# SEM ² VI OPERATING SYSTEM

LAB MANUAL SHITAL.PATIL

Hence this matrix is also known as admittance matrix of matrix.Meters. A pair of terminal in which a signal enters or leaves a network is called port. A network may be used for representing either source or load or variety o purposes.Thus y. CASE 2: When i/p port is open circuited i.it is also known as short circuit i/p admittance.v2=0 Where y21is transfer admittance with output port short circuited.Dc Current. Also y21=i2/v1«. Generally any network may be represented schematically by rectangular box. : : III 1 EN Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : TO STUDY AND DETERMINE Y-PARAMETER OF GIVEN NETWORK Dc Power Supply .e V2=0 Y11=I1/V2«.V2=0 Where y11 is driving point admittance with output port is short ci rcuitted.we have I=YV Where y=[y11 y12 y21 y22] I1=Y11v1 +Y12v2 I2=Y21v1+ Y22V2 Case 1: When o/p port is short circuited i.Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus Concept* to be delivered : : : : ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION Sem Experiment No. it also known as short circuit forward transfer characteristics. the y-parameter of two port for positive direction of voltage and current may be defined by expressing the port current i1 and i2 in terms of voltage v1 and v2 are independent variables. then [I1 I2]=[y][v1 v2] Where Y is a matrix of four element and each element represents admittance.Bred Board.e v1=0 Y12=I1/V2«V1=0 .Circuit Components. A port is defined as any pair of terminals in which energy is supplied or from which energy is withdrawn or where to network variables may be measured.Connecting Wires.Digital Meter.

Diagrams : .Where y12 is transfer with i/p port short circuit or short ciruit transer admttance.

9. Course Subject : : Information technology OSCD Sem Experiment No.explain example of preemptive scheduling.What is scheduling? 6. 8. : : VI 2 .What is gantt chart? 7.What is FCFS? 2.what is I/O bound process and CPU bound process? 10. Calculate AVG waiting time for any FCFS example.What are the disadvantages of FCFS ? 4.explain fcfs with gantt chart.Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : 1.What are the advantages of FCFS ? 3. What is preemptive scheduling? 5.

It also minimizes the average amount of time each process has to wait until its execution is complete.draw gantt chart for SJF ? 9. Shortest job next can be effectively used with interactive processes which generally follow a pattern of alternating between waiting for a command and executing it. However. it has the potential for process starvation for processes which will require a long time to complete if short processes are continually added.Chapter in the syllabus : Concept* to be delivered : Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : To study shortest job first.calculate turn around time for SJF ? 10.Expalin example of non-preemetive scheduling.what are the advantages of SJF? 3. Thus we have implemented Shortest job first. what are the disadvantages of SJF? 4. 120 mins Shortest job next (SJN) (also known as Shortest Job First (SJF) or Shortest Process Next (SPN)) is a scheduling policy that selects the waiting process with the smallest execution time to execute next. : Program Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : Program is executed. : 1. If the execution of a command is regarded as a separate "process".what is SJF? 2. 8. Shortest job next is advantageous because of its simplicity and because it maximizes process throughput (in terms of the number of processes run to completion in a given amount of time). past behaviour can indicate which process to run next.what are the difference between SJF and FCFS ? 5.Calculate AVG waiting time for SJF example. based on an estimate of its running time. Highest response ratio next is similar but provides a solution to this problem.What is non-preemetive scheduling? 7.compare waiting time of FCFS and SJF? . 6.

such as data packet scheduling in computer networks. handling all processes without priority (also known as cyclic executive).Explain the disadvt of RR? 6 Calculate AVG waiting time for RR example. 8. Implementing round robin algo. Thus we have implemented round robin algorithm. Round-robin scheduling is both simple and easy to implement.Expalin example of non-preemetive scheduling for RR.draw gantt chart for RR ? 9.calculate turn around time for RR ? 10. Explain the advantages of RR ? 5. What are the different SJF and RR 4. 120 mins Round-robin (RR) is one of the simplest scheduling algorithms for processes in an operating system. Round-robin scheduling can also be applied to other scheduling problems. and starvation-free. 7. : : VI 3 Concept* to be delivered : Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : Implementing Round robin algorithm.what is round robin algo? 2. which assigns time slices to each process in equal portions and in circular order. : Program Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : : 1.What are the different FCFS and RR? 3.Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information technology OSCD Sem Experiment No.compare waiting time of RR and SJF? .

