Preface

Originating in the sport of track and field, jump training and speed drills were once considered a mysterious technique used only by European bloc countries. Today, these techniques and methods are commonplace. In fact, plyometric type training not only fits into the complete training program, a training program is not complete without it. First coined by track coach Fred Wilt in 1975, the term “plyometrics” (plyo+metrics) means “measurable increases.” During the 1970s and 1980s, many sports such as basketball, volleyball, football, and weightlifting began to understand the applicability of these exercises to their sports and training programs. Plyometrics and general speed development concepts have been embraced as an integral part of systematic performance enhancement planning. Plyometric type training should always be considered within the context of the sport, the athlete’s age, skill level, injury history, strength level, and a number of other variables involved with specific athletic development.

National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement Explosive Exercise and Training
It is the position of the National Strength and Conditioning Association that: 1. Resistance exercises characterized by maximal or near maximal rates of force development or by high accelerations, usually referred to as “explosive exercises,” are effective for enhancing physical performance. 2. Explosive exercises may be necessary for optimal physical conditioning in some sports, particularly those involving high accelerations. 3. In keeping with the principle of specificity of training, explosive exercises can be used to stimulate movement, velocity, and acceleration patterns of many sport movements. 4. Explosive exercises should be taught by experienced and knowledgeable instructors. 5. When properly taught and supervised, explosive exercises do not involve excessive risk of injury. 6. Reduction of athletic injury risks associated with participation in sports involving high rates of force development or high accelerations probably require some training with exercises involving high rates of force development or high accelerations. Explosive Plyometric Exercise 1. The stretch-shortening cycle, characterized by rapid deceleration of a mass followed almost immediately by rapid acceleration of the mass in the opposite direction is essential in the performance of most competitive sports, particularly those involving running, jumping, and rapid changes in direction. 2. A plyometric exercise program-which trains the muscles, connective tissue, and nervous system to effectively carry out the stretch-shortening cycle-can improve performance in the most competitive sports.

Explosive Exercise and Training
3. A plyometric training program for athletes should include sport-specific exercises. 4. Carefully applied plyometric exercise programs are no more harmful than other forms of sports training and competition, and may be necessary for safe adaptation to the rigors of “explosive” sports. 5. Only athletes who have already achieved high levels of strength through standard resistance training should engage in plyometric drills. 6. Depth jumps should only be used by a small percentage of athletes engaged in plyometric training. As a rule, athletes weighing over 220 lbs. should not depth jump from platforms higher than 18 inches. 7. Plyometric drills affecting a particular muscle/joint complex should not be performed on consecutive days. 8. Plyometric drills should not be performed when an athlete is fatigued. Time for complete recovery should be allowed between plyometric exercise sets. 9. Footwear and landing surfaces used in plyometric drills must have good shock absorbing qualities. 10. A thorough set of warm-up exercises should be performed before beginning a plyometric training session. Less demanding drills should be mastered prior to attempting more complex and intense drills.

Running Applications
Goals of speed development including agility and speed endurance must center on the overall enhancement of the technical aspects of running as well as injury prevention. In doing so, 3 points must be stressed: 1. Baking forces at surface contact must be minimized. This is accomplished by foot contact directly beneath the COG and maximizing the backward speed of the lower leg and foot. 2. Brief ground support phase to increase stride frequency. 3. Eccentric knee flexor strength must be optimized for leg recovery during running. Strengthening exercises should be functional and multi-joint (hip extension). Training Methods The progressive nature of athletic skill development must be nurtured in the development of functional speed. A hierarchy of training should reflect the following progression: 1. Primary-Sound running mechanics training 2. Secondary-Resistive/assistive training 3. Tertiary-Fitness, power, plyometric, agility, speed-endurance training Periodized timing for inclusion of drills for enhancement of speed is extremely important. Macro, meso, and micro cycles will vary according to the sport, training level/age of the exerciser, length of the training program overall (year round or seasonal), and fitness of the exerciser. Generally, the following guidelines may apply: • • • Running technique drills: although these are low intensity and may be done as a portion of the warm-up year round, it is important to concentrate on this componenet in the off and pre-seasons in particular Resistive running may be performed in the off to pre-season time frame and be implemented along with a plyometric and resistance training program Assistive running may be limited to the in-season and competition season (just prior to peak transition)

Running Applications
• • Agility training may be progressively implemented as a part of the overall warm-up and conditioning program throughout the season Power training which is accomplished in the weight room will progressively ramp up throughout the training period and may be combined with plyometric training at the in-season and pre-peak transition phase Fitness is a year round training component that is accomplished with a well-rounded, well-focused, sport-specific training program including periodized methods of training all required physical attributes with the addition of nutritional aspects for top performance.

Specific suggestions for speed training are given in Section 11.

The Defining Moment
The fundamental goal of human performance is to generate neuromuscular impulse required to initiate the power and speed necessary to execute a technical task at a planned intensity level. Execution of task is where everything comes together. The success of execution is the evaluation point for all human performance. Speed and power are the components which contribute to the success level of the endeavor. There are few fitness, athletic, or port movements characterized by a single, unrepeated application. Most movements in these categories consist of ongoing, submaximal efforts with bouts of high-intensity workloads (a series of plays and relief periods). To become more proficient at the desired activity, it is important to progressively implement specific drills in similar exercise: relief ratio patterns modeled on the actual activity at its highest level. Additionally, the appropriate metabolic system(s) must be taxed at the requisite effort level of the activity. If indeed the goal is to become proficient and efficient at a specific task, sport, activity, or “effort” then practice must mimic this effort as closely as possible relative to: • • • • • • • • velocity power output intensity frequency of required effort duration of effort relief periods type of movement pattern metabolic system engaged

Speed and power are reflected in almost all sports. It is essential for the coach, personal trainer, athletic trainer, and rehabilitation specialist to train these components. Plyometrics, in combination with speed development drills, sport specific applications, and appropriate resistance training are key to enhancing power and speed. However, in order to train these components, we must first have a thorough understanding of them.

Understanding the Basic Concepts
Plyometrics Derived from the Greek word “plythein” which means “to increase”; the words “plio” which means “more” and “metric” which means “measure” may also be linked to the modern day term of plyometrics Plyometrics: ballistic actions which exploit the stretch-shortening cycle; exercise aimed at improving elastic/reactive qualities of strength; exercises characterized by stretch-shortening cycle actions enabling muscle(s) to achieve maximal rates of force development and gain stiffness regulation; exercises which utilize the force of gravity to store energy in the muscles which is then used by an opposite reaction within a short period of time; exercises that enable a muscle to reach maximum strength in a as short a time as possible The three main components of a plyometric drill are the eccentric action, amortization phase, and concentric action Stretch-Shortening Cycle: impulsive eccentric-concentric coupling where rapid deceleration of a mass (via muscle lengthening/eccentric action) is immediately followed by amortization and acceleration in the opposite direction (via muscle shortening/concentric action); can be classified by response time • Short-0.15-0.25 s (small angular displacement; i.e. intitial sprint acceleration; squat/counter-movement jump) • Long-0.25+s (large angular displacement; maximal sprint velocity; high/long jump) Amortization Phase: the period of time from the initiation of the eccentric action (touching the surface) to the initiation of the concentric action (start of the upward motion of the jump)

