, and pepper. Add the duck breasts, and toss well to coat. Cover, and marinate in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes to overnight. 2. Preheat a grill for medium-high heat. 3. Grill the duck to desired doneness, about 5 minutes per side for medium-well, depending on the size of the breast, and the temperature of the grill.




Herbed Cornish Hens Ingredients 6 (20-ounce) Cornish game hens 1 cup lemon juice 3/4 cup butter or margarine, melted 1/2 teaspoon paprika 1 1/2 teaspoons dried thyme, divided 1 1/4 teaspoons seasoned salt, divided 1 1/8 teaspoons garlic powder, divided 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper

Preparations 1. Place the hens on a wire rack in a large roasting pan. In a bowl, combine lemon juice, butter, paprika and 1 teaspoon each of thyme, seasoned salt and garlic powder. Pour half over the hens; set the remaining mixture aside for basting. Combine salt, pepper and remaining thyme, seasoned salt and garlic powder; sprinkle over hens. Bake, uncovered, at 375 degrees F for 30 minutes. Baste with reserved lemon juice mixture. Bake 30 minutes longer, basting occasionally, or until the meat is tender and juices run clear.




Pheasant Mushroom Ingredients 1 (.5 ounce) package dried forest mushroom blend 1 (.5 ounce) package dried shiitake mushrooms 2 tablespoons olive oil 1 pheasant - deboned, skinned and cut into small chunks 1 1/2 teaspoons minced garlic 1 teaspoon dried basil 2 tablespoons butter 1/4 cup finely chopped shallots 1 Portobello mushroom cap, chopped 3 tablespoons sliced oil-packed sun-dried tomatoes 2 tablespoons arrowroot powder salt to taste

Preparations 1. In a small bowl, reconstitute dried mushrooms in water according to package instructions. Drain, and reserve the water. Chop reconstituted mushrooms into small pieces. 2. Heat olive oil in a large heavy skillet over medium heat. Saut pheasant meat with garlic and basil until lightly browned. Remove meat from pan with a slotted spoon, and set aside. Add
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butter to oil in skillet. Saut shallots, reconstituted mushrooms and Portobello mushroom until golden brown. Stir in sun-dried tomatoes, and all but 1/4 cup of the mushroom soaking water. Dissolve arrowroot powder in water, and stir into mushroom mixture. Return pheasant meat to skillet, and simmer 30 minutes.

Vegetable and Fruits

History of Vegetable In the Middle East and other parts of Asia, vegetables are prized as highly as meats and treated as carefully. In the Western world, people are now obliged to absorb nutritional supplements to make sure they're getting all the necessary nutrients! Vegetable cookery was introduced in ancient Rome from Asia Minor, where lettuce was once restricted, and cucumbers, originally native to India, were being grown in market gardens for the city people. The colonizing Romans carried seeds and roots and civilized the natives of northern lands as much with their lettuce and asparagus as their swords. In the seventh century A.D. Muslim armies invaded Spain and they brought aubergines and spinach from Asia as well as an elegant style of vegetable cooking, as reflected in the famous aubergine dish called "Imam Bayildi". The French halted the Muslim invasion but vegetable cooking spread throughout southern Europe. Later, the Spanish crossed the Atlantic and conquered America in their quest for gold but they brought home tomatoes, sweet peppers, beans, sweet corn and potatoes instead. In the Americas, the Indian farmers were cultivating plants since the fifth millennium B.C. employing selection to produce new vegetable varieties and bigger versions of existing plants. On the other side of the ocean, the Romans developed tender broccolis and in Northern Europe farmers created today's white and green cabbage. It was an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, who in the 19th century ascertained the mathematical relationship between the characteristics of parent plants and those of their offspring and made possible to evolve new strains of vegetables in a predictable fashion.
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The result of selection was the development of disease-resistant plants and later, the technique of plant genetics, forerunner of biotechnology, made it possible to create vegetable varieties fitting special needs.

Vegetable- is plants or part of plants used as food. They are served either raw or cooked as part of the main part of the meal. Classification of Vegetable a. The green vegetable- includes all green. Asparagus, Brussels, sprouts, green cabbage, green shape beans and others. b. Yellow and Orange Vegetable- include carrots, squash and sweet potatoes. c. Red Vegetables- include tomatoes and pepper 52 d. White Vegetables- cauliflowers, onion, and radish. Quality of a Vegetable Variety Growing season Stage of maturity Manner of time of storage before cooking

a. b. c. d.

Cooking and the flavor of Vegetable Reason for cooking Vegetable a. To improve the palatability b. To make it more easily and completely digestible Flavor of Vegetable a. Mild vegetables- are delicate in flavor b. Strong Flavor- are due to volatile oil which can be modified by method of cooking. Composition and Nutritive Value of Vegetable 1. The Leaves- have a high content and an abundance of cellulose. The leaf vegetable law in energy values their cheap; nutritive significances are their richness in materials and vitamins in general leaves are important sources of iron and vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and ascorbic acid. 2. The Vegetable Fruits- among the vegetable fruits the tomatoes rank high; in Vitamin C and its good source of Vitamin K



3. Flowers, Buds and Stem- broccoli have twice as much vitamin A and riboflavin and calcium. It is one of the richest vegetable sources of Vitamin C. 4. Bulbs, Root, and Tubers- potatoes are among the most important and economical of vegetable. They rank as high a source of energy, iron, and Vitamin C. 5. Seeds- dried legumes are richer in all nutrients present than the Green Legumes. The protein content is higher, Green peas and fresh green limos are good source of thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. Changes occurring in Vegetable during Cooking 1. Changes in cellulose 2. Changes in water content 3. Effect of cooking upon flavor 4. Changes in plants pigment 5. Changes in color 6. Changes in carbohydrates on cooking 7. Effect of cooking on vegetable protein

Any product of plants growth useful to humans animals. 53 The developed of seed plants with its contents and accessory. Part as the pea pod, nuts, tomato or pineapple the edible part of plants developed from a flower with any accessory tissues, as the peach, mulberry or banana.

History of Fruits The term has different meanings dependent on context. In nontechnical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, juniper berries and bananas. Seed-associated structures that do not fit these informal criteria are usually called by other names, such as vegetables, pods, nut, ears and cones. In biology (botany), a "fruit" is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, mainly one or more ovaries. Taken strictly, this definition excludes many structures that are "fruits" in the common sense of the term, such as those produced by non-flowering plants (like juniper berries, which are the seed-containing female cones
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of conifers), and fleshy fruit-like growths that develop from other plant tissues close to the fruit (accessory fruit, or more rarely false fruit or pseudo carp), such as cashew fruits. Often the botanical fruit is only part of the common fruit, or is merely adjacent to it. On the other hand, the botanical sense includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, tomatoes, and many more. However, there are several variants of the biological definition of fruit that emphasize different aspects of the enormous variety that is found among plant fruits. Fruits (in either sense of the word) are the means by which many plants disseminate seeds. Most edible fruits, in particular, were evolved by plants in order to exploit animals as a means for seed dispersal, and many animals (including humans to some extent) have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Fruits account for a substantial fraction of world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. Fungus also has fruit. When a Fungus begins to produce spores, the section of the fungus producing the spores is called the fruiting body of the fungus.

Different Kinds of Fruits 54 -there are a total of 3 fruits known tours today they are dry fruits, freshly fruits and citrus fruits. 1. Dried Fruits- fruits are broadly classified into two categories. Namely fleshly fruits and dried fruits. If the exceed and monocarp of a fruits is as freshly. A dry fruit is signified by a waterless excerpt and monocarp which is often thin and compressed dry fruits show strong medicinal properties and have n side effects. Dry fruits are nutritious and provide necessity therapy to the body. They are natural capsule. Example: cashew nuts and peanuts. 2. Freshly Fruits- are the containing a more or less soft pericarp in other words, those referring freshly materials around the stone besides they all derive from an ovary, so they can be considered simple fruits. The following are types of freshly simple fruits. Example: tomato, cucumber, radish and carrots.
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3. Citrus fruits- the juice of citrus fruits acid lemon juice contains is approve legality 7% of citric acid. Lemon, 2 limes may taste sour but to the mouth is unlikely with the concentration of citric present in the use. The fruit peels thorn and other part of citrus plants contents lemon an irritation substance which can cause allergic custard dermatitis in human. Because of the possibility an allergic dermatitis. Branches of the citric species are probably best avoided for presents. Example: orange/lemon.




Stuffed Tomatoes with herbs Ingredients 8 medium tomatoes 1 teaspoon salt, divided 1/2 teaspoon pepper, divided 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour 2 tablespoons sugar 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 2 eggs, lightly beaten 1 cup half-and-half cream 1 cup whole kernel corn 2 tablespoons butter or margarine, melted Minced fresh parsley Preparations 1. Cut a thin slice off the top of each tomato; scoop out and discard pulp. Sprinkle inside of tomatoes with half of the salt and pepper. Invert on paper towels to drain. 2. In a large bowl, combine the flour, sugar, baking powder and remaining salt and pepper. Combine the eggs, cream, corn and butter; stir into dry ingredients. Spoon into tomatoes. Place in a shallow baking dish. Bake, uncovered, at 350 degrees F for 38-40 minutes or until a knife inserted near the center of corn pudding comes out clean. Sprinkle with parsley.




Cabbage casserole vegetables

Ingredients 1 large head cabbage, shredded 1 onion, chopped 6 tablespoons butter or margarine, divided 1 (10.75 ounce) can condensed cream of mushroom soup, undiluted 8 ounces process American cheese, cubed salt and pepper to taste 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs

Preparations 1. Cook cabbage in boiling salted water until tender; drain thoroughly. In a large skillet, saut onion in 5 tablespoons butter until tender. Add soup and mix well. Add cheese; heat and stir until melted. Remove from the heat. Stir in cabbage, salt and pepper. Transfer to an ungreased 2-qt. baking dish. In a small skillet, melt remaining butter. Cook and stir crumbs in butter until lightly browned; sprinkle over casserole. Bake, uncovered, at 350 degrees F for 20 to 30 minutes or until heated through.




Eggplant Bruschetta

Ingredients 1 medium eggplant, peeled and cut into 1/4-inch slices 1/2 teaspoon salt 3 medium tomatoes, seeded and chopped 2 tablespoons minced fresh basil 1 cup shredded part-skim mozzarella cheese 2 tablespoons shredded Parmesan cheese

Preparations 1. Place eggplant slices in a colander over a plate; sprinkle with salt and gently toss. Let stand for 30 minutes. Rinse and drain well. Coat both sides of each slice with nonstick cooking spray. Place on a broiler pan. Top eggplant with tomatoes, basil and cheeses. Broil 6 in. from the heat for 5-7 minutes or until eggplant is tender and cheese is melted.




Flavorful Oniony Asparagus Ingredients 2 pounds fresh asparagus, trimmed 1/4 cup butter, cubed 1 tablespoon dry onion soup mix 1/2 cup shredded mozzarella cheese

Preparations 1. Place asparagus in a steamer basket. Place in a large saucepan or skillet over 1 in. of water; bring to a boil. Cover and steam for 4-5 minutes or until crisp-tender. In a small saucepan, melt butter. 2. Add soup mix. Cook and stir for 1 minute or until heated through. Remove asparagus to a serving dish. Drizzle with butter mixture; sprinkle with mozzarella




Winter Vegetable Hash Ingredients 3 tablespoons olive oil 2 tablespoons butter 1 pound Yukon Gold potatoes, diced 1/2 pound fresh shiitake mushrooms, diced 1 red bell pepper, diced 1 small acorn squash, diced 1 shallot, finely chopped 2 teaspoons garlic powder 1 pinch salt 1 pinch ground black pepper 1 cup chopped kale 4 sprigs fresh sage

Preparations 1. Place oil and butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Melt butter and mix in potatoes, mushrooms, pepper, squash, and shallot. Season with garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Cook 25 minutes, stirring occasionally, until potatoes are tender. 2. Mix kale and sage into skillet. Continue cooking 5 minutes, until kale is wilted. Serve and enjoy!




Appetizer- a food or drink served usually before a meal to stimulate the appetite. -small foods served before meals wet the appetite play integrals roles in many cultures and cuisines. -small portion of food serve in parties in order to allow people mingle and talk before the actual meal is good. History of Appetizer Appetizers can be traced back to First Century Rome, where the upper class were served eggs, fruits, etc. as part of a three- course meal. Here I will try to give a brief summary of the trend of appetizers in America. Before the twentieth Century, appetizers consisted mostly of soups, oysters on the half-shell, or canapes (dainty open-faced sandwiches), served mainly at a table. According to a late 1800 cookbook, Canapes are served hot or cold and used in place of oysters at dinner or luncheon. At a gentlemans dinner, they are served with a glass of sherry before entering the dining room. James Beard in his cookbook Hors doeuvre and Canapes (1940), suggests that American cocktail appetizers evolved from the free nibbles set out on bars. Another theory is that prohibition launched finger foods, driving hard liquor out of the saloons in to the homes. This created a need for handy, smart snacks to soak up the booze. The new popularity of cocktail parties, whether powered by good bootleg liquor or bathtub swill boosted the popularity of the bite-sized party morsels. Though prohibition ended in 1933, the cocktail party was slow to reach Grass Roots America. Todays cookbooks, magazines and newspaper food sections offer dozens of recipes for hors doeuvre, appetizers and snacks. Bite-Sized Stuffed Vegetables Americans have long enjoyed stuffed vegetables, but mostly as accompaniments to the main dish. The bite-size, stuffed vegetable hors doeuvre appears to belong to the twentieth century, boosted by the cocktail party. Here, where guests were forced to circulate, juggling drinks, cigarettes, napkins and nibbles, the easiest food was a morsel small enough to be popped into the mouth whole. The best had something creamy and crunchy.
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In the 1918's chunks of celery stuffed with sardine paste was the norm. Recipes by the late 1920's had the celery stuffed with different cheeses. But by the 1940's a whole new world of possibilities opened up. There were stuffed mushroom caps, numerous ways to stuff hardboiled eggs, plus stuffed cucumber rings, artichoke buds, stuffed tomatoes and even stuffed dill pickles. Dips, Dunks & Spreads It seems that dips originated in the 1950's with the California Dip/gooey blend of sour cream and dry onion soup mix. Not so according to Barbara Kuck, Director of the Culinary Archives and 61 Museum at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island. Her father the late chef Louis Szathmary of Chicago had among his papers a 3 x 5 card by Mrs. Woodrow Wilson. It was of a clam and cream cheese dip and said to be one of the Presidents favorites. Dips still werent really popular until the 1940's when James Beard popularized them in his cookbook. He wrote: I think it is delightful to have large bowls of cheese mixtures which are of a consistency that permits dunking. Cream cheese mixed with chopped chives and sour cream, or perhaps a little green pepper and a great deal of parsley, is always welcome. Roquefort or Gorgonzola cheese mixed with cream cheese or sour cream and flavored with chives or raw chopped mushrooms, is another good dunker. You may have your choice of dunkers----potato chips, pretzels, crackers, Italian bread sticks. Importance of appetizer 1. It stimulates the appetites 2. It is used to take away the time, while customers are waiting, for the main dish is being prepared Types of Appetizer 1. Cocktail-another kind of appetizer which will be in the form of a fruit, vegetable juice mix with little alcohol beverages or seafood. 2. Canaps- a bile side or two bile sized finger food consist of three parts of base a spread or topping and a garnish designed for the eyes as well as taste and are meal is assorted shapes. Canap basis can be made from a number of food. 3. Hors doeuvre small portion of savory foods often high seasoned. Is damply food, colorful and vanned in sized. Not serve In hand
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Not finger food but are eaten with picks or cocktail form Usually serve whole rather than pursed or chopped and made into spread 1. Dips- are informal appetizers made with softened cheese sour cream, mashed avocado, bean pursed of food similar consistency flavored to complement crisp by sized food that are literally dipped into the product. 2. Snacks- consist of popcorn, potato chips, pretzel, corn chip and similar two tidbits. 3. Antipaste- is arrange on an individually plate form with the family makes their choice of tidbits.


Gourmet Pretzel Rods


1 (14 ounce) package individually wrapped caramels, unwrapped 1 tablespoon water 15 pretzel rods 1/2 (14 ounce) package candy-coated chocolate pieces 1 1/2 cups chopped peanuts

Preparations 1. In a microwave safe dish, combine caramels and water. Microwave for 2 to 2 1/2 minutes or until smooth, stirring after each minute. 2. Dip a pretzel rod into melted caramel. Reserve about an inch at the end to use as a handle, and spread smooth with a spatula or the back of a spoon. Attach 12 chocolate pieces, and then roll in chopped peanuts. Place on wax paper until set.


Cucumber and Olive Appetizers Ingredients


1 large cucumber 1 (3 ounce) package cream cheese, softened 1/4 cup blue cheese salad dressing 1 (1 pound) loaf cocktail rye bread

15 pimento-stuffed green olives, chopped

Preparations 1. Using the tines of a fork, score the unpeeled cucumber lengthwise on all sides. Slice the cucumber into 1/4-inch thick rounds. 2. In a small bowl, combine the cream cheese and blue cheese dressing. Spread the cheese mixture on the rye bread slices. Top with a slice of cucumber and a slice of olive.


Chili cheese turnover Ingredients


2 (10 ounce) containers refrigerated pizza crust 2 cups shredded Mexican cheese blend 1 (15 ounce) can chili without beans 1 (15 ounce) can ranch-style beans or chili beans, drained 1 (10 ounce) can diced tomatoes with green chilies, drained 1 cup sour cream

Preparations 1. On a lightly floured surface, press pizza dough into two 12-inch squares. Cut each into four 6-inch squares. In a bowl, combine the cheese, chili and beans. Spoon 1/2 cup in the center of each square. Fold dough diagonally over filling; press edges to seal. 2. Place in two greased 15-in. x 10-in. x 1-in. baking pans. Bake at 425 degrees F for 13-18 minutes or until golden brown. Cool for 5 minutes. Meanwhile, in a small bowl, combine tomatoes and sour cream. Serve with turnovers.


Mojito Cocktail Ingredients

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2 leaves fresh mint 1 tablespoon simple syrup 2 cubes ice 1 1/4 fluid ounces rum 1 fluid ounce carbonated water 1 sprig fresh mint

Preparations 1. In a cocktail glass, muddle (crush) mint leaves with simple syrup. Add ice and rum. Top with carbonated water. Garnish with a sprig of fresh mint.

66 Soup- is a broth made from meat or vegetables with a seasoning as an addition of vegetables or food materials. Soup is a savory liquid that is made up combining ingredients such as vegetables and bean stock or hot water until the flavor is extracted. Stock- is made from meat and vegetables seasoned to taste and served. Is a liquid left from cooking meat, poultry or vegetables? Classification of a soup 1. Consomm- a well-seasoned stock which is the liquid left from cooking meat such as, meat, poultry or a combination of both. 2. Bouillon- is seasoned, beef stocks free from fat and clarified. 3. Vegetables soup- vegetable stock contains valuable vitamins and minerals but because of its blandness is added to meat stock gravies or cream soup rather than used alone. 4. Cream Soup- is made from thin or medium white sauce to which is an added puree made from one or more vegetables among the vegetables most commonly used for cream.



5. Banquette- is usually made by combining thin white sauce with chop seafood and often with some of the liquid which the seafood has been cokked. 6. Chowders- are another variation of cream soup they always contained diced chopped vegetables is seafood. History and Origin of Soup One of the first types of soups can be dated to about 6,000 B.C. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers (which probably came in the form of pouches made of clay or animal skin) about 9,000 years ago. Soup can be made out of broth or a form of liquid. The word soup comes from French soupe ("soup", "broth"), which comes through Vulgar Latin suppa ("bread soaked in broth") from a Germanic source, from which also comes the word "sop", a piece of bread used to soak up soup or a thick stew. The word restaurant (meaning "[something] restoring") was first used in France in the 16th century, to describe a highly concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors, that was advertised as an antidote to physical exhaustion. In 1765, a Parisianentrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups. This prompted the use of the modern word restaurant to67 describe the shops. In America, the first colonial cookbook was published by William Parks in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's The Compleat Housewife; or Accomplished Gentlewoman's Companion and it included several recipes for soups and bisques. A 1772 cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking; but as new immigrants arrived from other countries, other national soups gained popularity. In particular, German immigrants living in Pennsylvania were famous for their potato soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Pay plat dis Julien, a refugee from the French Revolution, opened an eating establishment in Boston called The Rest orator, and became known as "The Prince of Soups". The first American cooking pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: Soups and Soup Making. Portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could
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be dried and stored for months at a time. The Japanese miso is an example of a concentrated soup paste. Like appetizer the practice of stating a meal with soup is not traditionally Filipino. It is likely a Spanish influence because of Chinese influence on Filipino cooking were budded soup well signal the end rather than the beginning of a meal. The traditionally Filipino meat is usually a meal is on dish such as putchero and nilaga in combining meat and vegetables in some broth. Sometimes rice or noodles are also included in the dish as in arrozcaldo, Bachoy or pancit now. After the meal may also be made up f one dish with broth usually assented vegetables and a dry dish usually fresh fish or meat in either case the Filipino simply helps himself with some broth which they usually pours ever. Their planned boiled rice and they work up to the vegetable and the meat fish or poultry. All dishes are served on the table at once Family Style which great did of passing of plates at formal dinners in city restaurants and westerner names however the system of served dishes around one by one stated the soup and ending with dessert and coffee is often served. Most Filipinos abroad home adopted the western style of eating often; however the soup that is served first is the broth from the main course usually meat in one dish after the broth has been drain the meat and vegetable are served on a splatter and eaten with rice. Soup are not only basis for meat and the meat in the section but are often called for hot recipes chicken but stock are the most often used types in the Philippine cooking.

