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com/locate/chemolab

**A general approach to derivative calculation using wavelet transform
**

Xueguang Shao *, Chaoxiong Ma

Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, PR China Received 20 January 2003; received in revised form 31 July 2003; accepted 7 August 2003

Abstract Application of wavelet transform (WT) for derivative calculation has been reported based on the property of specific wavelet function: Haar, Daubechies and Gaussian wavelets. In this work, the underlying principle of the wavelet transform for derivative calculation is investigated, and a general approach is proposed. By theoretical analysis, it can be found that wavelet transform with commonly used wavelet functions can be regarded as a smoothing and a differentiation process, and the order of differentiation is determined by the property of the wavelet function. Derivatives of different simulated signals by using all the commonly used wavelet functions are investigated and compared with the conventional numerical differentiation method. It is shown that differentiation is a common property of all these wavelet functions, and nth-order derivative can be simply obtained through just one transform procedure, instead of repeated transform, by using an appropriate wavelet function. Furthermore, both discrete wavelet transform and continuous wavelet transform show similar characteristic with a given wavelet function. D 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wavelet transform; Derivative calculation; Differentiation

1. Introduction Derivative calculation is a useful technique widely used in analytical chemistry. It has been employed for reducing background effect and enhancing resolution in spectroscopy [1– 4], baseline correction, resolving overlapping peaks and quantitative determination in chromatography [5 – 7] and also determining the endpoint of potentiometric titration in electrochemis-

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-551-3606160; fax: +86-5513601592. E-mail address: xshao@ustc.edu.cn (X. Shao). 0169-7439/$ - see front matter D 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.chemolab.2003.08.001

try [8,9]. The simplest method for derivative calculation is numerical differentiation [10], but it is not very useful for real signal because of the rapid degradation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Two more commonly used methods are polynomial method of Savitzky – Golay [11 – 13] and Fourier transform [14,15]. The problems encountered in using these two methods include the difficulties in choosing the proper parameters, complex calculations involved and limits in application to the experimental signal with low SNR. Besides these conventional methods, wavelet transforms (WT), a technique that popularly used in processing of analytical signals recently [16 – 18], was also proposed for derivative calculation [19 –

f (t) = kt2. Fig. It was shown that compared with the conventional methods. However. is adopted for derivative calculation. [19]. Straight dot lines in (a) – (d) are the suppressed results with Gaussian wavelet function of gaus2. which has two.. and the order of differentiation is determined by the property of the wavelet function.158 X. in these studies. Solid curves in (a) – (d) are f (t) = kt. gaus3.g. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 21]. As the derivative of Gaussian function. a ladder-shaped function. four and five vanishing moments. In addition. 1. gaus4 and gaus5. instead of repeated transforms. By the application to the experimental signals. respectively. f (t) = kt3 and f (t) = kt4. continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through Haar wavelet. Derivatives can be calculated based on the difference of the coefficients generated from two Daubechies wavelet functions. C. . only the specific wavelet functions (Daubechies. they did not give us a general rule for using the method. there are some advantages in using WT for derivative calculation. Gaussian wavelet was also found to be applicable for derivative calculation [21]. simplicity in algorithm and improvement in SNR [19 –21]. Haar and Gaussian) were investigated. and the distortion in the line shape of the calculated result is unavoidable when using large-scale parameter for signals with low SNR [21]. highorder derivative must be calculated by repeated transforms from its previous order derivative. In our previous study [20]. It is found that wavelet transforms with commonly used wavelet functions can be regarded as a smoothing and a differentiation process. it is proved that the proposed method is very efficient in derivative calculation. e. In this work. the underlying principle of WT for derivative calculation is studied. The first method was introduced by Leung et al. Shao. three. The operation of polynomial suppression with wavelets. respectively. The calculation of nth-order derivative can be achieved by only one transform procedure. All the commonly used wavelet functions can be used for derivative calculation through continuous wavelet transform (CWT) or discrete wavelet transform (DWT).