Understanding the Basic Concepts
Example: If a person were to stand on a box, step off, and upon landing with the knees bending, immediately jumps as high as possible, a plyometric exercise will have been performed. The phases are as follows: • as soon as the balls of the feet touch the floor and the knees begin to bend, an eccentric action takes place in the knee extensors (quads) and the hip extensors (hamstrings/gluts) causing a rapid deceleration of movement • the rapid deceleration evokes the stretch reflex, or stretch-shortening cycle which causes the concentric action of the same muscle and a rapid acceleration (concentric action) of the mass in the other direction • the amount of time in contact with the floor surface (toe touch through leaving the surface) is the amortization phase; amortization must be as brief as possible to take advantage of the stretch reflex Additional key terms as they relate to plyometric type exercise include: Elastic Strength: the ability of muscle and connective tissues to rapidly exert force against a surface in order to produce maximal power in linear, vertical, lateral, or combination movements Impulse: Power: Reactive Ability: the product of force and time the product of force and velocity a characteristic of speed-strength that can be improved with explosive training

Understanding the Basic Concepts
Speed The rapidity of movement; velocity (where velocity=distance divided by time). Speed is the result of force to a specific movement or technique. In most sports, the ability to change direction and speed are more important than simply achieving/maintaining high velocity. This requires rapid force development and high power output, as well as the ability to couple eccentric and concentric actions in ballistic movements. When speaking specifically about running speed, the interaction of stride frequency and stride length, the following key terms apply: Stride Frequency: Stride Length: the number of strides taken in a given period of time the distance covered in one stride; related to body height and leg length; also determined by the ipulse generated during ground contact

Flight Phase: • •

the period of time when the feet are not in contact with the ground; includes two sub-phases: drive leg take-off; body’s center of gravity rises to highest point descent of body’s center of gravity; ground contact

Support Phase: the period of time from touch-down to take-off of the same foot; includes three sub-phases: • heel-strike • mid-stance • take-off Additional key terms as they relate to speed/speed development include:

Understanding the Basic Concepts
Speed Strength: Speed Endurance: the ability to exert maximal force during high-speed movements the ability to maintain running speed after 1-2 seconds at maximal velocity (5-6 seconds from static start); to achieve maximum acceleration/speed during repeated sprints; tertiary training methods aimed at improving the ability to maintain speed after 1-2 seconds at maximal velocity

Agility:

the ability to explosively change direction while maintaining balance, body control, and speed; may be classified into two types: • general – the ability to grasp the technique of a new movement sequence in its rough form very quickly and often at first attempt special – the ability to execute new parts of special movements/variants without appreciable loss in performance, and to immediately adapt to unforeseen changes in conditions by slightly varying usual movements the delay between the auditory, visual, or tactile stimulus and subsequent movement

Reaction Time:

These components and concepts will be discussed in detail in the following sections.

Warm-up
All plyometric workouts should be preceded by proper warm-up (general, stretching, and dynamic specific warm-up) and followed by a proper cool-down period. Without proper warm-up the possibility of joint or muscle injury increases and thus, performance will also be decreased. Warm-up will help to: • • • • • • • • How Much? As emphasized by Vern Gambetta in Training and Conditioning (Vol. IX, No. 2) “The length of warm-up can range from 15-40 minutes, depending on the main emphasis of the workout and the training task that immediately follows the warm-up. For speed, strength, and other workouts that have high technical demands, the warm-up should be long.” Other considerations when determining warm-up include environmental considerations, number of training sessions per day, and physical status of the athlete (tightness from previous workouts). All warm-ups should account for components of: • • • • • • • • Raising the core temperature of the body Loosening (large amplitude movements) Balance Flexibility (range of motion with control) Coordination (fundamental movement before sport-specific skill) Core work (improve awareness and control of center of gravity Specific warm-up Cool-down Increase intramuscular temperature Raise the level of excitation of the nervous system Shorten reaction time Enhance overall coordination Increase range of motion about joints Improve elasticity and contractile ability of muscle Decrease injury potential Enhance mental focus for the forthcoming workout

Warm-up
Remember the following five key points: 1. Warm-up to play; do not play to warm-up. 2. Warm-up to stretch; do not stretch to warm-up. 3. Make the warm-up active; involve movement that is rhythmic and of large amplitude. 4. Make the warm-up progressive; start controlled and finish at “game speed.” 5. Plan the warm-up as specific preparation for training. Sample Warm-ups Basic Warm-up • General warm-up • Skip 2x30m • Sidestep 2x30m • Long and low carioca 2x30m • Carioca 2x30m • High knee carioca 2x30m • Backward run 2x30m • Straight-leg prances 2x30m • High skip 2x30m Dynamic change-of-direction warm-up • General warm-up • Skipping: reaching arm and cross-arm action • Crossover skip • Sidestep; switching direction and also performing at angles • Carioca: switching directions and also performing at angles • Leg swing: out and around Vern Gambetta Training and Conditioning (IX/2)

Lower Body Plyometrics
Most coaches and trainers understand “there is no one way to train, but there are better ways” of training to ensure success and safety. A trainer with imagination and a good knowledge of the principles of plyometrics will find few limitations to the combinations of plyometric drills available. Although the NSCA cannot list or demonstrate every known plyometric drill or combination thereof, as long as the trainer uses a progressive system of intensity (type of plyometric, level of effort required, and number of contacts) the explosive training program may be successful. Drills in this section will be listed and discussed in order of difficulty. DEFINITION OF MOVEMENT: • • • • 1. Jump A. B. C. D. Jumps Hops Bounds Shock Movements

One or two foot take-off to two foot landing A set may consist of 1-10 repetitions Projection of the hips upward and vertical lift are key Types of jumps 1. In-Place – Normally vertical while remaining in the same place; usually done with beginning programs or for low to moderate intensity plyometric training; examples include: • Ankle bounce (pogo) • Squat jump (no pre-stretch; initiated from a static squat position) • Squat jump with pre-stretch and variations such as split squat jump and cycle split squat jump • Tuck jump (and single leg tuck jump) • Vertical jump (power jump and its variations) • Pike jump • Box jump (up only) • Depth jump (the execution of a vertical jump after dropping from a specified height)

Lower Body Plyometrics
2.