Uses of Soups 68 To stimulate the appetite for the rest of the meal. To give nourishment to persons unable for any reason to take solids food. To be mainstay of the meal. To supply large amount of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.
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Qualities of a Good Soup Satisfying It has pleasing flavor appetizing aroma Consistency in helping with it shape Soup accompaniment For clean soup water, cheese with toasted bread. Cream soup- sealed crackers sweet pickles and celery. Meat soup- soup pickles, bread, and crackers Soup Garnishing Vegetable soup - lemon slices and avocado Clear soup- lemon slice, avocado slices, cooked vegetables and hard cooked eggs. Cream soup- pimiento Meat soup- beans and lemon slices




Wonton soup Ingredients 1/2 pound boneless pork loin, coarsely chopped 2 ounces peeled shrimp, finely chopped 1 teaspoon brown sugar 1 tablespoon Chinese rice wine 1 tablespoon light soy sauce 1 teaspoon finely chopped green onion 1 teaspoon chopped fresh ginger root 24 (3.5 inch square) wonton wrappers 3 cups chicken stock 1/8 cup finely chopped green onion

Preparations 1. In a large bowl, combine pork, shrimp, sugar, wine, soy sauce, 1 teaspoon chopped green onion and ginger. Blend well, and let stand for 25 to 30 minutes. 2. Place about one teaspoon of the filling at the center of each wonton skin. Moisten all 4 edges of wonton wrapper with water, then pull the top corner down to the bottom, folding the wrapper over the filling to make a triangle. Press edges firmly to make a seal. Bring left and right corners together above the filling. Overlap the tips of these corners, moisten with water and press together. Continue until all wrappers are used.



3. FOR SOUP: Bring the chicken stock to a rolling boil. Drop wontons in, and cook for 5 minutes. Garnish with chopped green onion, and serve. 70

Pumpkin Soup Ingredients 6 cups chicken stock 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 4 cups pumpkin puree 1 teaspoon chopped fresh parsley 1 cup chopped onion 1/2 teaspoon chopped fresh thyme 1 clove garlic, minced 1/2 cup heavy whipping cream 5 whole black peppercorns

Preparations 1. Heat stock, salt, pumpkin, onion, thyme, garlic, and peppercorns. Bring to a boil, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 30 minutes uncovered. 2. Puree the soup in small batches (1 cup at a time) using a food processor or blender.



3. Return to pan, and bring to a boil again. Reduce heat to low, and simmer for another 30 minutes, uncovered. Stir in heavy cream. Pour into soup bowls and garnish with fresh parsley.


Cheesy Broccoli Soup

Ingredients 2 cups water 1 teaspoon chicken bouillon granules 1 (16 ounce) package frozen chopped broccoli, thawed 1 medium onion, chopped 1/4 cup butter or margarine 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour 1 cup milk 1 pound process American cheese, cubed

Directions 1. In a large saucepan, bring water and bouillon to a boil. Add broccoli. Reduce heat; cover and simmer for 3-4 minutes or until crisp-tender. Drain, reserving 3/4 cup liquid. In another large
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saucepan, saut onion in butter until tender. Whisk in flour until blended. Add the milk and cheese. Cook over medium-low heat until cheese is melted, stirring frequently. Stir in broccoli and reserved cooking liquid

Salad- is a term used for a dish made up of salad plants or green alone or in combination with other food plus or dressing. is any of a wide variety of dishes including: vegetable salads; salads 71 of pasta, legumes, eggs, or grains; mixed salads incorporating meat, poultry, or seafood; and fruit salads. They may include a mixture of cold and hot, often including raw vegetables or fruits. Salad History Food historians say the Romans ate mixed greens and dressing, and the Babylonians were known to have dressed greens with oil and vinegar two thousand years ago. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelynattempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Royalty dabbled in salads: Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over salad covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles, chervil, and slices of hard-boiled eggs. The United States popularized salads in the late 19th century and other regions of the world adopted them throughout the second half of the 20th century. From Europe and the Americas to China, Japan, and Australia, salads are sold commercially in supermarkets for those who do not have time to compose a home-made salad, at restaurants (restaurants will often have a "Salad Bar" laid out with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad) and at fast-food chains specializing in health food. In the US market, fast-food chains such as McDonald's and KFC, that typically sold "junk food" such as hamburgers, fries, and fried chicken, now sell packaged salads to appeal to the health-conscious. Classification of Salad A. According to use: 1. Appetizer- is a light salad, a light tossed salad of green with French dressing.



2. As accessory to the main dish- a main dish is relatively light, would needed a hearty accompany salad while a heavy dinner is usually compliments with light salad. 3. As a main dish- salad used for these purpose are usually heavy and have safety value higher than other salad. 4. As dessert- fruit salad/fruits. Gelatins are usually a favorite dessert especially in parties, occasions or dinner. A. According to Ingredients: 1. Fruit Salad- may contain on or a combination of fruits plus a dressing may be made up of evaporated or condensed milk whips cream and collage cream. 2. Vegetable Salad- almost vegetable can be made into salads. The most common is potato salad which can be varied according to ones taste. Raw vegetables salad became popular. 3. High protein Salad- there is usually substantial salad that forms the basis for a meal. It is a combination of vegetables with protein foods such as shrimps, fish and meat. Characteristic of a good Salad 1. Thoroughly chilled drained ingredients 2. Appetizing and attractive appearance 3. A suitable dressing that contribute. Liquid salad- is simple combination of fruits, fresh vegetables simply dressed. Salad Presentation- good salad presentation is the key to the acceptance of most food whether they are served hot or cold however for salads eye appeal is doubly important because there is no accompanying appetizing aroma that will introduce the salad. The many colors and textures present in the vegetables used for salad presentation should be maximized. 72

Essential in salad presentation Height- gives a salad interest and importance



Color- is very important in enhances the appearance of the dish. Utility- refers to the relationship of the whole to the serving plate SALAD DRESSING is an emulsion in which one liquid is suspended in another the two being invisible with each other. Types of Salad Dressing 1. French Dressing- is popular on tossed green salad. This is separate liquid food or the emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from edible vegetable oil, specified acidifying agent and optional seasonings. 2. Mayonnaise- consist of salad or wintered vegetable oil, lemon juice, egg yolk or whole egg and seasoning such as salt, sugar and spices. It is emulsified semi-solid food. 3. Cooked salad dressing- cooked salad dressings the only difference is that cooked dressings make use of cooked starch paste to substitute part of the egg yolk.


Italian Bread Salad



Ingredients 1 (14 ounce) package pre-baked Italian bread shell crust, cubed 1 1/2 cups diced fresh tomatoes 1/2 cup thinly sliced fresh basil 1/2 cup Italian salad dressing, divided 7 cups ready-to-serve salad greens 1 small green pepper, julienned 1 cup sliced pepperoni sausage 1 cup shredded mozzarella cheese 1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese 1/2 cup sliced ripe olives

Preparations 1. In a large salad bowl, combine bread cubes, tomatoes, basil and 1/4 cup salad dressing; let stand for 5 minutes. Add the salad greens, green pepper, pepperoni, mozzarella cheese, Parmesan cheese and olives. Drizzle with remaining salad dressing; toss to coat. Serve with a slotted spoon.


Ham and Sweet Potato Salad



Ingredients 4 cups cubed peeled sweet potatoes scary 1 cup mayonnaise 1/3 cup orange juice 1 tablespoon honey 1 tablespoon grated orange peel 1/8 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1 1/2 cups julienned fully cooked ham 2 celery ribs, thinly sliced 1/4 cup chopped dried apricots 1 whole fresh pineapple 1 cup chopped pecans

Preparations 1. Place the sweet potatoes in a large saucepan and cover with water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cover and simmer for 20 minutes or until tender. Drain and cool. In a large bowl, combine the mayonnaise, orange juice, honey, orange peel, salt, ginger and nutmeg. Stir in the ham, celery, apricots and sweet potatoes. 2. Stand pineapple upright and cut in half vertically, leaving the top attached. Remove fruit, leaving a 1/2-in. shell. Cut fruit into chunks; stir 1 cup into the salad (save remaining fruit for another use). Cover and refrigerate salad and shells for at least 4 hours. Just before serving, stir pecans into salad. Spoon into pineapple shells




Fruit and bacon Salad Ingredients 2 red apples, cored and sliced 2 green apples, cored and sliced 2 (11 ounce) cans mandarin oranges, drained 1 cup seedless grapes 6 slices turkey bacon, cooked and crumbled 1 cup shredded carrot 1 (10 ounce) package mixed salad greens 1/2 cup honey Dijon salad dressing

Preparations 1. Place apples, oranges, grapes, and bacon, carrot, and salad greens in a large bowl. Toss well with dressing, adding more, or less to taste.



Dessert- is usually sweet course or dish, as of fruits, ice cream or pastry. 76 Serve at the end of the meal. History and origin of Desserts Sweet desserts have existed since the beginning of mankind. It is now enjoyed by people throughout the world in variety of flavors. In the past, only the affluent society folk could afford it while the ordinary people could only enjoy it on special occasions. Advancement of sugar production allowed its more extensive spread and at much more affordable prices to customers. People enjoyed desserts worldwide because of the increased supply of sugar. Desserts are thought to have originated from a custom to remove the aftertaste of a meal with a sweet taste as they leave the mouth with a sweet flavor. The name confection is derived from a French word 'desservir' which means to clear the table. Thousands of dessert varieties exist today. Ice cream, cakes and pies are some of the popular desserts that have been present around since ancient times. The origin of ice cream dates back around the 4th century BC, the Roman emperor Nero had ordered his followers to gather ice and add fruit toppings for his dessert. A Chinese king named Tang developed an early form of ice cream by combination of milk and ice. Ice cream was brought back by traders to Europe. Ice cream continued to evolve during history and recipes were soon developed for serving the French and Italian aristocracy. Ice cream was introduced in America in 1700s. Many states offered ice cream as a dessert. It was served to guests by distinguished figures like Thomas Jefferson, George. Washington and Dolly Madison. A caterer from London advertised in a New York paper in 1774 announcing his intentions to sell ice cream in his stores. The word 'cake' is derived from an old word 'kaka'. The first use of word 'cake' was documented by the Oxford English Dictionary in the 13th century. Cakes eaten in ancient times were very different than today. Early cakes resembled with bread and honey and flavored with dried fruit and nuts. Early Egyptians were the first who used advanced methods in baking. Medieval Europe baked gingerbreads and fruitcakes as desserts. Advancements in baking and availability of cooking ingredients helped in the development of cakes. Round cakes with icing resembling with today's cakes were introduced in the mid-17th century. Modern cakes with baking powder and white flour were used for the first time in the 19th century. Pies originated as dessert in Neolithic Period in 9500 BC. They were known as gazettes which
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contained honey and different grains; it was baked on hot coals. The origin of pastry was an addition of bakers fruit, honey and nuts for serving the pharaoh. Drawings relating to this practice are decorated on the tomb of King Ramses II. Changes often occurred in the making of pie because of different ingredients and conditions. Pie recipes were brought by Pilgrim women to America which was used by the Native Americans. A tradition of using round pans for pies were started was started by colonial women. Pies became a part of American culture in the 1700s as it was served as desert by pioneer women. Apple pie became a popular evening dessert for the American children. Kinds of Dessert a. Frozen dessert 1. Those that are stored during freezing process 2. Dessert from without stirring a. Miscellaneous dessert 1. Gelatin- bones of the inner layer of the skin of calves and bag yield a conservable amount of gelatin. 2. Meringues- is a delicious combination of beaten egg whites and sugar to which flavoring is usually added and its frequently baked it several special or in swallow pan and its for the basis for numerous dessert. 3. Rice- is often used as cereal or in place of starch is excellent as desserts. 4. Bread Pudding- is another example of simple and expensive dessert which may be varied in eminently by the used of fruits either canned or dried a preserve or butter sloths. 5. Beverages Dessert- any milk ice cream or fruits vegetables served meal. 6. Cheese and Fruits dessert- are stated above whether these foods are used alone together or with simple cookies or crackers they are highly popular as dessert food. 7. Dessert stored in the freezer- families who have some freezers desserts of fruits made of a time that they are for immediate use. 8. Tapioca- is a starchy food made from tuberous roots of the cassava plats. Essential of a good dessert 1. A dessert must be complete 2. It must fit a particular meal 3. It must appeal to the appetite by means of fruits
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4. It must be properly flavored and contains in the texture and temperature Qualities of a Good dessert 1. An appetizer attractiveness or aroma 2. A simple attractiveness 3. A carefully washed appearance 4. Slightly chilled temperature Uses 1. 2. 3. 4. of dessert Used or even after a meal Can be placed for a meal Diminish or eliminates bitterness Can be added in some parties birthday


Delight Strawberry Dessert Ingredients


3 egg whites 1 cup white sugar 3/4 teaspoon cream of tartar 1/2 cup saltine crackers, crushed 1/2 cup flaked coconut 1/2 cup chopped pecans 2 cups whipping cream

1/2 teaspoon unflavored gelatin 1/2 cup white sugar 4 cups sliced fresh strawberries

Preparations 1. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). 2. In a large bowl, beat egg whites until soft peaks form. Gradually add 1 cup sugar and cream of tartar, continuing to beat until whites form stiff peaks. Gently fold in cracker crumbs, coconut and pecans. Spread mixture onto the bottom and up the sides of a 9 inch pie pan. 3. Bake in preheated oven for 20 to 22 minutes, or until lightly browned. Cool completely. 4. In a large bowl, beat cream, gelatin and remaining sugar until stiff peaks form. Fold in strawberries, and then pour over egg white layer. Cover and refrigerate for 2 hours.


Gelatin Dessert Square Ingredients


1 cup all-purpose flour 1/2 cup finely chopped pecans 1/4 cup packed brown sugar 1/2 cup butter, melted 2 (8 ounce) packages cream cheese, softened

3/4 cup sugar 1 (8 ounce) carton frozen whipped topping, thawed 2 (3 ounce) packages raspberry gelatin 2 cups boiling water 2 cups cold water

Preparations 1. In a bowl, combine the flour, pecans and brown sugar; stir in butter. Press into an ungreased 13-in. x 9-in. x 2-in. baking dish. Bake at 350 degrees F for 10-13 minutes or until lightly browned. Cool on a wire rack. 2. In a large mixing bowl, beat cream cheese and sugar until smooth; fold in whipped topping. Spread over crust. Cover and refrigerate for 1 hour. 3. In a bowl, dissolve gelatin in boiling water; stir in cold water. Spoon over cream cheese layer. Refrigerate until firm. Cut into squares.


Apple Tapioca Ingredients


4 medium tart apples, peeled and sliced 2 cups water


1 cup packed brown sugar 1/2 cup quick-cooking tapioca 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg

Preparations 1. Arrange the apples in a 2-qt. baking dish coated with nonstick spray. In a saucepan, combine the water, brown sugar, tapioca, lemon juice, salt and nutmeg. Let stand for 5 minutes. Bring to a boil over medium heat, stirring constantly. Pour over the apples. Cover and bake at 350 degrees F for 30-35 minutes or until apples are tender. Serve warm.


Tiramisu Ingredients
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2 cups mascarpone cheese 3 cups heavy whipping cream 1/4 cup confectioners' sugar 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract 3 tablespoons coffee-flavored liqueur 1 teaspoon instant coffee granules 1 (10 inch) angel food cake 1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder

Preparations 1. In a large bowl, combine mascarpone cheese, cream, sugar, vanilla, coffee liqueur, and instant coffee. Whip until stiff. 2. Split sponge cake in half, creating a top and bottom layer. Spread cream mixture on bottom layer, and replace top half of cake. Refrigerate for 1 hour. Just before serving, dust top of cake with cocoa powder


Melon Smoothies Ingredients


1/4 cantaloupe - peeled, seeded and cubed 1/4 honeydew melon - peeled, seeded and cubed 1 lime, juiced 2 tablespoons sugar

Preparations 1. In a blender, combine cantaloupe, honeydew, lime juice and sugar. Blend until smooth. Pour into glasses and serve. Haileys Smoothies Ingredients 3 kiwis, peeled and chopped 2 frozen bananas, peeled and chopped 1 cup blueberries 1 cup plain yogurt 1 1/2 cups crushed ice 3 tablespoons honey 1/4 teaspoon almond extract

Preparations 1. In a blender, combine the kiwis, frozen bananas, blueberries, yogurt, crushed ice, honey and almond extract. Blend until smooth.

Beverages applies to any drink which can return thirst nourish. The body is stimulated the appetite and increase the amount of body 83 plucks. Beverages are similar for their stimulating quality their flavor their temperature effects and their mixture values water and various form of beverages play on important part in any meat but without them the meal would ended be very dry. Alcoholic beverages history In the early 19th century, Americans had inherited a hearty drinking tradition. Many different types of alcoholic beverages were consumed. One reason for this heavy drinking was an overabundance of corn on the western frontier. This overabundance encouraged the widespread production of cheap whiskey. It was at this time that alcoholic beverages became an important part of the American diet. In the 1820s, Americans drank seven gallons of alcohol per capita annually. During the 19th century, Americans drank an abundance of alcohol and drank it in two distinctive ways.



One way was to drink small amounts daily and regularly, usually at home or alone. The other way consisted of communal binges. Groups of people would gather in a public place for elections, court sessions, militia musters, holiday celebrations, or neighborly festivities. Participants would typically drink until they became intoxicated. Types of Beverages 1. Non-alcoholic Beverages 2. Alcoholic Beverages Non-alcoholic Beverages 1. Water- although all foods contained water and can be a source of water when ingested consumption of 6-8 gloves of fluid daily in recommended. Water nowadays are commercially cold in different forms 2. Bottled water- is water that is placed is a sealed container or package and is offered for sale for human consumption as drinking water. 3. Spring Water- is portable water form a source we either do not meet the requirement for mineral water or for which no application for recognition has been made. 4. Milk- is the whole fresh and clean lacteal secretion of mammary gland. -It is quell in the marked in various form. -condensed milk or sweetened milk, evaporated milk which 40% by weight of sugar has been added. - Evaporated Full Cream Milk- whole milk from which 50% of its water is removed. Its contained more less than 9% outer fat. 84 - Pasteurized Milk- milk which has been healing to 63% (161 degree) for not is than 1-5 minutes is an appropriate pasteurized set up. -Fruit Juices and nectars whether for processing or taken fresh must come from fresh fruits? Among the best common fruits utilized as juice drinks are mangoes, pineapple, kalamansi, Guyabano, orange, papaya, tamarind, and various others.

5. Coffee- the beverage comes from the oval beans of coffee aroma. Coffee is sold in the market in the following form: Decaffeinated- this is pure coffee from which 97% of the caffeine are removed by treating with ethylene dichloride.



Espresso- this is made by passing pulpy pureed coffee on a filler especially designed as espresso coffee pots. Instant or soluble- this is coffee powder remaining after the water has been remarked from the coffee beam. 1. Tea- the drink comes from the young leaves of the plants THEA SINENSIS the best tea is made from young shoots and unopened leaf buds. Depending on the method of manufacture tea is available in following forms. 1. Black- leaves are fermented to bring old the pierce mellow, flavor and to produce fragrant tea of reddish color. 2. Green- leaves are steamed to destroy enzymes and prevent fermentation. This produces a pale gold, clear sparling tea. 3. Oolong- slightly fermented leaves which produce a light amour tea. 1. Chocolate and Cocoa- the cacao tree called cacanwaquchi from chocolate derived is a trio 4 to 10 meters tall a active of the Vucalan and Gerllim. 2. Synthetic Drinks- may either be carbonated or non-carbonated. a. Carbonated- usually comes in bottles and aluminum cans. b. Non-carbonated- drink are usually fruit flavored drinks which come as powdered. ALCOHOL BEVERAGES a. Malt Liquor- produced by fermented of cereal like baring malt is from a mixture of malt and rye. Beer- is a light colored brown that is fermented from cereals and malt. Ale- is a beverages made with top feast instead of bottom yeast an employed for beer. Porter/Stout- is very full bodied, dark sweet rich brew made from fermenting partially charred malt. a. Wine- is produced from grapes Classification of Wine 85 Dry wine- wine containing a very small amount of sugar. This is usually served during a meal because it is returning neither sweet nor heavy. Sweet wine- wine with describe amount of unfermented sugar.



Sparkling wine- wine that when boiled is opened, releasing bubbles or carbon dioxide. Coolers- blend of wine with fruit juices or soda water.

a. Distilled Liquors- these are distillates from fruit or wine or from grains or starch solutions or form mixture of fruits and grains of from aromatic substances. Brandy- spirit distilled from the fermented juice of grapes or apples. This is usually contains 30-50 percent. Cognac- brandy distilled from wine. Gin- colorless beverages containing 40-50% alcohol content. Rum- distillate from sugar cane juice syrupy or molasses. Vodka- Russian liquor distilled from fermented wheat rye or potatoes. Whiskey- distilled product from grain mash and fermented by special distilled yeast. a. The Philippine Alcohol Beverages Basi- fermented drink from sugarcane. This is very popular among the Ilocanos. Tuba- sweet fermented coconut top which is milky is in appearance obtained by topping the younger flowering spate of the coconut palm. Lambanog- drink distilled from tuba. This is a product of coconut. Its alcohol content is higher than that of tuba.