The Gaussian wavelet families. The solid line in curves (a) – (d) are f (t) = kt.b(t) derived from a function w(t) by dilation and translation [22] 1 tÀb wa. respectively. A typical example is the Gaussian wavelet families.to fifth-order derivatives of the Gaussian function. Theory Wavelet is defined as a series of functions wa. As it is shown in Fig. Curves (b) – (f) are Gaussian wavelet functions gaus1 – gaus5. respectively. One of the most important properties of the wavelet is the vanishing moment. The wavelet transform is defined as the projection of a function or a signal onto the wavelet. 1 shows the working process.e. which correspond to the first to fifth derivatives of Gaussian functions. and curves (b) – (f) are the Gaussian wavelets of gaus1 –gaus5.. three. i. b is the shift parameter that controls the translation and w(t) is the basis function of a wavelet. respectively. a p 0. 2. four and five vanishing moments.e.. h(t) satisfies the condition of a smoothing function [25]. in which wavelets act as the differential operators. f (t) = kt3 where h(t) is a function with fast decay and whose integral is a nonzero constant. Curve (a) is a Gaussian function. C. curve (a) is the Gaussian function. a wavelet function w(t) can be denoted as the nth-order derivative of a smooth function h(t). which are suppressed to f (t) = 0 (dot line) through the convolution with the wavelet that has two. Fig. baR ð1Þ a AaA where a is the scale parameter that controls the dilation. Shao. The operation can be viewed as the differentiation of f (t).b ðtÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ w . . it can be used to suppress polynomial of degree n À 1 through convolution. This means that a wavelet function with n vanishing moments can be written as the nth-order differentiation of a function h(t) [24] wðtÞ ¼ ðÀ1Þn dn hðtÞ dt n ð3Þ A wavelet with n vanishing moments is orthogonal to polynomial of degree n À 1. a. respectively. f (t) = kt2. which correspond to the first. i. With a Fig. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 159 2. 2. w(t) is said to have n vanishing moments when it satisfies that [23] Z þl t k wðtÞdt ¼ 0 for 0 V k < n ð2Þ Àl and f (t) = kt4. Hence.X.

demands the data points to be exactly 2n (n is an integer). the nth-order derivative calculation of an analytical signal can be obtained through one wavelet transform by using a wavelet function with n vanishing moments. while curve (c) is the result of wavelet transform. with 5. both CWT and DWT can be used for derivative calculation. spectrum and titration in analytical chemistry studies. which is equivalent to the derivative of the smoothed signal f *ha(t). (6) – (8). This operation can be illustrated in Fig. the first and second derivatives can be calculated with Daubechies wavelets db1 and db2. It is equivalent to the first-order derivative of f *ha(t). Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 wavelet function that has n vanishing moments. Therefore. Lorentzian and Sigmoid functions are used to simulate the curves of chromatogram. which has one and two vanishing moments. the transform can be given by [24] n n d ha Wf ða.0% noise level. f *ha(b).g. Simulated signals The Gaussian. respectively. bÞ ¼ f *wa ðbÞ ¼ f * a ðbÞ dt n ¼ an dn ðf *ha ÞðbÞ dt n ð4Þ where * denotes the operator of convolution. Curve (b) is the signal smoothed by Gaussian function. obtained by CWT with Gaussian wavelet gaus1. Shao. which are calculated with Eqs.b). it can be seen that the essence of the wavelet transform through a wavelet function with n vanishing moments is equal to calculation of the nthorder derivative of the signal f (t) smoothed by ha(t). However. Curve (c) is the wavelet transform of f (t). C. Fig. 3. The essence of wavelet transform. Gaussian and Mexican hat wavelet because their scale functions are not available.1. Multiresolution signal decomposition (MRSD) algorithm [26] is often used for DWT. Curve (a) is a Sigmoid signal with 5. e. t À t0 f ðtÞ ¼ hexp À4lnð2Þ W1=2 " 2 # ð6Þ . Curve (a) is a Sigmoid signal. f *ha(t).0% noise. f (t). The MRSD.b). (4). Another problem that encountered in the WT calculation in this paper is the boundary effects. however. 3. For example.160 X. f (t). and 1 t wa ðtÞ ¼ w a a ha ðtÞ ¼ 1 t h a a ð5Þ From Eq. 3. and data points will be reduced by half in each decomposition. Wf (a. To overcome this problem. Curve (b) is the smoothed f (t) with Gaussian function. which was coped with the method of symmetric extension [27]. Therefore. The essence of MRSD is to project a signal into two orthogonal subspaces.. In practice. the improved MRSD was adopted for DWT calculation [16]. it should be noted that this algorithm is not applicable to the wavelets without orthogonality. Experimental 3. respectively. MRSD can be conveniently used to decompose the signal into components with different frequency. Wf (a. and the projection can further proceed into finer subspaces recursively.