• • • •

Standing – A maximal effort jump of 1-RM made in any direction (vertical, linear, lateral); examples include: Long Triple Vertical (and single leg vertical) Lateral

Jumps (hops and bounds) may be further identified by: • Long response: movement includes horizontal displacement; low intensity exercise used in relatively high volume training; accumulation of 30-100 meters for a set of jumps is not unusual; measured in distance, not number of contacts Short response: plyometrics performed with >10 repetitions usually inplace or with slight body/space displacement (A) Movement begins on one or both legs and ends on the same or both legs (B) Characterized by a horizontal component, cycling movements, and hip height (C) Performed in sets of 2 to 10 repetitions (short response) or by distance (long response, 25 to 60 meters). (D) Types of Hops Short Response: plyometrics performed with 10 repetions or less of which a shock method (Weighted vest) may be added; examples include: - Double and single leg hop - Double and single leg, zigzag hop - Speed hop - Lateral hop - Single-leg butt kick - Side hop Long Response: plyometrics performed with more than 10 reps, of which a shock method may be added; examples include exercises listed above

• 2. Hops

Lower Body Plyometrics
3. Bounds (A) Involves alternate landing from one foot to another; combination bounds may also be performed (B) Emphasis is on maximal horizontal distance (hip height is a factor in technical success and distance covered) (C) Normally measured for distance 1. Long Response: 10+ repetitions covering a distance of 30-100 meters 2. Short Response: 2-10 repetitions for maximal distsance (D) Types of bounds include variations of bounding such as skipping, galloping and/or prancing. Examples of bounding include: - Ankle flip - Single-leg bound (hop) - Alternate leg bound - Box variations - Stair variations 4. Shock Movements (A) Plyometrics calling for very high intensity nervous system activity and high levels of stress to be placed on muscle and connective tissues are shock movements. (B) Height is critical; may have vertical (vertical jump) or horizontal (long jump) components; safe box height may range from 0.5 to 1.1 meters (C) Methods for incorporation include depth jumps and/or box jumps

The Exercises
1A. Jumps (In-Place) A plyometric program should be initiated with low intensity and low volume (>80 foot contacts) drills. Jumps in-place are a great starting point for training the neuromuscular responses required for higher level plyometric training. In-place jumps stress two-foot take-offs and landings along with vertical height. Jumps inplace include such activities as: • Squat jump (and variations) • Ankle bounce • Tuck jump • Vertical jump (and variations) • Pike jump • Various split jumps (squat, squat with cycling) • Jumps over cones or other small barriers (linear or lateral) • Box jumps (up only, single repetition) A. Squat Jump Intensity Level: Low 1. Begin by assuming a relaxed standing position, feet shoulder-width. The beginner may initially practice this exercises with hands behind the head (elbows back and pointed to the sides) to aid with correct upright posture. With moderate to advanced level drills, arms are used for blocking to aid in vertical lift. 2. Flex hips, knees, and ankles to assume a half-squat to parallel squat position. The head should be held in a neutral position with the back flat. 3. Explosively extend the hips, knees, and ankles while jumping to maximal height (vertical). Upon landing quickly drop into a half-squat to parallel squat position (depending on specificity of exercise) and immediately repeat the exercise. Variations – The above description is a counter-movement jump. Squat jumps may also be accomplished without the counter movement with beginners to emphasize stable starting positions and landing techniques. Resistance may be added by holding a weighted object (medicine ball), wearing a weighted vest, or by using bands, etc. while performing the exercise.

The Exercises
B. Ankle Jump (Pogo Jump) Intensity Level: Low 1. Begin with feet approximately hip-width apart, upright position (chest out, head neutral, back flat), with knees slightly flexed. 2. Extend the knees and forcefully extend (plantarflex) the ankles. Project the hips upward using only the ankles, slight knee extension, and arm blocking movement to attain height. 3. Upon take-off, the foot should regain the toe up (dorsiflexed) position for landing. C. Tuck (Knee Tuck) Intensity Level: Low to moderate 1. Assume an upright position, with the feet shoulder-width apart and an upright, slightly forward torso position. 2. Begin the jump with a rapid double arm swing and lower body countermovement. Immediately follow with the explosive extension of the hips, knees and ankles upward (vertical). The knees should be re-flexed and pulled high to the chest. 3. The sequence is repeated, concentrating on flexing and pulling the knees upward while attaining good vertical displacement of the hips. Perform all repetitions at a rapid rate, emphasizing minimum amortization time. Variations: Single leg tuck jump (high intensity).

The Exercises
D. Split (Squat) Jump Intensity Level: Moderate 1. Assume a stance with one leg extended forward and the other oriented behind the midline of the body as in a lunge position. The forward leg’s knee and hip should be flexed at 90 degrees with the knee of the back touching the ground and the thigh of the back leg perpendicular to the ground surface. 2. Beginning with a counter-movement or approximately 6 inches, explosively jump off the front leg by extending the hip, knees, and ankle while using the arms to “block” the body off the ground. Torso should remain in an upright, chest out, back flat position during the explosive and recovery phases. 3. When landing, maintain the same foot forward stride position. Keep the knee of the front leg in-line with the foot and repeat the jump. 4. When the repetitions are completed, rest and switch front legs. Variations: Scissor jump/Cycle jump: legs may e alternated in mid-air with each response (moderate intensity). E. Pike Jump Intensity Level: High 1. Assume a relaxed upright position with the feet shoulder-width apart. 2. Begin the jump with a counter-movement and rapid double arm swing. Immediately explode vertically by rapidly extending the hips, knees, and ankles. 3. Keep the legs straight as the hips are flexed. Try to lift the legs to a parallel position and touch the toes with the hands. Perform the repetitions at the same semi-rapid rate, emphasizing minimum contact time on the ground.

The Exercises
F. Vertical Jump Intensity Level: Low 1. Assume an upright position, feet hip-width apart, arms relaxed and at the side of the body. 2. Perform a rapid counter-movement with a double arm swing and jump as high as possible. The arms should reach as high as possible over-head. Emphasis is on maximal height with quick amortization. 3. When the feet make contact with the ground, a subsequent counter-movement and explosive jump should take place with out hesitation, a stutter step, or a “double jump.” Variations: Also called “double leg power jump” and “rocket jump;” single leg vertical jumps (high intensity); star jump (low to moderate intensity). G. Box Jump (single, up only) Intensity Level: Low 1. Assume an upright position, feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart, arms relaxed and at the side of the body. Exerciser should be approximately 1 ½ - 2 feet (approximately arm’s length away from a box placed directly in front of the jumper. Height of box will vary according to exerciser’s conditioning and experience level. 2. Drop into a counter-movement squat position by flexing the hips and knees with double arm action back. 3. Explode up and slightly forward by extending the hips, knees, and ankles and blocking the arms up and forward. Emphasis should be on hip elevation with a target with a flexed landing position on the box. 4. Emphasis with a box jump should be on the jumping up phase. The exerciser simply steps down and repeats the jump movement. This should not be confused with a depth jump in which the emphasis is placed on jumping down from the box and immediately exploding into another jump phase. Variations: Various starting positions may be used to initiate the jump sequence. For instance, a common progression would include: • Jump from static squat position • Jump from counter-movement squat position • Jump from step stride position

The Exercises
H. Double-Leg Butt Kick Intensity Level: Moderate 1. Assume an upright position, feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart, arms relaxed and at the side of the body. 2. Begin jump movement with a short (1/4 squat) counter-movement using arms to swing and initiate the double-arm blocking movement. 3. Explode into the air achieving maximal hip height by extending the hips, knees, and ankles and blocking with a double-arm action. Pull heels under butt with knees approximately parallel to the ground surface. Amortization phase should be very quick. 1B. Jumps (Standing) Standing jumps are often performed for test purposes and/or for single repetition sets. Types of standing (measurement) jumps include: • Long jump • Triple jump • Vertical jump A. Standing Long Jump Intensity Level: Low 1. Assume a ready position with feet shoulder-width apart, knees, ankles and hips slightly flexed. 2. Perform a rapid double arm swing and counter-movement. Jump up and out from a two-foot off emphasizing maximum distance. Landing should be on both feet with flexed hip and knee. Safety note: Surface should be specifically designed for shock absorption (i.e. sand, mat, etc.) Variations – A barrier may be used to jump over for moderate to high intensity.

