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Extract!from! “ Game!Design!for!Cultural!Heritage ” !
Foteini!Valeonti ! © ! 2012 !
www.valeonti.com !
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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! SECTION!I : ! GAME!DESIGN!
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SECTION!I : !
GAME!DESIGN!
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A.! Defining!games! – ! a ! debate!

Over! the! years! a! plethora! of! philosophers! and! game! designers! have! attempted! to! define ! games.! Given! the! fact! that! their ! existence ! spans!on!more! than! two!millennia 1 ! one! would! expect! over! all! these! years! a! definition! for! such! a! popular! activity! would! have! prevailed.! It! might! have! been! the!subject!of!adjustment!and!optimisation!over!time!but!the! core! of! the! definition! would! have! been! the! same,! as! it! has! happened!with!other!phenomena!that!exist!since!the!ancient! times!such!as!drama.!Defining!games!however!proves!to!be!a! complex! task! and! in! this! chapter! a! variety! of! definitions! about! games! is! examined,! leading! to! the! definition! that! appears! to! prevail.! ! Jesper! Juul! a! cont emporary! researcher! on! the! field! of! game! design! in! his! paper! “ The! Game,! the! Player,!the!World:!Looking!for!a!Heart!of!Gameness”! (2003)! offers! a! thorough! research! on! definitions! of! games! and! the! following!research!has!been!based!on!his! work. !

! ! ! ! 1 ! The!first!recorded!Ancient!
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! The!first!recorded!Ancient!

Olympic!Games!were!in!776!BC !

(Ancient!Greece,!2011). !

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Dutch!anthropologist!John!Huizinga!(1950)!defined!game!as!

a! free!activity!standing!quite!consciously!outside!”ordinary”! life! as! being! ”not! serious”,! but! at! the! same! time! absorbing! the! player! intensely! and! utterly.! It! is! an! activity! connected! with!no!material!interest,!a nd!no!profit!can!be!gained!by!it.!It! proceeds! within! its! own! proper! boundaries! of! time! and! space!according! to! fixed! rules!and!in!an! orderly!manner.! It! promotes! the! formation! of! social! groupings,! which! tend! to! surround! themselves! with! secrecy! and! to! stress! their! difference! from! the! common! world! by! disguise! or! other! means.! Building! upon! Huizinga’s! definition! French! sociologist! Roger! Caillois! (1961)! defined! a! game! as! an! activity,! which! is! essentially:! Free! (voluntary),! separate! [in! time!and!space],!uncertain,! unproductive,!governed!by!rules,! makea believe.! In! 1982! Chris! Crawford! a! world a known! computer! game! designer!in! his! book! “The! Art! of! Computer! Game! Design”! argued! that! games! share! four! common! factors:! representation! ["a! closed! formal! system! that! subjectively! represents! a! subset! of! reality"],! interaction,! conflict,! and! safety! ["the! results! of! a! game! are! always! less! harsh! than! the! situations! the! game! models"]! (Crawford,! 1982).! !

Juul! (2003)! offers! a! more! precise! definition! stating! that! a! game! is! a! rulea based! formal! system! with! a! variable! and! quantifiable! outcome,! where! different! outcomes! are! assigned!different!values,!the!player!exerts!effort!in!order!to! influence! the! outcome,! the! player! feels! attached! to! the! outcome,! and! the! consequences! of! the! activity! are! optional! and! negotiable.! Other! contemporary! experts! on! the! field! avoid!giving!a!single!definition. ! !

Dr.!Jane!McGonigal!a!worlda renowned!game!designer 2 ! in!her!

recent!book!“Reality!is!Broken”!(2011)!following!Crawford’s!

example,! instead! of! using! one! definition! for! games,! she! outlines!the!characteristics! they ! appear!to!have! in!common.! According!to!McGonig al!a!game!has!four!defining!traits:!

1.

The!goal;! the!sp ecific!outcome! that!players!will!work! to! achieve.!It!focuses!their!attention!and!continually!orients! their! participation! throughout! the! game.! The! goal! provides!players!with!a!sense!of!purpose. !

2.

The! rules;! which! place! limitations! on! how! players! can! achieve! t he! goal.! By! removing! or! limiting! the! obvious! ways! of! getting! to! the! goal,! the! rules! push! players! to! explore! previously! uncharted! possibility! spaces.! They! unleash!creativity!and!foster!strategic!thinking.!

3.

