IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP

48 Iron & Steel and Scrap
teel even today is decidedly the vital component of a country's economy and is considered as the crux of modernisation. The level of per capita consumption of steel is treated as one of the important indicators of socio-enonomic development and living standards in any country. Steel continues to be the foremost engineering material and is environment-friendly and is recyclable. It is a product of large and technologically complex industry having strong forward and backward linkages in terms of material flow and income generation. The finished steel production in India has grown from a mere 1.1 million tonnes in 1951 to 56.08 million tonnes in 2007-08. The growth in the steel sector in the early decades after independence was mainly in the public sector units. However, following the adoption of new economic policy and subsequent deregulation and decontrol of Indian Iron & Steel Sector, the 1990's witnessed accelerated growth in the private sector catapulting its share from 45% in 1992-93 to 76% in 2007-08. Steel exports from India began in 1964. Exports in the first five years were mainly as a result of recession in the domestic Iron and Steel market. Exports subsequently declined due to revival of domestic demand. India once again started exporting steel in 1975 only to witness slump again due to rising domestic demand. Post liberalisation, a rejuvenation in the steel sector, resulted in large-scale exports of iron and steel. In 1991-92, the main producers exported 3.87 lakh tonnes. Exports rose to 1.68 million tonnes in 1998-99 and to 8.25 million tonnes in 2007-08. Though the country's production of iron & steel is sufficient to meet the domestic demand, it imports mainly finished/semi finished steel and iron & steel (scrap) to meet requirements of supply of essential grades.

S

Liberalisation of the Indian Steel Sector
The Government's new economic policies have opened up opportunities for expansion of the Steel Industry. With a view to accelerating growth in the steel sector, the Government since 1991 has been initiating and implementing a number of policy measures. These measures have impacted the Indian steel sector as under: * Large-scale capacities were removed from the list of industries reserved for the public sector. The licensing requirement for additional capacities was also withdrawn subject to locational restrictions. Private sector came to play a prominent role in the overall set up. Pricing and distribution control mechanism were discontinued. The iron and steel industry was included in the high priority list for foreign investment, implying automatic approval for foreign equity up to 50%, subject to foreign exchange and other stipulations governing such investments in general. Freight equalisation scheme was replaced by a system of freight ceiling. Quantitative import restrictions were largely removed. Export restrictions were withdrawn.

*

*

*

* *

NATIONAL STEEL POLICY-2005
The National Steel Policy (NSP) was announced in 2005. The salient features of the NSP are as under : 1. The NSP has set a target of 110 million tonnes of domestic steel production by 2019-20. This would require about 190 million tonnes iron o r e . To m e e t t h e a d d i t i o n a l i r o n o r e requirement, the Government plans to take the following steps:

48-1

IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP

(a) Create additional mining capacity of 200 million tonnes iron ore. (b) Encourage investments totalling to about Rs. 20,000 crore. (c) Ensure that clearances from authorities of Environment & Forest be obtained within a specified time frame. (d) To m a k e i n v e s t m e n t p l a n s f o r l a rg e number of iron ore leases which are idle. (e) Renewal of existing leases only against credible mining investment plans. (f) Grant of fresh leases only against new norms and stringent assessment of technical and financial capabilities of the applicants. (g) Restrictions on long-term exports of iron ore to a maximum of 5-year contracts. (h) Encourage sintering and pelletisation so as to use fines which make up about 90% of the present exports. 2. Projections for requirement of coking coal

and 7% through other routes. Sponge iron units are expected to increase capacity from 13 million tonnes at present to 38 million tonnes by 2020, especially in Jharkhand and Orissa. The NSP envisages a judicious blend of exports and domestic supply of steel. 4. The NSP also seeks the upgradation and modernisation of the refractory industry. 5. The NSP has noted the anomaly wherein the steel sector is deprived of fiscal incentives which are usually available to other infrastructure projects. The policy seeks to examine the issue and formulate corrective measures, as also the rationalisation of customs and excise duty structure for reducing the fiscal and revenue deficits.

STRUCTURE AND ROLE OF INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY
Steel sector represents around Rs. 90,000 crore capital and directly provides employment to over 5 lakh people in the country. The Indian Steel sector was the first core sector to be completely free from the licensing regime and the pricing and distribution controls. This was done primarily because of the inherent strengths and capabilities demonstrated by the Indian Iron and Steel Industry. India has risen to the fifth position as largest crude steel producing country in the world in 2006 as against 8th position held three years back and retained its 5th rank during 2008 too. The Indian Steel Industry comprises integrated steel plants in the primary sector using BF-BOF route of iron & steel production. In the primary sector, there are 11 integrated steel plants in the public and private sectors. The secondary sector constitutes Electric Arc Furnace/Induction Furnace, pig iron/sponge iron

and non-coking coal were fixed at 70 million tonnes and 20 million tonnes, respectively, to achieve the target steel production. The NSP has recommended first priority to the Steel and Sponge Iron Industry in allocation of higher grade (below 12% ash content) non-coking coal. The policy makes it clear that 85% of the requirement of coking coal will have to be imported. Further, reduced rate of production of non-coking coal would necessitate import of non-coking coal as well for utilisation in the steel sector. The coal shortages have prompted the NSP to call for a constant review of allocation and pricing of natural gas as a suitable alternative. 3. The NSP assumes that 60% of the new steel capacity would come up through blast furnace route, 33% through sponge iron & EAF route

48-2

The details on plantwise capacity and production of hot metal and crude/liquid steel are given in Table-4.86 22.39 No. Table – 1 : Structure of the Indian Steel Industry.80 13. 2008-09. 48-3 .coated sheets/strips Tin plate 11 36 1020 19 324 Capacity 31.44 4.68 0.18 4.73 0. of units Primary Secondary Integrated plants Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Induction Furnace (IF) Pig iron Sponge iron HR (sheets/strips/plates rerolling units) HR steel (sheets. The structure of the Indian steel industry in 2007-08 is given in Table-1.51 11. galvanised/colour coated units. Mini Blast Furnace units. of units 11 39 1020 19 324 Capacity 31.21 Source: Annual Report of Ministry of Steel. Tata Steel and Vizag Steel/RINL) and Secondary Producers.18 644 65 2 5. the steel producing units. JSW Steel and Ispat Industries as well as large number of Mini Steel Plants based on Electric Furnaces & Energy Optimising Furnaces (EOF).18 4. plates units) CR Mills (sheets & strips) Steel wire drawing units GP/GC/PVC . for producing either semifinished or finished steel. Essar Steel.83 26.19 11. with the coming up of larger capacity steel making units of different process routes. tin plate units.65 9. namely. wire-drawing units. However. Besides. Indian steel industry was classified into Main Producers (SAIL plants.78 0. 2007-08 (Capacity in million tonnes per annum) Wo r k i n g Sector Type of units No.07 0.03 2288 10 59 100 23 3 35.78 0.71 4. Traditionally. etc. CR units. Hot & Cold Rolling Mills & Galvanising/Colour Coating units which are spread across the country. of Units 3 NA Capacity 0. the classification has been characterised as Main Producers & Other Producers. Production of iron & steel by main producers and others during 2003-04 to 2007-08 is furnished in Table-2 and by public/private sector in Table-3.05 NA No.81 22.07 1. strips.65 9.83 26. Other Producers comprise Major Producers.39 Non-working To t a l 1644 10 59 35 23 1 29.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP units. HR units. re-rolling units. there are a large number of Sponge Iron Plants. Table-5 elucidates the production of crude/ liquid steel by BOF and EAF/ IF routes and prices of steel are provided in Table-6.80 13.