respectively. From Table 1. and n = 1.01. D = 0. . 4.and second-order derivatives obtained through CWT with Biorthogonal spline wavelet. and r is the slope parameter of the titration curve. Result and discussion 4. Table 1 summarizes the wavelet functions that can be used for calculation of different order derivative. Curves (c) and (e) are the first and second derivatives obtained by numerical differentiation for comparison. In addition. Detailed description of the sample preparation and experimental condition can be found in our previous works [20. respectively. the nth derivative of an analytical signal can be easily obtained through wavelet transform by choosing a corresponding wavelet function. 4. Curve (a) is the simulated signal. with D as the sampling interval. .X. C. Shao. In Fig. 4. Fig. the correlation coefficient r is used as criterion. The vanishing moment of most wavelet functions is the same as its order.N as the index of the data point. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 161 t À t0 f ðtÞ ¼ h 1 þ 4 W1=2 " 2 #À1 ð7Þ ð8Þ f ðtÞ ¼ h½1 þ expðÀrðt À t0 ÞÞÀ1 The parameters h. except Coiflets wavelet families. The decomposition scale 1 is used for DWT. t0 and W1/2 are the intensity. while (c) and (e) are those obtained by numerical differentiation. N = 800. h = 1. Experimental signals A photoacoustic spectrum of compound Pr(Gly)3 Cl3Á3H2O and a chromatogram of three-component mixed rare-earth solution of Yb. All the commonly used wavelet functions can be used for derivative calculation besides Haar.1. and their corresponding r obtained with DWT and CWT. whose vanishing moment is double as its order. Simulated signal and its derivatives obtained by the WT method. Parameter t is sampled discretely by t = n*D.28]. Tm and Tb are used in this study. respectively.8.2. (b) and (d) are examples of the first. and scale parameter 2 is used for all wavelet functions in CWT except that 10 is used for Gaussian wavelet because the line shapes of the derivative cannot be fully exhibited at very smallscale parameter [21]. respectively. it can be seen that many wavelet functions are available for the calculation of different order derivatives. In order to compare the similarity of the results by WT and numerical differentiation. a curve with the combination of the simulated Gaussian. Curves (b) and (d) are the first and second derivatives obtained by CWT with wavelet functions bior1. W1/2 = 120 is used for Gaussian and Lorentzian signals and r = 5 is used for Sigmoid signal. is used. It is clear that no significant difference between the line shapes obtained by the two methods. The correlation efficient r is a measure of the similarity between the line shapes of the derivative . Consequently. Lorentzian and Sigmoid signals. 3. Daubechies or Gaussian. the derivative order that a wavelet function can be used for is very easy to be determined because the vanishing moment of a wavelet function is corresponding to its order. center position and width at half-height of the simulated signals. General property of wavelet transform in derivative calculation In order to investigate the property of WT with different wavelet function in derivative calculation.0 and t0 = 4 are used for all three signals. as shown in Fig.5 and bior2. 4a.