The Exercises
B. Standing Triple Jump Intensity Level: High 1. Assume a ready position with feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart, knees, ankles, and hips slightly flexed. 2. Perform a rapid double arm swing and counter-movement. Jump up and out from one foot, attempting maximal distance, landing on the same foot as takeoff (hop). Immediately jump from the landing foot to the opposite foot, emphasizing directional distance (step). Again, immediately jump from the landing foot to the final landing on both feet (jump). 3. Repeat as workout indicates. C. Standing Vertical Jump Intensity Level: Low 1. This jump is performed just as the “vertical or power jump” listed above (jumps in-place). The emphasis is on vertical distance and hip height. The single jump for measurement is usually completed near a marked wass or with a “vertex” jump measurement device. Normally, a one hand “tag” is used for measurement; however, two hands may be a better indication for some positions or sports (VB blocking).

Jumps (Long Response) Although most in-place and standing jumps are short response in nature (performed in sets of >10) a few may be performed as long response jumps (i.e. standing long, squat mumps with a linear emphasis, etc.). Cone jumps and box jumps may be set-up with successive obstacles to cover approximately 30 meters for a longresponse, high intensity, plyometric drill.

The Exercises
2. Hops As mentioned previously, hops are categorized as long or short response exercises. Although hops may be performed in place, as in jump rope activities, these plyometric activities are normally performed at moderate to high intensity levels in multiple reps (for quickness and agility ) or for distance (long response/speedstrength). A. Double Leg Hop Intensity Level: Moderate to high 1. Assume a ready position, with feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart with hips, knees, and ankles slightly flexed. Arms are flexed at a 90 degree angle at the sides of the body. 2. Begin the exercise by using a rapid double arm swing and counter-movement. Jump from both legs simultaneously for maximal linear distance. Attempt to “hang” in the air. 3. The landing position should mimic your starting position. Once contact is made with the ground, immediately repeat the movement for the prescribed number of repetitions or set distance. Variations: This plyometric may also be done over cones, hurdles, or other barriers/marks (approximately 18-24 inches apart) as described below. The double leg hop may be performed with a vertical emphasis and/or over incrementally higher barriers. Additionally, it may be performed in any direction (forward, back, lateral). One example of directional hops is described below. B. Double/Single Leg Zigzag Hop (short or long response) Intensity Level: Moderate 1. Place cones (or barriers) 18-24 inches apart in a zigzag pattern. 2. Assume the ready position as described above. 3. Start the exercise by jumping diagonally or laterally with a two foot take-off and landing (use a rapid double arm swing) over the first barrier (achieve maximum height) keeping the shoulders parallel to an imaginary line. Once contact is made with the ground, immediately propel the body (using a rapid arm swing and legs) diagonally to the next barrier

The Exercises
4. Continue until all barriers have been completed. 5. May be completed as long response by increasing the distance of the drill. Variations: Different barriers and distances between barriers may be used. Additionally, a single barrier may be used to hop back and forth in an “in-place” drill. Back and forth hops may also be performed on an angle board(s) as pictured below. Start on outside of cone (#1) and hop over each cone diagonally until reaching cone #5. 1♦ 2♦ 3♦ 4♦ 5♦ C. Double Leg Speed Hop (short or long response) Intensity Level: High 1. Assume a ready position with feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart, hips, knees and ankles flexed. Arms are flexed at a 90 degree angle at the sides of the body. 2. Begin the exercise by using a rapid double arm swing and counter-movement, jumping out and up to reach maximal distance and height. Flex the knees to bring the feet under the buttocks in an almost circular movement. Once contact is made with the ground immediately, repeat the movement for the prescribed number of repetitions or distance. 3. Concentrate on keeping the feet together (less than shoulder-width apart). Speed along with correct body positioning is of primary importance. Technically, the speed hop is performed as the double leg hop with a concentration on speed development.

The Exercises
D. Single Leg Hops/Single Leg Bound (short or long response) Intensity Level: High 1. Stand with one foot slightly ahead of the other as in initiating a step forward with arms relaxed at the sides of the body. 2. Use a rocker step to push off the back leg and drive the opposite knee up and out. The non-hopping leg is held in a stationary flexed position (about a 90 degree angle). Variation: Hops may be done with a cycling movement of the non-support leg in a stationary or forward moving drill. Single leg hops may also be performed in a speed hop format, as a diagonal drill on both sides of a line or marker, or as an in-place lateral hop. 3. Bounds To review, a bounding movement should emphasize horizontal distance with hip height being a determining factor on distance achieved. As with all plyometric exercise, a progression must be followed for maximal execution and safety. Bounds may be preceded in the training progression by galloping, skipping, and ankle flips. Although most bounds tend to be performed linearly, they may also be done laterally, up stairs on one leg or alternate legs, with boxes or angle boards, or over barriers. Let your imagination be your guide but always have an eye to safety. In this section we will highlight the following bound activities: • Alternate leg bound • Lateral bound • Bounds with barriers or stairs

The Exercises
A. Alternate Leg Bound (short response/long response) Intensity Level: Medium 1. Assume a position with one foot slightly ahead of the other as in initiating a step with arms relaxed at the sides of the body. A walking or running start may be used when technique is acquired. 2. Alternate or double arm swings may be used. A rocker step initiates the movement, pushing off the back leg while driving the opposite knee up and out. The drive knee should block at approximately 90 degrees as the arms simultaneously block. The non-support ankle should be locked in dorsiflexion with the heel under the hips. Concentrate on maximal distance with some height. “Hanging” in the air is the desired feeling. 3. The push leg is recovered in an elongated cyclic movement. 4. Before making contact with the ground, prepare the opposite leg for contact with the surface. Once ground contact is established immediately repeat the bound to the opposite side. Variations: This plyometric may be varied with boxes, working on a diagonal, on stairs, or with combination bounds. Combination bounds are set in a sequence such as LLR, LLR or LRRR, LRRR. Some photos series are given below as examples of some of the variations listed.

The Exercises
1. Lateral Bounds (short/long response) Intensity Level: Medium to high 1. The beginning position resembles a squat with additional torso flexion, feet hip-width or less apart. 2. To emphasize distance and horizontal displacement, begin with a countermovement down and slightly away from the direction to be traveled. Push off the outside leg and drive the knee and body weight in the opposite direction, landing on the non-support leg first followed by the support leg. 3. Immediately push back with the same initial counter-movement and drive. Variations: Lateral bounding may be done over barriers, on stairs, or with angle boards. 4. SHOCK / Depth Jumps Intensity Level: Low to shock (depending on the box height and single or multiple response) A. In-Depth Jump(s) Intensity Level: Low 1. Beginning position is on top of the box with toes of shoe just over the edge of the box, knees and hips slightly flexed. 2. Begin by “stepping” off the box into mid-air onto the ground/surface landing on the balls of the feet with feet approximately hip-width apart. Do not jump off the box or step down towards the ground. Knees should flex to absorb shock and begin the counter-movement. 3. Immediately upon landing, jump explosively (up or out depending on the emphasis) by extending the hips, knees, and ankles. Extend the body as high or as far as possible. Variations: In-depth jumps may be combined with box jumps to have a continuous jump and drop series. This is very advanced with a high-shock intensity level. Box heights must be adjusted for strength levels.