7%) 36766 (68.8%) 50817 17003 (33. 2003-04 to 2007-08 (By Sector) (In '000 tonnes) Item/producers I.5%) 3228 625 (19.8%) 16015 (46. Finished Steel for Sale (Alloy/Non-Alloy) : Total Main Producers Other Producers Less Inter Plant Transfer/Own Consumption 2003-04 3764 966 2798 9877 3976 5901 38727 19756 256 8238 10477 40709 15383 27966 2640 2004-05 3228 625 2603 12537 4640 7897 43437 19738 277 10229 13193 43513 15824 31041 3352 2005-06 4695 1007 3688 14825 4545 10280 46460 21402 292 11273 13493 46566 16413 34809 4656 2006-07 4993 860 4133 18345 5265 13080 50817 21868 309 13250 15390 52529 17614 40047 5132 2007-08 5314 936 4378 20376 5845 14531 53857 21789 315 14820 16933 56075 18020 43332 5277 Source : Ministry of Steel. Annual Report.6%) 43437 15912 (36.6%) 27525 (63. Hot metal : Total Public sector 2003-04 28165 17618 (62.3%) 56075 13521 (24.4%) 3688 (78.2%) 4133 (82.6%%) 4378 (82. 48-4 . EAF: Electric Arc Furnace MBF: Mini Blast Furnace EOF: Energy Optimising Furnace Table – 3 : Production of Iron and Steel. Sponge Iron : Total Gas Based Coal Based III.7%) 2798 (74.9%) 2007-08 36758 19112 (52%) 17646 (48%) 5314 936 (17.5%) 46566 12585 (27%) 33981 (73%) 2006-07 34667 18652 (53. 2007-08 and 2008-09. Annual Report.4%) 43513 12309 (28.7%) 2005-06 31812 18756 (59%) 13056 (41%) 4695 1007 (21. Pig iron : Total Public sector Private sector III.5%) 11178 (39.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 2 : Production of Iron and Steel.3%) 38727 15788 (40. Crude/liquid steel : Total Public sector Private sector IV.6%) 10547 (37.4%) 2603 (80. 2003-04 to 2007-08 (In '000 tonnes) Item/producers I.1%) 39353 (74.5%) 33814 (66.4%) 53857 17091 (31.5%) 52529 13176 (25.8%) 22939 (59. Finished steel for sale (Alloy/Non-Alloy) : Total Public sector Private sector Source : Ministry of Steel. Crude Steel : Total Main Producers ASP + VISL Other Producers EAF Units (Including Corex & MBF/EOF) Induction Furnaces IV.1%) 42554 (75.9%) Private sector II.3%) 31204 (71.4%) 3764 966 (25.2%) 4993 860 (17. Pig Iron : Total Main Producers Other Producers II. 2007-08 and 2008-09.6%) 46460 16964 (36.2%) 40709 11828 (29%) 28881 (71%) 2004-05 28301 17123 (60.5%) 29496 (63.

2008-09. Electric Route : Total Electric Arc Furnace Alloy Steel Plant. Durgapur (West Bengal) Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (Andhra Pradesh) IDCOL Kalinga Iron Works Ltd (Govt. Oxygen Route : Total Bhilai Steel Plant (Chhattisgarh) Durgapur Steel Plant (West Bengal) Rourkela Steel Plant (Orissa) Bokaro Steel Plant (Jharkhand) IISCO Burnpur Steel Plant (West Bengal) Visvesvaraya Iron Steel Ltd (Karnataka) Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (Andhra Pradesh) Tata Steel Ltd (Jharkhand) JSW Steel Ltd (Karnataka) Other Oxygen Route B. of Orissa Undertaking) Private Sector JSW Steel Ltd (Karnataka) Tata Steel Ltd (Jharkhand) Ispat Industries Ltd (Maharashtra) Essar Steel Ltd (Gujarat) Jindal Steel & Power Ltd (Chhattisgarh) Lloyds Steel Industries Ltd (Maharashtra) Jindal Stainless Steel Source : Annual Report of Ministry of Steel.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 4 : Capacity and Production of Hot Metal and Crude/Liquid Steel. Burnpur (West Bengal) Visvesvaraya Iron Steel Plant (Karnataka) Salem Steel Plant (Tamil Nadu) Alloy Steel Plant. 48-5 . 2007-08 Crude/liquid steel 2006-07 2007-08 Unit 4590 4820 2120 2060 1460 240 3400 170 4360 4588 3925 4817 1900 2124 1802 2064 500 775 118 238 320 (Saleable steel) 234 2910 4046 147 4658 5268 2229 2186 640 218 3913 - 4067 4799 1990 1869 472 159 183 150 3497 - 4127 5055 2093 1914 458 158 231 157 3129 - NA NA NA NA NA - 6800 5000 3000 4600 2400 - NA 5552 NA NA NA - NA 5507 NA NA NA - 2643 5174 2761 3006 803 537 585 3147 5013 2827 3564 1219 463 585 Table – 5 : Production of Crude/Liquid Steel. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (By Principal Producers) (In '000 tonnes) Annual installed capacity Hot metal Crude/liquid steel Production Hot metal 2006-07 Public Sector Bokaro Steel Plant (Jharkhand) Bhilai Steel Plant (Chhattisgarh) Rourkela Steel Plant (Orissa) Durgapur Steel Plant (West Bengal) IISCO Steel Plant. 2003-04 to 2007-08 (By Route) (In '000 tones) Route/plant All Routes : (A+B) Total A. Durgapur (West Bengal) Essar Steel Ltd (Gujarat) Ispat Industries Ltd (Maharashtra) Jindal Steel & Power Ltd (Chhattisgarh) Lloyds Steel Ltd (Maharashtra) Jindal Stainless Ltd (Haryana) Other Electric Arc Furnace Route Electric Induction Furnace 2003-04 38727 21924 4743 1759 1572 3754 301 115 3403 4224 1608 445 16803 6326 141 1837 1663 273 338 484 1590 10477 2004-05 43437 22250 4582 1806 1603 3835 357 127 3452 4103 1875 510 21187 7994 150 2360 2002 379 454 535 2114 13193 2005-06 46460 24398 5054 1801 1661 4228 434 152 3494 4730 2268 576 22062 8569 140 2510 2190 564 515 542 2108 13493 2006-07 50817 25394 4799 1869 1990 4067 472 159 3497 5174 2643 724 25423 10033 150 3006 2761 803 537 585 2191 15390 2007-08 53857 25966 5055 1914 2093 4127 458 158 3129 5013 3147 872 27891 10958 157 3564 2827 1219 463 585 2143 16933 Source : Joint Plant Committee. Annual Statistics 2007-08.

Market Delhi '' '' '' '' '' Mandi Gobindgarh '' '' '' '' '' '' '' '' '' Mumbai '' '' '' '' '' Kolkata '' '' '' '' '' '' 2005-06 25767 24614 28300 24153 23059 16300 26779 20986 16700 23065 26984 22447 24322 25241 20645 20410 24880 22698 19557 15673 25088 24718 20563 20629 20437 20229 20110 17908 13953 2006-07 27854 25112 25639 26352 26361 16933 28977 22794 17964 24036 28503 23115 25606 24188 22166 22083 24129 25122 20669 16231 26964 26456 21611 21461 22635 22986 22064 18001 15369 2007-08 31848 30752 29956 30340 30950 20658 32432 27327 21715 29046 33031 27998 31117 29983 27190 26021 30475 30273 25223 19969 30377 29496 25992 26512 26260 27625 25662 23038 18802 48-6 . 2005-06 to 2007-08 (Domestic Markets) (In Rupees per tonne) Grade CTD Bars (ISI. 150 mm) Heavy Slab (Bokaro) Melting Scrap (rolling) MS Rounds (10 mm) CTD Bars (ISI 8 mm) MS Squares (8 mm) MS Angles (25 x 3 mm) Joists (150 x 75 mm) Induction ingots (round) Old Ship Breaking Scrap Joists (150 x 75 mm) MS Angles (40 x 6 mm) Induction ingots Melting Scrap CTD Bars (local 8 mm) MS Rounds (8 mm) CTD Bars (ISI.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 6 : Prices of Iron & Steel. 8 mm) MS Squares (8 mm) MS Angles (25 x 3 mm) Channels (75 x 40 mm) Joists (150 x 75 mm) Induction Ingots Melting Scrap Source : Minerals & Metals Review. 2009. March. 8 mm) Joists (150 x 75 mm) Channels (75 x 40 mm) MS Squares (8 mm) MS Angles (25 x 3 mm) Melting Scrap Blooms (SAIL.