A non-preemptive priority algorithm will simply put the new process at the head of the ready queue.Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information technology OSCD Sem Experiment No. The shortest-Job-First (SJF) algorithm is a special case of general priority scheduling algorithm. handling all processes without priority (also known as cyclic executive). y A major problem with priority scheduling is indefinite blocking or starvation. and starvation-free. which assigns time slices to each process in equal portions and in circular order.The basic idea is straightforward: each process is assigned a priority. Aging is a technique of gradually increasing the priority of processes that wait in the system for a long period of time. Priority scheduling :. A solution to the problem of indefinite blockage of the low-priority process is aging. : Priority scheduling can be either preemptive or non preemptive y A preemptive priority algorithm will preemptive the CPU if the priority of the newly arrival process is higher than the priority of the currently running process. such as data packet scheduling in computer networks. . : : VI 4 Concept* to be delivered : Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : Implementation of round robin with priority SA. Equal-Priority processes are scheduled in FCFS order. Round-robin scheduling can also be applied to other scheduling problems. and priority is allowed to run. 120 mis Round-robin (RR) is one of the simplest scheduling algorithms for processes in an operating system. Round-robin scheduling is both simple and easy to implement.

raw gantt chart for RR with priority. Thus we have implemented RR with priority SA.What is priority SA? 2.compare waiting time of RR with priority and SJF.. : 1. Explain the advantages of RR with priority SA ? 5. 9. : : VI 6 Concept* to be delivered : Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment : : : Study of Linux os.calculate turn around time for RR with priority. 10. Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information technology OSCD Sem Experiment No. 7. 120 mins . Calculate AVG waiting time for RR with priority scheduling example.What is RR with priority SA? 3.Program Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : Implemented the RR with priority SA.Explain the disadvt of RR priority SA? 6 Explain difference between RR and RR with priority scheduling? 6.

almost all the packages installed /etc .³variable´ data such as mails. to desktop computers. mainframes and supercomputers.the topmost /dev . 7.[7] Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware.what is root ? 6.what are different dir in linux? 5. ranging from mobile phones. 4. : 1.explain file structure of linux. what is partition. databases /usr .What is Linux OS? 2.all the devices are accessible as files /var . 3. Disadvt of linux. typically all the underlying source code can be used.difference between linux and windows.home directory of the privileged user root /mnt . freely modified. 8.home directories for all the users /root . by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.Advantages of linux.List out different versions of Linux. 9. routers and video game consoles. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration. tablet computers. 10.used to mount other directories/partitions. Program Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : Thus we have studied Linux OS.[8][9][10][11] Linux is a leading server operating system.Theory Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. : Standard directory structure of linux / .configuration files /home . . and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers in the world. both commercially and non-commercially. and redistributed. log files.list general commands for linux.

user and group handling. 120 mins Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. both commercially and non-commercially. and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers in the world. typically all the underlying source code can be used.what are the general used commands in linux? 2. mainframes and supercomputers.calender. ranging from mobile phones. Thus we have studied the linux commands. to desktop computers. List various linux commands for file handling. tablet computers. Program Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : Thus we have studied the linux commands. : : VI 6 Concept* to be delivered : Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : Study of linux command. routers and video game consoles. : 1.Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information Technology OSCD Sem Experiment No. The development of Linux is one of the most : prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration. and redistributed.[7] Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware.[8][9][10][11] Linux is a leading server operating system. freely modified.basic commands to display date.etc.time.What the commands for creating users? .

What is command for exit? Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information technology OSCD Sem Experiment No. to treat one physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks.What are the commands for changing permission? 8. Multiple partitions allow directories such as /tmp.3. readonly. Solaris or GNU Hurd. Each partition can be formatted with a file system or as a swap partition. A partition editor software program can be used to create.g. : A common default for Linux desktop systems is to use two partitions: one holding a file system mounted on "/" (the root directory) and a swap partition.What are chgrp? 9. and manipulate these partitions on the hard disk. Partitions are also termed "slices" for operating systems based onOn Unix-based and Unix-like operating systems such as Linux or Mac OS X. or with the execution of setuid files disabled. Specific file systems can be mounted with different parameters e. /usr. A runaway program may use up all available space on a non-system filesystem does not fill up critical filesystems. or /home to be allocated their own filesystems. resize. What is the command for displaying date? 10. delete. : : VI 7 Concept* to be delivered : Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : Study of linux installation (partition) Disk partitioning is the act of dividing a hard disk drive into multiple logical storage units referred to as partitions. BSD. Thus we have studied proceducer for os installation (partition) .what are the command of roots? 5. the data outside that filesystem/partition may stay intact. /var. minimizing data loss.what are the commands for changing password? 4. Such a scheme has a number of advantages: y y y If one file system gets corrupted. Program Results Conclusion : : : Thus we have studied proceducer for os installation. What are the commands of dir? 6. it is possible to use multiple partitions on a disk device.