The! feedback!system;!it! tells!players!how!close! they! are!

to! achieving! the! goal.! It! can! take! the! form! of! points,! levels,! a! score,! or! a! progress! bar.! ! Or,! in! its! most! basic! form,! the! feedback! system! can! be! as! simple! as! the! players’! knowledge! of!an! objective! outcome:! “The!game!

is!over!when

”!Real

a time!feedback!serves!as!a!promise!to!

the! players! that! the! goal! is! definitely! achievable! and! it! provides!motivation!to!keep!playing.!

4.

Voluntary!participation;!it!requires!that!everyone!who!is!

playing! the! game! knowingly! and! willingly! accepts! the! goal,! the! rules! and! the! f eedback.! Knowingness! establishes! common! ground! for!multiple! people! to! play! together.! And! the! freedom! to! enter! or! leave! a! game! at! will! ensures! that! intentionally! stressful! and! challenging! work!is!experienced!as!safe!and!pleasurable!activity. !

The!above!definitions!attempt!to!identify!similarities!across! games!or!traits!they!appear!to!have!in!common,!but!as!Raph! Koster!argues! in ! his!book!“A!Theory!of!Fun!for!Game!Design”! (2005)! an! epitomy! in! the! field! of! game! design,! all! these! characterisations! fail! to! help! designers! find! “fun”!a! concept! directly! related! to! gaming.! ! Koster! in! his! book! takes! this! debate! of! defining! a! game! a! step! further,! looking! for! an! answer! in! the! exploration! of! the! way! the! human! brain! functions.! Based! on! Koster’s! findings , ! which! are! analysed ! later! on, ! this! report! attempts! to! prove! in! the! following! chapter! that!games!are!nothing!more!than!tasty!food!for!our! brains!and!as!Mc Gonig al!argues!(2011)!positive!psychology,! the! scien ce! of! optimal! human! functioning ! of! what! makes! people! flourish! and! thri ve! or! simply! feel! happy! (wellbeingwizard ,!2009),!is!the!purpose!of!game!design.!The! next! chapter!aims! to! crystalise! the! relation! between ! games! and!the!feeling!of!happiness. ! !

2 ! Dr.! Jane!McGonigal ! is! the!New! York!Times!bestselling!author!of!

“ Reality!is! Broken ” ! (2011) ! whilst!

in! the! past! s he! has! created! and!

deployed! award a winning! games! and!secret!missions!in!more!than! 30! countries! on! six! continents,! for! partners! such! as! the! I nternational! Olympics!

Committee! and ! the! World! Bank! Institute .! Her ! games! have! been! featured!in!The!New!York!Times,! Wired,! and! The! Economist,! and!

on ! NPR! and! CNN. ! ( JANEMCGONIGAL,!2011 ) ! ! ! ! ! !
on !
NPR!
and!
CNN. !
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JANEMCGONIGAL,!2011 ) !
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“ Games are ‘tasty food’
for the human brain. ”
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B.!Endorphins,!pattern!recognition! ! and!learning ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Koster’s! exact! definition! of!
B.!Endorphins,!pattern!recognition! !
and!learning !
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Koster’s! exact! definition! of! games! is! the! following:! “ The$
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human$ brain$is$ a$ voracious$ consumer$ of$ patterns$ [ Games$
].$
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are$just$exceptionally$ tasty$ patterns$ to$eat$ up ”.! This! chapter!
aims!to!crystallise!the!link!between!pattern!recognition!and!
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the! euphoria! it! causes! to! its! players ! with ! t he! research!
featured! below! being! based! on! Raph! Koster’s! “A! theory! of!
fun!for!game!design”!(2005).!Koster! clarifies! in! the! book!that!
his! research! is! based! on! the! findings! of! cognitive!
neuroscience! that! in! comparison! to! traditional! cognitive!
theory,!which!d id!not!reference!biology!at!all,! it ! attempts!to!
relate!information!flow!to!how!the!brain!actually!works.!!
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1.!Endorphins’!release! as! the!reason!humans!“feel!good”!
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According!to!neuroscience!theory!every!feeling!we!have!is!a!
“neuroa chemical! event”! (Johnston,! 2011)! during! which! a!
cocktail! of! chemicals! is! being! released! in! our! body.! For!
example! the! feeling! of! danger,! stress!and!anxiety! relates! to!
the!release!of!adrenali ne!and!cortisol,!chemicals!that!narrow!
people’s! focus,! sharpen! their! thinking! and! temporarily!
increase! their! strength! to! enable! them! to! get! out! of! this!
situation.!Euphoria!on!the!other!hand!relates!to!endorphins,!
the!body’s!natural!opiates,!which!are!being ! released!during!
laughter,! relaxation! or! exercise! (Johnston,! 2011).! Koster!
(2005)! argues! that! the! feeling! of! happiness! relates! directly!
to! the! release! of! endorphins,! which! can! be! caused! by !
aesthetical! appreciation ! (e.g.! listening! to! exceptionally!
powerful! music ),! by!physical!stimuli!(e.g.! having!an!orgasm)!
or! by! chemical! manipulation! (e.g.! having! cocaine).! The!
release!of!endorphins!in!the!human!body!can!be!experienced!
by! the! pleasurable! chills! one! gets! down! the! spine! or! by!
instinctively!breaking!out!into!a! smile.! !
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2.!Learning!as!a!cause!for!endorphins’!release!
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According! to! Koster! one! of! the! subtlest! releases! of!
endorphins! comes! at! the! moment! of! triumph! when! one!
learns!something!new,!or!masters!a!task.!Jean!Piaget's!theory!
of! cognitive! development! states! that! humans! cannot! be!
"given"! information,! which! they! immediately! understand!
and! use.! Instead! humans! must! "construct"! their! own!
knowledge,! which! they! build! through! experience.!
Experiences!enable! them! to!create!schemas,!mental!models!
in! their! heads! they! will! later! refer! to! ( Cognitive!
Constructivist! Theories,! 2011).! By! definition! this!
“construction”!of!knowledge!is!the!learning!process 1 . !
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1 ! Learning! is! defined! as! knowledge! or! skill! acquired! by! instruction! or! study ! ( Meriam a Webster,!2011 ) . !