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Iced Coffee Ingredients 1/2 cup warm water 2 teaspoons instant coffee granules 1 tray ice cubes 1/2 (5 ounce) can sweetened condensed milk, divided 1/2 cup milk 1 tablespoon chocolate syrup

Preparations In a small bowl, stir together the water and instant coffee. In a blender, combine ice cubes, coffee mixture, milk, sweetened condensed milk and chocolate syrup. Blend until smooth. Pour into glasses and serve. Nutty Mocha Latte Ingredients 1 cup Silk Pure Almond Vanilla 2 shots espresso* 1 tablespoon chocolate syrup 1 drop almond extract

Preparations 1. In a small saucepan heat Pure Almond to a simmer. Add coffee and syrup and heat for 1-2 minutes until hot. Remove from heat, stir in extract and pour into your favorite mug. Enjoy.




Ginger Iced Tea Ingredients 1 cup iced tea mix with lemon and sugar 4 cups water 2 liters ginger ale, chilled ice cubes

Prepations 1. In a pitcher, combine the iced tea mix and water; refrigerate until chilled. Just before serving, add ginger ale. Serve over ice. Autumn Tea Ingredients 5 tea bags 5 cups boiling water 5 cups unsweetened apple juice 2 cups cranberry juice 1/2 cup sugar 1/3 cup lemon juice 1/4 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice

Preparations 1. Place the tea bags in a large heat-proof bowl; add boiling water. Cover and steep for 8 minutes. Discard tea bags. Add the remaining ingredients to tea; stir until sugar is dissolve. Serve warm or over ice.




Beer Margaritas Ingredients 1 (12 fluid ounce) can Froze limeade concentrate 12 fluid ounces tequila 12 fluid ounces water 12 fluid ounces beer ice 1 lime, cut into wedges

Directions 1. Pour limeade, tequila, water, and beer into a large pitcher. Stir until well-blended and limeade has melted. Add plenty of ice, and garnish with lime wedges. Adjust with additional water, if needed.

Homemade Root Beer Ingredients 6 cups white sugar 3 1/3 gallons cold water 1 (2 ounce) bottle Root beer extract 4 pounds dry ice Directions 1. In a large cooler, mix together the sugar and water, stirring to dissolve sugar completely. Stir in the root beer extract. Carefully place the dry ice into the cooler, and cover loosely with the lid. Do not secure the lid, as pressure may build up. 2. Let the mixture brew for about an hour before serving. Leftover root beer can be stored in one gallon milk jugs.




Winter Wine Sangrias Ingredients 1 (750 milliliter) bottle dry white wine 1/4 cup brandy 1/4 cup white sugar ice 4 slices lime 4 slices lemon 4 slices green apples 1 bunch green grapes 1 cup club soda

Directions 1. Combine white wine, brandy, and sugar in a large pitcher, and then stir in ice. Continue stirring until the sugar is dissolved, then add the lime, lemon, apples, and grapes. Stir in the club soda.




Fish and Shellfish

Fish- is a perishable food product that lives in water. Classification of Fish 1. Vertebrate or Scaly Fish- they are cold blooded aquatic animals furnished with permanent gills. a. Fish- is made of bundies of fibers b. Little connective tissues c. Flesh can easily be pulled apart. 1. Invertebrates or Shellfish a. Mollusks- soft segmented bodies without segmented appendages and protected by cellulose. b. Crustaceans- segmented bodies covered with crush like shells and segmented and appendage. Point to known in buying Fish Eyes- bright, clear and bulging Gills- bright red Flesh- firm and elastic and springing back when pressed. Odor- though fish has pronounced odor the odor of fresh fish is very different from that of decayed fish. 5. Scales- bright colored with characteristic scene. 1. 2. 3. 4. Market Form of Fish1. Whole or round fish- are those marketed as they come from the water. 2. Drawn fish- are marketed with only the enrolled removed. 3. Steaks- are crossed section slices of the layers sized of dressed fish. They are ready. 4. Dressed Fish- are scaled and eviscerated usually with the head tail and fins removed.



5. Single fillet- the side of the fish are cut length curse away from the backbones. 6. Butterfly Fillet- is two sides of the fish corresponding to two single fillets held together by uncut flesh and the skin. 7. Sticks- are pieces of fish cut lengthwise or crosswise from fillet. 91

Shellfish- is a culinary and fisheries term for those aquatic invertebrates animals that are uses as food. Market Forms of Shellfish Shellfish- are sold as they came from the sea and must be kept alive until they die cooked. Shellfish sold in this form have been removed from the shell while alive and packed in a dear liquid. Headless- the head of the shellfish has been removed Pealed and clean- shrimp is commonly sad in this fashion. It is headless with the intestinal back removed.



Cooked in the shell- the market cooks the shellfish and sell it them whole of the meat maybe picked form the shell and is package chilled or frozen. Frozen- shellfish are frozen in almost every room raw cooked the shell and out of the shell. Canned- whole shellfish lumps of meat minced meat and smoked meat are canned.

Types of Shellfish Clams Atlantic surf clam Bar clam Black clam Canal clam Hard shell clam Surf clam Scallops bat scallops Sea scallops Crab Conch Crayfish Cuttlefish Green messier Prawn Dublin bay prawn Lobster Oyster Quahog Shrimp Sea slug Squid Shrimp 92






Baked Salmon with Herbs Ingredients 2 1/2 cups soft bread crumbs 4 garlic cloves, minced 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese 2 teaspoons dried parsley flakes 1 teaspoon dried thyme 1 teaspoon dried rosemary, crushed 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons butter, melted 1 (3 pound) salmon fillet

Preparations 1. Line a 15-in. x 10-in. x 1-in. baking pan with foil; coat foil with nonstick cooking spray. Set aside. In a bowl, combine the bread crumbs, garlic, Parmesan cheese, parsley, thyme, rosemary, salt and pepper. Add butter; toss to coat evenly. 2. Place salmon on prepared pan. Spray with nonstick cooking spray and pat with bread crumb mixture. Bake, uncovered, at 350 degrees F for 35-40 minutes or until fish flakes easily with a fork.




Shrimp Jambalaya Ingredients 1 pound boneless, skinless chicken thighs, cut into 2-inch pieces 2 stalks celery, thinly sliced 1 medium green bell pepper, cut into 1 inch pieces 1 medium onion, chopped 2 cloves garlic, minced 1 (28 ounce) can crushed tomatoes, with liquid 1 tablespoon white sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon dried Italian seasoning 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper 1 bay leaf 1 cup uncooked orzo pasta 1 pound cooked shrimp, peeled and deveined

Preparations 1. In a slow cooker, mix chicken, celery, green bell pepper, onion, garlic, tomatoes with liquid, sugar, salt, Italian seasoning, cayenne pepper, and bay leaf. Cover, and cook on Low 7 to 9 hours. 2. Remove bay leaf from the chicken mixture, and stir in orzo. Increase heat to High. Cook 15 minutes, until orzo is tender.



3. Stir in shrimp, and cook 2 minutes, until shrimp are heated through.


Crab and Swiss Melts Ingredients 1 (8 ounce) package cream cheese, softened 1 cup cooked crabmeat 1 clove garlic, chopped salt and pepper to taste hot pepper sauce to taste 4 thick slices Italian bread, cut in half 1 1/2 cups shredded Swiss cheese 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley for garnish

Preparations 1. Preheat the oven to 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). 2. Beat the cream cheese in a medium bowl until fluffy. Mix in crab, garlic, salt, pepper and hot sauce. Spread onto bread slices and top with Swiss cheese. Place on a baking sheet.



3. Bake for 10 to 15 minutes in the preheated oven, until the cheese has melted and browned slightly. Sprinkle with parsley, and serve.


Muscle Provencal Ingredients


1 (12 ounce) package fettuccini pasta 1 tablespoon olive oil 1 onion, chopped 2 cloves garlic, minced 1 (16 ounce) can diced tomatoes 1 teaspoon tomato paste 5 fresh mushrooms, chopped 1 teaspoon dried basil 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano 1 teaspoon dried tarragon 36 raw green-lipped mussels 1/2 cup olives (optional)

2 fresh tomatoes, chopped

Preparations 1. Bring a large pot of water to boiling. Cook pasta in boiling water until al dente, about 8 to 10 minutes. Drain. 2. Meanwhile, heat olive oil in a large saucepan over medium heat. Cook onion and garlic in oil until soft. Stir in diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and mushrooms, and add the mussels. Season with basil, oregano, and tarragon. Cover, and simmer for 10 minutes. 3. Stir in olives and fresh tomatoes. Cover, and simmer 5 minutes. 4. Serve mussels and sauce over pasta.


Lobster Seamed In Beer Ingredients 2 whole lobster tail 1/2 (12 fluid ounce) can beer

Preparations 1. In a medium saucepan, over medium to high heat, bring the beer to a boil. 2. If lobster tails are still in the shell, split the shell lengthwise first.



3. Place a steamer basket on top of the saucepan. Place thawed lobster tails in basket and cover. Reduce heat and simmer for 8 minutes.


Authentic Paella Valenciana Ingredients


1 tablespoon olive oil 1/2 (4 pound) whole chicken, cut into 6 pieces 1/2 (2 pound) rabbit, cleaned and cut into pieces 1 head garlic, cloves separated and peeled 1 tomato, finely chopped 1 (15.5 ounce) can butter beans 1/2 (10 ounce) package frozen green peas 1/2 (10 ounce) package frozen green beans salt to taste

1 teaspoon mild paprika, or to taste 1 pinch saffron threads dried thyme to taste (optional) dried rosemary to taste (optional) 4 cups uncooked white rice, or as needed

Directions 1. Heat a paella pan over medium-high heat, and coat with olive oil. Add the chicken, rabbit and garlic; cook and stir until nicely browned. Move the browned meat to the sides of the pan, and add the tomato, butter beans, peas, and green beans. Season with paprika, and mix well. 2. Fill the paella pan almost to the top with water, measuring the water as you put it in. This is to help you to determine how much rice to add, as paella pans come in different sizes. Bring to a boil. Simmer for about 1 hour to make a nice broth. 3. Season with a generous amount of salt, and just enough saffron to make a nice yellow color. Season with thyme and rosemary if desired. The goal is to make a rich tasting broth that will soak into the rice to make it delicious. Stir in half as much rice as the amount of water in the pan. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer until all of the liquid has been absorbed, about 20 minutes.



Sauce is liquid or sometimes semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods. Sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. Sauce is a French word taken from the Latin salsus, meaning salted. Sauces need a liquid component, but some sauces (for example, pico de gallo salsa or chutney) may contain more solid elements than liquid. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be ready made sauces, usually bought, such as soy sauce, or freshly prepared by the cook; such as Bchamel sauce, which is generally made just before serving. Sauces for salads are called salad dressing. Sauces made by deglazing a pan are called pan sauces. The History of Sauces



As in history, some say the Geeks was the being of civilization. They add an obsession with their regions and philosophical meanings for their foods. Some of the earliest writing was written by the Geeks on food and how it should be used in ever day life. But little of it survived when war broke out in Egypt and the Alexandrian Library which housed the largest array of ancient text known was burn and half of it destroyed. The only fragments believe to have survived are called the "Art of Cooking" the author is unknown. It said "that sauces used oil and cheese and cultivated olives". The Romans the builders of an Empire the when from Asia Minor to present day England were rich on customs and food. The Roman believed in food was so strong that it is said that an Emperor debate on the floor of the Roman Senate over what sauce he should serve with his banquet. In Roman society spices were just as important and precious as gold and silver. Salt was the main way of persevering meat and fish. The old throwing salt of your shoulder come's form this time; it was meant to say if you can afford to spill it, you can just throw it over your shoulder like nothing. A Roman citizen named Apicus was to have written a cooking book "Book of Apicius". But most say that the author was unknown or that it was written century later. But we do know that he help set up schools for cooking and culinary ideas. Back in though day a cook was probably a slave and if the meal when will he was a hero, if not he would be beaten. After the decline of the Roman Empire this work was preserved by religious orders that would hand write the manuscript. When the printing press was invented it was printed in volume. And it is still in print in modern times. The Roman used there sauces "Liquanum" was a term for a fish stock, that was used throughout the empire. "Garum" was made by mixing fish entrails, honey, wine and olive oil. "Cumin" Kinds of Sauces a. White sauces b. Brown sauces c. Bchamel family 100 d. Emulsified sauces e. Butter sauces f. Sweet sauces g. Vegetable sauces h. Fruit sauces i. Sauces made of chopped fresh ingredients j. Hot sauces(Chile pepper-tinged sauces)
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k. East Asian sauces (prepared sauces and cooked sauces) l. Southeast Asian Sauces Cuisines of sauces French Cuisines A. grandes sauce

Bchamel, based on milk, thickened with a white roux. Espagnole, based on brown stock (usually veal), thickened with

a brown roux.

Velout, based on a white stock, thickened with a blonde roux. Allemande, based on velout sauce, is thickened with egg yolks

and heavy cream. A. Mother sauce

Sauce Bchamel, Milk based sauce, thickened with a white roux.

Sauce Velout, White stock based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison.

Sauce Tomate, Tomato based sauce, thickened with a roux. Sauce Espagnole, Roasted veal stock based sauce, thickened with a brown roux.

Sauce Hollandaise, Egg yolk and butter based sauce, thickened with Emulsion.

British Cuisines




Gravy-is a sauce made often from the juices that run naturally from meat or vegetables during cooking. Canned gravies are also available. Bread sauce is a warm or cold sauce thickened with bread. It is a savoury sauce served with a main meal. Applesauce is a pure made of apples. It can be made with peeled or unpeeled apples and a variety of spices (commonly cinnamon and allspice). Fruit flavorings or sweeteners such as sugar, high fructose corn syrup, or sucralose are also commonly added. Apple sauce is a cheap and readily available food. Mint sauce is a sauce made from finely chopped mint leaves, soaked in vinegar, and a small amount of sugar. Horseradish sauce is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae family, which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbages. Salad cream is a creamy, yellow condiment based on an emulsion of about 25-50 percent of oil in water, emulsified by egg yolk and acidified by spirit vinegar, and with other ingredients which may include sugar, mustard, salt, thickener, spices, flavouring and colouring. Ketchup or Catsup (American English and Canadian English) or tomato sauce (Commonwealth English) is a sweet-and-sour condiment typically made from tomatoes, vinegar, sugar or high-fructose corn syrup, and an assortment of vegetable seasonings and spices such as onions, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, and celery Mustard- is the whole, ground, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, vinegar or other liquids, and sometimes other flavorings and spices,


to create a thick paste ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown. Worcestershire sauce-is a fermented liquid condiment, primarily used to flavour meat and fish dishes. Custard sauce- is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk.

Italian Cuisine

Tomato sauce is any of a very large number of sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish (rather than as a condiment). Tomato sauces are common 102 for meat and vegetables, but they are perhaps best known as sauces for pasta dishes.

Neapolitan Sauce-contain garlic and onions. Basil, bay leaf, thyme, oregano, peppercorns, cloves, and mushrooms may be included depending on taste preferences.

Alla matriciana-is a traditional Italian pasta sauce based on guanciale (dried pork cheek), pecorino cheese and tomato. Arrabbiata is a Roman sauce of garlic, tomatoes, and red chili cooked in olive oil. Basil is sometimes used, although the majority of chefs in Italy do not use basil for this recipe.

Pesto - is a green sauce based on basil, traditional in Genoa. Many of them are based on olive oil and garlic. Bolognese sauce -is a meat-based sauce for pasta originating in Bologna, Italy. Bolognese sauce is sometimes taken to be a tomato sauce, but authentic recipes have only a small amount of tomato concentrate.



Alfredo-cheese melts, it emulsifies the liquids to form a smooth and rich. It may mix with other ingredients such as broccoli, parsley, cream, garlic, shrimp, or chicken.

Salsa- it usually refers to the spicy, often tomato based, hot sauces used as dips. A. Salsa roja(red sauce)-usually made with cooked tomatoes, chili

peppers, onion, garlic, and fresh cilantro.

B. Salsa cruda (raw sauce)-made with raw tomatoes, lime juice,

chilli peppers, onions, cilantro leaves, and other coarsely chopped raw ingredients.
C. Salsa Verde (green sauce)-Italian version made with herbs. D. Salsa Negra (black sauce)-a Mexican sauce made from dried

chilis, oil, and garlic.

E. Salsa taquera, "Taco sauce": Made with tomatillos and morita

chili. chilies, and spices. Typically served warm, it possesses a


F. Salsa ranchera, "ranch-style sauce": made with tomatoes, various

thick, soupy quality. Though it contains none, it imparts a characteristic flavor reminiscent of black pepper.
G. Salsa brava, "wild sauce": a mildly spicy sauce, often flavored

with paprika. On top of potato wedges, it makes the dish patatas bravas, typical of tapas bars in Spain.
H. Guacamole: thicker than a sauce and generally used as a dip, it

refers to any sauce where the main ingredient is avocado.


Mole-a Mexican sauce made from chili peppers mixed with spices, unsweetened chocolate, almonds, and other ingredients. Mango Salsa-a spicy-sweet sauce made from mangoes and used as a topping for nachos.




K. Chipotle Salsa-a smoky, spicy sauce made from smoked jalapeo

chili peppers, tomatoes, garlic and spices.

L. Carrot Salsa-a salsa with carrots as the base.

Mayonnaise Ingredients: 2 eggs yolk tsp. salt tsp. white pepper tsp. white pepper tsp. dry mustard Wine or tarragon vinegar (about 3 tablespoon) 1 cups olive oil Procedure: 1. Beat egg yolks until thick and lemon colored. Beat in salt, pepper, dry mustard, and half of the vinegar. 2. Beating constantly trickles in 1/3 cup olive oil, add teaspoon vinegar, and tickle in remaining olive oil. Check for consistency. 3. If the mayonnaise is too thick, add vinegar dip by drop and mix by hand until the appropriate consistency is achieved. 104



Mayo Mustard Ingredients cup sour cream cup mayonnaise 2 tbsp. prepared mustard tsp. salt tsp. sugar Procedure 1. Mix all ingredients well. 2. Serve with cold pork, ham or hard-cooked eggs.

Vinaigrette Ingredients Directions 1. In a bowl, whisk together the olive oil, apple cider vinegar, honey, basil, and garlic. Pour over or toss with your favorite salad to serve. 1 cup olive oil 1/3 cup apple cider vinegar 1/4 cup honey 3 tablespoons chopped fresh basil 2 cloves garlic, minced 105

Pesto sauce Ingredients

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2/3 cup packed, coarsely Chopped fresh basil 1/3 cup grated Parmesan cheese 1/3 cup olive oil 2 tablespoons pine nuts or Sunflower kernels 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1 clove garlic, peeled

Directions 1. In a food processor or blender, combine all the ingredients; cover and process until blended. Cover and freeze for up to 3 months. Popular barbecue sauce Ingredients 1 1/2 cups brown sugar 1 1/2 cups ketchup 1/2 cup red wine vinegar 1/2 cup water 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 2 1/2 tablespoons dry mustard 2 teaspoons paprika 2 teaspoons salt 1 1/2 teaspoons black pepper 2 dashes hot pepper sauce 106

Preparations 1. In a blender, combine brown sugar, ketchup, vinegar, water and Worcestershire sauce. Season with mustard, paprika, salt, pepper, and hot pepper sauce. Blend until smooth. Brown Gravy Ingredients 1 teaspoon yeast extract spread, e.g. Marmite/Vegemite

1 teaspoon onion powder 1 teaspoon salt


1 1/2 cups hot water 4 tablespoons butter 1/2 cup cold water 2 tablespoons cornstarch

Directions 1. Melt butter in a saucepan over medium heat. Stir in yeast extract spread, onion powder, and salt until smooth. Gradually whisk in 1 1/2 cups water so no lumps form. Bring to a boil. In a small cup, stir together 1/2 cup cold water and cornstarch. Stir the cornstarch mixture into the saucepan, and continue boiling until thickened. Cool slightly before serving.


Salsa sauce Ingredients 4 large tomatoes, chopped 1 onion, chopped 1/2 cup chopped fresh cilantro 3 cloves garlic, minced 1 tablespoon lime juice 1 tomatillo, diced (optional) salt to taste 1 jalapeno pepper, minced

Preparations 1. In a medium-size mixing bowl, combine tomatoes, onion, cilantro, garlic, lime juice, tomatillo, and salt to taste. Mix well.
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Add 1/2 of the jalapeno pepper, and taste. If you desire your salsa with more of a kick, add the remaining 1/2 jalapeno. If you are satisfied with the salsa's heat, do not add the remaining jalapeno pepper. Cover the salsa, and chill until ready to serve

White Cheese sauce Ingredients 1 cup butter 3 cups cheese 1 cup sour cream 2 (4 ounce) cans diced green chilies, drained 108

Directions 1. Melt butter in a saucepan over medium heat. Reduce heat to medium-low, and stir in shredded cheese until melted. Mix in sour cream and green chilies, and cook, stirring occasionally just until heated through. Do not allow to boil. Hot sauce Ingredients

2 jalapeno peppers 1 (28 ounce) can whole tomatoes in juice 1 slice white onion 1 teaspoon minced garlic 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin 1/4 teaspoon dried oregano 1/4 teaspoon salt

Directions 1. Remove the stems from the jalapeno peppers, and the seeds from one jalapeno. Place both jalapeno peppers, tomatoes with liquid, onion, garlic, cumin, oregano, and salt in a blender; pulse to desired consistency. Serve.