The Exercises
A. Box Jumps (multiple response) Intensity Level: High to Shock depending on the height of the box. 1. Box jumps, as described previously, may be done in succession (multiple boxes each 3-6 feet apart) and with varying box heights. They may also be done with one box for multiple responses up and down.

Plyometric Application
Plyometrics are similar to resistance training in that training incorporates the principles of progressive overload. The intensity and “overload” of each plyometric activity should be identified prior to use with each starting low and gradually progressing to a higher level. Form and technique must be emphasized at all times and during all phases of the program. Remember the Guideline for Plyometric Training Be sure to ensure the exerciser is ready to begin and complete a plyometric program. Take into consideration the following points: 1. Pre-training evaluation • Maturation level • Coachability • Sport demands • Fitness level 2. Pre-training physical condition • Minimum physical performance standards • Sufficient sprint/strength base • Size/weight of the athlete 3. Program considerations • Proper attire and footwear • Proper resilient surface • Proper equipment • Sufficient area (space) • Proper and sufficient warm-up • Proper exercise technique • Directional considerations • Proper progression - Low intensity/low volume (up to 60-80 foot contacts) such as in-place jumps - Standing jumps emphasizing linear and vertical components - Multiple jumps and hops involving repeated movements and patterns - Bounding - In-depth jumps and multiple response box jumps - Upper body plyometric and medicine ball activities may be incorporated

Plyometric Applications
4. • • • • Special Considerations Size of the athlete Body Structure Previous injuries Fatigue factors

Program Design Considerations
As with any other training component, weekly training periods and overload is dependent upon: • • • Frequency – the number of workouts per week Volume – number of foot contacts per workout Intensity – the “stress” (amount of muscle tension) of a drill or workout; inversely affected by volume

Frequency The number of workouts may range from 1-3 per week. Workouts for the same body area should not be performed on consecutive days. In-season workouts may range from only one for some sports such as football, to three for more specific sports such as track. The intensity of the drills will have a large impact on the number and frequency of the drills. Volume Volume is inversely proportionate to intensity. Volume for beginners may range from 60-150 foot contacts per session, 100-300 for intermediate, and 120-450* (see chart) for advanced athletes. Intensity Intensity should increase as volume decreases throughout the season. Intensity is also related to the type of foot contact and the intensity level of the specific drill, direction of drill, speed, external weight (added only for the advanced exerciser), and the height the center of gravity is raised. Because of these variables, consideration must be given in selecting the appropriate drills for a training cycle. Application of Plyometric Exercise The model plyometric program, after physical requirements are attained, may typically include an 8-10 week period with two training sessions per week, possibly twice per year depending on the sport. The program must be progressive and the higher intensity drills are not recommended prior to satisfactorily completing the progression.

All plyometric workouts must be preceded by an appropriate warm-up. Drill selection should consider sport-specific directional movements and required power positions. Some sports may have a directional componenet with an emphasis on

Program Design Considerations
vertical power (volleyball hitter/blocker), linear force (sprinter), or a combination of more than one directional force (lay-up in basketball). Drill selection should be weighted accordingly. Sport-specific drills should consider short v. long response drills, in-place v. movement away from the starting position, and the time of year the drills are being incorporated. Time of year Considerations should be made relative to off, pre, and in-season programs. Generally speaking, the off-season program incorporates the greatest volume. The pre-season is when the volume is moderated and intensity is maintained or increased. The in-season phase sees no substantial drills or very high intensity sport-specific drills of extremely low volume (sport dependent such as track and field). Length of Program As previously mentioned, the length of the program is usually 8-10 weeks (possibly 6-weeks in the high school or youth setting) and correspond to specific training periods. The length of the training period should be based on pre-plyometric strength training, current strength and fitness levels, current speed training, experience levels, and rest status. Progression in Intensity Intensity is related to the physical stress placed on the joints and muscles of the body, not specifically the amount of effort required. For the purpose of this course, when discussing plyometrics, only maximal efforts will be considered. Intensity is based on the rate of the stretch-shortening cycle and the load that must be overcome. The rate of the stretch-shortening cycle is determined by: • The maximum height of the center of gravity • Horizontal speed • Body weight • Effort • Ability to overcome loading

Program Design Considerations
Progression in Volume Volume is expressed in the number of foot contacts. For instance, three sets of 10 squat jumps have a volume of 30. Foot contacts will depend on the intensity level of the exercise, skill, bodyweight, and the time of year. As a program progresses from low intensity jumps in-place to depth jumps, volume must decrease. If horizontal (linear) displacement occurs, volume may be measured in yards traveled (i.e. 3 sets of 40m alternate leg bounds = 120 m). Large athletes should not perform the same volume as smaller athletes due to the increased risk of injury. A very general guideline is provided below. SEASON___BEGINNING__ INTERMEDIATE___ADVANCED INTENSITY
Off-season Pre-season In-season Peak 60-100 100-150 sport-specific recovery 100-150 150-300 sport-specific recovery 120-200 150-450* sport-specific recovery low-moderate moderate-high moderate recovery

*elite athlete only, performing low to moderate level exercise Excerpted from “Jumping Into Plyometrics,” Don Chu, 1992

Exercise intensity must be adjusted for body weight with larger athletes decreasing volume from 25%-50% overall.

Program Design Considerations
Recovery Plyometric exercise is a maximal effort situation. Because of this factor, adequate recovery between reps and sets is required. Recovery is essential for proper neuromuscular response. Exercises should not be done for conditioning purposes, but as speed-strength and power training only. Fatigue Again, plyometric training is a maximal performance atmosphere. Fatigue may lead to deterioration of technique and quality of effort and therefore, predispose the athlete to injury. Remember that fatigue may not be solely from the plyomeric workout but from the accumulative effects of all workouts, lifestyle, nutrition, and other stressors. In-Depth Jumps In-depth jumps produces high tension in the legs with its intensity determined by body weight and the height of the center of gravity. When considering the optimal height for an in-depth jump, “more is not better.” The recommended height for indepth jumps ranges from .4 to 1.1 meters with .75 to .8 meters being the norm. Heights greater than this may not allow for the rapid switch from eccentric action and may produce injuries. Very general guidelines for determining the height for in-depth jumps include: 1. Measure the athlete as accurately as possible for a standing vertical “jump and reach”. 2. From an 18-inch box, the athlete performs a depth jump followed immediately by a “jump and reach” attempting to achieve the same vertical score. 3. If successful, the athlete may move to a higher box in 6-inch increments until he/she fails to meet the standing vertical jump and reach score. 4. This is the athlete’s maximum height for depth jumps.