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Seeing!Patterns! – ! Intellectual!Understanding ! ! ! ! Based! on!Piaget’s! theory!when! humans!are! faced!with!
Seeing!Patterns! – ! Intellectual!Understanding !
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Based! on!Piaget’s! theory!when! humans!are! faced!with! new!
or! unfamiliar! information! they! refer! to! previously! learned!
information,!i.e.!existing!schemas,!in!order!to!make!sense!of!
it.! When! humans! fail! to! understand! this! new! information!
based!on!their!existing!knowledge,!Koster’s!interpretation!is!
that!they!fail!to!recognise!a!pattern!in!it.!For!as!long!as!they!
cannot!find!a!pattern!they!perceive!this!information!as!noise.!
The! moment! humans! manage! to! see! a! pattern! is! the! first!
step!of! the!learning!process.!According! to!Koster! this!is! the!
intellectual$understanding ! and!takes!part!at!the! first!level!of!
the!human!brain,!the!conscious!thought.! !
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The! recognition! of ! new! patterns,! being! part! of! the!learning! process,! causes! the! release! of! endorphins! in! the! human! body. ! Taking! as! an! example! literature! and! the! work ! of! Sir! Arthur! Conan! Doyle,! in! each! one! of! his! stories! the! readers! get! lost!in!the!mystery! being ! unable!to! identify!a!pattern! and! subsequently! come! to! the! solution. ! Sherlock!Holmes! on! the! other!hand! is!the!one!that!manages!to! connect!the!dots!and! reveal! the! concealed ! pattern! in! the! chaos. ! Once! Sherlock , ! near! the! end! of! the! story,! uncovers! the! mystery,! readers! can not! help!it! but! break! into! a! smile! enjoying! the! fact! they! were ! able!to ! see!the! underlying ! pattern! of!the!story! and!if! it! was!an!exceptionally! good!one,! feel!the!chills!down!the!spine!

– ! ! “ Obvious,!my!dear!Watson ” . ! ! Exercise! – ! Intuitive!Understanding! ! The!
! ! “ Obvious,!my!dear!Watson ” . !
!
Exercise! – ! Intuitive!Understanding!
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The! stage! that! follows! one’s! ability! to! recognise! a! pattern,!
according! to! Koster,! is! the! creation! of! schemas! based! on!
these! newly! grasped! patterns ! that! fit! within! the! context! of!
one’s!existing!knowledge.!Using!a!term!coined!by!Jean!Piaget!
this! is! called! as similation,! defined! as! the! process! of! taking!
one’s! environment! and! fitting! it! into! prea existing! cognitive!
schemas.! Assimilation,! according! to! Koster,! takes! place! at!
the!second!level!of!the!brain!that!has!to!do!with!its!intuitive!
part.!Humans!cannot!access! this!level!directly,!however!one!
way! to! provoke! this! procedure! of! turning! patterns! into!
schemas!that!can!be!then!fit!into!one’s!existing!knowledge!is!
practise.! An! indication! of! brain! working! on! assimilation! is!
when!one!is!dreaming!about!a!newly!learned!skill!or!subject.!
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Routine!– ! Reactive!Mind!