Food preservation
Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down spoilage (loss of quality, edibility 109 or nutritional value). Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation also includes processes which inhibit natural discoloration that can occur during food preparation, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut. Different History of Food Preservation Method Preserving food is a normal household thing. Almost everyone has a refrigerator in the house to store food and to save it from getting spoiled. The need to preserve food is not new, and it has been there since humans existed. But earlier, the need was less as people never stored food with them, as much as we do today. They used to hunt for the food in the required amount. But slowly, as humans started living in groups and started becoming agrarian, they felt the need of storing and preserving food grains. With the advent of developing society, new food items and recipes found their place on daily platters. And the food preservation history dates back to this era of ancient civilization. But, the drastic changes and advancement in food preservation started taking place from 18th century. The progress of science in 18th and 19th century heavily influenced the food preservation methods and processes. This article talks about the history of food preservation methods and preservatives that made a permanent mark in the food preservation industry. History of Food Preservation by Canning During the 18th century, drying, curing, sugaring, pickling, etc., were
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some of the most common methods of preserving food, but when the population and food quantity started increasing, people needed something more than natural food preservatives. And this is the time, a not so trained scientist known as Nicolas Appear came up with a new method. He designed a new process to preserve food, which involved cooking the food and then sealing them inside sterile bottles or cans. This process is today known as canning. This process was introduced to America by William Underwood after the civil war was over. Later, in 1858, John L. Mason designed a canning jar with a rubber gasket and metal cap, which were produced on a mass scale. History of Food Preservation by Pasteurization The problem of excluding air out of the container was later solved by Louise Pasteur. He studies that particles in the air can also contaminate or spoil the food. After few years of studies and 110 experiments he designed a swan neck flask to exclude air from the preservation containers. Using his unique design, he boiled yeast soups in airless flasks and observed no contaminants. Later on he conducted many experiments with various food products, especially liquids, such as, milk, beer, wine, etc. He discovered that heating foods on high temperature kills microbes and unwanted flavors. This process is today known as pasteurization. This discovery set the road for further research in microbial processes. History of Food Preservation by freezing the process of freezing was discovered by Clarence Birdseye at his home in Canada. He stored some foods in ice and realized that they were fresh and no change in the flavor or quality occurred. Then soon he designed a method for freezing foods. He soaked metal plates in calcium chloride brine and made them cold. The food was stored between these cool plates. It was considered as one of the healthy ways to preserve food. In 1930, the first Birdseye freezer was launched in Massachusetts. He designed various freezers for domestic as well as commercial utilization. One of the interesting facts about food preservation history is that all the methods have evolved and evaluated with time for food safety and safer food consumption. Based on the old principles, a lot of new preservation and food packaging methods have been designed, such as, vacuum packing, jellying, pulsed electric field processing, and high pressure food preservation. Food preservation methods changed the way people ate and lived. It brought the whole new branch of foods in the food industry and the society at large.
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Preservation processes include: Heating to kill or denature micro-organisms (e.g. boiling) Oxidation (e.g. use of sulfur dioxide) Toxic inhibition (e.g. smoking, use of carbon dioxide, vinegar, alcohol etc.) Dehydration (drying) Osmotic inhibition (e.g. use of syrups) Low temperature inactivation (e.g. freezing) Ultra high water pressure (e.g. fresher zed, a kind of cold pasteurization, the pressure kills naturally occurring pathogens, which cause food deterioration and affect food safety.) Combinations of these methods Six general methods of food preservation generally used industrially and at home may be classified in terms of the major controlling treatment 1) Use of high temperatures To destroy both microorganisms and enzymes 111 Examples include pasteurization of milk and fruit juices and canning 2) Use of low temperatures To control growth of microorganisms Examples include root storage of fresh vegetables, refrigeration, and freezing 3) sugar Removal or tying up of moisture To control microbial growth Examples include drying, freeze drying, adding large amounts of as in jelly making

4) Addition of chemical preservatives To inhibit microbial growth Examples include development of acid in fermenting pickles, addition of antioxidants to lard and other fats, addition of propionates to bread as anti-molding agents 5) 6)

Keeping microorganisms out Keeping microorganisms out Examples include sterilized foods and packaging foods Use of ionizing radiations

To destroy microorganisms and control enzyme activity Examples include the experimental use of pasteurizing radiation dosages for fresh strawberries and radiation of fresh potatoes to inhibit sprouting. Methods of food preservation generally used industrially and at home may be classified in terms of the major controlling treatment Food preservation - Methods Drying One of the oldest methods of food preservation is by drying, which reduces water activity sufficiently to prevent or delay bacterial growth. Freezing is also one of the most commonly used processes commercially and domestically for preserving a very wide range of food including prepared food stuffs which would not have required freezing in their unprepared state Vacuum Packing -stores food in a vacuum environment, usually in an air-tight bag or bottle. The vacuum environment strips bacteria of oxygen needed for survival, slowing spoiling. Vacuum-packing is commonly used for storing nuts to reduce loss of flavor from oxidation. 112 Salt or Curing-refers to various food preservation and flavoring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, sugar, nitrates or nitrite. Many curing processes also involve smoking. Draws moisture from the meat through a process of osmosis. Meat is cured with salt or sugar, or a combination of the two. Nitrates and nitrites are also often used to cure meat and contribute the characteristic pink color, as well as inhibition of Clostridium. Sugar - Sugar is used to preserve fruits, either in syrup with fruit such as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums or in crystallized form where the preserved material is cooked in sugar to the point of crystallization and the resultant product is then stored dry. This method is used for the skins of citrus fruit (candied peel), angelica and ginger. A modification of this process produces glac fruit such as glac cherries where the fruit is preserved in sugar but is then extracted from the syrup and sold, the preservation being maintained by the sugar content of the fruit and the superficial coating of syrup. The use of sugar is often combined with alcohol for preservation of luxury products such as
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fruit in brandy or other spirits. These should not be confused with fruit flavored spirits such as cherry brandy or Sloe gin. Pickling- is a method of preserving food in an edible antimicrobial liquid. Pickling can be broadly categorized as chemical pickling for example, in chemical pickling, the food is placed in an edible liquid that inhibits or kills bacteria and other microorganisms. Typical pickling agents include brine (high in salt), vinegar, alcohol, and vegetable oil, especially olive oil but also many other oils. Many chemical pickling processes also involve heating or boiling so that the food being preserved becomes saturated with the pickling agent. Common chemically pickled foods include cucumbers, peppers, corned beef, herring, and eggs, as well mixed vegetables such as piccalilli. In fermentation pickling, the food itself produces the preservation agent, typically by a process that produces lactic acid. Fermented pickles include sauerkraut, nukazuke, kimchi, surstrmming, and curtido. Some pickled cucumbers are also fermented. In commercial pickles, a preservative like sodium benzoate or EDTA may also be added to enhance shelf life. Canning and Bottling-involves cooking food, sealing it in sterile cans or jars, and boiling the containers to kill or weaken any remaining bacteria as a form of sterilization. It was invented by Nicolas Appert [2]. Foods have varying degrees of natural protection against spoilage and may require that the final step occur in a pressure cooker. High-acid fruits like strawberries require no preservatives to can and only a short boiling cycle, whereas marginal fruits such as tomatoes require longer boiling and addition of other acidic elements. Low acid foods, such as vegetables and meats require pressure canning. Food preserved by canning or bottling is at immediate risk of spoilage once the can or bottle has 113 been opened. Lack of quality control in the canning process may allow ingress of water or micro-organisms. Most such failures are rapidly detected as decomposition within the can causes gas production and the can will swell or burst. However, there have been examples of poor manufacture (under processing) and poor hygiene allowing contamination of canned food by the obligate anaerobe Clostridium botulinum, which produces an acute toxin within the food, leading to severe illness or death. This
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organism produces no gas or obvious taste and remains undetected by taste or smell. Its toxin is denatured by cooking, though. Cooked mushrooms, handled poorly and then canned, can support the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which produces a toxin that is not destroyed by canning or subsequent reheating. Jellying- Food may be preserved by cooking in a material that solidifies to form a gel. Such materials include gelatine, agar, maize flour and arrowroot flour. Some foods naturally form a protein gel when cooked such as eels and elvers, and sipunculid worms which are a delicacy in the town of Xiamen in Fujian province of the People's Republic of China. Jellied eels are a delicacy in the East End of London where they are eaten with mashed potatoes. Potted meats in aspic, (a gel made from gelatine and clarified meat broth) were a common way of serving meat offcuts in the UK until the 1950s. Many jugged meats are also jellied. Irradiation-Irradiation of food[3] is the exposure of food to ionizing radiation; either high-energy electrons or X-rays from accelerators, or by gamma rays (emitted from radioactive sources as Cobalt-60 or Caesium-137). The treatment has a range of effects, including killing bacteria, molds and insect pests, reducing the ripening and spoiling of fruits, and at higher doses inducing sterility. The technology may be compared to pasteurization; it is sometimes called 'cold pasteurization', as the product is not heated. Irradiation is not effective against viruses or prions, it cannot eliminate toxins already formed by microorganisms, and is only useful for food of high initial quality. The radiation process is unrelated to nuclear energy, but it may use the radiation emitted from radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear reactors. Ionizing radiation is hazardous to life (hence its usefulness in sterilization); for this reason irradiation facilities have a heavily shielded irradiation room where the process takes place. Radiation safety procedures ensure that neither the workers in such facility nor the environment receive any radiation dose from the facility. Irradiated food does not become radioactive, and national and international expert bodies have declared food irradiation as wholesome. However, the wholesomeness of consuming such food is disputed by opponents[4] and consumer organizations. 114
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Modified atmosphere-Modifying atmosphere is a way to preserve food by operating on the atmosphere around it. Salad crops which are notoriously difficult to preserve are now being packaged in sealed bags with an atmosphere modified to reduce the oxygen (O2) concentration and increase the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. There is concern that although salad vegetables retain their appearance and texture in such conditions, this method of preservation may not retain nutrients, especially vitamins. Grains may be preserved using carbon dioxide by one of two methods; either using a block of dry ice placed in the bottom and the can is filled with grain or the container can be purged from the bottom by gaseous carbon dioxide from a cylinder or bulk supply vessel. 1. Carbon dioxide prevents insects, and depending on concentration, mold, and oxidation from damaging the grain. Grain stored in this way can remain edible for five years 2. Nitrogen gas (N2) at concentrations of 98% or higher is also used effectively to kill insects in grain through hypoxia [9]. However, carbon dioxide has an advantage in this respect as it kills organisms through hypercarbia and depending on concentration hypoxia and, requiring concentrations of above 35% [10], or so. This makes carbon dioxide preferable for fumigation in situations where a hermetic seal cannot be maintained. Lye-Sodium hydroxide (lye) makes food too alkaline for bacterial growth. Lye will saponify fats in the food, which will change its flavor and texture. Lutefisk uses lye in its preparation, as do some olive recipes. Modern recipes for century eggs also call for lye. Masa harina and hominy use agricultural lime in their preparation and this is often misheard as 'lye'. Jugging- Meat can be preserved by jugging, the process of stewing the meat (commonly game or fish) in a covered earthenware jug or casserole. The animal to be jugged is usually cut into pieces, placed into a tightly-sealed jug with brine or gravy, and stewed. Red wine and/or the animal's own blood is sometimes added to the cooking liquid. Jugging was a popular method of preserving meat up until the middle of the 20th century. Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a method for processing cells by means of brief pulses of a strong electric field. PEF holds potential as a type of low temperature alternative pasteurization process for sterilizing food products. In PEF processing, a substance is placed between two electrodes, then the pulsed electric field is applied. The electric field enlarges the pores of the cell membranes which kills the cells and releases their contents. PEF for food
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processing is a developing technology still being researched. There have been limited industrial applications of PEF processing for the pasteurization of fruit juices.

Mango jam Ingredients 2 pounds ripe mangoes 1 1/2 cups white sugar 3/4 cup water 3 saffron threads (optional)

Directions 1. Boil, steam, or microwave the whole mangoes until soft. Cool, then remove the peel and inner seed; place the mango pulp in a large bowl. Use a fork or potato masher to mash the pulp well. 2. Place the sugar and water in a large saucepan over low heat, stir mixture, and bring to a boil. When mixture begins boiling, increase heat to medium-high. Continue boiling until fine, soft threads form, 270 degrees F (135 degrees C). Stir in the mango pulp, add the saffron threads, if desired, and boil until the mixture thickens, about 5 minutes.



3. Pour cooked jam into sterilized jars and seal according to canning directions.


Refrigerator Pickles

Ingredients 7 cups cucumbers, peeled and thinly sliced 1 teaspoon salt 2 cups white sugar 1 cup diced red onion 1 cup chopped green bell pepper 1 cup cider vinegar 1 teaspoon celery seed




1. Mix the cucumbers and salt and let sit for one hour. Do not drain mixture and follow by adding the sugar, onions, bell pepper, cider vinegar and celery seed. Mix well, cover and refrigerate.

Tinapa 117 Ingredients: 5 Lbs of Galunggong fish 1 Quart of Salt 3 Quarts of water 2 Lbs. of Hickory wood chunks for smoking Directions: Note: Soak wood chunks in water two days before using it. For the Brine: In a large bowl or small bucket add warm water and dissolve the salt. Clean the fish and add the brine onto the fish. I just use our kitchen sink for this (make sure your sink is clean and rinsed thoroughly). Let it brine for 1 hour while stirring the brine every ten minutes. The rule of thumb: brine the fish for an hour for every half inch (thickness) of fish. After an hour remove the fish from the brine, rinse it well, and set aside. The Smoker: Depending on your smoker, the best way to do this is to keep the fish away from the heat source as much as possible. Place your fish on the rack and add your wood chunks to the heat source. Cover the smoker and let it smoke for 1 hour. You will need to add wood chunks every 20 minutes to keep the smoke going. Enjoy your freshly made Tinapa. Serve with fresh tomatoes and onions and dont forget the garlic flavored vinegar dipping sauce.

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Salted Eggs Ingredients 1 cups rock salt 4 cups fresh water 12 pcs. Fresh duck eggs Directions Bring water and rock salt to a boil; cool. Place eggs in a crock or glass jar Pour salt-water mixture over eggs to cover. Cover crock and let stand in a cool place (not refrigerator) for three weeks. Remove eggs from salt bath and store them in the refrigerator if not ready to use immediately. Yolks should be a bright yellow-orange color and quite firm. The white should be slightly cloudy and still runny. Eggs without a firm yolk should be discarded. To hard cook, cover with fresh cold water and simmer for 20 minutes. Shell an quarter. Serve with hot rice or congee. Make 12 salted eggs.



NOTE: Salted duck eggs may be purchased in mud-pack form or in brine in Oriental markets. If in mud pack, scrape off mud, wash well and proceed with recipe.


Pork Tocino Ingredients: 1 kilo pork 6 tablespoon salt cup sugar 1 tablespoon food color (red) Procedure Slice the pork into thin pieces. Mix the pork with salt and sugar. Add the food color. Keep the pork mixture into the sealed package for 1 week. Stay in a room temperature. After another 1 week put it on a refrigerator. If youre going to cook it, stir fry in small amount of oil with a medium heat. (If you want you may boil it first before frying)



Cereals, grains, or cereal grains are grasses (members of the monocot families Poaceae or Gramineae)[1] cultivated for the edible 120 components of their fruit seeds (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis): the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The word cereal derives from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. History and Origin The first cereal grains were domesticated about 12,000 years ago by early Holocene farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia. Wheat and barley were one of the first crops in the development of agriculture. Prehistoric people ground wholegrain and mixed them with water to produce gruel. This was the predecessor to modern porridges and hot cereals. Cold cereals were not invented until the 1894, by the Kellogg brothers. The first, sold by mail order as Grannies, was made from wheat. They soon began making cereals from corn, which proved more popular. Today, Kelloggs' continues to be one of the dominating breakfast cereal companies, with the corn flakes they sell today not too different from those of 100 years ago. Kinds of Cereals



1. Maize -known in many English-speaking countries as corn, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. 2. Rice- As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn). 121 3. Wheat - is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a higher protein content than either maize (corn) or rice, the other major cereals. Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, couscous[3] and for fermentation to make beer,[4] other alcoholic beverages, [5] or biofuel.[6] 4. Barley- is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Like wheat and rye, barley contains gluten that makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by those with celiac disease. 5. Sorghum- is a genus of numerous species of grasses, one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. 6. Millets-are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a functional or agronomic one. Their essential similarities are that they are small-seeded grasses grown in difficult production environments such as those at risk of drought.



7. Oats-(Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other grains). While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats make up a part of the daily diet of horses, about 20% of daily intake or smaller, and are regularly fed to cattle as well. Oats are also used in some brands of dog food and chicken feed. Oat seeds are commonly marketed as cat grass to cat enthusiasts, since cats will readily harvest and eat tender young oat, wheat and some other grass sprouts 8. Rye-is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskies, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. 122 9. Triticale-has potential in the production of bread and other food products such as cookies, pasta, pizza dough and breakfast cereals.[2] The protein content is higher than that of wheat although the glutenin fraction is less. The grain has also been stated to have higher levels of lysine than wheat. 10. Fonio-is the term for cultivated grains in the Digitaria genus. These are notable in parts of West Africa and one species in India. The grains are very small. 11. Buckwheat-are a group of flowering plants whose seed typically has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. The seeds of two species of Fagopyrumprovide grain 12. Quinoa-is a grain-like crop grown primarily for its edible seeds. It is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal, or grain, as it is not a member of the grass family. As a chenopod, quinoa is closely related to species such as beets, spinach, and tumbleweeds. Its leaves are also eaten as a leaf vegetable,
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much like amaranth, but the commercial availability of quinoa greens is currently limited. Quality of Cereals Interactions in Wheat Doughs Protein-Protein Interactions-Essential to Dough Rheology Lipid-Carbohydrate Interactions Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions Temperature-Induced Changes of Wheat Products Lipids, Lipid-Protein Interactions and the Quality of Baked Cereal Products


Rolled Oats, Rolled Wheat, Or Rolled Rye Recipe 2 cups water 1 cup of your choice of cereal 3/4 teaspoon salt




1. Have the two parts of the double boiler together with water in the outer part and the two cups of water and the salt in the inner part. 2. Let the double boiler set over heat until it has been boiling for 5 minutes. 3. Carefully stir the flakes into the water. 4. Put the cover on the kettle and allow the cereal to cook for three hours. 5. Add boiling water to the outer kettle as necessary during the cooking. 6. Serve with cream. Golden Grain Ingredients 1. 2. 3. 4. 2 1/2 cups water 1/2 cup cornmeal 1 teaspoon salt

Instructions Heat the water to boiling in the inner cup of the double boiler. Add the salt. With a batter whip, stir the cornmeal into the water. Continue stirring until the mixture is thickened, then set the inner cup in the outer cup of the double boiler that contains boiling water. 5. Continue cooking one hour. 6. Serve with cream, maple syrup, or dates if desired.


Cereal Griddle Cakes Recipe 1 Ingredients

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1/2 cup of ready-to-eat cereal such as corn flakes; crushed 1/4 cup of sweet milk 1/2 cup of sifted flour 1 level teaspoon of baking powder 1/2 cup of thick sour cream 1/8 teaspoon of baking soda White of 1 egg Yolk of 1 egg, beaten Slice of salt pork, to oil the griddle 1/4 teaspoon of salt

Instructions 1. Sift the soda before measuring, and then stir it into the cream. 2. Sift the flour with the baking powder. 3. Pour the cream over the crushed cereal and add the yolk, salt, sweet milk, and the sifted flour. 4. Mix all together thoroughly, and then beat in the lightly beaten egg white. 5. Place small cakes of batter on a hot, greased griddle or an iron frying pan. 6. Brown on both sides. . Raised Oatmeal Muffins Recipe Ingredients: 3/4 cup scalded milk 1/4 cup sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 yeast cake dissolved in 1/4 cup lukewarm milk 1 cup cold cooked oatmeal 2 1/2 cups flour Instructions 1. Add sugar and salt to scalded milk. When lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake. 2. Work oatmeal into flour with fingertips and add to first mixture. 3. Beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise over night. 4. In the morning, fill buttered iron gem pans two-thirds full with the mixture. 5. Bake in moderate oven twenty-five to thirty minutes. As the pan heats, the mixture will rise to fill pan.
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Graham Fruit Mush Recipe Ingredients 2 cups Graham flour 2 cups boiling water 1 cup cold water 1 cup dates or figs Scant teaspoon of salt Instructions 1. Blend the Graham flour with the cold water in the inside sleeve of a double boiler. Add the boiling water and salt and boil until it thickens. 2. Set in an outer boiler and cook for an hour. 3. Cut the dates lengthwise into quarters and add them to the mush 10 minutes before serving. 4. If dried figs are used, they should be steamed first or cooked with the grain.


Cereal waffles Ingredients: 1 c Cold cooked oatmeal or .. Farina 1 c Flour 2 Eggs; separated 1 Milk 1 tbsp. Baking powder 1/2 tbsp. Salt
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Procedure: Sift flour, salt and baking powder. Add egg yolks, milk and cold cereal, beating well to get rid of the lumps. Beat the egg whites to a stiff froth and fold them gently into the batter. Cook at once in hot, greased waffle irons. Serve with butter and syrup or honey.