Program Design Considerations
Progression Sample A sample 10-week off-season program is included below. The example is based on the athlete having completed all prerequisites and the selection of appropriate drills.
Week/Variables Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Drills Choose 4 low intensity drills Choose 2 low and 2 med. int. drills Choose 4 med. intensity drills Choose 2 med. and 2 high int. drills Choose 4 high int. drills Sets/Reps 2 sets of 10 reps 2 sets of 10 reps Rest Period 2 min. rest b/ween sets 2-3 min. rest b/ween sets 2-3 min. rest b/ween sets Sessions Per Week 2 workouts per week 2 workouts per week

Week 5-6 Week 7-8

2-3 sets of 10 2-3 sets of med. int. and 2 sets of high intensity 2-3 sets of 10 for non-box jumps, 2 sets of ten for box jumps

2 workouts per week

10-15 sec. b/w 2 workouts per week reps in box jump 2-3 min. rest b/ween sets 3 min. rest b/w sets 2 workouts per week

Week 9-10

Example of progression for plyometric program. From Allerheiligen, 1992. Integration of Plyometrics and Strength Training Heavy strength training and plyometrics on the same training day is not recommended unless, for specific sports, a complex training workout is being done. A general guideline chart for plyometrics and strength training is included below, although there are many protocols for combinations.
Day Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Strength Training Upper-body-High-Intensity Lower-body-Low Intensity Upper-body-Low Intensity Lower-body-High Intensity Plyometrics Lower-body-High-Intensity Upper-body-Low Intensity Lower-body-Low Intensity Upper-body-High Intensity

Example 2 of Integration of Strength Training and Plyometrics. From Baechle, 1994. (3)

Program Design Considerations
Activity Monday Tuesday Lift Upper Body Lower Body Plyometrics Lower Body Upper Body Running 1,000 yds Agilities Low int-10 min. Low int-10 min. Wednesday Off Off Thursday Friday Upper Body Lower Body Lower Body Upper Body 1,000 yds Low int-10 min Low int-10

Example four-day per week schedule.
Activity Lift Plyometrics Running Agilities Monday Upper Body Lower Body 300 yds 30 min. Tuesday Lower Body Upper Body Wednesday Off Off 300 yds 30 min. Thursday Upper Body Lower Body Friday Lower Body Upper Body 300 yds 30 min.

Example four-day per week schedule with a 6:00 am running workout.
Activity Lift Plyometrics Running Agilities Monday Total Body Total Body Tuesday 500 yds 40 min. Wednesday Total Body Total Body Thursday 300 yds 40 min. Friday Total Body Total Body

Example three-day per week schedule
Activity Lift Plyometrics Running Agilities Monday Total Body Total Body Tuesday 500 yds. 40 min. Wednesday Total Body Total Body Thursday 300 yds. 40 min. Friday Total Body Total Body

Example three-day per week schedule with a 6:00 am running workout.

Form Running Drills
In contrast to sport-specific skills, running is one skill which is fairly natural (correct or not) and with which most athletes have experience. Sprinting with good technique and form is a motor learning process which must be learned at low levels and slower speeds before being accelerated. Form running is used to establish efficient and error free movements. Form running drills are used to help ingrain neuromuscular movement patterns and increase stride frequency. During form running drills, the three basic technique variants are practiced. These include: • sprint stride – full-flight striking action and pushing from ground force (30+ m) - running tall posture with a smooth, continuous movement - full range of motion arm action - pawing movement when actively driving leg down from high knee action • sprint drive – starting/acceleration (>20-30 m) - horizontal thrust with body low, piked trunk - powerful arm action through greater range of motion - full range driving action with exaggerated knee lift sprint lift – kick-at-speed pulling action (30+ m) - running tall posture; rapid knee lift - full range of motion arm action; increased emphasis on rapid pumping - lighter striking/pawing action

While performing drills for these phases, areas of focus include: • posture • arm action • leg action • speed of movement Just as the phases of the running movement are broken down, the speed at which the movement is performed is progressively intensified as the exerciser becomes increasingly proficient in the movement pattern. Movement speed classifications include: • walk/march • skip • fast running in place or with forward movement • true running speed

Form Running Drills
The following is a list of form running drills most commonly used.
1. “A” – the “high knee” drive movement which includes the following body positioning • relaxed shoulder, neck, and face (mouth) • head neutral (focus 10-20 feet in front) • body upright with the forward lean generated from the ankles (not hips) • starting position up on toes with forward lean • knee drives up to approximately hip level, knee flexed with heel tucked under butt, and ankle dorsiflexed • opposite arm swing with elbow held at approximately 90 degrees, not to cross the mid-line of the body 2. “B” – butt kicks are a fairly common drill used to work on the recovery phase of the leg. Key points to watch in the performance of this drill include • starting position is up on toes with slight forward lean from the ankles • knee remains pointed toward the ground during full drill • remainder of “upright” body position remains constant • heel is brought up to lower gluteal level with foot dorsiflexed • arm swing is opposite of working leg, at approximately 90 degrees and relaxed but in tempo with leg speed • leg recovery to ground is immediately under center of gravity with foot dorsiflexed until just prior to contact 4. “C” – this “active down” phase of the running motion which includes all of the bullet points listed above as the beginning movement. The down phase of the drive knee leg is now emphasized with the following movement pattern • the knee is extended out and down simultaneously in a “circular” movement • ankle remains dorsiflexed until just prior to ground contact which occurs immediately under the center of gravity (the movement has been called “pawing” as a descriptive) “Ankling” may also be performed to increase ankle activity at ground contact. Technique errors may be exhibited in various and often interrelated ways. Many times, errors are associated with fatigue, inadequate strength levels, deficient physical ability, a misunderstanding of technique, or from the practice of poor techniques. Common errors may include:

Form Running
• • • • • • • head or shoulder sway arm swing across body; not in opposition; at ineffective elbow angle rear heel kick action incomplete or slow due to ground force generated and recovery patterns; the higher the speed – the higher the recovery upper body lean too great; too little; from waist foot placement relative to center of gravity; relative to knee; ground contact ball-heel-ball relaxation leg action inefficient for optimal power generation

More specifically, in the start and running stride phases, the following common errors should be watched: Start (if a 3-4 point start position is used) • Hands are too wide apart in 4-point stance - cause…misunderstanding of movement - correction…place arms at shoulder-width • 90 degree knee angle of front leg is not achieved - cause…hips are too high or low - correction…adjust hip height • Excessive weight distributed to arms - cause…improper weight distribution - correction…raise hips upward more than forward; straighten arms and distribute weight evenly • Unnecessary tension in dorsal muscles; neck hyperextension - cause…misunderstanding of movement - correction…normal head alignment; eyes focused on ground • “Jumped” first stride - cause…push-off angle is too high; upward thrust is too steep - correction…increase forward lean; maintain proper head alignment; accelerate rear leg action • Premature upright posture - cause…inadequate push-off force; improper carriage of head

-

correction…increase push-off force; maintain forward trunk lean; keep eyes focused on ground without lifting head

Form Running
Running Stride • Insufficient leg extension at push-off (i.e. the athlete “sits”) - cause…inadequate power transmission; push-off is not powerful enough and too hast - correction…ankle joint work in forward movement; running and hopping, running and jumping, bouncing, special strengthening • Feet turned excessively outward - cause…faulty running form - correction…running in lane, walking, jogging and slow running with feet turned slightly inward • “Bouncing” with marked vertical swaying - cause…push-off force directed too vertically - correction…longer push-off, hitting chalk marks at regular intervals, starting exercises, increased stride rate • Forward swing of lead leg is too wide; flat foot plant - cause…trunk/thigh weakness; fatigue - correction…snatching thigh in diagonal support (with and without additional load); high knee lift under difficult conditions (e.g., in deep snow, sand, uphill, or with weighted footwear); strengthening exercises • Ineffective arm movements (transverse movement, excessive backward swing, hunched shoulders) - cause…excessive shoulder movement; insufficient shoulder joint flexibility - correction…practice proper movements during easy stride, side-straddle position or jogging • Head and neck hyperextended or hyperflexed - cause…fatigue; misunderstanding of movement - correction…normal erect head carriage, eyes focused ahead Corrective measures for common errors will be demonstrated during the hands-on portion.

