CONTENTS

Chapter 1 BULK CARRIERS PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE Evolution from tramp ships, categories of bulk carrier, the layout of a bulk carrier with particular reference to its distinctive features. Chapter 2 CHARTER PARTIES Charterparties, time charters, voyage charters, sub-chartering, voyage estimates, compliance with the charter party, owners' and charterers' voyage orders, consultation with principals, master's responsibilities including interruptions to the voyage, keeping full records, surveys, and tendering of notice of readiness. Chapter 3 LOG BOOKS, RECORDS & REFERENCE BOOKS The records which should be maintained aboard bulk carriers because of their trade, the reference books which ought to be available for routine inspection, and the drawings required by deck officers. Chapter 4 MAINTENANCE AND CARE OF HATCH COVERS Development, hatchcover types, general description and design, surveys, testing for watertightness, maintenance procedures, some defects, emergency opening & closing, hatch leakage—first aid. Chapter 5 PREPARATION OF HOLDS General considerations, disposal of cargo residues, preparation for cleaning, washing, clearing blocked bilge suctions, drying, sweeping, preparation of bilges and testing of fittings, hold inspections, time required for hold preparation, final preparations, hold coatings, ballast holds. Chapter 6 ENSURING SYSTEMS ARE OPERATIONAL Ventilation, airpipes, hold bilges, soundings, hold temperature systems, deck & hold lighting, fire smothering systems, hatch coaming drains, deck machinery, derricks & cranes. Chapter 7 BALLAST MANAGEMENT Basic pattern of ballast management, relevant regulations, ship's ballast layout, quantity of ballast required, ballasting whilst discharging, ballast management on passage, restrictions on deballasting, deballasting, achieving good results, maintenance of ballast tanks, removal of sediment and scale, patching of leaks, maintenance of coatings in tanks, inspections, closing of tanks. Chapter 8 STRENGTH, STABILITY, DRAFT & TRIM Shear forces and bending moments, ship movement in a seaway, springing, hull stress monitoring, stability, free surface effect, angle of loll, flooding, sloshing, hogging & sagging, squat, effects of list and heel, change of trim due to change of density. Chapter 9 PLANNING OF THE LOADING Orders for loading, general approach, maximum lift, limiting point in voyage, factors which govern the distribution of cargo, the loading/deballasting programme, two berth and two port loading and discharge, block loading, two and multi-loader operations, the trimming pours, loading the optimum amount of cargo, the discharging programme, when cargo cannot be carried safely. Chapter 10 THE LOADING CALCULATIONS Loading computers, the use of loading manuals, their deficiencies and contents, displacement, stability and longitudinal strength calculations, choice of methods, practical considerations, grain stability, timber stability. Chapter 11 THE LOADING OR DISCHARGING BERTH The final authority for decisions, the need for exchange of information, maximum safe draft, tidal range and sailing draft, air draft, cargo handling equipment and rate, positions of structures on quay, mooring requirements, systems of fendering, systems of access, restrictions on deballasting, communication with berth operators, tonnage 'on the belt', hours of work, effects of weather, methods of trimming, loading, and discharging, ship's information for the berth operator including typical mooring arrangements, methods of information exchange, storing and handling of cargoes ashore. 15

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Chapter 12 THE LOADING PERIOD The importance of the loading period, arrival in the berth, preloading surveys, acceptability of the offered cargo, duties of the ship's officers, the loading/deballasting programme, monitoring of the loading and deballasting, supervision of the work of the crew, liaison with loading staff, damage to ship or cargo, maintenance of full records, chief mate's role as troubleshooter, master's role, shifting ship by warping, safe procedures for working cargo. Chapter 13 ESTABLISHING THE QUANTITY OF CARGO LOADED OR DISCHARGED Methods of weighing bulk cargoes ashore, draft survey procedures, reasons for unexpected results. Chapter 14 CARGO DOCUMENTS Hold inspection certificates, mate's receipts, bills oflading and authorisations to sign them, phytosanitary certificates, certificates of compliance, UN approval, origin, declarations by shipper, certificates of transportable moisture limit, moisture content, master's response sheet, certificates of IMO classification, lashing, readiness to load, fitness to proceed to sea, loading, fumigation, weight and quality, stowage plans, cargo manifests, dangerous cargo manifests, material safety data, hatch sealing certificates, statements of fact, letters of protest, empty hold certificates, trimming certificates and stevedores' time sheets, clean ballast discharge permits and paint compliance certificates. Chapter 15 THE LOADED VOYAGE Departure from the loading port, choice of route, cargo ventilation, soundings, acidity of bilges, cargo temperatures, sampling of air in holds, checking and tightening of cargo lashings daily, inspections in fair and rough weather, conduct of the voyage in rough weather, reporting, arriving at the discharging port. Chapter 16 THE DISCHARGING PERIOD Shipboard organisation during discharge, routine procedures, on first arrival, liaison with the discharging staff, the discharging/ballasting programme, ballasting, discharge by continuous unloading, grab, Cavaletto, vacuvator or ship's gear, care for cargo, the search for and repair of stevedores' damage, crew work. Chapter 17 THE BALLAST VOYAGE General remarks, departure from the discharging port, choice of route, routine tasks, conduct of the voyage in rough weather, reporting, before arrival at the loading port, partial deballasting before berthing. Chapter 18 SPECIAL TYPES OF BULK CARRIERS Operational characteristics of self unloaders, mini-bulkers, forest product ships, log carriers, retractable tweendeck vessels, vessels with Munck cranes and combination carriers. Chapter 19 CARRIAGE OF COMMON & TYPICAL BULK CARGOES Grain, coal, iron ore, steel, forest products. Chapter 20 UNUSUAL CARGOES & SPECIAL TRADES Bulk cargo separations, taking the ground in the berth, general and breakbulk cargoes, trading to cold regions. Chapter 21 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Responsibility for safety, permit to work system, entering enclosed spaces, use of pesticides, access between ship and shore, hazards from working cargo. Chapter 22 INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT Atmospheric test equipment, hydrometers, sea water sampling equipment, whirling psychrometers, mucking winches, mobile cranes, cherrypickers, scaffolding, paint sprayers, portable sump pumps, high pressure washing machines, hold inspection systems, big area descalers, sand blasting machines, needle guns, pneumatic grease guns. Chapter 23 MAINTENANCE Planned maintenance systems, the planning of maintenance, management of spare parts, greasing and oiling, painting, maintenance of derricks, cranes and grabs, ship's fixtures and fittings.

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Chapter 24 REPAIRS & DRYDOCKING Repair of damage and defects, drydocking. Chapter 25 SHIP'S HOUSEKEEPING The housekeeping problem, excluding dust, dealing with dirt, keeping water out, disposal of wastes. Chapter 26 BULK CARRIER CASUALTIES Introduction, bulker casualties and their principal causes, other causes of damage which might lead to loss of a bulker, prevention of casualties, detection of damage, other constructive proposals, summary. Appendices Bibliography Index

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