Plates. GP/GC sheets. bearing steel. medium merchant products (structural). sleeper structurals. rods. rails & railway materials. GP/GC sheets. HR coils. bars. saleable billets. rail & railway materials. Tata Steel produced 4.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steel produced in the Secodnary Sector is mostly by recycling of steel scrap using Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). wire rods. HR coils.57 million tonnes in 2005-06 to 52. In 2007-08. Bars & rods. Flat products. CR sheets. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant of Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd produced 2. HR sheets and strips. HR coils. billets. foundry & pipes and structural steel. GP/GC sheets. HR coil. angles (equal & unequal). constructional steel (a) carbon steel. thus becoming the largest finished steel producer among private sector integrated steel plants. TMT bars. Bars & rods.53 million tonnes in 2006-07. plates. finished steel (round & square). CR coils/sheets. The total capacity of EAF is Ye ar Table – 7 : Various Finished Steel Products Produced by Principal Steel Plants Plant Bokaro Steel Plant (Jharkhand) Durgapur Steel Plant (West Bengal) Rourkela Steel Plant (Orissa) Products Plates. wheels and axles. Finished steel produced by the steel plants of SAIL in 2007-08 was 10. HR sheets. 48-7 2007-08 Finished Steel The Indian Steel Industry recorded an increased production of finished steel from 46.08 million tonnes in 2007-08. other alloys & steel. re-bars. CR sheets. beams. spring steel. spirally welded large dimension pipes. Bhilai Steel Plant (Chhattisgarh) IISCO Steel Plant (West Bengal) Visvesvaraya Iron Steel Ltd (Karnataka) Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (Andhra Pradesh) Tata Steel Ltd (Jharkhand) JSW Steel Ltd (Karnataka) Ispat Industries Ltd (Maharashtra) Essar Steel Ltd (Gujarat) Jindal Steel & Power Ltd (Chhattisgarh) Source: Annual Report of Ministry of Steel and information from individual plants. rails & railway materials. Production of Finished Steel 1998-99 to 2007-08 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Production (Million tonnes) . slabs. CR coils. CR coils.62 million tonnes. slabs. free cutting steel. sections.47 million tonnes and JSW Steel produced 4. HR sheets. HR coils. Stainless steel.77 million tonnes of finished steel. GP/GC sheets Plates. Bars & rods. Various finished steel products produced by principal steel plants are furnished in Table-7. Billets. CR coils/sheets. tool steel. Steel products in long categories. (b) case hardening steel & (c) heat treatable steel. bloom. skelp. electrical sheets. CR coils/sheets. rails & railway materials. GP/GC sheets. plate. rolled/forged bars & structurals. light & medium merchant products (bars). TMBP. channels. structurals. plates and blooms. merchant products. fish plates. HR coils. CR coil. electrolytic tin plates. plates. HR sheets. wire rods. bars and rods.90 million tonnes. and ultimately to 56. GP/GC sheets Plates. heavy structurals and squares. flat products.

Induction furnaces use steel melting scraps. An induction furnace is an electrical furnace in which heat is generated through electromagnetic induction in an electrically conductive medium.99 million tonnes in 2006-07. The recent developments in EAF technology viz. Presently. however is impossible as the crucible with refractory lining holds the metal when it is molten and also provides insulation to protect the coil and prevent heat losses. The furnace is similar to a transformer.93 million tonnes steel in 2007-08 as against production of 15. to increase oxygen consumption. On an average the proportion of these items is 40% sponge iron + 10% cast iron or pig iron and the remaining is steel melting scraps.81 million tonnes per annum. in India.18 million tonnes. This. The metal charge subjected to electromagnetic induction generates huge amount of heat which causes the metal to melt. There are 1. The ideal situation would be for the charge to completely fill the interior of the coil as there would then be no space between the coil and charge through which leakage of flux could pass.05 million tonnes have been reportedly closed due to rising cost of inputs and increasing tariffs.03 million tonnes in 2006-07 (Table-5). The development of thin slab casting has made EAF route more productive. a housing for the coil and a refractory lining inside the coil to form a crucible. The charge of the metal to be melted which is placed inside the coil acts as the Secondary. in spite of the unprecedented increase in the price of imported metallurgical coke that the industry was constrainted with. reduce power consumption.020 induction furnaces with an aggregate capacity of 22. reduce to tap time have led to increase in metal production. there are 36 EAF based steel plants in operation in the country. Induction Furnace (IF) Presently. The production of steel ingots/concast billets by EAF units reporting production in 2007-08 was estimated at 10. An induction furnace essentially consists of a power source. When high frequency electric current passes through the primary coil it produces a rapidly alternating magnetic field.96 million tonnes as against 10. In 2007-08. 48-8 . This route enables slab strips rolling at lesser cost. sponge iron and pig iron/ cast iron.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP 13. As a result of various policy initiatives taken by the Government.40 million tonnes in 2006-07 (Table-5). Induction furnace has capability to operate on a charge up to 85% DRI (sponge iron). These units reportedly produced about 16. therefore.8. Location and capacity of important pig iron units in private sector are furnished in Table .86 million tonnes. Three units with a cumulative capacity of 0. The share of private/secondary producers in both the years 2006-07 and 2007-08 was around 82-83%.31 million tonnes pig iron was produced against 4. EAF based industries are yet to switch over to induction furnace route. Efforts were. This has resulted in drastic change. Pig Iron Pig iron is one of the basic raw materials required by the foundry & casting industry for manufacturing various types of castings for the engineering section. with an aggregate capacity of 13. in the contribution of private/secondary sector units from merely 8% in 1991-92 to about 82% by 2007-08. made to increase pig iron manufacturing facilities in the secondary sector. It consists of a cylindrical copper coil through which the high frequency current comes and acts a Primary as in a transformer. facilitating production of cheaper strips/sheets than those that can be achieved through BF/BOF route. a coil. The main sources of pig iron have traditionally been the integrated steel plants of SAIL besides plants of Tata Steel Ltd and Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. The production of pig iron by public and private sector plants is furnished in Table-3. Domestic production of pig iron lags and is not in tandem with the demand. private sector showed considerable interest in setting up new pig iron units especially in the post-liberalised period. about 5.

15. sponge iron industry was specially promoted to provide an alternative to steel melting scrap which was increasingly becoming scarce. 5. Raigad. 9. West Bengal Capacity 1. Hot briquetted Iron (HBI) is a product obtained after densification process where the DRI feed material is at temperature more than 650 0C at the time of moulding (hot briquetting) with density more than 5. Unit Lanco Industries Ltd Sathavahana Ispat Ltd Jayaswal NECO Industries Ltd Sesa Goa Ltd Usha Martin Industries Jindal Vijay Nagar Steel Ltd Kalyani Ferrous Industries Ltd Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Ltd Kudremukh Iron Ore Co. 48-9 .38 million tonnes in 2007-08. Sponge is produced from iron ore by using non-coking coal. the constraints faced by sponge iron industry include non-availability of right grade of iron ore and non-coking coal at affordable prices.52 million tonnes in 1990-91 to currently at 31 million tonnes which includes 3 gas- based units having 8. 2. 3. 11.05 3.10 1. Goa Jamshedpur. This has resulted in considerable saving in foreign exchange. its share has increased from 60% in 2003-04 to 71% in 2007-08. Karnataka Koppal.80 1. Chhattisgarh Bicholim.10 0.90 Source : Development Commissioner for Iron & Steel. During the early 1990s. and individual plants. Andhra Pradesh Raipur. Over the years. The installed capacity of sponge iron has also increased over the years from 1. 1. 6. Jharkhand Bellary.0 million tpy capacity.10 7. Andhra Pradesh Anantapur. Orissa Durgapur.20 1. Ministry of Steel. Ltd Usha Ispat Ltd Ispat Metallics India Ltd Kalinga Iron Works Kajaria Iron Castings Ltd Electrosteel Castings Ltd Tata Metaliks Ltd Location Chittoor.No. 13. The production has risen from 0. 14. the coal based route has emerged as a key contributor to overall production.9 million tonnes in 1990-91 to about 20. The production of sponge iron during the last five years is given in Table-2.00 20. Direct reduced iron (DRI).0 g/cm 3.50 1. Sponge Iron India is the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. West Bengal Kharagpur.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 8 : Location and Capacity of Important Pig Iron Units (In lakh tonnes) Sl.70 1. Karnataka Redi. called as sponge iron is a metallic material of a manufacturing process formed by reduction of iron oxide at temperatures below the fusion point of iron. Maharashtra Barbil. However. 8. The available data on annual installed capacity of principal sponge iron units are given in Table-9. Karnataka Mangalore. Kolkata.20 7. Keonjhar. 10.20 2. Production of the sponge iron in the country has also resulted in providing an alternative feed material to steel melting scrap which was hitherto imported in large quantities by the Electric Arc Furnace units and the Induction Furnace units for steel making. Maharashtra Dolvi. 7.65 1.00 1.40 2. 12. 4. West Bengal Khardah. About 80% coal-based sponge iron produced in the world comes from India. Karnataka Koppal.