127 In ancient history, the first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, and mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by pouring it onto a flat, hot rock, resulting in a bread-like substance. Later, this paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made anytime fire was created. Around 2500 B.C., records show that the Egyptians had bread, and may have learned the process from the Babylonians. The Greek Aristophanes, around 400 B.C., also recorded information that showed that tortes with patterns and honey flans existed in Greek cuisine. Dispyrus was also created by the Greeks around that time and widely popular; was a donut-like bread made from flour and honey and shaped in a ring; soaked in wine, it was eaten when hot. Baking flourished in the Roman Empire. In about 300 B.C., the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans (known as the pastillarium). This became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, and Romans loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastries were often cooked especially for large banquets, and any pastry cook who could invent new types of tasty treats was highly prized. Around 1 A.D., there were more than three hundred pastry chefs in Rome, and Cato wrote about how they created all sorts of diverse foods, and
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flourished because of those foods. Cato speaks of an enormous amount of breads; included amongst these are the libum (sacrificial cakes made with flour), placenta (groats and cress), spira (our modern day flour pretzels), scibilata (tortes), savaillum (sweet cake), and globus apherica (fritters). A great selection of these, with many different variations, different ingredients, and varied patterns, were often found at banquets and dining halls. The Romans baked bread in an oven with its own chimney, and had mills to grind grain into flour. Eventually, because of Rome, the art of baking became known throughout Europe, and eventually spread to the eastern parts of Asia. Bakers often baked goods at home and then sold them in the streets. This scene was so common that Rembrandt illustrated a work that depicted a pastry chef selling pancakes in the streets of Germany, with children clamoring for a sample. In London, pastry chefs sold their goods from handcarts. This developed into a system of delivery of baked goods to households, and demand increased greatly as a result. In Paris, the first open-air caf of baked goods was developed, and baking became an established art throughout the entire world.

Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.[1] It is primarily used for the 128 preparation of bread, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts,quiches, cookies and crackers. Such items are sometimes referred to as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. It is also used for the preparation of baked potatoes, baked apples,baked beans, some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagna, and various other foods, such as the pretzel. Many commercial ovens are provided with two heating elements: one for baking, using convection and conduction to heat the food, and one for broiling or grilling, heating mainly by radiation. Meat may also be baked, but this is usually reserved formeatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats, and whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as breadcrumbs or buttermilk batter; larger cuts prepared without
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stuffing or coating are more often roasted, a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times. Baking can sometimes be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant, by using both methods simultaneously or one before the other, cooking twice. Baking is connected to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit. The baking process does not require any fat to be used to cook in an oven. Some makers of snacks such as potato chips or crisps have produced baked versions of their snack items as an alternative to the usual cooking method of deep-frying in an attempt to reduce the calorie or fat content of their snack products.

The history of cookies 129 The first cookies were created by accident. Cooks used a small amount of cake batter to test their oven temperature before baking a large cake. These little test cakes were called "koekje", meaning "little cake" in Dutch. A cookie is a small, flat-baked treat, usually containing fat, flour, eggs and sugar.



Originally called "little cakes," cookies are made with sweet dough or batter, baked in single-sized servings and eaten out-of-hand. Perfect for snacking or as dessert, cookies are consumed in 95.2 percent of U.S. households. Americans alone consume over 2 billion cookies a year or 300 cookies for each person annually. Cookies are most often classified by method of preparation drop, molded, pressed, refrigerated, bar and rolled. Their dominant ingredient, such as nut cookies, fruit cookies or chocolate cookies, can also classify them. Whether gourmet, soft or bite-sized cookies, new categories are always cropping up as the American appetite for cookies continues to grow. History The word cookie originally came from the Dutch keokje, meaning "little cake." In addition, the Dutch first popularized cookies in the United States. The British took a liking to them in the 19th century, incorporating them into their daily tea service and calling them biscuits or sweet buns, as they do in Scotland. Sometime in the 1930s, so the story goes, a Massachusetts innkeeper ran out of nuts while making cookies. Therefore, she substituted a bar of baking chocolate, breaking it into pieces and adding the chunks of chocolate to the flour, butter and brown sugar dough. The Toll House Cookie, so named after the inn in which it was served, was a hit. Historians credit the innkeeper, Ruth Wakefield, with inventing what has since become an American classic - the chocolate chip cookie. The earliest cookie-style cakes are thought to date back to seventh-century Persia, one of the first countries to cultivate sugar. There are six basic cookie styles, any of which can range from tendercrisp to soft. A drop cookie is made by dropping spoonfuls of dough onto a baking sheet. Bar cookies are created when a batter or soft dough is spooned into a shallow pan, then baked, cooled and cut into bars. Hand-formed (or molded) cookies are made by shaping dough by hand 130 into small balls, logs, crescents and other shapes. Pressed cookies are formed by pressing dough through a COOKIE PRESS (or PASTRY BAG) to form fancy shapes and designs.



Refrigerator (or icebox) cookies are made by shaping the dough into a log, which is refrigerated until firm, then sliced and baked. Rolled cookies begin by using a rolling pin to roll the dough out flat; then it is cut into decorative shapes with COOKIE CUTTERS or a pointed knife. Other cookies, such as the German SPRINGERLE, are formed by imprinting designs on the dough, either by rolling a special decoratively carved rolling pin over it or by pressing the dough into a carved COOKIE MOLD. In England, cookies are called biscuits, in Spain they're galletas, Germans call them keks, in Italy they're biscotti and so on. The first American cookie was originally brought to this country by the English, Scots, and Dutch immigrants. Our simple "butter cookies" strongly resemble the English tea cakes and the Scotch shortbread. The Southern colonial housewife took great pride in her cookies, almost always called simply "tea cakes." These were often flavored with nothing more than the finest butter, sometimes with the addition of a few drops of rose water. In earlier American cookbooks, cookies were given no space of their own but were listed at the end of the cake chapter. They were called by such names as "Jumbles," "Plunkets," and "Cry Babies." The names were extremely puzzling and whimsical. There are hundreds upon hundreds of cookie recipes in the United States. No one book could hold the recipes for all the various types of cookies. Origin of the Cookie Lavish cakes were well-known in the Persian Empire. According to Whats Cooking America, a food history website, the earliest cookiestyle cakes are thought to date back to Persia (modern Iran) in the 7th century C.E., toward the end of its glory.* *Begun around 550 B.C.E., Islam's former territorial unity, Persia was conquered numerous times, most famously when Alexander the Great defeated Darius III at Gaugamela (331 B.C.E.). But in 913 C.E., conquered by the Buwayhid from the shores of the Caspian Sea, the united Muslim empire was destroyed and Iran became one nation in an increasingly diverse Islamic world. 131 While Europeans had honey, due to the ancient migration of bees, sugar came much later. It originated in the lowlands of Bengal or
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elsewhere in Southeast Asia, and was brought to Persia and cultivated there, spreading to the eastern Mediterranean. Bakers made luxurious cakes and pastries for the wealthy. With the Muslim invasion of Iberia in the 8th century, followed by the Crusades (1095 to 1291) and the developing spice trade, the cooking techniques and ingredients of Arabia spread to Northern Europe. Cookbooks of the Renaissance, which began in Italy in the 14th century and spread to the rest of Europe, are filled with cookie recipes. By the end of the 14th century, one could buy little filled wafers on the streets of Paris. But during the centuries before, while cakes of were being baked to the delight of all, what has evolved into our cookie was not originally made to please the sweet tooth. According to culinary historians, the first historic record of cookies was used as test cakes. A small amount of cake batter was dropped onto baking pans to test the temperature of the oven before the cake was baked (remember, early ovens didnt have thermostats like ours do, and were fueled by burning wood). Each language has its own word for cookie. In The Netherlands, the little test cake was called a koekje, little cake in Dutch (a cake is koek). The concept evolved to small, individual portions, which were baked to create the dry, hard-textured cookies we know today. With the moisture removed, they stayed fresh much longer than cake. The British word for cookie, biscuit, comes from the Latinbis coctum, meaning twice baked (also the origin of the Italian biscotti). According to The Oxford Companion to Food, the term cookie first appeared in print around 1703. Kinds of a Cookie Molded Cookies Molded cookies are made by hand-rolling the dough and forming them into balls. Like peanut butter cookies they can be pressed flat with a fork. To stop the dough from sticking makes sure to dust your fingers and utensils with flour. Dropped Cookies Dropped cookies are usually the easiest kind of cookie to make. Drop a teaspoonful of cookie dough onto a cookie sheet. Make sure you leave sufficient room between cookies for spreading. A space of about a couple of inches is usually best. If uniform size is important you may wish to use a cookie scoop.




Rolled Cookies Rolled cooked or cut out cookies is made with rather stiff dough. Roll the dough onto a floured board and cut with either a knife or cookie cutter to make the shape. Use only a small part of the dough at a time. And use only a small amount of flour as too much will make the dough tough. For soft, chewy cookies keep the rolled dough thick but roll it thin for crisper cookies. Pressed Cookies A cookie press is used to make pressed cookies like spritz cookies. The dough should be soft enough to be put through a cookie press but must be stiff enough to hold a shape. If the dough is too soft, refrigerate for a while. If the dough is too stiff, add an egg yolk and try again. Refrigerator Cookies To make these cookies, roll the dough into a thick bar. Then refrigerate it until you're ready to bake. Keep the bars wrapped to stop them absorbing the odors of the other food in your refrigerator? The dough will keep for about a week. When you're ready to bake, cut the dough thinly with a sharp knife then bake. Bar Cookies Bar cookies are more like cakes and are softer than most other brownies. They can be chewy or crispy. And they can be filled or layered. A brownie is the best example of a bar cookie. Bar cookies are baked in a pan with sides. To make sure the bars cookies turn out perfectly make sure to use the correct size of pan. After baking, cut them into squares. But make sure to let them cool first. No Bake Cookies As the name suggests, these cookies don't need baking. To be honest, they're not really a cookie. They're more like candy. A good example is a no bake chocolate oatmeal cookie. They're made using a candy thermometer and double boiler.

Vanilla-Chai Icebox Shortbread Cookies Ingredients 133

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2 1/3 cups all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons pumpkin pie spice 2 teaspoons ground ginger 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice 1/2 teaspoon ground cardamom 1 cup (2 sticks) unsalted butter, softened 1 cup granulated sugar 3 tablespoons honey 1/4 teaspoon salt 2 large egg yolks 1 medium vanilla bean Icing: 1 cup confectioner's sugar, sifted 2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract More vanilla bean seed scraping, if desired 1 tablespoon water Preparation 1. In a large bowl, sift or whisk together flour, pumpkin pie spice, ginger, allspice and cardamom. Set aside. 2. Combine butter, sugar, honey and salt in a bowl. Using an electric mixer or wooden spoon, beat until light and fluffy. Add the egg yolks, one at a time, and beat until smooth. 3. Using a small knife, split the vanilla bean lengthwise in half. Scrape the seeds from both sides of the pod with the tip of the knife and add them to the butter-sugar mixture. Beat to combine. 4. Add in flour-spice mixture, 1 cup at a time, blending until fully incorporated. 5. Divide the dough in half and transfer each half to a sheet of wax paper. Using the wax paper, shape into a 12-inch log, rectangle or square. Chill logs at least 2 hours or overnight. 6. Preheat oven to 350F (175C) with an oven rack in the middle. Line two baking sheets with parchment paper. 7. With a sharp knife, cut logs into 1/8-inch-thick slices and arrange 1/2 inch apart on baking sheets. Bake until lightly browned around edges, about 10 to 12 minutes. Transfer to racks to cool. 8. In a small bowl, whisk together icing ingredients until smooth and transfer to a sealable plastic bag. Cut an 1/8-inch opening in one corner of bag. Arrange cookies as close together as possible on sheets of wax paper and drizzle icing decoratively across the tops. 134
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Apple-Cheddar Cookies Ingredients: 1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/4 pound (1 stick) butter, unsalted 1 cup brown sugar, packed 1/2 cup (2 ounces) shredded Cheddar cheese 2 large eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2/3 cup prepared applesauce 3 cups rolled oats Preparations: 1. Preheat oven to 350F (175C). 2. In a small bowl, sift together the flour, baking soda, salt, and nutmeg. 3. In a large bowl, cream the butter, brown sugar, and cheese. Beat in the eggs and vanilla extract. Stir in the flour mixture. Add the oatmeal and applesauce, stirring well. 4. Drop small spoonfuls of batter onto a lightly greased baking sheet. 5. Bake 10 to 12 minutes. Remove from the oven and cool on a wire rack. Makes about 2 to 2 1/2 dozen cookies.

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Chocolate-Cherry Thumbprints Ingredients: 1 (12-ounce) package NESTL TOLL HOUSE Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 3/4 cups quick or old-fashioned oats 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1/4 cup NESTL TOLL HOUSE Baking Cocoa 1 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt, (optional) 3/4 cup granulated sugar 2/3 cup butter or margarine, softened 2 large eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 (10-ounce) jars maraschino cherries, drained and patted dry 1. Preheat oven to 350F (175C). 2. Microwave 1 cup morsels in small, microwave-safe bowl on HIGH (100%) power for 1 minute; stir. Microwave at additional 10- to 20-second intervals, stirring until smooth. Combine oats, flour, cocoa, baking powder and salt in medium bowl. 3. Beat sugar, butter, eggs and vanilla extract in large mixer bowl until smooth. Beat in melted chocolate. Stir in oat mixture. Cover; refrigerate dough for 1 hour. 4. Shape dough into 1-inch balls; press thumb into tops to make deep depression. Place 2 inches apart on ungreased baking sheets. Fill each depression with maraschino cherry. 5. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes or until set. Cool on baking sheets for 2 minutes; remove to wire racks to cool completely. Melt remaining morsels; drizzle over cookies. Makes 4 dozen
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Pecan Shortbreads 1 cup (100 grams) pecans, Toasted and coarsely chopped 2 cups (260 grams) all-purpose flour 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 cup (226 grams) unsalted butter, 2/3 cup (145 grams) light brown sugar 1 teaspoon (5 grams) pure vanilla extract For Chocolate Dipped Pecan Shortbreads: 6 ounces (180 grams) semi sweet or bittersweet chocolate, finely chopped To Toast Pecans: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (177 degrees C) and place rack in center of oven. Bake the nuts 8-10 minutes or until browned and fragrant. Cool on wire rack and then coarsely chop. In a medium sized bowl place the flour and salt and whisk to combine. In the bowl of your electric mixer (or with a hand mixer), beat the butter and sugar until light and fluffy (2-3 minutes). Beat in the vanilla extract. Scrape down the sides of the bowl and then add the flour mixture, mixing only until incorporated. Stir in the chopped pecans. Divide the dough in half and wrap each half in plastic wrap and refrigerate until firm (at least one hour). Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (177 degrees C) and place rack in center of oven. Line two baking sheets with parchment paper. Remove one half of the dough from the refrigerator and, on a lightly floured surface, roll into a 1/4 inch (.5 cm) thick circle. Then, with a lightly floured cookie cutter, cut out rounds or stars. Place the cookies on the prepared baking sheets and refrigerate for 10 minutes to firm up the cookie dough. Roll and cut out the remaining cookies. Bake for approximately 13-15 minutes or until the shortbreads are a deep brown color. This ensures a crunchy and crumbly cookie. (Note: If you only bake the shortbread until they are light brown the shortbread will be softer in texture.) Remove cookies from oven and cool on a wire rack.
For Chocolate Dipped Pecan Shortbreads: Place 3 ounces (90 grams)

of the finely chopped chocolate in a heatproof bowl and place it over a saucepan of simmering water. Once the chocolate has melted, remove it from the heat. Add the remaining chocolate and stir with a wooden spoon until it has completely melted and is smooth and glossy. Taking
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one cookie at a time, dip one end of each cookie in the melted chocolate and place it on a parchment lined baking sheet. Once all the cookies have been dipped in the chocolate, place the baking sheets in the refrigerator for about 10 minutes, or until the chocolate has hardened Halloween Cookies Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups (195 grams) all-purpose flour 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 cup (113 grams) unsalted butter, room temperature 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar 1 large egg, lightly beaten 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract Royal Icing Using Egg Whites: 1 large egg white 1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice 1 1/2 cups (165 grams) confectioners (Powdered or icing) sugar, sifted Royal Icing Using Meringue Powder: 2cups (220 grams) confectioners' (Powdered or icing)sugar, sifted 1 1/2 tablespoons (15 grams) meringue powder 1/4 teaspoon almond extract (optional) 1/4 cup - 1/2 cup (60 - 120 ml) warm water

Halloween Cookies: In a separate bowl whisk together the flour, salt, and baking soda. Set aside. In the bowl of your electric mixer (or with a hand mixer), beat the butter and sugar until light and fluffy (about 3 to 4 minutes). Add the beaten egg and vanilla extract and beat until combined. Add the flour mixture and beat until you have smooth dough. 138
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Wrap the dough in plastic wrap and refrigerate for about one hour (or overnight) or until firm enough to roll. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (177 degrees C) and place rack in the center of the oven. Line two baking sheets with parchment paper. Remove the chilled dough from the refrigerator and, on a lightly floured surface, roll out the dough to a thickness of about 1/4 inch (1 cm). (Keep turning the dough as you roll, making sure the dough does not stick to the counter.) Cut out shapes using a lightly floured cookie cutter and transfer cookies to the prepared baking sheet. If you find the cookies a little soft, place the baking sheets with the unbaked cookies in the refrigerator for about 10 minutes to chill the dough which prevents the cookies from spreading and losing their shape while baking. Bake cookies for about 8-10 minutes (depending on size) or until they are brown around the edges. Remove from oven and let the cookies cool on the baking sheet for a few minutes before transferring to a wire rack to finish cooling. Frost with royal icing and sparking sugar, if desired. Be sure to let the royal icing dry completely before storing. (This may take several hours.) Frosted cookies will keep several days in an airtight container. Store between layers of parchment paper or wax paper. Note: The recipe can be doubled. Makes about 20 - 3 inch cookies. Royal Icing with Egg Whites: In the bowl of your electric mixer (or with a hand mixer), beat the egg white with the lemon juice. Add the sifted powdered sugar and beat on low speed until combined and smooth. Add coloring. The icing needs to be used immediately or transferred to an airtight container as royal icing hardens when exposed to air. Cover with plastic wrap when not in use. Royal Icing with Meringue Powder: In the bowl of your electric mixer (or with a hand mixer), beat the confectioners' sugar and meringue powder until combined. Add the water and beat on medium to high speed until very glossy and stiff peaks form (4 to 7 minutes). If necessary, to get the right consistency, add more powdered sugar or water. Add coloring. To cover or 'flood' the entire surface of the cookie with icing, the proper consistency is when you lift the beater, the ribbon of icing that falls back into the bowl remains on the surface of the icing for a few seconds before disappearing. The icing needs to be used immediately or transferred to an airtight container as royal icing hardens when exposed to air. Cover with plastic wrap when not in use. 139
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The Ultimate Lunchbox Peanut Butter Cookies 1/2 cup creamy peanut butter (note: if using crunchy style, add 2 tablespoons more) 1/2 cup butter, softened 1/2 cup granulated sugar 1/2 cup firmly-packed brown sugar 1 large egg 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 3/4 cups flour 3/4 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon salt 1. Preheat oven to 375F (190C). Place oven rack just above oven center. F. 2. In a large bowl, combine peanut butter, butter, sugar, brown sugar, egg and vanilla; beat with an electric mixer until light and fluffy. In another bowl, mix together flour, baking soda and salt. Stir into butter mixture until well blended. 3. Shape dough into 1-inch balls. Place balls 3 inches apart on ungreased cookie sheets. Gently flatten each ball with fork in a crisps-cross pattern. 4. Bake in the top half of 375F oven until lightly browned, 8 to 10 minutes. Remove cookies from sheets; cool on wire racks. Makes 24 cookies. Variations: Slice-N-Bake: Prepare dough as above but do not preheat oven until ready to bake. Roll dough into 10-inch log. Wrap in wax paper or plastic wrap and chill several hours until firm. Slice log into 1/4-inch slices and bake as above.


Peanut Thumbprint Cookies: Prepare dough as above. Roll dough into 1-inch balls. Roll balls in beaten egg white and then into 1 cup finely chopped peanuts. Place on ungreased cookie sheets, 3 inches apart. Gently press thumb in center of each cookie. Bake as above. Press thumb gently in center of each cookie, while warm, if deeper indentation is desired. Place large chocolate chip or drop into center, or cool and fill with favorite jam.