Resisted Running
Resisted running movements aid in the development of stride length. It is important to note that the amount of resistance, regardless of the method of resistance, must not be so overwhelming as to slow the movement excessively. In general, a >10% change in external resistance has detrimental effects on movement mechanics and overall technique. Exceeding this level of resistance may cause the exerciser to slow down in an attempt to “muscle” through the running movement. This defeats the entire purpose of the activity. Special attention should be paid to the following desired attributes: • • explosive arm/knee drive explosive leg drive off ground

Resistive activities may include any drills or running activities performed against resistance (any additional weight or resistance to directional movement). Resistance may be provided through many varied methods including: • • • • • • • chutes harnesses/bands sleds weighted vests hills or inclines surfaces (i.e. sand, grass) partners

Resisted Running
Resisted activities should be performed early in the training periodization cycle, not in the in-season or competitive season. How Do Resistive Exercises Help Improve Stride Length? Resistive exercises help in the development of more efficient stride length by emphasizing 1. 2. 3. 4. knee drive ground force (push from ground) body position arm action

This addition of resistance mildly slows movement patterns and directional movements thereby giving an opportunity to overemphasize the above listed components. Additionally, the applied resistance aids in the development of greater strength in the musculature primarily responsible for the desired functional movements.

Assisted Running
Sprint assistance drills or assisted running aids in the development of stride frequency (leg turnover speed) by developing neuromuscular pathways not naturally achieved. Methods of sprint assistance include: • • • gravity assisted sprinting (downhill running) high-speed towing (harness or stretch cord) other means of achieving the over-speed effect

The goal of this means of training is to use a shallow slope (3-7 degrees) or other assistive methods to exceed natural maximal speed levels. Natural speed should not be exceeded by more than 10% (2-3 mph). Attempting to exceed natural speed levels by more than 10% will cause the exerciser to lean back in a braking motion in a protective posture. Three aspects of running mechanics which should be emphasized to accomplish desired results include: • • • arm/leg turnover rate foot plant directly underneath the hips (center of gravity) aggressively exploding through the movement in an effort to find that “extra gear”

Ropes/Ladders/Cones
Technique work and learning good running mechanics can and should be fun and challenging. Drills encompassing form and technique components may be scheduled into the warm-up and early sessions of a workout prior to fatiguing sport-specific activities. Variations and imagination are key to the motivation of the exerciser. Ropes, cones, ladders and other such equipment may be used to maintain interest and continue to challenge the performer. Agility drills (included in section 7-G) will use much of this same equipment. Again, it is very important to stress progression of exercise and progression of intensity of exercise. Begin with small cones, short hurdles, and straight ladders and progress to taller cones, higher hurdles and double or faster ladders. Once performance is at an acceptable level, various footwork patterns, resistance, or a second stimulus (such as a medicine ball) may be added to continue to challenge. Agility drills are important once basic technical levels in running form have been accomplished. Most drills, cone work, and ladder drills may be done in multiple directions and with a stop/start or change of direction component.

Ropes/Ladders/Cones
Specific drill suggestions are listed below: 1. Ladders: Ladders are excellent tools with which to drill: • Body position • Acceleration patterns • Stride regulation • Change of direction • Foot placement patterns 2. Cones: Cones have multiple purposes. Because they are easily knocked over and pose little or no threat of injury if hit, exercisers will attempt new drills without fear. Cones may be used with drills for: • Footwork patterns (all directions) • Indications of change of direction or speed change • Beginning plyometric jumping 3. Ropes Ropes or cords (elastic or releasable) may be used to enhance work in the following areas: • Acceleration drills • Stide frequency • Vertical jump movements • Directional movements • Counter movements in response to partners • Rehab/preventative drills Specific agility applications will be demonstrated in Section 7-G.

Agility Conditioning and Drill Variations
This section has been contributed by Dwight Daub, Strength and Conditioning Coach for the Seattle Supersonics. It is a tremendous example of a warm-up through cooldown, the progression of exercise, the sequence of exercise, and intensity levels. Safety Note: The ability to DECELERATE from a given velocity is requisite to changing directions. An example of progressive development for this attribute is listed below: • • • • The exerciser is instructed to run half speed until a whistle is heard; upon hearing whistle, decelerate and stop within 3 steps. Once this can be achieved, exerciser runs at ¾ speed with a 5 step deceleration and stop. Finally, full speed with a 7-step deceleration and stop can be implemented if appropriate. This approach may be used for lateral and backward movement.

(Adapted from the “Essentials of Strength and Conditioning”) Please use this information as an example only as these athletes are obviously participating at a level well above that with which most of us work. Be aware that only segments of all of the information included are completed on any given day and that the SEQUENCE of the exercises completed (beginning at warm-up) are very important to the success of the training and carryover to the playing field (or court).

Agility Conditioning and Drill Variations
Ladder Drills • Lateral Shuffle • Side Steps • L-Pattern • Zig Zag Pattern Agility Drills 1. Hurdle Drills • 1 foot in hole • 2 feet in hole • Zig zag • Hops • Lateral step-overs • Hurdle races (5” and 12” hurdles) • Side steps • Diagonal hurdle shuffle • Diagonal hurdle hops • Foot plant drills • 4 hurdle square drill (5” and 12” hurdles) • Hops with sprint 2. Combo Drills • Ladder and cones (any pattern) • Ladder and hurdles (any pattern) • Ladder, cones, and hurdles • Cones and hurdles (any pattern) • Cone-hurdle-cone-hurdle (any pattern) • Hoops and hurdles • Cones, hurdles, cones, hurdles • Hoop-hurdle-hoop • 1 hoop: circle tag • 2 hoops: figure “8” • 3 hoops: figure 8’s • 4 hoops: 4 corner drill 3. Reaction Drills • Hurdle direction drill • Cone reaction drill • Tennis ball drop • Shuffle drill (use 15-30 tennis balls or Frisbees) • Tennis ball v-drill (this drill requires 2 spotters and 6 balls)

• • •

Get-ups Get-up tag Scramble ups/Scramble up tag

Agility Conditioning and Drill Variations
R.A. RE Training Method Resistive, Assistive, Regular **Note: To be conducted on non-leg days 1. Resistive: **Note: Two suggestions have been recommended. • External resistance of movement should not exceed 15% of maximal strength. • Resistance should not exceed 10-15% of body weight Sleds (forwards, backwards, sprint-jog-sprint, zig zag, lateral shuffle with less weight, uphill with less weight) Uphill Sprints (longer sprints with a flatter grade i.e. 20-30 yards/shorter sprints with a steeper grade i.e. 1015 yards) Harnesses (20-30 yards) Harness Release (10 yards with resistance. 20 yards with release. Partner resistance Partner resistance and releases