Although the same scale parameter was used in each order of derivative calculation.000 1.999 obtained by numerical differentiation and WT method.992 0. the slopes of the growth for different wavelet function are quite different.7 bior3.000 0. Coiflets 1 (coif1).162 X. which can be evaluated by the width at half-height (W1/2) of a signal. C.999 0. it can be seen that all values of r are very close to 1. it can be deduced that results obtained by CWT and DWT are also very close. Fig. 4.000 1. It is notable that W1/2 of the .3 bior1. However.2.000 b 1.8 Gaussian 2 Mexican hat Third derivative Daubechies 3 Symlets 3 bior3.999 0.2 bior2. Generally.8) and Gaussian 2 (gaus2) are compared.000 1.000 1.994 0. which can be viewed as the size of the smoothing window.5 Gaussian 1 Second derivative Daubechies 2 Symlets 2 Coiflets 1 bior2.986 0.986 0.000 1. relative deviation (R) of W1/2 obtained by the proposed method (W1/2. the efficiency of resolution improvement by WT may not be the same as numerical differentiation since a smoothing procedure is included as mentioned above.5 bior3.991 1.999 0.9 Gaussian 3 Fourth derivative Daubechies 4 Symlets 4 Coiflets 2 bior4.6 bior2.999 0.ND) is adopted and calculated by W1=2. It can be also seen that the correlation coefficient deteriorates as the order of derivative increases.000 1.998 0.WT À W1=2.000 1.999 0. the higher the derivative order.993 0.3 bior3.000 0. Therefore. derivative of higher order is more sensitive to smoothing because of its sharper peaks.999 0. From the results in Table 1.999 0.4 bior2. the sharper the peak will be. which means that the results obtained by WT are very close to those obtained by numerical differentiation.000 1.000 1. thus.0.999 0.999 1.995 0.999 0. Biorthogonal spline 2.000 1. 5 shows the variation of R of the second-order derivative with the scale parameter.999 b 0.985 0.000 1. which is mainly due to different effect of the smoothing on the derivative of different order.997 1.ND 1.000 b b 0. It can be seen that the general tendency of the four curves is in a similar way that the W1/2 grows up with the scale parameter.8 (bior2. The effect of the scale parameter on the resolution of the calculated derivatives One of the most important applications of derivative calculation is resolution enhancement.000 0. Shao.998 0.998 0.WT) from that obtained by numerical differentiation (W1/2.999 0.984 0. At the same time.995 1.4 Gaussian 4 Fifth derivative Daubechies 5 Symlets 5 Gaussian 5 Sixth derivative Symlets 6 Coiflets 3 bior6.000 1. the effect of scale parameter on the W1/2 is investigated. However.996 b 0.000 0.993 0. A simulated Gaussian signal is used and the results with wavelet functions of Daubechies 2 (db2).999 0. The smoothing in WT is controlled by the scale parameter.996 0.000 1.970 0.000 1. Instead of using W1/2 directly. The results are not available because the adopted DWT algorithm is not applicable for Gaussian and Mexican hat wavelets.000 1.995 b 0.000 1.000 1.992 0.1 bior3.999 b 0.1a bior1.981 R¼ ð9Þ Biorthogonal spline wavelet.000 0.000 1.8 Gaussian 6 a b CWT 1. the smaller the W1/2.ND Â 100% W1=2. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 Table 1 Property of wavelet functions in derivative calculation Wavelet function Correlation coefficient DWT First derivative Daubechies 1 bior1.

the variation of that obtained by bior2. the performance of an algorithm can be evaluated by how well it can suppress the noise without worsening the resolution. 7 shows the variation of SNRD/SNR0 with noise level contained in the original signal. Within certain scale parameter.0%. The effect of noise on the SNR improvement of gaus2 (a) and bior2.8 is used in the calculation. However.8 (b) wavelet functions.8 and gaus2 are adopted. but the variation for the Fig. Lorentzian and Sigmoid signal. Fig.8 and gaus2 to ensure that the relative deviation of W1/2 is less than 10. used for bior2. However. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 163 two signals is larger than that for Gaussian signal. Shao. 6. In the calculation. 7.0%. db2 (c) and gaus2 (d) wavelet functions. Fig. when the scale parameter is smaller than 60. the relative deviation of all signals is less than 10. respectively. The effect of scale parameter on the resolution improvement of bior2.3.8 is relative small.X. This property of Biorthogonal spline wavelet makes it very efficient in the application to real signals. Efficiency of WT method in SNR improvement The principal problem encountered in derivative calculation with conventional methods is the degradation of SNR. Fig. similar tendency as Gaussian signal can be found with the Lorentzian and Sigmoid signal. the efficiency of resolution enhancement by WT differentiation can be retained. Generally. Sigmoid (b) and Lorentzian (c) signals.8 (a). 4. the ratio between the SNR of the calculated derivative (SNRD) and the original signal (SNR0) is used as a criterion. 5. Gaussian signal and the wavelet functions bior2. coif1 (b). A smoothing process either simultaneously or separately must be adopted for overcoming the problem. especially those with very low SNR. . especially when the noise level is high in original signal. bior2. Scale parameters 120 and 33 are. Fig. smoothing always causes a loss of the efficiency in resolution enhancement. The effect of scale parameter on the results for Gaussian (a). In order to investigate the performance of the WT method in SNR improvement. no obvious change can be seen in its W1/2 even when the scale parameter is up to 100. C. derivative obtained by gaus2 increases rapidly with scale parameter. 6 shows a comparison of the relative deviation R for Gaussian. In contrast. From the figure.