Pies and Pastry

The History of Pies


Just the mention of pie classics such as apple pie, chicken pot pie, and even quiche, sets our taste buds into overdrive, but did you know that the first pies were often made from pastry that was intentionally barely edible, and had whole birds as fillings? Because the first pies of the Middle East and other classical civilizations were made from olive oil, the crust didnt have the familiar flakiness and heft of the classic pie crusts that we know today. During Roman times (5th C. BC 6th C. AD), and later in the Middle Ages in Europe, pastry was used as a method of keeping meats and other savory fillings moist during cooking, and also as a way in which to partially hermetically seal the filling in order to keep it from spoiling. The pastry, made from flour, suet (beef fat), eggs, and other ingredients, was dense and hard. Thus, only the filling would be eaten at the dining room table and the pastry topping would be left for the kitchen staff. The Oxford English Dictionary, in 1301, describes pie as a baked dish of fruit, meat, fish, or vegetables, covered with pastry (or a similar substance) and frequently also having a base and sides of pastry. Also, a baked open pastry case filled with fruit Many believe the term pie has its beginnings from magpie, a bird that collects a variety of different objects, as European medieval pies usually had a variety of fillings in one pie, often a combination of several types of meat and fruits. As pies evolved in Europe, and then later in North America, pies with one primary ingredient became more common. The origin Of Pies The first pies appeared around 9500 BC, in the Egyptian Neolithic period or New Stone Age, when the use of stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding became common, the domestication of plants and animals, the establishment of permanent villages, and the practice of crafts such as potteryand weaving. Early pies were known as galettes, wrapping honey as a treat inside a cover
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of ground oats, wheat, rye or barley. These galettes developed into a form of early sweet pastry or desserts, evidence of which can be found on the tomb walls of the Pharaoh Ramesses II, who ruled from 1304 to 1237 BC, located in the Valley of the Kings. With the knowledge transferred to the Ancient Greeks, historians believe that the Greeks originated pie pastry. Then a flour-water paste (add fat, and it becomes pastry) wrapped around meat, served to: cook the meat; seal in the juices; and provide a lightweight sealed holder for long sea journeys. This transferred the knowledge to the Romans who, having conquered parts of Northern Europe and southern Spain were far more adept at using salt and spices to preserve and flavour their meat. The 1st century Roman cookbook Apicius make various mention of various recipes which involve a pie case.By 160 BC, Roman statesman Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 BC) who wrote De Agri Cultura, notes the recipe for the most popular pie/cake called Placenta. Also called libum by the Romans, it was more like a modern 141 day cheesecake on a pastry base, often used as an offering to the gods. With the development of the Roman Empire and its efficient road transport, pie cooking spread throughout Europe. Pies remained as a core staple of diet of traveling and working peoples in the colder northern European countries, with regional variations based on both the locally grown and available meats, as well as the locally farmed cereal crop. The Cornish pasty is an excellent adaptation of the pie to a working man's daily food needs. Medieval cooks were often restricted in cooking forms they were able to use, having restricted access to ovens due to their costs of construction and need for abundant supplies of fuel. Pies could be easily cooked over an open fire, while partnering with a baker allowed them to cook the filling inside their own locally defined casing. The earliest pie-like recipes refer to coffyns (the word actually used for a basket or box), with straight sealed sides and a top; open top pies were referred to as traps. This may also be the reason why early recipes focus on the filling over the surrounding case, with the partnership development leading to the use of reusable earthenware pie cases which reduced the use of expensive flour The History of Pastry While the French have the reputation as the great pastry makers, the Egyptians, who were great bread bakers, worked out the details of
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early pastry. Theirs was a savory pastry: a dough of flour and water paste to wrap around meat and soak up the juices as it cooked. Pastry was further developed in the Middle East and brought to Mediterranean Europe by the Muslims in the 7th century. Another leap occurred in the 11th Century, when Crusaders brought phyllo dough back to Northern Europe (the First Crusade was 1096 to 1099). Greek and Roman pastry did not progress as far as it could have because both cultures used oil, which cant create a stiff pastry. In medieval Northern Europe, the traditional use of lard and butter instead of oil for cooking hastened the development of other pastry types. Pies developed, and the stiff pie pastry was used to provide a casing for the various fillings. By the 17th century, flaky and puff pastries were in use, developed by French and Italian Renaissance chefs; and pastry began to become highly decorated, with pastry chefs working intricate patterns on the crusts. Origin of pastry The origins of the pasty are largely unknown, although it is generally accepted that the modern form of the pasty originated in Cornwall. Tradition claims that the pasty was originally made as lunch ('croust' or 'crib' in the Cornish language) for Cornish tin miners who were unable to return to the surface to eat. The story goes that, covered in dirt from head to foot (including some arsenic often found with tin), they could hold the pasty by the folded crust and eat the rest without touching it, discarding the dirty pastry. 142 The pastry they threw away was supposed to appease the knockers, capricious spirits in the mines who might otherwise lead miners into danger. Pasties were also popular with farmers and labourers, particularly in the North East of England, also a mining region. A researcher in Devon found a reference to a pasty in a 16th century document, and argued that this showed the pasty originally came from Devon, although this was refuted by Cornish historians claiming that evidence for the pasty's roots in Cornwall go back millennia. The earliest known recipe for a Cornish pasty is dated 1746, and is held by the Cornwall Records Office in Truro, Cornwall. Outside Britain, pasties were generally brought to new regions by Cornish miners, and this strengthens the argument that pasties are a Cornish invention. The pasty's dense, folded pastry could stay warm for 8 to 10 hours and, when carried close to the body, could help the miners stay warm. Traditional bakers in former mining towns will still bake pasties with fillings to order, marking the customer's initials with raised pastry. This practice was started because the miners used to eat part of their pasty for breakfast and leave the remainder for lunch; the initials enabled them to find their own pasties. Some mines kept large ovens to keep
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the pasties warm until mealtime. It is said that a good pasty should be strong enough to endure being dropped down a mine shaft. Ingredients of Pies and pastry Flour-they are used for pie crust that should not have strong gluten content because of the tendency of gluten to toughen the product cake, pastry and all purpose or family flour can successfully made pie crust but avoid bread flour. Shortening- for pie crust maybe any of the fats used in cake making, however butter and margarine are seldom used in pastry because of the expenses, many people prepare a good grade or lard for pastry shortening and other prefer, vegetables for flat or bland land. Water- the water used for making dough depend upon the methods used. It should be either very cold or very hot. The usual method of making pie crust flavored by most cooks is through the use of ice water. Classification of pies 1. One crust Pies a. Cream pies (in baked shell) b. Custard pies (baked in crust) c. Chiffon pies (baked in crust) 1.1 souffl type (baked) 1.2 gelatin type (chill in refrigerator) 2. two crust pies a. fruit crust 1.1 solid top 1.2 lattice top 1.3 turn overs a. minced pies 1. either one crust or two crust pies a. Cobber- usually two crust, but may one crust top or bottom b. Large shallow any types c. Deep dish- fruit press usually top crust only d. Meat Pies- usually top crust only
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e. Tart- individual or very small pies of any kind Qualities of Pie and Pastry Tender Glossy and delicately brown in color Correct thickness 1/4 cm Crisp and not soggy Perfectly shape With a delicate pleasing flavor Its filling should be sufficient in amount Attractive in appearance Palatable Fragrant

Ingredients in Making Pie Crust All-purpose flour Salt Lard Cold water 1 cup tsp. 1/3 cup 2-3 tbsp. 3 cups 1 tsp. 2/3 cups 4-5 tbsp.

Mixing the Pie crust


1. Measure flour without sifting then sift with salt into mixing flour. 2. Measure lard at room temperature and add to flour mixture. 3. Blend flour and lard with pastry blender or cut in shortening with two mixtures resembles coarse crumbs. 4. Sprinkle cold water a tablespoon at a time on flour mixtures mixing slightly with a fork after each addition until pastry just to hold to get there. 5. Sprinkle flour slightly on board and rolling pin. Place the dough on the board and shape into a ball with your hands.
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6. Roll dough from center to edges using less pressure near edges to avoid making them too thin. Roll in all directions to keep dough a perfect circle. They should be cm. thick and 2 cm. longer than the pie plate. 7. Roll dough loosely around the rolling pin and lift it into the pie plate, centering it over the plate. 8. Unroll the pastry and case it onto the pie plate pressing it slightly into the bottom and side with the finger tips. Do not stretch the pastry so that it will not shrink back while baking. 9. Pick the bottom and side of the crust literately to prevent puffing. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 232 degree Celsius for 8 to 12 minutes. Kinds of Pies Savory pies Any vegetable or meat pie served primarily as an entree can be considered a savory pie. The most common varieties are pot pies and shepherd's pie. Bacon and egg pie Butter pie Chicken and mushroom pie Corned beef pie Cottage pie (and Shepherds' pie) Game pie Homity pie Meat pie Pasty Pizza pie (Not per definition a real pie, but often called pie) Pork pie Pot pie Quiche Scotch pie Curry pie Stargazy pie Steak pie Steak and kidney pie




Sweet pies Some of these pies are pies in name only, such as the Boston cream pie, which is a cake. Many fruit and berry pies are very similar, varying only the fruit used in filling. Fillings for sweet or fruity are often mixed, such as strawberry rhubarb pie. Apple pie Banoffee pie Blackberry pie Blueberry pie Buko pie Cherry pie Chess pie Cream pie Custard pie Fried pie Key lime pie Kinds of Pastry Short crust Pastry Short crust, or short, pastry is the simplest and most common pastry. It is made with flour, fat, salt, and water. The process of making pastry includes mixing of the fat and flour, adding water, and rolling out the paste. It is cooked at 180 C and the result is a soft, tender pastry. A related type is the sweetened sweet crust pastry Flaky or Rough Puff Pastry Flaky pastry is a simple pastry that expands when cooked due to the number of layers. This is perfect if you are looking for a crisp, buttery pastry. The "puff" is obtained by beginning the baking process with a high temperature and lowering the temperature to finish Lemon meringue pie Mince pie Pecan pie Pumpkin pie Rhubarb pie Shoofly pie - a pie filled with molasses Strawberry pie Sugar pie Sweet potato pie



Puff pastry Puff pastry has many layers that cause it to expand or puff when baked. Pastries are made using flour, butter, salt, and water. Pastry rises up due to the combination and reaction of the four ingredients and also from the air that gets between the layers. Puff pastries come out of the oven light, flaky, and tender. Choux pastry 146

Choux pastry is a very light pastry that is filled with cream. The pastry is filled with various flavors of cream and is often topped with chocolate. Choux pastries can also be filled with things like cheese, tuna, or chicken to be used as appetizers. Phyllo (Filo) Pastry Phyllo pastries are usually paper-thin and greatly stretched. They involve several stretched out layers and are wrapped around a filling and brushed with butter. These pastries are very delicate and can break easily.




Sweet Potato Pie - Yams Pie Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups cooked mashed Yams or Squash puree 4 tbsp. Butter 2 Egg 1 c Sugar 1/2 tsp. Cinnamon 1/2 tsp. Ground ginger 1 tsp. Nutmeg 1 tbsp. Vanilla a pinch of Salt one 9-inch unbaked open pie shell - recipe 1/4 cups Pecan chunks (optional) Pecan halves for decorating (optional) For pie shell: Roll out dough on lightly floured surface to generous 1/8 inch thick round. Transfer to a 9 or 10 inch pie dish. Trim edge to 3/4 inch overhang. Fold overhang under and crimp edge decoratively. Refrigerate while making filling. For filling: Boil or bake (325 F) yams with the skin until they easily break apart when stabbed with a fork. Cool yams slightly. Remove the skin. Beat yams with mixer at medium speed, stopping frequently to remove yam fiber strings from the batter (these gather on the beaters, so just wash them off and continue to beat). Once the strings are removed, add butter and continue to mix. Add remaining ingredients and mix thoroughly. Mix in Pecan chunks if desired. Pour mixture into the pie shell and bake at 350 F for about an 1 hour
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and 15 minutes, or until the filling is well risen and set. Transfer to a wire rack to cool and decorate with pecan halves. Alterations: substitute yams for squash or pumpkin.


Ban bury Tea Tarts Ingredients: 1/2 cup butter, room temperature 1 1/2 cup granulated sugar 3 eggs, beaten 1 cup dried currants Zest of 1 lemon Juice of 1 lemon Pastry for 9-inch one crust pie Procedure Preheat oven to 375 degrees F. In a large bowl, cream the butter and sugar together thoroughly. Add eggs, current, lemon zest, and lemon juice, stirring to mix well; set aside. Prepare pie pastry. Roll out the pastry dough 1/8-inch thick. Tarts may be made any size. for conventional muffin pans, cut out circles with a tuna can which has both ends cut of. For miniature muffin pans, use a tomato paste can to cut out the rounds. Place pastry in the muffin pans, smoothing the dough so it has no bumps. Stir the filling mixture. Using a teaspoon, fill the tarts 2/3 full. NOTE: Don't let the filling spill onto the pan, as it will make the tarts hard to remove. Bake the miniature tarts approximately 15 to 20 minutes or until the pastry is a light brown. Remove from oven, remove from the muffin pans, and let cool on a wire rack.
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NOTE: Because these tarts are so easy to make, I usually double the recipe and make about 9 dozen tiny tarts. They freeze beautifully, between plastic wrap. These Ban bury Tea Tarts are at their best when served slightly warmed, either in a microwave or regular oven. Serve with tea, of course! Sand Tarts Ingredients 1/2 cup (1/4 lb.) butter 1/3 cup roasted salted almonds 1/3 cup sugar 1 large egg white 1 teaspoon vanilla 1/4 teaspoon almond extract 3/4 cup all-purpose flour


Preparation 1. In a 1- to 1 1/2-quart pan over medium heat, cook butter until particles on pan bottom and foam that floats on melted butter turn amber-colored and smell toasted (mixture may bubble up), 5 to 6 minutes. Let cool at least 10 minutes. 2. In a food processor or blender, whirl almonds and sugar to a fine powder (if using a blender, transfer to a bowl). Scrape browned butter into container with nuts and sugar; add egg white, vanilla, almond extract, and flour. Whirl or stir with a fork until blended (dough will be sticky). 3. For petite tarts, use 2 1/2-inch round tart pans (about 3/4 in. deep; 2-tablespoon capacity), lining each with about 1 1/2 tablespoons dough. For cookie-size tarts, use 3-inch round tart pans (about 1 1/4 in. deep; 5-tablespoon capacity), lining each with about 3 tablespoons dough. With your fingertips, press dough evenly over bottom and up sides of pans (nonstick or regular), flush with rims. Set slightly apart in a shallow, rimmed pan (10 by 15 in.). 4. Bake in a 300 regular or convection oven until tarts are richly browned at the edges and slightly paler in the center, 25 to 35 minutes; small tarts brown faster, so start checking them early. (If you
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prefer slightly softer tarts, bake only until edges are golden brown, 20 to 30 minutes.) The tarts puff up in the center as they cook, leaving only a small depression. 5. Transfer pans to a rack and let stand until tarts are warm but comfortable to touch, 5 to 8 minutes. Then invert one pan at a time onto a flat surface and gently squeeze, tapping very gently. If tart doesn't fall out, ease free with the tip of a sharp knife. Serve warm or cool. 150

Cream Cheese Pastry Cookies Ingredients: 1/2 c. butter 4 oz. cream cheese, softened 1 1/4 c. flour 1/8 t. salt Filling of choice. Some options include: jam or preserves, almond paste, more cream cheese, nuts tossed with brown sugar and cinnamon. Really, the options are endless! Coarse or granulated sugar, optional

Procedure: 1. In a mixing bowl, beat butter and cream cheese together until creamy. Add flour and salt and beat just until combined. Wrap dough and refrigerate at least one hour, until easy to handle. 2. Roll out refrigerated dough on a lightly floured or parchment-lined surface. Be careful not to leave the dough too thick. About 1/8 inch thickness is good. Cut the dough into evenly sized squares. 3. Place about a 1/2 teaspoonful of the filling of your choice in the center of half the squares. Top the squares with the remaining dough squares and seal the edges all around with the tines of a fork. Sprinkle the tops with coarse or granulated sugar, if desired.



4. Bake cookies on a parchment paper or foil lined cookie sheet at 375 degrees for 10-15 minutes, until lightly golden brown. Cool on a wire rack. This recipe will make about 1 1/2 2 dozen cookies, depending on how big you cut your squares and how patient you are with the dough.


Best Apple Pie Recipe! Best Apple Pie Recipe Ingredients: 4 cups sliced fresh apples 1/2 cup sugar 3 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons butter 1 pinch salt 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg "optional" Procedure Mix flour, sugar, salt, cinnamon and nutmeg together first. Then mix lemon juice with apple slices then mixes all ingredients together. Once you have your pie filling prepared then place your pie crust into the pie pan. Place your pie filling evenly in bottom of the pie plate. Place small chunks of the 2 tablespoons of butter evenly over the top of the pie filling. Place another pie crust over the top of the pie and press down the edges. Trim off excess pie crust around pie plate. Use crust strips on cherry optional Sprinkle a little sugar over the top of pie crust for extra flavor and texture.
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Cook pie in preheated oven at 400 degrees for 45 minutes to an hour depending on your oven, or until golden brown. This All American classic will go perfect at any tailgate party, barbecue, potluck or anytime. Enjoy!


Peach Pie Recipe! Peach Pie Ingredients: 4 cups sliced fresh peaches 2/3 cup sugar 3 tablespoons of flour 1 pinch of salt 1 teaspoon of almond flavoring 2 tablespoons of butter 1 teaspoon of orange zest 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg "optional" Procedure: Mix flour, salt, and nutmeg together first. Then add orange zest and peaches and mix it all together well. Once you have your pie filling prepared then place your pie crust into the pie pan. Place your pie filling evenly in bottom of the pie plate. Place small chunks of the 2 tablespoons of butter evenly over the top of the pie filling. Place another pie crust over the top of the pie and press down the edges. Trim off excess pie crust around pie plate. use crust strips on cherry optional Sprinkle a little sugar over the top of pie crust for extra flavor and texture. Cook pie in preheated oven at 400 degrees for 45 minutes to an hour depending on your oven or until golden brown.
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Bring this delectable dessert to a tailgate party, barbecue or potluck Enjoy!

Louisiana Meat Pie Pierogi Filling 1 pounds ground beef 1 pounds ground pork 1 cup green onions, chopped 2-3 cloves garlic, finely chopped 1 tablespoon salt 1 teaspoon freshly ground pepper teaspoon cayenne pepper 1/3 cup all-purpose flour 153

Dough Recipe adapted from Russian Style Pierogi by Anula of Anulas Kitchen 2 to 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 large egg 1 teaspoon (5 ml) salt About 1 cup (250 ml) lukewarm water Place 2 cups flour in a large bowl or on a work surface and make a well in the center. Break the egg into it; add the salt and add the water, a little at a time. Bring the dough together, kneading well and adding more flour or water as necessary. Cover the dough with a bowl or towel. Let rest 20-30 minutes. Combine ground beef, ground pork, onion, garlic, and seasonings in a large pot. Cook over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally until the meat is cooked. Add the flour, stirring well to combine. Remove from heat and cool to room temperature. On a floured work surface, roll the dough out thinly and cut with a large glass. Spoon a portion of the filling into the middle of each circle. Fold dough in half and pinch edges together or crimp closed with a fork. Gather scraps, re-roll and fill. Repeat with remaining dough. Heat enough vegetable oil in a large pot to cover the pierogi, about 3
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to 4 inches deep. Once hot, add the pierogi in batches, being careful not to crowd the pot. Turning once, cooks the pierogi until golden brown and crisp. Place cooked pierogi on a large plate, lined with paper towels to absorb excess oil. Repeat in batches as necessary. Serve warm Dumplings Savory Meat Pies Ingredients: (makes about 10 pies) 400 gms. Chicken thigh meat, cut into small cubes 200 gms. Roasted peanuts, grinded finely 100 gms. dried shrimps, presoaked and chopped finely 5-6 dried mushrooms, presoaked and chopped finely 2 tsp. coriander powder 2 medium-sized shallots, minced 2 cloves garlic, minced 1 Tbsp. dark soy sauce 2 tsp. sugar salt and pepper to taste 1 beaten egg mixed with some milk 1 box Pillsbury Pie crust, thaw at room temperature Non-stick baking tray Method: 1. Heat oil in pan and fry garlic and shallots until soft. Add in mushrooms and dried shrimps and fry until fragrant. Then add the
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chicken meat and seasonings and stir until cooked. Season to taste with salt and/or sugar. Remove from heat and let cool. When completely cool, add in the peanuts. 2. Preheat oven to 450F. Roll out pastry and cut into rounds. Put a tablespoon of filling in middle; moisten edges with some water to seal. Brush with egg wash and sprinkle with sesame seeds on top. Bake for about 10-15 minutes till golden brown. Serve warm.