! When!assimilation!is!over!and!all!the!patterns!humans!have! grasped! have! been! turned! into! cognitive! schemas!
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When!assimilation!is!over!and!all!the!patterns!humans!have!
grasped! have! been! turned! into! cognitive! schemas! and! are!
already! fitted! into! their! existing! knowledge,! the! learning!
process! is! over.! Next! time! humans! encounter! similar!
information! the! brain!will! refer! to! these! cognitive! schemas!
and! will! not! go! through! the! learning! process! again.! This!
process!is!instinctive!and!takes!place!at!the!third!level!of!the!
brain,! which! is! the! instinctual! or! reactive! mind.! ! The!
pleasure! caused! by! learning! subsequently! lasts! until!
assimilation!is!over. !
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Definining!games!based! on! neuroscience!
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Coming! back! to! Koster’s! theory ,! humans! enjoy! learning!
because! it! triggers! the! release! of! endorphins! in! the! body.!
Hence!g ames! are! feeding ! players!with!concealed!patterns!to!
recognise! one! after! the! other , ! aiming! to! keep! them! in! a!
constant!state!of!learning! in!order! to! prolong! the!release!of!
endorphins!for!the!whole!course!of!the!game.!Concluding!the!
definition!given!in!this!report!a!simplified!version!of!the!one!
given!by!Koster! above. ! !
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Games are activities designed to make people
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happy. Their aim is the frequent release of
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endorphins in the human body by keeping the
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players in a constant state of learning or in other
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words in the recognition of new patterns.
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Summarising ! humans! crave! for! pleasures!i.e.! the! release! of!
endorphins.! An! activity! that! triggers! this! neuroa chemical!
event! is! learning! i.e.! the! ability! to! recognise! new! patterns.!
Through!assimilation!it!is!only!a!matter!of! time!when! these!
newly!grasped!patterns!will!be!turned!into!schemas!and!will!
be! fit ted ! into!one’s!existing!knowledge.!Once!assimilation!is!
over!whenever!humans!encounter!similar!information!in!the!
future! they! will! refer! directly! to! these! schemas! bypassing!
the! pleasure!of!the! learning!process, ! as! they! will!make!sense!
of!the!information ! instantly.!Games!aim!to!keep!players!in!a!
constant!process!of!learning.!
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C.!Game!mechanics! ! ! ! ! ! ! One! could! argue! that! being! able! to! define!
C.!Game!mechanics!
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One! could! argue! that! being! able! to! define! games! and! their!
purpose! helps! only! little! a! game! designer! to! develop! an!
immersive!and!thrilling!experience.!For!Shakespeare’s!Hunt!
in!order!to!achieve!developing!an!enjoyable!game!at!a!more!
practical! level! game! mechanics! were! used.! This! chapter!
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analyses!the!definition!of!the!term!followed!by!a!list!of!game!
mechanics.!The!last!subject! featured!in!this!chapter!is!game!
demotivators!and!reasons!of!boredom! in!a!game. !
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Definition!
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Similarly! to!the!debate!on!the!definition!of!games,! there!is!a! ple thora! of ! definitions! for ! game! mechanics’ ! as! well .! Migel! Sicart! on! his! article! “ Defining$ Game$ Mechanics”! on! Game! Studies!journal! (Sicart,! 2008)! offers!a! thorough! research! of! past! definitions! of! the! term.! Game! designer! Richard! Rouse! defines!game!mechanics!with!the!goal!of!teaching!the!basics! of! game! documen tation! of! game! design.! For! Rouse,! game! mechanics! are! "the! guts! of! a! design! document",! since! they! describe!"what!the!players!are!able!to!do!in!the!gamea world,! how! they! do! it,! and! how! that! leads! to! a! compelling! game! experience"! (Rouse,! 2005).! A! similar! pedag ogical! approach!

is!taken!by!Fullerton,!Hoffman!and!Swain!(2004),!who!define!

" game$ procedures” ,! a! similar! concept! to! mechanics,! as! "the$ actions$or$methods$of$play$allowed$by$the$rules$(…)$they$guide$ player$behaviour,$creating$interactions" . !