. The simulated signal with SNR = 20 (a) and its second derivative obtained by CWT with wavelet function bior2.8. and curve (b) is the second-order derivative obtained by CWT with bior2. 10.6 nm. 8 shows an example of both resolution and SNR improvement by the proposed method. curve (a) in Fig. Fig. the peak value is very easy to be determined from the resolved spectrum. 476. respectively.0% – 30%. a very high SNR improvement efficiency with SNRD/SNR0 z 4. and changes very little even when the noise level is up to 30%.1 and 593. It is obvious that the resolution is greatly enhanced without degrading the SNR. Application to experimental signals In order to test the performance of the proposed method in derivative calculation of experimental signals.5. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 It can be seen from Fig. 7 that within the noise levels 1. which are in accordance with the Fig.8 (b). although the SNR improvement drops rapidly as the noise level increases. Fig.164 X. 4. it is impossible to obtain a reasonable derivative using the numerical differentiation method. respectively. The SNR improvement obtained with gaus2 is about 2.3. Consequently. Shao.0 can be retained in all noise levels. The peak positions obtained from the derivative are 451.8 (b) and Haar (c) wavelet functions. and several Fig.0.8 (b).8. Thus.4. the peaks in the spectrum are very difficult to be discriminated. The photoacoustic spectrum (a) and its second-order derivative obtained by CWT with bior2. It can be found that a very smooth derivative with little distortion is obtained.8 wavelet function and scale parameter as 120. 9 shows the photoacoustic spectrum of Pr(Gly)3Cl3Á3H2O.0. C. 9. both SNRD/SNR0 are larger than 1. For signals with such a low SNR. The chromatogram (a) and its second derivative obtained by CWT with wavelet function bior2. which means that the SNR of the signal is even better than that of the original signal. It can be seen that the spectrum is covered with high-level noise. 8. peaks are overlapping within the range of 400– 500 nm. Curve (a) is a simulated signals with SNR = 20. As for the result with bior2. Curve (b) shows the second derivative of the spectrum obtained by the proposed method with bior2. 490.