HISTORY OF CAKES 155 Cake is a term with a long history (the word is of Viking origin, from the Old Norse kaka)and denotes a baked flour confection sweetened with sugar or honey; it is mixed with eggs and often, but not invariably, with milk and fat; and it has a porous texture from the mixture rising during cooking. It is not surprising that the frontiers between cake and bread, biscuit and bun are indistinct. The progenitor of all is bread in its simplest form. As techniques for baking and leavening developed, and eating patterns changed, what were originally regarded as forms of bread came to be seen as categories of their own and named accordingly. Certain Roman breads, enriched with eggs and butter, must have achieved a cakelike consistency and thus approached one of these indistinct frontiers. Europe and places such as North America where European influence is strong have always been the center of cakes. One might even draw a line more tightly, forum English-speaking areas. No other language has a word that means exactly the same as the English 'cake.' The continental European gateau and torte often contain higher proportions of butter, eggs and enriching ingredients such as chocolate, and often lean toward pastry rather than cake. Central and East European items such as baba and the Easter kulich are likewise different. The western tradition of cakes applies little in Asia. In some countries western-style cakes have been adopted on a small scale, for example the small sponge cakes called kasutera in Japan. But the 'cakes' which are important in Asian are quite different from anything occidental for examples, see moon cakes and rice cakes of the Philippines.
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The history of cakes goes a long way back. Among the remains found in Swiss lake villages were crude cakes make from roughly crushed gains, moistened, compacted and cooked on a hot stone. Such cakes can be regarded as a form of unleavened bread, as the precursor of all modern European baked products. Some modern survivors of these mixtures still go by the name 'cake', for instance oatcakes, although these are now considered to be more closely related to biscuits by virtue of their flat, thin shape and brittle texture. Ancient Egypt was the first culture to show evidence of true skill in baking, making many kinds of bread including some sweetened with hone. The Greeks had a form of cheesecake and the Romans developed early versions of fruitcakes with raisins, nuts and other fruits. These ended up in 14th century Britain. Chaucer mentions immense cakes made for special occasions. One was made with 13 kilograms of flour and contained butter, cream, eggs, spices, currants and honey. Molds, in the form of cake hoops or pans have been used for forming cakes since at least the mid-17th century. Most cakes were eaten accompanied by a glass of sweet wine or tea. At large banquets, 156 elaborately decorated cakes might form part of the display, but would probably not be eaten. By the mid-19th century the French were including a separate "sweet" course at the end of the meal which might include 'gateau.' During the 19th century, technology made the cake-baker's life much easier. The chemical raising agent bicarbonate of soda, introduced in the 1840's, followed by baking powder ( a dry mixture of bicarbonate of soda with a mild acid), replaced yeast, providing a greater leavening power with less effort. Another technology breakthrough was more accurate temperature controlled ovens. In most of NW Europe and North America a well-developed tradition of home baking survives, with a huge repertoire of cake recipes developed from the basic methods. The ability to bake a good cake was a prized skill among housewives in the early to mid-20th century, when many households could produce a simple robust, filling 'cut and come again' cake, implying abundance and hospitality. Although the popularity of home baking and the role of cakes in the diet have both changed during the 20th century, cakes remain almost ubiquitous in the western world. They have kept their image as



'treats' and maintain their ceremonial importance at weddings and birthdays. Kinds of Cakes 1. Sponge Cake or Angel Cake it is made without shortenings. 2. Chiffon Cake - a cake which contains fat or oil liquid. 3. Butter Cake - a cake containing fats. Guides to Successful baking and test for Doneness of Cake 1. Use accurately listed recipes 2. Read the entire recipes and try to visualize each step. 3. Use only the best material they are most economical at the end 4. Have all the utensils and materials on hand collect together before starting the work. 5. Baking pan, come in many sizes, and note how much the recipes makes before deciding which pan to use. Prepare them before starting the work. 6. Light and adjust the oven and preheat 10 minutes. Before using. 7. Sift flour using sift flour.

Causes of Failure of Cakes 1. 2. 3. 4. Coarse texture 157 Too much leavening Not enough liquid Insufficient mixing with measuring amount of shortening and sugar 5. Too slow on oven 6. Heavy compact texture 7. Too much shortening or sugar 8. Extreme oven heating 9. A dry cake 10.Too much flour 11. Over-beaten egg whites 12. Over heat of baking
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13.Too hot on oven 14.Hump or crack on top 15.Moist sticky crust 16.Under mixing 17.Cake falling 18.Moving cake during baking Ingredients used and causes of Failure of Cake
1. Flour- forms by structure of frame work of the finished product. 2. Liquid- hydrates form and acts as solvent for sugar, salt and 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

protein. Fats- improve the flavor, texture and keeping quality of product. Cream of tartar- acts as stabilizer for the beaten egg whites. Egg- add flavor, color and firm less to the cook products. Sugar- adds flavor or sweetness. Leavening agent- affects the lightness and curiosity of a flavor mixture Salt- add flavor. Flavoring extract- modifies the flavor and gives around to the finished products.

Method of Mixing Cake Containing Fat 1. Muffin Method/ Chiffon Cake a. Sift dry ingredients together- flour, leavening agent, salt and sugar. 158 b. Combine liquid ingredients- milk, beaten eggs, flavoring and melted fat c. Add liquid ingredients to dry ingredients- by making a hole in the center and pouring the liquid ingredients into the bowl. 1. Conventional Method/ Butter cake a. Cream fat until light and fluffy
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b. Add sugar gradually and continue creaming until blend into a fluffy mass. c. Add egg yolk and beat until they are well blended with fat and sugar. d. Sift dry ingredients, flour and salt together. e. Add flour mixture alternately with milk flavoring. f. Begin and end with flour. 1. New Speed Method/ Sponge Cake a. Sift dry ingredients. Flour, leavening agent and salt together into mixing bowl. b. Add the fat, milk and flavoring. c. Beat vigorously for two minutes by hand. d. Add the beaten eggs and beat for another two mixture. Origin of Cakes Cakes were initially called by the name plakous by the Greeks, which is a similar word to flat. These were a combination of nuts and honey. Besides, they also made a cake called "satura," which was a flat heavy cake. It is also believed that the Greeks offered round shaped cake to the Goddess of Moon called Artemis. It is this for reason that even candles were placed on the cake to make it glow like the moon. The Romans followed the suite, with a slight change in the name of the cake, which became "placenta" as derived from the Greek term. They were even called "libum" by the Romans and were primarily used as an offering to their gods. Placenta was sort of a cheesecake, baked on a pastry base, or sometimes inside a pastry case. Moreover, there were three types of birthdays celebrated by Romans, including private celebrations with family and friends, city and temple birthdays and the birthdays of past and present emperors or members of the imperial family. It is even said that the 50th year was celebrated with a honey cake made of wheat flour, grated cheese, honey, and olive oil.

Nevertheless, the cakes of that era bore little resemblance to the modern day birthday cakes. They were primarily made up of cereal grain meal, moistened with water or wine. They were possibly leavened with some form of yeast and sweetened with honey. The cakes were usually shaped into flattened rounds and 159


baked by being turned over on a griddle. Even the word cake is said to have been coined in early 13th century. It is derived from an Old Norse word, kaka. Ancient Greeks referred their cakes as breads as there was little distinction between the two.

Some say about wedding and anniversary cakes, that during the 19th century, it was the custom to serve a christening cake following the birth of the first child. The idea of preserving the top tier of the wedding cake apparently grew out of this practice. It was a practical tradition that assumed the birth of the first child not long after the wedding. Gradually though, the gap of time between the wedding and the birth of the firstborn widened. At this point, the christening cake deferred to the concept of an anniversary cake that celebrated the wedding itself, and not a christening. French Connection Decorated wedding and anniversary cakes owe their origin in part to French bakers of the mid-19th century, when elaboratelydecorated sweets were placed on the menu as desserts. This fashionable practice soon spread throughout Europe. Around 1840, the advent of baking powder, baking soda and temperature-controlled ovens paved the way for the forerunners of today's most sophisticated wedding and anniversary cakes. Expensive Icing An interesting sidebar to the origin of wedding and anniversary cakes involves the icing. The ingredients to make white icing were once very expensive and difficult to obtain. As a result, wedding cakes with the whitest icing were considered to reflect the affluence of the bride's family, who had spared no expense in the creation of the cake




Carrots Cake Ingredients 3 cups grated carrots 4 eggs 1 1/4 cups vegetable oil 2 cups white sugar 2 cups sifted all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 2 teaspoons baking soda 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1 cup golden raisins 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar 1 (3 ounce) package cream cheese 1 tablespoon light corn syrup 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract

Directions 1. Beat together the eggs, oil, and white sugar. Blend mixture for thirty seconds. 2. Sift together flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices. Add the carrots and raisins. Pour egg mixture into dry ingredients, and mix well 3. Pour batter into well-greased 10 inch tube or Bundt pan. Bake at 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) oven for 60 to 70 minutes. Cool cake on wire rack, and then refrigerate until completely cooled.



4. To make Cream Cheese Glaze: Blend together confectioners' sugar, cream cheese, corn syrup, and vanilla. Spread over cooled cake

Lemon Chiffon Cake Cake: 161 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 1/2 cups granulated sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt 3/4 cup cold water 1/2 cup vegetable oil 2 teaspoons vanilla 1 tablespoon grated lemon zest 7 large egg yolks 1 cup egg whites (about 8 large eggs) 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar Lemon Glaze: 1/3 cup butter or margarine (5-1/3 tablespoons) 2 cups powdered sugar 1/2 teaspoon grated lemon zest 2 to 4 tablespoons lemon juice, warmed 2 drops yellow food coloring, or more (optional) 12 lemon jell slices and mint springs, for garnish (optional) Procedure: Move oven rack to lowest position. Heat oven to 325F. In large bowl, mix flour, sugar, baking powder and salt. Beat in cold water, oil, vanilla, lemon zest and egg yolks until smooth. Wash and dry beaters. In large bowl, beat egg whites and cream of tartar with electric mixer on high speed until stiff peaks form. Gradually pour flour mixture over beaten egg whites, folding with rubber spatula just until blended. Pour into ungreased 10-inch angel food (tube) cake pan. Bake about 1 hour 15 minutes or until top springs back when touched lightly. Immediately turn pan upside down onto heatproof funnel or bottle. Let hang until completely cool, about 2 hours. Loosen side of cake with knife or long, metal spatula; remove from pan. In 1 1/2-quart saucepan, melt butter over low heat; remove from heat. Stir in powdered sugar and lemon zest until smooth. Stir in lemon juice, 1 tablespoon at a time, until smooth and the consistency of thick



syrup. Add yellow food coloring if desired. Spread glaze over top of cake, allowing some to drizzle down side. Garnish with jell slices and mint, if desired. Serve at room temperature. Notes: If using self-rising flour, there is no need to add baking powder and salt. Be sure not to get any egg yolks into the egg whites while separating the eggs, because even a speck of yolk will prevent the whites from beating properly. 162

Black Forest Cake Ingredients Chocolate Cake 1 3/4 cups all purpose flour 2 cups sugar 3/4 cup Dutch process cocoa 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 2 eggs 1 cup buttermilk or milk 1/2 cup corn oil or vegetable oil 2 teaspoons vanilla extract 1 cup strong coffee OR 1 Tablespoons coffee powder diluted in boiling water. Icing & Decoration 500 ml all-purpose cream 4 tablespoons caster sugar
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6 tablespoons simple sugar syrup (recipe at the bottom) 3 tablespoons Kirsch or brandy or rum- replace with water if youre serving to kids 1 jar/bottle (26-oz) Maraschino cherries 6 ounces dark chocolate, finely grated ( for the side of the cake), 3 ounces grated dark chocolate for topping Directions Preheat oven to 350F. Grease and flour 2 9-inch baking pans. Make the cake: Sift dry ingredients twice in a bowl; set aside. Mix eggs, milk, oil and vanilla in another bowl, stir well and pour into the flour mixture, mix well with a wire whisk to combine. Stir in hot coffee. Pour into baking pans and bake in the oven for 30-35 minutes or until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean. Take it out of the oven and cool for 5-10 minutes in the pan then invert in a wire 163 rack to cool completely. You can make this cake a day ahead; cover it in plastic wrap, then with foil and keep it in the fridge or you freeze it up to 3 months. Whip the cream and sugar until stiff. To make sugar syrup: Mix 1 cup of sugar and 2 cups water in a pan, stir until the sugar completely dissolves then bring to a boil, let boil for a full minute then turn off heat. Transfer to a clean jar or container, let cool and cover. This will keep indefinitely in the fridge; you can use this to sweeten iced tea and other beverage. The ratio is 1:2 sugars to water in case you want to make more or less :) Assembly Level the top of each cake with a serrated knife; lay one cake in a cake platter or cake stand. If you have a cake board thats even better. Put a strip of parchment paper of foil under the cake to protect the cake stand. Brush the top and sides of the cake with the sugar syrup mixture. Lay pieces of cherry halves on the cake, then spread 1/2 cup of whipped cream on top, level with a spatula. Carefully lay down the other cake layer on top; brush top with syrup and spread about a cup of whipped cream on top and sides of the cake, smooth it with a spatula. note: At this point you may go ahead and use your creativity and decorate the cake as you wish, topping it with cherries and chocolate on top of courseor if you want to make it look like mines, follow my
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directions below but I have to warn you, Im not very good in putting it down in writing, if you get confused or you found some mistakes, Im sorryplease let me know so I can correct it. Here goes... Pat grated chocolates around the sides of the cake using a spatula or your other hand (this can be a tricky if you have naturally warm hands) Put the remaining whipped cream in a piping bag fitted with a medium size star nozzle. Pipe mounds around the top; using a smaller star, pipe a small circle of mounds in the very center of the cake. Sprinkle grated/shaved chocolates around then arrange cherries in the middle. Pull the strips of parchment paper/foil from underneath the cake and there, youre done

Sponge Cake Ingredients Zest from 1/2 lemon 1 cup sugar 1 cup unsalted butter, Softened at room temperature 4 large eggs 2 tablespoons warm water 1/2 teaspoon real vanilla 2 teaspoons lemon juice 2 cups cake flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt Preparation 1. Put the sugar and lemon zest in a blender or food processor. Blend until the lemon zest is fine. Add this mixture to the softened butter. Beat with a mixer on medium until fluffy. This should take about 5 minutes.
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2. Add the eggs to the sugar and butter one at a time, beating well after adding each one. Add the water, lemon juice, and vanilla. In a different bowl, use a whisk to mix the flour, baking powder, and salt. Add half of the flour mixture to the rest of the ingredients. Mix on low. Then add the rest of the flour mixture. 3. Now beat at medium speed until the cake batter becomes shiny. The mixture should also turn a white color. Do not skip this step or reduce the mixing time. The longer you mix the batter, the more air bubbles you create. This is what makes sponge cake recipes light and fluffy. This step of the sponge cake recipe should take about 15 minutes. 4. Pour sponge cake batter into two round cake pans that have been greased with shortening well and liberally floured. If they haven't been greased and floured thoroughly, your sponge cake recipe will stick to the cake pans. 5. Bake lemon sponge cake in a preheated 350 degrees Fahrenheit oven for approximately 25-30 minutes. The sponge cake should pull gently from the sides. It will be golden in color and spongy to the touch. It should spring back when touched. To be sure the sponge cake is done, test the center with a toothpick and see if it comes out clean. Do not open the oven while the sponge cake is baking. 6. Remove the lemon sponge cake from the oven and let cool on a wire rack for about 10-15 minutes before removing the cake from the cake pans. Let the sponge cake cool completely before frosting it. A lemon glaze would work well with this basic sponge cake recipe. Of course, frosting a sponge cake is optional. Plain sponge cake recipes are delicious by themselves. Chocolate Cake Roll Recipe Ingredients 6 eggs, separated 1 cup sugar, divided 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/4 cup all-purpose flour 1/4 cup HERSHEYS Cocoa 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar



1-1/2 cups heavy whipping cream 2 tablespoons confectioners' sugar Additional confectioners' sugar


Place egg whites in a small bowl; let stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. In a large bowl, beat egg yolks on high speed until light and fluffy. Gradually add 1/2 cup sugar, beating until thick and lemon-colored. Stir in vanilla. Combine the flour, cocoa and salt; add to egg yolk mixture until blended. Beat egg whites on medium until foamy. Add cream of tartar; beat until soft peaks form. Gradually add remaining sugar, 1 tablespoon at a time, beating on high until stiff peaks form. Stir a fourth of the egg white mixture into chocolate mixture. Fold in remaining egg white mixture. Line a greased 15-in. x 10-in. x 1-n. baking pan with parchment paper; greased the paper. Spread batter evenly in pan. Bake at 350 for 12-15 minutes or until cake springs back when lightly touched in center (do not over bake). Cool for 5 minutes; invert onto a kitchen towel dusted with confectioners' sugar. Gently peel off parchment paper. Roll up cake in the towel jelly-roll style, starting with a short side. Cool completely on a wire racks. In a large bowl, beat cream and confectioners' sugar until stiff peaks form; chill. Unroll cake; spread with whipped cream to within 1/2 in. of edges. Roll up again. Place seam down on serving platter; chill. Dust with additional confectioners' sugar before serving. Yield: 12 servings.

Marble Tube Cake Marble Cake Recipe: 166



1 ounces (55 grams) bittersweet or semisweet chocolate, chopped 1 tablespoon brewed coffee or espresso 21/4 cups (290 grams) cake flour 1 tablespoon baking 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1/2 cup (113 grams) unsalted butter, room temperature 1 1/4 cups (250 grams) granulated white sugar 2 large eggs 2 teaspoons pure vanilla extract 3/4 cup (180 ml) sour cream or plain yogurt 1/3 cup (80 ml) milk Marble Cake: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (177 degrees C) and place rack in center of oven. Butter, or spray with a nonstick spray, a 10 inch (25 cm) Bundt or tube pan. In a stainless steel bowl, placed over a saucepan of simmering water, melt the semisweet chocolate with the coffee. Remove from heat and set aside. In a separate bowl sift together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and ground cinnamon. In the bowl of your electric mixer (or with a hand mixer), beat the butter until smooth and creamy. Gradually add the sugar and continue to beat until the mixture is light and fluffy (about 3-5 minutes). Scrape down the sides of the bowl as needed. Add eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition. Beat in the vanilla extract and sour cream. With the mixer on low speed alternately add the flour mixture and the milk to the batter, in three additions, beginning and ending with the flour. After preparing the batter, pour half of the batter into a separate bowl. Stir the melted chocolate into one half of the batter, mixing well. Place the batter into the prepared pan by alternating spoons of vanilla batter and chocolate batter. Then, with the end of a wooden spoon, gently draw swirls through the batter to marbleize it. Don't over mix or you won't have that wonderful marble affect. Bake for about 45 - 60 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean. Remove from oven and place on a wire rack to cool for about 10 minutes
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before removing the cake from the pan to cool completely. Serve warm, drizzle with chocolate syrup. This cake will keep for a couple. English Cheesecake For Crust: 1 cups all-purpose flour cup sugar 1/3 cup butter or margarine 4 tbsp. cold beer For Fillings: cup golden raisins (chopped) 1/3 cup almonds (chopped) 1 tbsp. grated lemon peel 1 pound cottage cheese cup flour 4 eggs 1 cup sugar cup beer 1/8 tsp. nutmeg Preparations: 1. For crust, mix flour and sugar; cut in butter until crumbly. Add beer 1 tablespoon at a time, stirring with a fork. Shape dough into a ball. 2. Roll out in floured surface to a 13 to 14 inch circle. Fold in quarters. Gently unfold in a 9 inch spring form pan. (1 inches up sides if using a 10 inch pan). Prick all over with fork. 3. Bake at 425 degrees F for 10 minutes. Prick again and press to sides. Bake 10 minutes more, or until slightly golden. 4. For filling, mix chopped raisins, almonds and peel. 5. Process or electric blender. (do in several batches in blender.)



6. Add sugar, beer, and nutmeg; blend until smooth. Stir in raisin mixture. Pour into cooled shell. 7. Bake at 300 degrees F 1 to 1 hours, or until set. Cool to room temperature for serving. Dust with confectioner sugar and top with chopped almonds.
To 10 servings.

Cake Decoration
-is the processing of making the cakes. Different in appearance after baking. It varies the way it is decorated. 168 History of cake Decoration Cake decorating has some very interesting roots. Cake decorating is actually one of the newer edible arts, especially when it is compared to other culinary arts. Cake decorating appears to have gotten its start back in the mid-17th century. It is probably no coincidence at all that this is the same time that cake pans first made their appearance in domestic kitchens across Northern Europe. At the beginning in the mid17th century, cake decorating began to gain much popularity as a means to create elaborate desserts. These elaborate cake desserts were often used as displays during feasts and banquets. In most case, only the wealthiest aristocracy could afford to put on such confectionary displays. However, in most cases these were mainly used as decorative display pieces, and they were not eaten. The 19th Century Brings Cake Decorating to the Masses The history of cake decorating truly picked up steam at the start of the mid-19th century. During this period in history, the French began to serve the dessert as a separate sweet course and it began to be served at the very end of a complete meal. It was during this time that desserts, mostly in the form of confectionary treats and cakes, began to make their appearance on dessert and banquet tables across many parts of Europe. The Advent of Temperature-Controlled Ovens Make Cake Decorating Possible During the period of the 1840s, a new development in kitchen technology made cakes more popular and prominent than ever before. The temperature controlled oven emerged as an important piece of
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kitchen technology. This development made baking much more easy and convenient. It was during this period that cake baking became much more popular with those who had access to a temperature controlled oven. The First Instances of Cake Decorating During this early period in the history of widespread cake decorating, most cake decorating still consisted mainly of the old difficult English method. This method generally consisted of decorating with over piping. Cakes were most likely covered in rolled fondant. The borders would usually be very intricately over piped on the cake. There was another important development during this same period, and it had to do with the introduction of baking powder and baking soda. These, of course, are very important ingredients that revolutionized cooking and baking. These ingredients made it much easier to get the kind of dough consistency necessary in order to do widespread baking. The 20th Century Brings the Wilton Method to Kitchens Everywhere Around the year 1929, a new method began to be developed that would transform the way baking and cake decoration was accomplished. An American business known as Wilton Enterprises began to put on their own cake decorating classes. These classes were often advertised to chefs, caterers and other enterprising gourmands with a serious interest in cake decorating and baking. The Wilton's, in 1947, began to promote their own line of cake decorating products and baking utensils. These made a big splash and had a big influence on how thousands of people began to decorate their cakes and approach their own personal baking. Eventually, the Wilton Method became the most accepted method for approaching cake decoration. However, in the 1980s, the company merged with another company. Today, there is no one accepted way bake and decorate a cake. Even though baking from scratch decreased during the latter part of the 20th century in the United States decorated cakes have remained an important part of celebrations such as weddings, anniversaries, birthdays, showers and other special occasions.[1] Recently cakes decorated with fondant have become extremely popular and resulted in several reality based TV shows across the country. Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise
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plain cakes more visually interesting. Alternatively, cakes can be molded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons, places and things. In many areas of the world, decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a birthday, graduation, bridal shower, wedding, or anniversary. Origin What are the origins of cake decorating? Compared to other forms of food preparation, it is actually one of the newer culinary arts. Decorating cakes can be traced back to the mid-17th century. This is around the same time, probably not coincidentally, that cake pans made their first appearance in domestic kitchens across Northeastern Europe. Beginning in the mid-17th century, it gained widespread popularity as a way to create elaborate desserts that were used as displays during the feasts and banquets of the wealthiest aristocracy. However, these were mainly used as display pieces. Cake as we know it today has only been around for a couple hundred years. Cake is thousands of years old but the cake that originated in Ancient Egypt was not like the cake we know today. Cake in ancient times and until about the 1700s was more like what we consider bread; it was spongy and had a bread-like consistency. Cakes in North Africa and the Mediterranean often were more like pastries or cheesecake. 170 The first cakes were yeast based, like bread, which is why they had the same type of consistency. The first non-yeast cake was sponge cake, which is still enjoyed today, although not usually in the same way that dairy based cakes like we have today are enjoyed. Dairy based cakes, cakes that are made with butter, eggs and baking powder, are the cakes most often used in modern cake decorating. In the 1700s, women in Europe started using special cake pans to create that kind of flour based cake that were more familiar with today. It became very popular for royalty and aristocracy in Europe to compete with each other to see who could serve the most ornate and unique cakes and pastries. Great chefs and cooks who could produce fine pastry and exceptionally decorated cakes were given places of high esteem in the household and could become quite rich for their art. The French were the first people to serve dessert as a separate course and not as part of a larger meal.