Assistive Tubes (Straight Ahead) **Notes: Start with short distances and gradually increase the distances. Make sure your athletes are in some sort of sprinting shape. Do not begin right away with tubes. i.e. Build up 10-12 reps for 20-40 yards - Pullbacks: short starts at 5-10 yards - Pullbacks: 10-15-20-30 yards - Get-ups with tubes - Scramble ups with tubes - Passes **Note: This is the most advanced tube exercise. Don not start with this exercise early in the cycle. You need 80-100 yards to complete this drill. Finish With Regular Sprints - i.e. 10-20-30-40’s from ½ to full speed **Note: Do not conduct too many at the end of the workout in order to avoid fatigue related injuries Downhill Sprinting 10-20 yards

3-5% Grade **Remember that you need the same amount of distance to stop

Agility Conditioning and Drill Variation
Tubes (Change of Direction) - Lateral starts - Lateral shuffles - Backpedal, plant, and sprint - Sprint, plant, and backpedal - V-drill - W-drill - Diagonal sprints (predetermined direction or coach calls out the angle) Tube Plyometrics - Vertical jumps - Vertical jumps with releases - Long jumps: resistive and assistive - Diagonal long jumps: resistive and assistive - Lateral line jumps: resistive and assistive Agility Circuit: Putting It All Together **Note: To be conducted on leg days (Tuesdays and Fridays) • Station 1: Tubes – Change of direction and plyometrics • Station 2: Cones • Station 3: Hoops, hurdles, and tag • Station 4: Ladders, hurdles and cones Speed School Circuit • Station 1: Sleds • Station 2: Tubes straight ahead • Station 3: Foot plant drills (hurdles or partners) • Station 4: Posture drills and reaction drills • Group sprints: 10-20-30-40’s from ½ to full speed **Note: Do not conduct too many at the end of the workout in order to avoid fatigue related injuries Sequence And Volume Of R.A. RE Training The sequence and volume of resistive, assistive and regular training may vary according to your training phase

Agility Conditioning and Drill Variation
Warm-Up Sequence 1. High Knees 2. Groin Slides 3. Carioca 4. Skippioca 5. Butt Kicks 6. Backpedal 7. Ankle Flips (20-30 reps) -20 yards up and back for each exercise -Eccentric breakdown after each rep Stretch - concentrate on a complete body stretch Foot Plant Drills 2-3 sets 20-30 reps Knee Thrusts 2-3 sets 10-15 reps Plyometric Drills Follow from previous sequence Agility Drills **Drills utlilized in a circuit 1. Cone Drills a. short shuffle b. t-test c. 3-cone drill d. 5-cone star drill e. zig zag drill f. 10 yard square drill g. v-drill: 2-5 yards h. w-drill: 2-5 yards i. zig zag circle drill j. 3 yard square drill k. 5-cone maze drill 2. Ladder Drills a. 1 foot in hole b. 2 feet in hole c. in-outs 1 foot d. in-outs 2 feet e. hopscotch f. hopscotch with high knees

g. icky-shuffle

h. over and back

CONE DRILLS

CONE DRILLS
Short Shuttle 2 Start and Finish 1 3


• • • • •

5 yards between cones Start at Cone 1 Sprint from Cone 1 to Cone 2 Sprint around Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 to Cone 3 Sprint around Cone 3 and through Cone 1

3

T-Test 2

4


• • •

• • • •

1 5 Yards between Cones 2 and 3 and Cones 2 and 4 10 Yards between Cones 1 and 2 Start at Cone 1 Sprint from Cone 1 to Cone 2 Sprint around Cone 2 to Cone 3 Sprint around Cone 3 to Cone 4 Sprint around Cone 4 to Cone 2 Sprint around Cone 2 and Backpeddal to Cone 1

Cone Drills
3-Cone Drill


2


3


• • •

• •

1 Start /Finish Start at Cone 1 Sprint to Cone 2 and Back to Cone 1 Again, Sprint from Cone 1 around Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 around the inside of Cone 3 Sprint from Cone 3 around the outside of Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 to Cone 1

5-Cone Star


4


5


2


3


1 Start/Finish • • • • • • • Start at Cone 1 Sprint around Cone 2 to Cone 3 Sprint around Cone 3 Sprint from Cone 3 back around Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 to Cone 4 Sprint around Cone 4 back around Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 around Cone 5 **Cones are 3-5 yards apart

• •

Sprint around Cone 5 back around Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 to Cone 1 (Start/Finish) Variations can be made (ex. Sprint to a backpedal, sprint to a slide, etc.)

Cone Drills
Zig Zag Drill (Any number of cones)

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲
10 Yard Square Drill


3


2


4 •


1 Start/Finish

• • • • •

Cones are 10 yards apart Start at Cone 1 Sprint around the outside of Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 around the outside of Cone 3 Sprint from Cone 3 around the outside of Cone 4 Sprint from Cone 4 back to Cone 1 (Start/Finish) Variations can be made (carioca, backpedal, sprint, slides and combinations)

Cone Drills
V-Cone Drill


2


• • •

• •

1 3 Start/Finish Cones are 3-5 yards apart Sprint from Cone 1 around the outside of Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 to Cone 3 Touch at the outside of Cone 3 and sprint back around the outside of Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 to the outside of Cone 1 (Start/Finish) Variations can be made (slides, carioca, backpedal and combinations) W-Drill


2


4


1 ↑↑↑ Facing (Start) • • • •


3

Cones are 3-5 yards apart Start facing Cone 1 Sprint from Cone 1 around the outside of Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 around the inside of Cone 3 Sprint from Cone 3 to the inside of Cone 4 Variations can be made (carioca, slides, backpedal and combinations)

Cone Drills
Zig Zag Circle Drill Start 1


2

10


9

3


4

▲ ▲


8

5


6


7

• • • •

Start at Cone 1 Zig zag around the outside of each cone (1-6) Sprint from Cone 6 to Cone 7 Break feet down and circle around the entire cone Continue this through Cone 10 (ex. Sprint from Cone 7 to Cone 8 and circle around the entire cone before sprinting to Cone 9) Use variations (slides, backpedal, etc.) 5 Cone Maze Drill 2

▲ ▲

3

▲ ▲

1 4 5 Start/Bounding/Finish • Bound from Cone 1 to the outside of Cone 2

• • • •

Sprint from Cone 2 to the outside of Cone 3 Sprint from Cone 3 around the outside of Cone 4 Sprint from Cone 4 around the outside of Cone 2 Sprint from Cone 2 around the outside of Cone 5 Sprint from Cone 5 back to Cone 1 (start/finish)

Ladder Drills
Ladder Drill: 1 Foot in the Hole

Right

Left

Right

Left

Right

Left

Right

Left

Ladder Drill: 2 Feet in the Hole

R/L

R/L

R/L

R/L

R/L

R/L

R/L

R/L

In-Outs: Trail Foot only

Trail Foot Trail Foot Trail Foot In In In ↑↑↑ Trail Foot Out Trail foot out Trail foot out Facing

**Keep repeating that cycle

In-Outs: Both Feet • Same as In-Outs with trail foot, but now using both feet instead of one