! The! above! defin itions!are!broad,!defining!game!mechanics!as! almost! every! possible!
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The! above! defin itions!are!broad,!defining!game!mechanics!as!
almost! every! possible! action!players!can!take!throughout! the!
game.! However! as! a! term! it! is! more! commonly! used! to!
characterise! constructs! of! rules! intended! to! produce! an!
enjoyable! gaming! experience! (Wikipedia ,! 2011).! By! some!
such! rules! are! also! called! game$ dynamics! (Biggs,! 2010 )! or!
motivators! (Moseley , ! et!al. ,!2009).!This!is! also! the!definition!
followed!in!this!report,!where!game!mechanics!are!rules!that!
offer!an!enjoyable!game. !
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Review!of!resources! ! 1! Available!at ! ! ! !!!! http:// www. TechCrunch.com !
Review!of!resources!
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1! Available!at ! !
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!!!! http:// www. TechCrunch.com !
During!the!design!process!of!Shakespeare’s!Hunt!a!thorough!
research!on!the!subject! was!conducted ! in!order!to!decide!the!
mechanics! that!would!later! be!integrated!in! our! game.! The!
longest ! list!of!game!mechanics! (Biggs,!2010 )! as!of!today!has!
been! p ublished! on! TechCrunch 1 ,! the! popular! technology!
journal,!which! features! the!extended!list!of!game! motivators!
used! in! the! location a based! game! SCVNGR 2 . ! Another!
documentation! of! game! mechanics! is! provided! by! the!
Gamification!Encyclopedia 3 , ! which!provides!a!wi ki 4 ! for! that!
matter, ! where! users! are! able! to ! contribute! new! rules! and!
optimise!the!existing!ones!! (Gamification!Wiki,!2011). !
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2! More!information!available!!!! ! !
!!! at ! http://SCVNGR.com !
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Game!mechanics! H! a!list !
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Below! there! is! a! list! of! fundamental! game! mechanics!
appropriated! by! a!plethora!of!commercial!games.!
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Achievements! ! and! Reward:! Achievements! are! a! virtual! or!
physical! representation! of! an ! accomplishment .! They! are! a!
way!to!give!players!status!amongst!their!peers!as!well!as!to!
add! challenge! and! character! to! a! game.! Achievements! are!
often!considered!"locked"! until! users ! have!met!the!series!of!
tasks! that! are! required! to! "unlock"! the! Achievement.! For!
example!foursquare 5 ,!a! mobile! location a based!game,!awards!
“Badges”!for!players!when!they! are!visiting!real!world!places!
(Gamification!Wiki,!2011). !
3 ! Gamification! is! t he! process! of!
applying! game! mechanics! on!
fields! other! than! gaming.! A!
plethora! of! businesses! use!
techniques! used! in! traditional!
games! to! increase! brand!
engagement! and! customer!
loyalty! e.g.! point! systems! for!
Starbucks’! membership! scheme.!
The! Gamification! Enc yclopedia!
as! is! name! indicates! aims! to! be!
the! encyclopedia! of! gamification!
relying! heavily! on! user a
generated! concent.! It! is! an!
initiative! of! Gamify! Inc.! a!
company! that! offe rs! g ame!
m echanics! as! a! service!
(
Gamify.it,!2011 ) . !
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4 ! Wiki! is! a! piece! of! serv er!
software! that! allows! users! to!
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freely! create! and! edit!Web! page!
content! using! any! Web! browser!
Influence!and!Status:!The!ability!of!one!player!to!modify!the!
behaviour! of! another! player’s! actions! through! social!
p ressure! (Biggs,! 2010).! ! Status! can! act! as! a! motivator! as! a!
player!is!being!recognised!for!his!achievements!by!his!peers.!
(What!
is!
a! Wiki,! 2002 ). !
Wikipedia,! the! on a line!
encyclopedia!is! t h e!most! famous!
and! widely! used ! wiki!
(Wikipedia,!2011). !
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Progress:! A! mechanic! in! which! succ ess! is! displayed! in! a!
granular! fashion! and! measured! through! the! process! of!
completing!itemised!tasks! (Biggs,!2010).!! !
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5 ! More!information! available!at !
!!!! http://foursquare.com !
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Appointment :! A! mechanic! in! which! to! succeed,! one! must!
return! at! a! predefined! time! to! take! some! action.!
Appointment! dynamics! are! often! deeply! related! to! interval!
based! reward! schedules! or! avoidance! dynamics! (Biggs,!