10 1.05 1.15 1. Raigarh.02 1. Raigarh.65 2.00 2. Sundergarh. Hasaud. Singhbhum. Goa IGC Siltara. Jajpur Road. Karnataka Chintapokhri.00 16.00 2. Raipur.00 1. Jangir Champa.20 2.80 13.05 1. Raipur. Chhattisgarh Uliburu. Gujarat Santona.00 4. Chhattisgarh Chiraipani.50 4. Dhenkanal. Dhenkanal. Chhattisgarh Bhandara. Raigarh. Gujarat Salav. Keonjhar. Chhattisgarh IGC Siltara. Ltd Shyam Sel Ltd Singhal Enterprises Pvt. Keonjhar. Orissa Raipur. Ludhiana. Chandrapur. Chhattisgarh Karakola and Kamando. Ltd (HEG Ltd. Chhattisgarh Santona. Raipur.05 3. West Bengal Taraimal.00 3. Ltd Sree Metaliks Ltd S.44 1.90 1.50 1. Raigarh.) Jaiswal Neco Ltd Janki Corporation Ltd Jindal Steel & Power Ltd Lloyds Metals & Engineering Ltd Mastek Steels Pvt. Jharkhand 2. Ltd Vandana Global Ltd Vallabh Steels Ltd Visa Steels Ltd Zoom Vallabh Steels Ltd Location Hazira. Chhattisgarh Srirampuram. Orissa Samakhilai. Vizianagaram. Orissa Chandkhuri Marg. Chhattisgarh Joda. Chhattisgarh IGC Siltara.92 1.20 I. Kachchh. Chhattisgarh Naharpalli.: Industrial Growth Centre. Raipur. Orissa Chandil. Maharashtra Holakundi. Raipur.05 1. West Bengal Borai. Andhra Pradesh Kotmar.00 1. Durg. Jharkhand IGC Borai. Raigarh. Keonjhar. 48-10 .00 1.00 5. Raipur.70 1.00 1.55 1. Raipur. Chhattisgarh Taraimal. Sanguem. Maharashtra IGC Siltara. Chhattisgarh IGC Siltara. Bellary. Gujarat Gandhidham. Orissa Bemta.20 3. Bellary.30 2.70 2.50 1.70 1. Dhenkanal. Chhattisgarh Sahnewal.S. Goa Dewabdighi.20 3. Sanguem. Raigarh. Raigad. Raigarh.00 Marakuta & Pandaripathar. Orissa Meramandali. Maharashtra Capacity 55.16 1.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 9 : Capacities of Important Sponge Iron (DRI) Plants (In lakh tonnes) Unit Gas-based Essar Steel Ltd Vikram Ispat Ispat Industries Ltd Coal-based Action Ispat & Power Pvt. Orissa IGC Borai. Raipur. Ispat & Power Ltd Sunflag Iron & Steel Co Ltd Sunil Ispat & Power Ltd Sunil Sponge Iron Ltd Tata Sponge Iron (Ipitata Sponge) Topworth Steel Pvt. Raniganj. Keonjhar. Ltd Adhunik Metaliks Ltd Alliance Integrated Metallics Ltd Anjani Steel Ltd API Ispat Powertech Pvt. Barbil.50 3. Orissa Chakradharpur.98 1. Source : Sponge Iron Manufacturer's Association (SIMA) and individual plants. Dolvi. Chhattisgarh Ujalpur. Raigad. Ltd Shivshakti Steel Ltd Shri Bajrang Power & Ispat Ltd Shraddha Ispat Pvt. Orissa Chandrihariharpur. Jharsuguda. Chhattisgarh Lamloi. Saraikela-Kharswan.K. Chhattisgarh Jamgaon. Orissa Champa. Maharashtra Geetapuram.00 9.05 3.74 2. Sundergarh.00 1.10 1. Karnataka Kharsia Road. Chhattisgarh Topadihi.05 1. Ltd Deepak Steel & Power Ltd Gallant Metal Ltd Global Hi-tech Industries Ltd Goa Sponge Iron & Power Ltd Godawari Power & Ispat Ltd Goldstar Steel & Alloys Ltd Ind Synergy Ltd Jai Balaji Sponge Ltd Jai Shri Balaji Steel Pvt.94 1. Chhattisgarh Gundichapara.80 5. Chhattisgarh Urla. Raipur. Ltd MGM Steels Ltd Monnet Ispat Ltd Monnet Ispat & Energy Ltd MSP Steel & Power Ltd Nalwa Steel & Power Ltd Nova Iron & Steel Ltd OCL Iron & Steel Ltd Orissa Sponge Iron Ltd Prakash Industries Ltd Rungta Mines Ltd Sarda Energy & Minerals Ltd Scaw Industries Pvt. Orissa Palaspanga. Orissa Dughda. Ltd Beekay Steel & Power Ltd Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd Bihar Sponge Iron Ltd Crest Steel & Power Pvt.95 2.28 1.50 1. Sundergarh. Chhattisgarh Dagori. Raipur.70 1.G.15 1.20 2. Chhattisgarh Ghuggus. Chhattisgarh Sidiginamola. Bilaspur.00 1. Orissa IGC Siltara.10 1.C. Durg. Durg. Chhattisgarh Loidapada. Punjab KIC. Chhattisgarh Baktarnagar. Burdwan. Bilaspur.

48-11 . additional supply of steel in Indian markets has increased considerably.38 (9. iii) Reduction in Input Costs The Ministry of Steel has also been able to rationalise the classification of coking coal in consultation with the Ministry of Coal so as to reduce the impact of royalty payable on this basic raw material.12 ( 7 . ships for breaking and coke used by the steel industry has been reduced steadily over the past five years or so. These include: i) E s t a b l i s h i n g o f Tr a i n i n g .43 (13.88%) 46. Table – 10 : Domestic Consumption of Finished Steel (In million tonnes) Year 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Consumption 23.24%) 26. Source : Annual Report. Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage increase over the previous year.c u m Service Institutes To help the steel industry by way of research and developmental support for boosting steel consumption and providing technical support and trained manpower to steel producing and consuming sectors. 9 5 % ) 36.78 (12. With the ongoing economic liberalisation resulting in faster economic growth. National Institute of Secondary Steel Technology (NISST). Mandi Govind Garh. meant to promote usage of steel. give freight discount to bulk users and to bring down freight rates of iron and steel commodities. T h e a p p a r e n t c o n s u m p t i o n o f finished steel since 1998-99 is given in Table-10.68 (11. With the expansion of capacities in the integrated plants and installation of new plants. the steel consumption is expected to increase rapidly. (b) (c) ii) Reduction in Rail Tariffs In order to make despatches of iron and steel material more attractive through railways.43%. Punjab.54 (4. the following institutes have been set up: (a) Institute for Steel Development and Growth (INSDAG).) 30.81%) 33.41%) Measures taken by Ministry of Steel to boost Demand The Ministry of Steel has been making allout efforts to help the domestic steel sector to overcome the problems faced by the steel industry and boost demand for steel in steel consuming sectors. Import duties on several raw materials like scrap. the Railway Board has been requested to consider lowering the classification of steel. manufacturing 18%. meant to promote upgradation of manpower in the secondary steel industry.53 (6. Kolkata. Puri. The world avarage of per capita steel consumption stands at 150 kg and that of developed country stands at 400 kg. West Bengal. Ministry of Steel.01 (6. primarily in the construction industry by producing working designs.13 (11.08%) 27. and Biju Patnaik National Steel Institute. automobiles 12%. It is also treated as the actual domestic demand of steel in t h e c o u n t r y. consumer durables 6% and other sectors 19%.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Apparent Consumption of Steel India's per capita steel consumption increased from 31 kg in 2003 to 49 kg in 2008 and it is far below the level of other developed and developing countries . construction 22%.91%) 52. Sometimes change in stock is adjusted to arrive at the consumption figures. The normal demand of steel for infrastructure is 23%. 2008-09. total domestic production and import of steel in the country. Orissa. Apparent consumption of steel is calculated by taking into consideration export of steel.02%) 25.44 (3.84%) 41. This has created an intense competition in the domestic market in the short run.

50 3. * Secondary refining and * Adherence to environment norms.42 million tonnes. d) Installation of a universal beam mill of 1 million capacity. * Value addition by reduction of semi-finished steel. The objective is to achieve a production capacity of 26. there has been imposition of anti-dumping duties on certain grades of alloy and non-alloy steel billets. * Energy saving schemes.5 million tonnes of hot metal and 7 million tonnes of crude steel per annum at an indicative cost of Rs. 11.267 crore.61 million tonnes (in 2006-07) per annum hot metal production to 26. Bhilai.2 million tonnes/annum of hot metal.18 Bokaro Plant Bhilai Plant Rourkela Plant Durgapur Plant IISCO Plant VISL 48-12 .50 2. Bokaro Steel Plant The hot metal production capacity at Bokaro is likely to touch 7. e) Addition of a new bar & roll mill of 0. and g) capacity expansion of plate mill to 1.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP iv) Strengthening of Anti-dumping Mechanism To check the increasing trend of cheap imports in certain categories of flat products. Ukraine.9 million tonnes capacity. especially from CIS and South-East Asian countries.44 7. * 100% processing of steel through continuous casting. The expansion plans would increase the capacity of SAIL from 14. bars and rounds from China and Russia. Objectives of expansion plan are: * 100% production of steel through Basic Oxygen Furnance (BOF) route. the Ministry of Steel has suggested a few necessary steps to Department of Commerce to strengthen the anti-dumping mechanism so that quick decisions to check dumping can be taken. Bhilai Steel Plant The Board of SAIL has given in principle to a porposal for modernisation and capacity expansion of Bhilai Steel Plant to 7.91 0.33 Total 26. The facilities as MODERNISATION & EXPANSION Modernisation and expansion works undertaken by different plants are as follows: SAIL SAIL is in the process of modernising and expanding its production units. * Auxilliary fuel injection system in all the Blast furnaces. b) A new 7 metre tall coke oven battery and a new sinter machine.2 million tonnes capacity. Russia.44 million tonnes by 2010-11 from 4.50 4. * State-of-the-art online testing and quality control.59 million tonnes in 2006-07. Order for all major packages of ISP & SSP and part packages for expansion of Bokaro. Apart from the flat products. Indian Steel Alliance (ISA) had requested the Government to take anti-dumping measures against four countries namely. f) Installation of a new universal rail mill of 1. The proposal includes: a) Installation of a new blast furnace. India has already imposed anti-dumping duties mainly on HR products imported from Russia/CIS countries.18 million tonnes by 2010-11 as given below: Plant Hot metal capacity by 2010-11 (Million tonnes) 7. Rourkela and Durgapur Steel Plants have been placed and they are in various stages of implementation. c) Phasing out of ingot route with 100% continuous casting by adding a new steel melting shop of 4 million tonnes capacity. * State-of-the-art process control computerisation/ automation. Egypt and Germany.