Different Appearance of Cake Decoration 1. Wedding Cake- it usually white with pasted color with a miniature of a couple on top. 2. Birthday cake- age and sex varies the form and symbols. 3. Anniversary Cakes- the decoration determine the symbols. 4. Christmas Cake- are chosen among any direction which will give a symbols to the occasion. There is also class of icings. The royal and fondant icing. Two Types of cake decorating a) Uncooked icing- where confectioner sugar as powdered sugar is added to a liquid. Royal Icing Royal icing is typically made with a meringue powder and creates candy hard decorations that last for months. It holds the hues of the deepest colors but needs more pigment than other types of icing to hold its color. It's important to cover icing with a damp cloth when working with it so it doesn't crust over. All bowls and utensils used to mix it must be grease free since grease ruins its consistency. Royal icing is good for creating flowers and figure piping and is commonly used to decorate gingerbread houses and cookies.

171 Whipped icing mix has a delicate vanilla flavor that can be changed to chocolate by adding sifted cocoa flower. It holds its shape well and can be used to create flowers, borders and writing on cakes and other types of bakery. Buttercream Buttercream has a thin to stiff consistency that works well for creating borders and writing. It's often used for floral cake decorations and figure piping which remain soft enough to cut with a knife even if the cake has been sitting a full day or two. It has a sweet, buttery taste and holds all colors well. Colors darken after mixing so it's a good idea to allow the icing to set for three hours before applying. Buttercream can be stored in the fridge for up to two weeks as long as the container is airtight.
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Whipped Icing Mix

Snow-White Buttercream This type of icing has a pure white base color that creates truer colors and a sweet almond taste that makes it popular on wedding cakes. Flowers created with snow-white buttercream icing have a translucent look if air dried and remain soft enough to cut with a knife even after a day of sitting. Icing remains fresh for up to two weeks if refrigerated in an airtight container. a) Boiled Icing- includes fondant and fudge. Rolled Fondant Rolled fondant cake icing has a dough-like consistency that allows you to knead in whatever flavor you choose. It creates a smooth, satiny surface on the cake and remains semi-soft. It holds a variety of colors from light pastels to deeper hues. It works well on pound cake, fruit cake and any other firm textured cake. Rolled fondant is typically used for modeling, cutting or molding decorations. Extra icing can be stored at room temperature for up to two months in an airtight container. It should not be frozen or refrigerated. Iced cakes stay fresh for up to four days at room temperature. Seal cake freshness and moisture with glaze or buttercream icing before applying the fondant. Quick Pour Fondant This type of icing holds light colors better, must be used immediately and coats bakery with a satiny iced surface that seals freshness and dries to a smooth, semi-hard surface.

Fluffy Boiled Icing 172 Entirely fat-free with a marshmallow-like taste that makes it popular for string work, figure piping, borders and writing and a fluffy consistency that sets fast. Yields deep hues and pastels. Any bakery decorated with fluffy boiled icing needs to be served within 24 hours. Factors to consider in decorating Cake We to know who owns the cake to be decorated and for what occasions it will be served.



Age, sex and occasion, should be known by the person who is going to decorate the cake because thought these you will know the color to be used. If cake is own by anybody color pasted like pink, yellow, blue and white is for top. Multi-colored candies are the best to make colorful and attractive color. Sometimes, age is also known by the used of candles, nuts, flowers and fruits may also be used for decoration depending upon the taste of the individuals. Ingredients in Icing and Function 1. Powder sugar- the best sugar used in icing. This id the framework in making icing. 2. The Egg whites- this is used for binding the sugar in order to make a desire shape and design. 3. Lemon juice- is very important in reducing icing for the mixture is preferable when added with iced. 4. Glucose- is used to make paste like mixture. Making wire Flowers There are several tools in making wire flowers like paste and cup paper. There are also wires that could be bought ready-made. Wires are essentials in flower making. They hold the flowers for the cake. Making flower in advanced requires because it will be hard to apply color and the flower could be packed anytime it is needed. Flowers required a long period of time to prepare in making flower with wires choose the twin wire

Different Appearance of Cake Decoration




50th Anniversary Cake Decoration Decoration

Christmas Cake

Birthday Cake Decoration Decoration

Wedding Cake




Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and often, additional ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed, fried, or baked on an unoiled skillet. It may be leavened or unleavened. Salt, fatand leavening agents such as yeast and baking soda are common ingredients, though bread may contain other ingredients, such as milk, egg, sugar, spice, fruit (such as raisins), vegetables (such as onion), nuts (such as walnuts) or seeds (such aspoppy). Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era, and is referred to colloquially as the "staff of life". The development of leavened bread can probably also be traced to prehistoric times. Fresh bread is prized for its taste, aroma, quality, appearance and texture. Retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is sometimes wrapped in paper orplastic film, or stored in a container such as a breadbox to reduce drying. Bread that is kept in warm, moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. Bread kept at low temperatures, in a refrigerator for example, will develop mold growth more slowly than bread kept at room temperature, but will turn stale quickly due to retrogradation. The soft, inner part of bread is known to bakers and other culinary professionals as the crumb, which is not to be confused with small bits of bread that often fall off, called crumbs. The outer hard portion of bread is called the crust. History Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.[2] It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest will become naturally leavened.[3] There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples." Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed ofgrape juice and flour that was allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped
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in wine, as a source for yeast. The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter.[4] A major advance happened in 1961 with the development of the Chorleywood bread process, which used the intense mechanical working of dough to dramatically reduce the fermentation period and the time taken to produce a loaf. The process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now widely used around the world in large factories. Recently, domestic bread machines which automate the process of making bread have become popular. Kinds of bread White bread is made from flour containing only the central core of the grain (endosperm). Brown bread is made with endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread with added colouring (often caramel colouring) to make it 'brown'; commonly labeled in America as "Wheat" bread (as opposed to "Whole Wheat" bread).[8] Wholemeal bread contains the whole of the wheat grain (endosperm and bran). It is also referred to as 'whole grain' or 'whole wheat' bread, especially in North America. Wheat germ bread has added wheat germ for flavoring. Whole grain bread can refer to the same as 'wholemeal bread', or to white bread with added whole grains to increase its fibre content, i.e., as in "60% whole grain bread". Roti is a whole wheat based bread eaten in South Asia. Chapatti is a larger variant of Roti. Naan is a leavened equivalent to these. Granary bread is made from flaked malted wheat grains and white or brown flour, and trademarked to Hovis. The standard malting process is modified to maximise maltose / sugar content but minimise residual alpha amylase content. Other flavour components are imparted from partial fermentation due to the particular malting process used and to Maillard reactions on flaking / toasting. Rye bread is made with flour from rye grain of varying levels. It is higher in fiber than many common types of bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor. It is popular in Scandinavia, Germany, Finland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Unleavened Bread or Matzah used for the Jewish feast of Passover, does not include yeast, thus it does not rise.
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Sourdough bread is made with a starter. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service are inventing new wholegrain oat and barley breads that offer more antioxidants and fibers than traditional whole-grain breads. Flatbread, is often simple, made with flour, water, and salt and then formed into flattened dough; most are unleavened, made without yeast or sourdough culture, some are made with yeast. 176 Ingredients in Making Bread 1. Flour is a product made from grain that has been ground into a powdery consistency. Flour provides the primary structure to the final baked bread. Commonly available flours are made from rye, barley, maize, and other grains, but wheat flour is most commonly used for breads. Each of these grains provides the starch and protein needed to form bread. The quantity of the proteins contained in the flour serve as the best indicator of the quality of the bread dough and the finished bread. While bread can be made from all-purpose wheat flour, for quality bread a specialty bread flour, containing more protein, is recommended. If one uses a flour with a lower (9-11%) protein content to produce bread, a longer mixing time will be required to develop gluten strength properly. This extended mixing time leads to oxidization of the dough, [citation needed] which gives the finished product a whiter crumb, instead of the cream color preferred by most artisan bakers. Wheat flour, in addition to its starch, contains three water-soluble protein groups, albumin, globulin, proteoses, and two water insoluble protein groups, glutenin and gliadin. When flour is mixed with water, the water-soluble proteins dissolve, leaving the glutenin and gliadin to form the structure of the resulting dough. When worked by kneading, the glutenin forms strands of long, thin, chainlike molecules, while the shorter gliadin forms bridges between the strands of glutenin. The resulting networks of strands produced by these two proteins are known as gluten. Gluten development improves if the dough is allowed to autolyse. 2. Liquids-Water, or some other liquid, is used to form the flour into a paste or dough. The volume of liquid required varies between recipes, but a ratio of 1 part liquid to 3 parts flour is common for yeast breads, while recipes that use steam as the primary leavening method may have a liquid content in excess of one part liquid to one part flour by volume. Instead of water, other types of liquids, such as dairy products, fruit juices, or beer, may be used; they



contribute additional sweeteners, fats, and/or leavening components, as well as water. 3. Leavening is the process of adding gas to a dough before or during baking to produce a lighter, more easily chewed bread. Most bread consumed in the West is leavened. Unleavened breads have symbolic importance in Judaism and Christianity. Jews consume unleavened bread called matzo during Passover. Roman Catholic and some Protestant Christians consume unleavened bread during the Christian liturgy when they celebrate the Eucharist, a rite derived from the narrative of the Last Supper when Jesus broke bread with his disciples, perhaps during a Passover Seder. In contrast, Orthodox Christians always use leavened bread during their liturgy. 177 4. Yeast used for leavening bread is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same species used for brewing alcoholic beverages. This yeast ferments carbohydrates in the flour, including any sugar, producing carbon dioxide. Most bakers in the U.S. leaven their dough with commercially produced baker's yeast. Baker's yeast has the advantage of producing uniform, quick, and reliable results, because it is obtained from a pure culture. Many artisan bakers produce their own yeast by preparing a 'growth culture' which they then use in the making of bread. When this culture is kept in the right conditions, it will continue to grow and provide leavening for many years. Both the baker's yeast and the sourdough method of baking bread follow the same pattern. Water is mixed with flour, salt and the leavening agent (baker's yeast or sourdough starter). Other additions (spices, herbs, fats, seeds, fruit, etc.) are not needed to bake bread, but are often used. The mixed dough is then allowed to rise one or more times (a longer rising time results in more flavor, so bakers often punch down the dough and let it rise again), then loaves are formed, and (after an optional final rising time) the bread is baked in an oven. 5. Fats or shortenings - Fats such as butter, vegetable oils, lard, or that contained in eggs affects the development of gluten in breads by coating and lubricating the individual strands of protein and also helping hold the structure together. If too much fat is included in a bread dough, the lubrication effect will cause the protein structures to divide. A fat content of approximately 3% by weight is the concentration that will produce the greatest leavening action.
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[citation needed] In addition to their effects on leavening, fats also serve to tenderize the breads they are used in and also help to keep the bread fresh longer after baking. 6. Bread improvers are often used in producing commercial breads to reduce the time needed for rising, and to improve texture and volume. Chemical substances commonly used as bread improvers include ascorbic acid, hydrochloride, sodium metabisulfate, ammonium chloride, various phosphates, amylase, and protease. Sodium/salt is one of the most common additives used in production. In addition to enhancing flavor and restricting yeast activity, salt affects the crumb and the overall texture by stabilizing and strengthening[11] the gluten. Some artisan bakers are foregoing early addition of salt to the dough, and are waiting until after a 20 minute "rest." This is known as an autolysin,[12] and is done with both refined and with whole grain flours. 178

Healthy Wheat Bread Ingredients


3 cups all-purpose flour, divided 2 teaspoons salt 2 (.25 ounce) packages active dry yeast 1 cup water 1/2 cup honey 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese 4 egg whites

1 1/2 cups whole wheat flour 1/2 cup wheat germ 1/2 cup old-fashioned oats

Directions 1. In a large mixing bowl, combine 2 cups of all-purpose flour, salt and yeast. In a saucepan, heat water, honey and oil to 120 degrees F-130 degrees F; stir in cottage cheese. Add to flour mixture with egg whites; blend at low speed until moistened. Beat for 3 minutes on medium. Add whole wheat flour, wheat germ, oats and enough of the remaining all-purpose flour to form a soft dough. Turn onto a floured surface; knead until smooth and elastic, about 6-8 minutes. Place in a greased bowl, turning once to grease top. Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled, about 1 hour. Punch dough down. Shape into two loaves. Place in two 8-in. x 4-in. x 2-in. loaf pans coated with nonstick cooking spray. Cover and let rise until doubled, about 1 hour. Bake at 375 degrees F for 35-40 minutes or until golden brown; cover with foil during the last 15 minutes to prevent overbrowning. Remove from pans; cool on wire racks. 179

Apple walnut bread Ingredients


3/4 cup vegetable oil 1/4 cup applesauce 3 eggs 1 3/4 cups white sugar

1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 cup whole wheat flour 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 3 cups peeled, cored and cubed apples 1 cup chopped walnuts

Directions 1. Preheat oven to 300 degrees F (150 degrees C). Lightly grease two 9x5 inch loaf pans. 2. In a large bowl, stir together oil, applesauce, eggs, sugar and vanilla extract. In a separate bowl, sift together flour cinnamon, baking soda and salt. Gradually stir flour mixture into wet ingredients, mixing just until combined. Fold in apples and walnuts. Pour batter into prepared pans. 3. Bake in preheated oven for 70 minutes, until a knife inserted in the center of a loaf comes out clean.


Garlic Bread
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Ingredients 1 3/8 cups water 3 tablespoons olive oil 1 teaspoon minced garlic 4 cups bread flour 3 tablespoons white sugar 2 teaspoons salt 1/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese 1 teaspoon dried basil 1 teaspoon garlic powder 3 tablespoons chopped fresh chives 1 teaspoon coarsely ground black pepper 2 1/2 teaspoons bread machine yeast

Directions 1. Place ingredients in the bread machine pan in the order suggested by the manufacturer. 2. Select Basic or White Bread cycle, and press Start. Croissants Ingredients 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 1 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) 3/4 cup evaporated milk 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1/3 cup white sugar 1 egg 5 cups all-purpose flour, divided 1/4 cup butter, melted 1 cup butter, chilled and dice 1 egg, beaten 181



Directions 1. In a large bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water. Let stand until creamy, about 10 minutes. Stir in milk, salt, sugar, 1 egg, 1 cup flour and melted butter. Beat to make a smooth batter; set aside. 2. In a large bowl, cut the one cup firm butter into remaining four cups flour until butter particles are the size of dried kidney beans. Pour the yeast batter over this and carefully turn the mixture over with a spatula to blend, just until all flour is moistened. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate until well chilled, at least 4 hours or up to four days. 3. Turn dough out onto a floured surface; press into compact balls and knead about 6 turns to release air bubbles. Divide dough into four equal parts. Shape one at a time. Refrigerate the remaining dough. 4. Roll one part of the dough on a floured board into a circle 17 inches in diameter. With a sharp knife or pizza cutter, cut the circle into eight equal pie-shaped wedges. Roll the wedges loosely toward the point. Shape each roll into a crescent and place on an ungreased baking sheet. Allow 1 1/2 inches space between each roll. 5. Cover and let rise at room temperature until almost doubled in size. Approximately 2 hours. Meanwhile, preheat oven to 325 degrees F (165 degrees C). 6. Brush croissants with beaten egg. Bake in preheated oven for 35 minutes, until golden.




English muffin Ingredients 1 cup milk 2 tablespoons white sugar 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 1 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) 1/4 cup melted shortening 6 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon salt

Directions 1. Warm the milk in a small saucepan until it bubbles, then remove from heat. Mix in the sugar, stirring until dissolved. Let cool until lukewarm. In a small bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water. Let stand until creamy, about 10 minutes. 2. In a large bowl, combine the milk, yeast mixture, shortening and 3 cups flour. Beat until smooth. Add salt and rest of flour, or enough to make a soft dough. Knead. Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise. 3. Punch down. Roll out to about 1/2 inch thick. Cut rounds with biscuit cutter, drinking glass, or empty tuna can. Sprinkle waxed paper with cornmeal and set the rounds on this to rise. Dust tops of muffins with cornmeal also. Cover and let rise 1/2 hour. 4. Heat greased griddle. Cook muffins on griddle about 10 minutes on each side on medium heat. Keep baked muffins in a warm oven until all have been cooked. Allow to cool and place in plastic bags for storage. To use, split and toast. Great with orange butter, or cream cheese and jam.




French Bread Ingredients 1 1/4 cups water (70 to 80 degrees F) 2 teaspoons sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 1/2 cups bread flour 1 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast 1 tablespoon cornmeal GLAZE: 1 egg 1 tablespoon water 2 teaspoons sesame seeds, toasted

Directions 1. In bread machine pan, place the first five ingredients in the order suggested by the manufacturer. Select dough setting (checks dough after 5 minutes of mixing; add 1 to 2 tablespoons of water or flour if needed). 2. When cycle is completed, turn dough onto a lightly floured surface. Divide in half. Roll each portion into a 10-in. x 8-in. rectangle. Roll up jelly-roll style, starting with a long side; pinch seams to seal. 3. Sprinkle a greased baking sheet with cornmeal; place loaves seam side down on prepared pan. Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled, about 20 minutes.
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4. Whisk egg and water; brush over loaves. With a sharp knife, make four shallow slashes across the top of each loaf. Sprinkle with sesame seeds if desired. Bake at 375 degrees F for 20-25 minutes or until golden brown. Cool on wire racks.


Sourdough Bread Ingredients 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 3 1/2 cups warm water (110 degrees F to 115 degrees F), divided 7 cups all-purpose flour, divided 1/4 cup nonfat dry milk powder 2 tablespoons butter or margarine, melted 2 tablespoons sugar 2 teaspoons salt Cornmeal

Directions 1. In a 4-qt. non-metallic bowl, dissolve yeast in 2 cups warm water; let stand for 5 minutes. Stir in 2 cups of flour until smooth. Cover loosely with a clean towel. Let stand in a warm place (80 degrees F-90 degrees F) to ferment for 48 hours; stir several times daily. (The mixture will become bubbly and rise, have a "yeasty" sour aroma and a transparent yellow liquid will form on the top.) Stir in milk powder, butter, sugar, salt, remaining water and enough remaining flour to form a soft dough. (Do not knead.) Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled, about 1-1/2 hours. Turn onto a floured surface; punch dough down. (Do not knead).
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Divide in half. Shape each into a round loaf. Heavily grease baking sheets and sprinkle with cornmeal. Place dough on prepared pans. Cover and let rise until doubled, about 30 minutes. With a sharp knife, make three diagonal slashes across tops of loaves. Bake at 350 degrees F for 10 minutes. Brush loaves with cold water; bake 35-40 minutes longer or until golden brown.

Banana Bread Ingredients 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup butter 3/4 cup brown sugar 2 eggs, beaten 2 1/3 cups mashed overripe bananas

Directions 1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Lightly grease a 9x5 inch loaf pan. 2. In a large bowl, combine flour, baking soda and salt. In a separate bowl, cream together butter and brown sugar. Stir in eggs and mashed bananas until well blended. Stir banana
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mixture into flour mixture; stir just to moisten. Pour batter into prepared loaf pan. 3. Bake in preheated oven for 60 to 65 minutes, until a toothpick inserted into center of the loaf comes out clean. Let bread cool in pan for 10 minutes, and then turn out onto a wire rack.