2010). ! An! example! and! a! game! that! made! this! game!
mechanic!popular!is!FarmVille,!in!which!players!grow! their!
own! farm! and! have! to! get! back! to! the! game! to! water! their!
plants!at!pred efined!intervals. !
6 ! More! information! available!at !
!!!! http://f armville .com ! !
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Satisfying! Work:! McGonig al! argues! satisfying! work! starts! with! two! things:! a! clear! goal! and!
Satisfying! Work:! McGonig al! argues! satisfying! work! starts!
with! two! things:! a! clear! goal! and! actionable! next! steps!
toward! achieving! that! goal.! Having! a! clear! goal! motivates!
players! to!act,!as! they! know!what! they!are! supposed! to!do.!
Actionable!next!steps!ensure!that!players!can!make!progress!
toward! the! goal! immediately.! In! the! case! when! one! has! a!
clear!goal , ! but! is!unable!to! see!the!actionable!steps!toward!it,!
then! that!is!not!work. ! It ! is! a!problem!(McGonigal,!2010). !
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Demotivators!and! b oredom !
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Moseley!and!Whitton!(2009 )! at!the!European!Conference!for!
Games! along! with! a! set! of! motivators! listed! also! facts! that!
would! demotivate! players.! ! Their! research! focused! on!
1 !
Alternate! Reality! Games!
(ARGs)!are!explained!in!the!next!
section. !
Alternate! Reality! Games 1 ! however! the! demotivators! below!
that!can!be!found!in!games!of!all!genres!are:! !
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1.
Unfairness,!when!a!player!stops!having!trust!in!the!game.!
2.
Lack!of!interest,!when!one!is!not!interested!in!the!subject!
featured!in!the!game. !
3.
Undemanding!or!too!demanding!gamepla y,!both!cases!of!
which!lead!to!boredom.!
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Boredom! in! game! design! has! been! covered! thoroughly! by!
Koster!(2005).!His!definition!of!a!good!game!is!the!one!that!
teaches! everything! it! has! to! offer! before! the! player! stops!
playing.! Listing! reasons! of! boredom! in! ga mes,! Koster!
mentions!the!following:!
1.
Using!a!characterisation!of!Moseley!and!Whitton!the!first!
reason! of! boredom! according! to!Koster!is! a!game! being!
undemanding.!In!this!case!the!player!masters!the!game!in!
a! very! short! amount! of! time! and! then! dismisses! it! as!
trivial!(Koster,!2005). !
2.
Using! another! characterization! of! Moseley! and! Whitton!
Koster’s!second!reason!of!boredom!is!lack!of!interest.!His!
explanation!is! that! players!might! understand! that! there!
is!great!depth!to!the!possible!permutations!in!a!game!but!
these!are!below!their!level!of!interest!(Koster,!2005).!One!
might!understand!there!is!great!depth!in!tennis,!but!finds!
the!overall!subject!uninteresting!or!of!no!use. !
3.
The! third! reason! of! boredom!is!a!game! being! perceived!
as! noise.! Defined! above,! noise! is! inf ormation! in! which!
humans!fail!to!see!a!pattern.!The!game!is!then!considered!
‘too!hard’.!
4.
Next!reason!of!boredom!is!when!the!tasks!for!a!player!to!
master! are! being! revealed! at! a! very! slow! pace.! Players!
then!dismiss!the!game!as!trivial!too!early!(Koster,!2005). !
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! ! 5. When!on! the!other!hand! the! tasks! for!players! to!master! are! being! revealed! at! a! very!
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5.
When!on! the!other!hand! the! tasks! for!players! to!master!
are! being! revealed! at! a! very! fast! pace! then,! one! might!
lose!control!of!the!game!and!perceive!it!as!noise.!Moseley!
and! Whitt on’s! characterisation! for! this! case! is! that! the!
game!is!being!too!demanding.! !
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6.
The!last!reason!of!boredom!is!players!master!everything!
that! has! been! given! to! them.! In! this! case! Koster! notes!
they!have!exhausted! the! fun,!consumed!it!all.!They!have!
beaten!it. !
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Game! mechanics! have! been! integrated! in! Shakespeare’s!
Hunt! in! order! to! motivate! players! progress, ! whilst! the!
reasons! of! boredom! and! the! demotivators! were! also! taken!
into! consideration! throughout! the! game’s! design! process.!
The!next!chapter!is!an!analysis!of! “ Shakespeare’s!Hunt” ! and!
the! decision a making ! behind!it. !
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Extract!from! “ Game!Design!for!Cultural!Heritage ” !
Foteini!Valeonti ! © ! 2012 !
www.valeonti.com !
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