8 million tpy with value added products constituting 1. Jajpur. The above projects are.8 million tonnes which is slated to increase to 10 million tonnes by 2010. 12. VSP is in the midst of implementing an expansion plan to double it annual liquid steel making capacity from the present level of 3 million tpy to 6. with annual crude steel making capacity of 6. Jharkhand. value added flat products. Rourkela Steel Plant The hot metal production from RSP is to reach to 4. The company also signed an MoU with the Government of Jharkhand for setting up of a 12 million tonnes per year integrated steel plant at Saraikela in two phases of 6 million tonnes each. The new facilities as planned are a) New Sinter Plant b) Bloom-cumR o u n d C a s t e r. b) New Sinter plant (3. Salem (Salem Works).91 million tonnes by 2011-12. Government of Orissa has allotted 2000 acres of land for the plant at Kalinganagar. d) Additional finishing Mill and e) New Bar and Rod Mill (0. 15.6 million tonne). however. The process of acquiring of land is under progress.23 million tpy). f) Upgradation of Hot Strip Mill and Plate Mill. Salem Works focus only in long products and the downstream units produce CR/Galvanised.50 million tonnes by 2010-11 from 2. colour coated. Tata Steel Ltd (formerly TISCO) The company has been rechristened as Tata Steel Ltd (TSL). subject to raw material linkages and receipt of requisite approvals.06 million tonne).06 million tonnes in 2006-07. and Tarapur (downstream units). The plant was commissioned in 1992 with a capacity to produce around 3 million tonnes of liquid steel per annum.9 million tpy). installation of a 2 million tonnes per year capacity plant is likely to be taken up and completed in 3. c ) M e d i u m St r u c t u r a l M i l l . b) Cold Rolling Mills Complex of 1. Durgapur Steel Plant DSP's hot metal production is projected to touch 3. incorporating extensive energy saving and pollution control measures. g) New CRNO Line (0.000 crore. The plant has been built to match international standards in design and engineering with state-of-the-art technology. The company has further plans to set up a 5. 15.6 million tpy).1 million tonne) and h) New Pipe Coating Plant (0. TSL has achieved a production of 4. IISCO Steel Plant The plant is set to undergo modernisation cum expansion through which its hot metal production capacity will be raised to 2.2 million tpy capacity and c) Rebuilding of three coke oven batteries. Capacity expansion to 5 million tonnes per year will be undertaken subsequently. respectively.5 to 5 years. Toranagallu (Vijaynagar Works). c) New blast furnace (1.400 crore by TSL is currently underway. Vijaynagar works existing operations produce flat steel products.0 million tonnes per year capacity integrated steel plant at Jagdalpur in Bastar region of Chhattisgarh at an investment of Rs.86 million tonnes of saleable steel i. d) Third BOF converter (150 tonnes).8 million tpy spread across four locations. The company has an integrated steel plant located at Jamshedpur. JSW Steel Ltd JSW Steel Ltd has an installed crude steel capacity of 4.01 million tonnes of crude steel in 2006-07 and 2007-08.3 million tpy at an estimated cost of Rs. The company commissioned the expansion project at Vijaynagar 48-13 . and 5. Orissa at an investment of Rs. which the company plans to be completed in two phases of 3 million tonnes per phase.93 million tonnes and 4. Visakhapatnam has excellent layout which allows expansion of the plant capacity. e) Third slab caster in SMS II. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd (RINL) Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP) of RINL is the first shore-based integrated steel plant located at Visakhaptnam in Andhra Pradesh.8 million tonnes crude steel. finished steel plus semis. Vasind.e.12 million tonnes 2006-07.50 million tonnes by 2010-11 from 2.17 million tonnes and 5.228 crore. In the first phase.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP planned for expansion include a) new Steel Melting Shop Complex (SMS III) with an installed annual capacity of 3. Setting up of new integrated steel plant with 6 million tonnes capacity in Kalinganagar. The progress at RSP includes a) New half coke oven battery (0.

comprising of sinter plant. oxygen plant. The slabs and HR coil produced at Vijaynagar works are further processed in downstream units at Vasind and Tarapur into value added HR plates. with its associated companies.6 million tonnes steel plant with a captive power plant is to be set up. The company also manufactures sponge iron and pig iron at their Dolvi complex. Andhra Pradesh. The Essar Steel Complex at Hazira in Surat district. JSPL is setting up a 12.6 million tpy continuous caster and 3. It is the largest fully-integrated manufacturer of high quality flat steel products in western India.0.1.6 million tpy electric arc furnace. respectively. which has the world's second largest slurry pipeline of 267 km to transport beneficiated iron ore slurry to the pellet plant and 8 million tpy pellet complex at Visakhapatnam. It is planned to implement these projects in phases. Chhattisgarh. Operating costs are likely to reduce in future via savings through hot DRI charging.000 crore at Raigarh. The company has captive coal mines at Dongamahua in Raigarh district. The Salem works has an integrated manufacturing facility with an overall crude steel capacity of 1 million tpy.6 million tpy hot strip mill. bloom caster and rolling with associated facilities such as coke oven. etc.5 million tonnes integrated steel plant with a total investment of Rs. power plant. blooms and billets . All the existing operating facilities have been accredited with OHSAS-18001.340 MW. galvanised.0 million tonnes capacity at Paradip.000 crore at Angul in Orissa. The plant has a capacity to produce 3 million tpy of hot rolled coils (HRC). has set up one of the largest integrated steel plants in the private sector in India at Dolvi in Raigad district. The company has plans to set up a steel plant of 6.37 million tpy. hot metal . Essar Steel Limited (ESL) A state-of-the-art hot rolled coil steel plant was set up at Hazira. 11 million tonnes integrated steel plant with a total investment of Rs. the largest in the world.5 million tpy. Facilities at Raigarh also include capacities-steel 3 million tonnes (Rail and structurals . Jindal Steel & Power Ltd (JSPL) JSPL has set up a rail & universal beam plant with capabilities to produce 120 m long finished rails. 26.2 million tonnes capacity at Bastar. Jharkhand and 7 million tonnes steel plant with a total investment of Rs. rounds. 2009.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP works with increasing the capacity from 3. In first phase. Ispat Industries Ltd (IIL) Ispat Industries Ltd. The company has a gas-based DRI plant of 48-14 . The company has plans to set up a steel plant of 3.5 million tonnes and captive power plant . Vijaynagar works has integrated operations from beneficiation plant to 1 million tpy Cold Rolling Mill Complex.0 million tonnes per annum capacity. 4. galvalume and colour coated products. Outstanding performance has been observed in the 3 DRI-HBI modules of the company. blast furnace. plates 1. As expansion projects. Maharashtra. Company's operations include an 8 million tpy beneficiation plant at Bailadila in Chhattisgarh.000 crore at Patratu. billet caster. Orissa.4 million tpy cold rolling complex. Chhattisgarh and coal washing unit with capacity of 6 million tonnes per year to wash 47-48% coal ash to 26%.1.30. a 1. Chhattisgarh.8 million tpy in February.75 million tonnes. The sponge iron plant at Raigarh. Gujarat. CR. Chhattisgarh has capacity of 1. Company has planned to increase the total capacity to 10 million tpy at Vijaynagar works by 2010-11. This plant with 4. The scheme also includes installation of pellet plant and iron ore beneficiation plant. 4.00 million tonnes and slabs.25 million tonnes). The company is in possession of required land in West Bengal while in Jharkhand it has obtained a mining lease for iron ore and also got the mining plan approved. The complex also houses 1.ISO-9001: 2000 and ISO 14001. EOF. 40. Gujarat houses the world's largest gas-based single location sponge iron plant with a capacity of 5.8 million tpy to 6. for the first time in India.6 million tpy capacity is being expanded to 9. Two subsidiaries of the company M/s JSW Bengal Steel Ltd and M/s JSW Jharkhand Steel Ltd are incorporated to set up greenfield steel plants with 10 million tpy (each) capacity in West Bengal and Jharkhand.