how to format partition? 8.Where it is done? 4.explain partition process? 6.Why we do partition? 3. it must declare the maximum number of instances of each resource type that may not exceed the total number of resources in the system. : : VI 8 Concept* to be delivered : To banker¶s algorithm. The algorithm avoids deadlock by denying or postponing the request if it determines that accepting the request could put the system in an unsafe state (one where deadlock could occur).Explain advantages of partitioning? 10.what are disadvt of multiple partitioning? Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information Technology OSCD Sem Experiment No. : .Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : 1. when a process gets all its requested resources it must return them in a finite amount of time. Also. Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : 120 mins The Banker's algorithm is run by the operating system whenever a process requests resources. When a new process enters a system.What do you mean by partition? 2.commands for partition 5.What is procedure for os(linux) installation ? 7.

IPC methods are divided into methods for message passing. how banker¶s algorithm prevent deadlock? Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information technology Oscd Sem Experiment No.What are safe and unsafe states ? 7.how to handle deadlock ? 3.limitation of banker¶s algorithm ? 9. why banker¶s algorithm used? 4. Processes may be running on one or more computers connected by a network.how banker¶s algorithm detect deadlock? 10. and remote procedure calls (RPC). Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : 120 mins Inter-process communication (IPC) is a set of methods for the exchange of data among multiple threads in one or more processes. : . : : VI 10 Concept* to be delivered : To study and implement IPC.explain data structure for banker¶s algorithm ? 6. and the type of data being communicated. shared memory.what is deadlock? 2.Program Results Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : : : Thus we executed banker¶s algorithm Thus we studied banker¶s algorithm. The method of IPC used may vary based on the bandwidth and latency of communication between the threads.explain banker¶s algorithm with example? 8.What are the resources it required ? 5. : 1. synchronization.

: 1.explain IPC using message passing? .There are several reasons for providing an environment that allows process cooperation: y y y y y Information sharing Speedup Modularity Convenience Privilege separation IPC may also be referred to as inter-thread communication and interapplication communication Program Results : : Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : Thus we implemented IPC. what is inter process communication? 6why IPC used for inter process communication? 7.how IPC implemented? 5.how ipc works? 9. explain IPC using shared memory ? 10.What is IPC? 2.process of IPC? 3.what are the advantages of IPC? 4.what is intra process communication? 8.

or Winsock.Course Subject Chapter in the syllabus : : : Information technology Oscd Sem Experiment No. Aim of the Experiment Apparatus required Estimated time to complete this experiment Theory : : : 120 mins Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is an interprocess communication (IPC) mechanism that enables data exchange and invocation of functionality residing in a different process. essential program logic and related procedure code can exist on different : . : : VI 10 Concept* to be delivered : To study and implement RPC. such as named pipes. NetBIOS. The Microsoft RPC mechanism uses other IPC mechanisms. to establish communications between the client and the server. With RPC. That process can be on the same computer. on the local area network (LAN). or across the Internet.

process of RPC? 3.how RPC implemented? . Instead of containing code that implements the remote procedure. The following figure shows the RPC process. that is. The client application calls a local stub procedure instead of code implementing the procedure. the client stub code retrieves the required parameters from the client address space and delivers them to the client runtime library. each has its own memory resource allocated to data used by the procedure.what are the advantages of RPC? 4. : 1. The client runtime library then translates the parameters as needed into a standard Network Data Representation (NDR) format for transmission to the server. RPC Process The RPC process starts on the client side.computers. Stubs are compiled and linked with the client application during development. RPC Processes and Interactions The RPC components make it easy for clients to call a procedure located in a remote server program. The client and server each have their own address spaces. which is important for distributed applications. Program Results : : Conclusion Actual/Possible application* of this set up in real life Visits to a place using this concept Possible questions related to oral examination : : Thus we implemented IPC.What is RPC? 2.

explain RPC process? 10.5.explain RPC architecture ? 9.list RPC supported network protocols? .what is stub in RPC? 8. what are the RPC components? 6what is marshelling in RPC? 7.