[24] S.C. Lin. [3] S.J. Theory 38 (1992) 617 – 643. K. All commonly used wavelets can be used for derivative calculation through either CWT or DWT. [18] B. J. Comput. Chemom.G.D. Lab. A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing. Anal. Intell. X. Moffatt. Masini. Jetter. [23] S. S. derivative is a linear operation. Chem. Tian.G. The comparison of different wavelet functions in derivative calculation shows that Biorthogonal spine wavelet is superior to those proposed previously. Anal. 16 (1997) 451 – 463. [7] R. Gao. Chem. Inf. L.L. Grossmann.M. In addition. Massart. both resolution and SNR of the signal can be improved through differentiation with the proposed method. D. [17] A. Dennis. Shao.S. Math.Y.A. [11] A. Chau. Cameron. Niemoller. Kharintsev. Danielsson.A. [4] A. Begley. Liu. Academic Press. Rigobello. D.K. 1998. IEEE Trans. the peak areas are very easy to be determined. [27] U. Chemom. Nie. Hwang. 10 shows the chromatogram of a three-component mixed rare earth solution. Anal. It is demonstrated that wavelet transform is a combined operation of smoothing and differentiation. Sci. Chem. Pattern Anal. O’Grady. drifting baseline is corrected and overlapping peaks are resolved as well.Y. IEEE Trans. 66 (1994) 445R – 461R. [20] X. which is cited from our previous work [20] for comparison.B. overlapping peaks and drifting baseline.Q. Z. Mallat. J. D. Intell. Hu. J.K. 166.A. especially for the signal with low SNR. McGarvey. 53 (1981) 1454 – 1457.. This comparison further demonstrates the superiority of Biorthogonal spine wavelet in derivative calculation.J. A. [22] A. Cai. 36 (1964) 1627 – 1638. Markides. Chromatogr. XVII (1998) 235 – 285. Chem. K. Shao. X.K. Chem. W. K. M. Windig. J. Ma / Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 69 (2003) 157–165 165 corresponding energy transition band of the compound [20].G. [26] S.G. SIAM J. [14] J. Salakhov.C. Anal. the proposed method is preferable to the convention methods.L. In addition. Anal.E. Depczynski. References [1] J.8. Moffatt. [15] D. Chim.T. Kauppinen. Youn. Chau. Appl. Barak. Chem.A. [5] D. 5. 367 (2000) 525 – 529. Inf.Z. [2] W. Chemom. Anal. [16] X. Lab. Trends Anal. Su. Appl. Conclusion The underlying principle and general property of wavelet transform in derivative calculation are investigated with both simulated and experimental signals. 34 (2001) 267 – 280. 73 (2001) 2058 – 2065.K. Zheng.M. D. C. Gao. Cameron.B. Chem. Shao. Rui. J. [10] T. M. Sci.E. Chem. J. 15 (1984) 723 – 736. Walczak. TRAC. Gorry. Denvir. Anal. Sun. Chen. T.J. Anal. With such a high noise level.D. Furthermore. 14 (1992) 710 – 732.H. respectively. Mach. Rev. Acta 454 (2002) 167 – 184. 70 (1998) 5222 – 5229. 54 (2000) 721 – 730. Howell. 53 (1981) 1876 – 1878. Fresenius’ J. Syst. Haar and the Gaussian wavelet. K. Mantsch. Curve (a) in Fig.G.C. It is apparent that the noise is suppressed. The W1/2 of the fourth peaks in curves (b) and (c) are 74 and 82. Morlet. Chem. S. Zhong. Anal. Lett. Q. such as Daubechies. Chem. [25] S. Anal. Chim. Spectrosc. Chem. [28] X. NY. Syst. Anal. D. Spectrosc. 11 (1989) 674 – 693. C.H. D. IEEE Trans. 17 (2001) 715 – 720. Wu. [12] P. 43 (1998) 165 – 184. by using an appropriate scale parameter. Acknowledgements This study is supported by the Teaching and Research Award Program for Outstanding Young Teachers (TRAPOYT) in higher education institutions of the Ministry of Education (MOE). D.. [19] A. 67 (1995).J. [6] S.E. [13] P.J. Mallat.J. Pattern Anal. Curve (c) is the second derivative obtained by Haar wavelet. W. X. curve (b) is smoother and its peaks are also sharper than those in curve (c).6]. Hargis.H. Mallat. Pang. F. [8] S. Golay. Leung. Although the line shapes are not much different. Anal. 42 (2002) 274 – 283.I. J. PR China. New York. the nth-order derivative of a signal can be obtained through one transform with a wavelet function that has n vanishing moments. Chem. S. Anal.S. A 591 (1992) 19 – 29.G. Kamalova.G. 49 (1999) 151 – 161. L. L. Anal.G. L. Molt. Kholeif. Curve (b) shows the second derivative of the chromatogram obtained by the proposed method with bior2. Acta 448 (2001) 239 – 250. A 928 (2001) 109 – 115. Bylund. With the property of SNR improvement without losing the efficient in resolution enhancement. S. . the chromatogram can not be used for quantitative determination without pretreatment.M. [21] L. Intell. Leung. Lab. F. Mallat.G.T. J. Yun. [9] M. Savitzky. H.G. O’Haver. Intell. Chromatogr. Consequently. A. 41 (1987) 539 – 544. p. Syst.X. Anal. 62 (1990) 570 – 573. Shao. Jung. Bell. 23 (1994) 71 – 86. which makes it a possible tool for the resolution and quantitative analysis of the overlapping chromatograms [5.

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