The company additionally has plans to set up 5. Ltd The company is operating 350 cu m capacity blast furnace at Panambur. An integrated steel plant with a capacity of three million tonnes will be set up in the state of Chhattisgarh. The process yields high quality and specifically very thin grades of HRC. Orissa. For the first time in India.field project. Jajpur dist. Neelachal Ispat Nigam Limited (NINL) NINL has a 1. Some projects were at various stages of implementation.24 million tonnes sinter plant. NMDC is also considering the techno-economic feasiblity of setting up a two million tonnes steel plant in Karnataka. 222 MoUs have been signed in various states with intended capacity of around 275. The NINL has also established itself as a major player in the domestic market with substantial sales of its products like pig iron to foundry and large institutional customers. contribution of private sector units is gradually increasing and this trend is expected to continue.1 million tonnes per annum capacity iron & steel plant located at Duburi. POSCO is planning to set up 12 million tpy capacity steel plant in Orissa by using "Finex" process with direct utilisation of sinter feed iron ore (-8 mm) besides utilising the advantages of "Corex" technology. The company was also in the process of selecting a joint venture equity partner for an integrated steel plant to be set up in Karnataka. After the announcement of the Industrial Policy in 1991 and encouraged by the various other policy initiatives of the Government. The other product of the company that is sold in the domestic market is granulated slag which is consumed by several cement plants.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP 1. National Mineral Corporation Ltd Development NMDC is now directing its resources to diversifying into steel making. For downstream casting and rolling of steel. With these new steel plants. New Mangalore Port for production of pig iron and it is in the process of setting up a Ductile Iron Spun Pipe (DISP) plant of capacity of 1. massive capacity addition is in the pipe line by private steel producers including foreign direct investors.260 tonnes/day oxygen plant and a new electric arc furnace have also commissioned at IIL Dolvi. A new 2. substantial interest by several entrepreneurs to set up new steel plants has been witnessed. IIL has plans to expand its HR coils capacity at Dolvi to 3. through modernisation and expansion of existing public sector steel plants in the country and secondly. EAF. 48-15 .00. the company has combined the use of hot metal and DRI (sponge iron) in the Electric Arc Furnace for production of liquid steel. the investment would be in the range of Rs.0 million tonnes per year integrated steel plant at Paradip. The integrated steel plant functions on the Converter-cum-Electric Arc Furnace route (CONARC process) to produce steel through modern Twin Shell Electric Arc Furnace. Jajpur. by offering initiatives to private sector to install new steel capacities. As per the latest information available. Orissa. Firstly. Kudremukh Iron Ore Co. induction furnance. The NINL and Orissa Government will be setting one million tonne steel plant at Kalinga Nagar. 11 lakh crore. it has incorporated the state-of-the-art compact strip production (CSP) process installed for the first time in India.70 million tonnes with an investment of over Rs. rolling mill etc.6 million tpy capacity and an ultra-modern blast furnace of 2 million tpy capacity to produce hot metal/pig iron. 14. NEW STEEL PROJECTS In the context of long-term demand projection of steel. The hot metal from blast furnace will be the main feed stock for the DISP plant. Besides the steel PSUs.6 million tonnes per year.000 tonnes per year. the Government adopted a two-pronged strategy for increasing steel production in the country. Orissa. Similar expansion is also coming up in secondary steel sector consisting of spong iron. a 1.000 crore. Being a green.

generated from ship recycling contributes to around 1% to 2% of the domestic steel demand. Ship breaking activities are carried out at various places on the Indian Coast. stoves & blowers and twin pig casting machines. Bhavnagar district. Dolvi. Rourkela. integrated steel plants and alloy steel & foundry industries. By ship breaking. Burnpur. and disposal of scrap and surplus stores from other public sector units and government departments including Ministry of Defence. Ltd) The company has two operational divisions. scrap is supplied by dealers who in turn arrange to have scrap collected manually or through sub-dealers. turnings and borings and heavy melting scrap. MSTC Ltd (Metal Scrap Trading Corp. In Domestic Trade. Durgapur.000 tpy coke oven plant. About 40% of the ships broken are dry cargo ships. The consumption of scrap is mainly reported by Induction Furnace and Electric Arc Furnace units. import of scrap on behalf of large industrial houses on back-to-back-order basis and other items. the largest concentration is on the West Coast at Alang and Sosiya villages. The MSTC Ltd is now endeavouring to enter into trade of finished steel products. These are generated by industries of all sectors like automobiles. In addition. Orissa.000 tpy integrated special and stainless steel plant along with a 400. This represents a substantial rationalisation of the nearly 200 small yards that operated in the early 1990s. Visakhapatnam. railways and engineering workshops. The collection & processing of scrap in an organised manner is undertaken by a few units in the country. Recycling scrap helps in conservation of energy as remelting of scrap requires much less energy than production of iron or steel from iron ore. The 250 cu m blast furnace will have carbon hearth refractories. tanker and specialised ships. the company undertakes disposal of ferrous/non-ferrous scrap and other secondaries arisings from integrated steel plants under SAIL. in competition with other private parties. Iron scrap is available in the country in the form of pressed bundles.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP VISA Steel Ltd The Kolkata based Visa Group was in the process of implementing a 500. The company undertakes the recovery and processing of scrap. In the local market. recyclable steel of about 2. the consumption of 48-16 . The steel Ferro Scrap Nigam Ltd (FSNL) FSNL has become a fully-owned subsidiary of MSTC Ltd under the Ministry of Steel. the company provides steel mill services. Also. etc. Gujarat. The scrap so recovered is returned to the steel plants for recycling or disposal and the company is paid processing charges on the quantity recovered at varying rates depending on the category of scrap. Bokaro. while remaining 40% of the ships broken are wet cargo. I t n o w undertakes.000 tonnes of pig iron per annum capacity was commissioned in 2005 at Kalinganagar Industrial Complex. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. there are 80 active yards along a 10 km coast line. Duburi and Raigarh. MSTC is known internationally as one of the biggest importers of steel melting scrap in the country for u s e b y s e c o n d a r y s t e e l i n d u s t r y. in the nine steel plants at Bhilai. Scraps are used in the steel sector after recycling. Its first blast furnace with 225. These recyclable steels mainly as steel scrap provide feed to steel and foundry industry in India. such as scarfing of slabs and handling of BOF slag. Today Alang possibly represents the single largest concentration of ship breaking industry in the world. The life of an average ocean-going ship is about 20 years. Ship breaking Ship breaking has been a major source of scrap generation. slag and refuse dumps. Foreign Trade and Domestic Trade.3 million tonnes or more are generated every year. a mixture of used steel components (called as a commercial scrap). IRON & STEEL SCRAP Iron & Steel scrap is one of the essential requirements for manufacture of steel in mini-steel industry. Today. etc.

USA.005 million tonnes as against 935 million tonnes in 2006.232 million tonnes in 2006. 34. Rep. Japan. * India's production of crude/liquid steel in 2005-06. Ukraine. Similarly. rods. This relatively is a new development and often involved cross-border acquisitions and mergers. Table – 11 : World Production of Pig Iron (By Principal Countries) (In '000 tonnes) Country World : Total Brazil China France Germany India* Japan Korea. as also the semi-finished products of iron. remelting scrap. Russia (5%). primary and semi-finished forms of other alloy-steels. Wo r l d c r u d e s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n i n 2 0 0 7 increased to 1.5 million tonnes. The world production of pig iron in 2007 was about 1. spiegeleisen. Russia. followed by Japan (9%). China has emerged as the most influential market in steel production and consumption. India. Brazil. Table – 12 : World Production of Crude Steel (By Principal Countries) (In '000 tonnes) Country World : Total Brazil China France Germany India* Italy Japan Korea.8 million tonnes. effective from 1st April 2008. USA (7%). the imports of primary forms of pig iron.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP iron and scrap by remelting reduces the burden on land fill disposal facilities and prevents the accumulation of abandoned steel products in the environment.344 million tonnes from 1. 48-17 . * India's production of hot metal in 2005-06. of Russia Taiwan Turkey Ukraine USA Other countries 2005 1144000 31610 353240 19481 44524 45780 29349 112471 47820 66146 18563 20961 38641 94897 220517 2006 1232000 30901 419149 19852 47224 49450 31625 116226 48455 69308 19975 23307 27337 98557 230634 2007 1344000 33782 489660 19250 48550 53080 31506 120203 51517 72220 20700 25761 42830 98181 236760 Source: World Mineral Production. 2006-07 and 2007-08 was 46.20 million tonnes in 2006-07. Italy and Turkey (Table-12). Brazil. ferro-alloys. the exports are also allowed freely. 2006-07 and 2007-08 was 31. bars. coils and wires).8 million tonnes. 50. stainless steel. India and Republic of Korea (4% each). China. Ukraine and Germany were the principal producers (Table-11). Rep. 2003-2007. are unrestricted. Other important producers were Germany.9 million tonnes. sponge iron. Source : World Mineral Production. respectively. the more prudent approach is to make primary steel closer to raw materials and then ship the semi-finished steel to final makers for finishing. WORLD REVIEW Mergers and acquisitions continued all over the world in the steel industry. 2003-2007. The recovery of scrap by FSNL in 2007-08 was at 2. of Russia Ukraine USA Other countries 2005 856200 33884 343752 12596 29294 39177 83058 27920 51750 31700 37200 165869 2006 934800 32452 412452 12874 30940 43288 84270 27559 55022 32900 37900 165143 2007 1004900 35571 469446 12328 31700 46884 86771 29437 51043 35600 36100 170020 TRADE POLICY As per the modified Export-Import Policy incorporated under the Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) for 2004-09. In the globalisation era.7 million tonnes and 36.38 million tonnes in comparision to 2. China was the top producer accounting for 36% of world's crude steel production.8 million tonnes and 53. etc. respectively. non-alloy steel or stainless steel (such as flat-rolled products.

70 million tonnes from 9.20 lakh tonnes in 2007-08 from 6. UAE (7%) and Japan (5%). Italy (7%) and Spain (6%) (Tables .13 to 23). The imports of pig and cast iron (including spiegeleisen) increased to 57 thousand tonnes in 2007-08 from 28 thousand t o n n e s i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r. Steel exports in 2007-08 comprised finished steel (including cold rolled sheets) 4. Table – 13 : Exports of Iron & Steel : Total (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries USA UAE Belgium Germany Saudi Arabia Italy UK Iran Indonesia China Value (Rs. Malaysia (17%). Mexico (22%). Chinese Taipei (15%) and Indonesia (8%) (Tables .94 million tonnes in the previous year.61 lakh tonnes in the previous year.3 million tonnes (19%). Saudi Arabia and Iran (4% each) and Italy. ’000) 2007-08 8421409 381363178 8246268 415266584 1348398 712268 829235 97590 321448 447784 276064 271832 261350 314049 67302239 1271277 73606650 28612803 28807595 10912452 12566944 20342780 13420462 12126488 10937000 15839099 697489 30943485 723062 25367203 148758 17500444 340962 17072386 274322 16120227 251893 14217404 293270 11809980 273342 114406 9882131 3427349 Other countries 3541391 160495316 3857487 195319325 Imports Imports of iron and steel (total) in 2007-08 increased to 11.5 million tonnes (30%) and finished steel including cold rolled sheets 2. Table – 14 : Exports of Iron & Steel (Finished Steel incl.24 to 34). Thailand (23%). Exports of pig and cast iron including spiegeleisen increased to 8.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of iron and steel (total) decreased marginally by 2% in 2007-08 to 8.25 million tonnes from 8. South Africa (18%). Other items together accounted for remaining 18% exports. Belgium (9%). ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. USA and Republic of Korea (8% each). CR Sheet) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) Value (Rs. Imports in 2007-08 were mainly from China (20%).5 million tonnes (31%). UAE (8%). Indonesia and UK (3% each). ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. Exports were mainly to Japan (26%).3 million tonnes (46%) iron and steel scrap 3. Imports in 2007-08 comprised semi-finished steel including ingots 5.42 million tonnes in the previous year.2 million tonnes (51%) and semi-finished steel (including steel ingots) 2. I m p o r t s w e r e mainly from China (24%). Exports in 2007-08 were mainly to USA (15%). ’000) 2007-08 All Countries 4006026 179647088 4186946 195278361 USA Saudi Arabia UAE Oman Italy Belgium Iran Indonesia Spain China 782663 119854 298326 80353 268223 280488 163970 115298 98364 132919 34875284 6255938 11237780 3671302 11497382 11717964 8121724 6963557 3972040 8121148 839250 43642234 218075 11889876 264042 11260662 195065 11190934 195196 201200 155502 135913 129894 20049 8403222 8164286 6476184 5799075 5077817 1306423 Other countries 1665568 73212969 1832760 82067648 48-18 .

’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 2007-08 107514 12555218 22260 7220 6085 3350 3217 2741 7785 1680 1683 2001 49492 2621292 1618482 891969 648046 474502 422120 368225 319091 317672 316086 4557733 Iran Italy USA Germany Belgium UAE All Countries 3060269 103540729 2521576 101149361 528651 286356 270197 23446 96670 148764 140541 104091 168632 118571 14783907 8378762 10954385 3368055 3190117 4852002 3401411 2961310 3956259 7102408 497646 14932218 288197 123318 43649 127873 46412 121666 97460 81171 18378 8967547 7319627 6097098 3920228 3393784 3053921 2842965 2413829 1204816 Table – 16 : Exports of Iron & Steel (Other Finished Steel. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 2007-08 Indonesia Spain Saudi Arabia China Other countries 1174350 40592113 1075806 47003328 86316854 1271936 104400344 19078834 8663552 5119691 6274200 319853 3018348 2333666 1874698 1950617 1914102 35769293 286260 20013433 137239 10340250 83005 88863 78240 26407 41357 28928 32596 22711 7879877 7144721 5732823 3418993 2734648 2341047 2125870 1873393 All Countries UAE ++ ++ 17 17 Country Qty (t) Value (Rs. Rep. ’000) 2006-07 2007-08 Table – 18 : Exports of Iron & Steel Material (By Countries) Other countries 424906 446330 40795289 48-19 . of Italy Saudi Arabia Canada Australia Nigeria 271460 119874 56314 92576 2782 23201 32785 27898 29239 26777 Value (Rs.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 15 : Exports of Iron & Steel (Steel Wire) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries USA Germany Italy Belgium UK Turkey UAE Netherlands France Australia Other countries 102569 23868 5575 7454 6200 3461 1351 7641 1992 1860 3079 40088 Value (Rs. NES) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries 1107812 USA UAE Germany UK Korea. ’000) 10628635 2382041 1131735 968165 1105854 494213 199693 328218 375114 337507 236428 3069667 Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 2007-08 Table – 17 : Exports of Iron & Steel (Semi-finished Steel incl. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. Steel Ingots) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) Value (Rs.

IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 19 : Exports of Iron & Steel : Alloy Steel ( Granules) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Bhutan Bangladesh Nepal Nigeria USA Australia Canada Kuwait UK Spain Other countries 346 275 1 19 ++ 3 6 14 4 24 Value (Rs. ’000) 1099068 556669 322379 51128 40864 25406 19493 15368 11606 7077 49078 2007-08 Table – 20 : Exports of Iron & Steel : Alloy Steel (Powder) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries UK Bangladesh Italy USA Egypt Mexico Brazil Malaysia Canada Sweden Other countries 507 2 28 81 84 40 51 40 50 70 61 Value (Rs. ’000) 710461 613703 19871 6592 7279 14207 4006 14397 12394 6220 269 11523 Qty (t) 49599 41571 2446 3022 831 198 58 76 339 1058 Value (Rs. ’000) 31043 9264 8946 7736 2246 1072 447 210 115 53 954 2007-08 Table – 21 : Exports of Iron & Steel (Scrap) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries China Sweden Japan Hong Kong Germany Netherlands Bhutan UK Italy Philippines Other countries 84874 60041 193 402 786 100 22000 1352 Value (Rs. ’000) 29862 5633 5413 5182 4145 3825 824 244 196 60 4340 2007-08 Table – 22 : Exports of Iron & Steel (Sponge Iron) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Bangladesh Kuwait Bhutan Sri Lanka Germany UK Nepal Peru Greece Yemen Other countries 59006 53472 1650 824 585 835 191 265 389 240 25 530 Value (Rs. ’000) 9150 5489 40 1595 8 230 155 556 272 805 Qty (t) 1384 397 458 386 95 7 10 4 2 1 24 Value (Rs. ’000) 31917 94 2081 4266 3732 3361 2577 3591 2819 7328 2068 Qty (t) 555 68 172 74 60 91 7 4 2 2 75 Value (Rs. ’000) 723310 592139 39257 36072 17104 5145 1576 1074 8218 22725 2007-08 48-20 . ’000) 478344 348775 11464 17741 9844 4204 42784 43532 Qty (t) 106758 72658 5432 25500 540 337 326 144 149 148 1524 Value (Rs.

Rep. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 23 : Exports of Pig & Cast Iron incl. of 175852 Italy USA Russia France Spain Sweden 137404 107638 51094 30034 23967 23421 Other countries 503398 Other countries 38714 Table – 24 : Imports of Iron & Steel : Total (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries China Korea. ’000) 2007-08 819926 13541946 212131 186503 3458513 2680130 All Countries 2117966 145757009 2269650 155900225 China Japan Germany 687283 211831 166044 43045973 14479408 9931306 9665117 10808477 10069235 6360048 4232816 3233912 3174720 30755997 433649 361735 197696 224205 97313 135297 52707 42097 36993 26293 661665 27525476 21499478 13140537 13091262 10071026 9940504 6522929 5308814 5059033 3782781 39958385 Chinese Taipei/ Taiwan 139700 Malaysia Indonesia Netherlands Korea. Rep. Rep. of Japan USA Germany Russia Italy Ukraine UAE Netherlands Value (Rs. ’000) 5845606 1606953 713983 591565 467658 435173 320111 248674 243247 180047 125603 912592 2007-08 9942835 377449711 11699378 480903967 1687641 667099 490509 673078 315592 624735 178438 583182 705110 94985 74276187 2351569 100667426 29605821 25491575 25346866 20562230 21059543 14630591 16000378 11308326 10208974 903293 639198 896233 439938 457257 138880 377782 851900 119658 45639767 32539570 31902715 30661191 19572706 15085261 12026057 11469046 10541555 Other countries 3922466 128959220 4523670 170798673 48-21 . ’000) 2007-08 Table – 25 : Imports of Iron & Steel (Finished Steel incl. Rep. of Belgium Germany Brazil Spain Other countries 69338 30817 3772 859 2377 4830 4707 3504 2794 1847 4954 8877 Value (Rs. of Sweden China Bangladesh 22942 2454 55712 2952 112094 28517 1927589 314789 49451 835442 131817 1588213 400022 791393 120685 142820 62904 24584 21046 1036 8780 1410 38027 2289249 2149573 1096709 375188 301361 131921 103149 28056 928097 Korea. ’000) 2007-08 Table – 26 : Imports of Iron & Steel (Steel Wire) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries China Nepal Sweden Japan Malaysia Korea. ’000) 9421777 1597603 1785458 Qty (t) Value (Rs. CR Sheet) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) Value (Rs. Spiegeleisen (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Japan Thailand 660842 116920 140837 Value (Rs. ’000) 4218130 1074111 138956 367153 530227 244790 284370 201035 296199 123779 288412 669098 Qty (t) 108802 46001 16586 850 2726 10312 4923 4676 2153 3063 2463 15049 Value (Rs.

Steel Ingots) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) Value (Rs. Rep.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 27 : Imports of Iron & Steel (Other Finished Steel. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 5169 3187 1229 753 Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 68151769 23846402 9609557 6175455 4302465 3660951 3230321 1835816 1757383 1286385 837148 11609886 2007-08 Table – 29 : Imports of Iron & Steel Material (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Germany Malaysia Thailand 89 51 24 14 Value (Rs. of Ukraine Russia Romania Thailand Japan Belgium Germany Iran 889697 461293 532060 510841 133591 84910 225121 89287 96485 277820 22850600 1632742 16044142 14361915 12038042 4414929 2396943 6959008 3709693 4333086 6128977 629355 373153 380571 239533 271862 241488 158484 130190 88719 47442388 21894450 11737758 9702449 8423260 7314252 6693035 6535421 6327835 2252077 39762432 Other countries 917832 28950265 1191455 48-22 . of Germany USA Italy Japan UK France Singapore UAE 175217 51462 15297 15957 13065 8406 11477 4394 4335 4537 9529 Value (Rs. NES) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries China Korea. ’000) 361749 102249 68998 60879 41660 33877 17706 14394 4837 4336 3495 9318 2007-08 Other countries 36758 Table – 28 : Imports of Iron & Steel (Semi-finished Steel incl. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 2007-08 38156419 419928 6520744 230423 3093905 4763007 4243975 2466192 2684724 1392258 1333551 1186786 2358907 8112370 31706 24816 16039 13988 18343 7235 6573 5051 5354 60400 Table – 30 : Imports of Iron & Steel : Alloy Steel (Granules) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) Value (Rs. Rep. ’000) 2007-08 All Countries Spain Italy China Thailand France South Africa USA Germany Romania UK Other countries 11511 2759 2847 2853 789 331 550 301 414 252 225 190 All Countries 4218937 122187600 5337552 168085357 China Korea. ’000) 403456 107455 96200 78271 22810 12648 18787 11200 29195 8456 9958 8476 Qty (t) 11133 3127 2135 2126 1500 768 554 339 91 126 96 271 Value (Rs.

’000) 1121600 175089 89308 190355 104648 83814 Qty (t) 57120 13471 547 3950 12458 10312 3563 Value (Rs. Spiegeleisen) Table – 32 : Imports of Iron & Steel (Scrap) (By Countries) Country 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries USA UAE Netherlands UK Germany Kuwait Russia South Africa Singapore Malaysia Value (Rs. ’000) 1956276 468708 103583 135943 349590 216475 114185 (By Countries) 2006-07 2007-08 3188060 64335290 3548202 82197925 506329 651711 65420 264698 33516 9072906 7227418 8422316 4106969 1137144 670454 14595756 816379 70314 284466 84847 9731295 7520337 5145161 4746444 Other countries 1115665 22794524 1097025 27106340 48-23 . ’000) All Countries China Germany Italy Mexico South Africa Spain 214248 62173 111313 87139 75848 2669450 2473769 1855348 2367043 2208403 202018 23714 139392 84609 74984 3098916 Sweden 3044005 2940742 2190084 2078845 Thailand UK USA Other countries 1963 442 1377 3156 57303 61252 73087 164997 1819 404 2857 5364 50138 54939 109728 217917 2118 121747 2375 135070 2007-08 Qty (t) 28055 5798 500 5430 4911 2360 Value (Rs. ’000) 324305 29014 5660 13108 4544 22836 6819 6316 95686 80097 49638 10587 2007-08 Table – 33 : Imports of Iron & Steel (Sponge Iron) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Sweden Saudi Arabia South Africa China Italy Libya Venezuela 160437 208 1 ++ 53699 106529 Value (Rs. ’000) 2121122 6661 55 11 742700 1371695 Qty (t) 2039 555 1155 314 15 Value (Rs. ’000) Qty (t) Value (Rs. ’000) 265516 26655 4942 5520 5908 69106 5677 46983 64712 32997 3016 Qty (t) 2072 64 40 42 4 145 18 189 833 179 461 97 Value (Rs. ’000) 37031 17087 15817 2810 1317 2007-08 Table – 34 : Imports of Pig & Cast Iron (Incl.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP Table – 31 : Imports of Iron & Steel : Alloy Steel (Powder) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Belgium Canada China France Germany Japan Spain Sweden UK USA Other countries 1280 58 43 35 12 331 20 352 142 284 3 Value (Rs.

2 0 0 5 e n v i s a g e s t o a c h i e v e g l o b a l competitiveness not only in terms of cost. particularly in the field of greenfield steel plants in the private sector. The Government of India may consider to reopen the closed units of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). The economic reforms and the consequent liberalisation of the Iron & Steel sector brought a sea change in the industry. so that the unutilised capacities of secondary sector can produce their products and Indian steel production can be enhanced. quality and price. The rapid growth of the Iron & Steel Industry and the changed global scenario are creating avenues for accelerated growth in the Industry. The National steel P o l i c y. especially with growth of the steel consuming sectors. India has established herself as a key destination market for global steel and as emerging market in the field of mergers & acquisitions and is also reckoned as one of the major producers of steel of low manufacturing cost. Induction Furnace (IF) and Hot Rolled (HR) Mills for long products. This position needs to be consolidated further and issues affecting production and consumption need to be resolved expeditiously.IRON & STEEL AND SCRAP FUTURE OUTLOOK India ranked fifth among the major crude steel producing countries in the world. India is the largest producer of sponge iron in the world with production over 20 million tonnes. Besides. quality and product mix but also in terms of global benchmarks of efficiency and productivity in the Indian Steel Sector. The growth of the steel sector is linked intricately with the growth of the Indian economy. The Steel Industry in general is on the upswing due to strong growth in demand propelled by the strong domestic demand for steel particularly from the construction. At the same time. I n d i a i s a l r e a d y recognised as a global player in the steel industry and is poised to play a key role in the international steel scenario. India has become self. manufacturing and automotive sectors. The Steel Industry has now exalted itself and is in a position of self-reliance and is also in a position to compete globally in terms of product range. 48-24 . measures to match the productivity of our steel plants to that of international quality standards must be t a k e n u p a s t o p p r i o r i t y.sufficient in iron & steel materials in the last five years. Exports are rising along with production and capacities.

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