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Wind tunnels are used for investigating new types of trains at high Reynolds numbers. Such a wind tunnel is to be set up by CRR (Centre for Railway Research), IIT Kharagpur. The purpose of this project is to model the proposed wind tunnel in Gambit, test it with high wind speeds in Fluent and calculate the wall shear stress and total pressure drop across the tunnel length and check their compliance with the theoretically calculated values. This total pressure drop is required to design the fan used for providing the indraft.

1

INDEX

Contents

1. Introduction 2. Procedure 3. Results and Discussions 4. Scope for further work 5. References

Page no. 3 11 13 31 32

2

Introduction

The science of Wind Engineering, which deals with measurements of actual wind flows to predict the forces transferred to engineered structures and machines, relies heavily on wind tunnels. Wind tunnels are used for a variety of reasons such as to test prototypes early in design cycles, or to record a large amount of data, but the most important feature of wind tunnels is their ability to accurately recreate the full complexity of fluid flow, employing the entire knowledge that man has gained on fluid dynamics, with minimal effort by the user, which allows us to predict, within reasonable bounds, the fluid behaviour in real world scenarios. They are indispensable in the testing phase of new designs in locomotives, ships, aeroplanes, space vehicles, skyscrapers, and missiles. Two main layouts considered for wind tunnels are closed loop and open. In a closed loop system, the air is re-circulated; in an open system the air is used only once and released into the surroundings on completing the cycle. Both layouts have their own pros and cons. The open system has a much lower capital investment, but requires larger, more powerful fans. The closed loop system requires a larger capital investment, but uses less powerful fans because the loop maintains the net circuit pressure, hence having lesser operating cost. Also, it leads to superior flow quality in the test section and lesser noise pollution. For these reasons, a closed loop wind tunnel is preferred in our case.

The main components of the proposed wind tunnel in order from intake to outlet are the axial fan, first diffuser, U-shaped duct with corner vanes, settling chamber, contraction, test section, second diffuser, and another U-shaped duct with corner vanes.

Axial Fan:

3

The cost of the added flow conditioning for the axial fan is much less than the cost of blowers.7̊ was chosen. An ideal cross-section would be circular. and it equivalent conical angle. while preventing boundary layer separation.5ρV2) The Diffuser minimum length is given by: Ld = Ri ((A1/A2)2 . Electric axial fans are preferred for their low cost and efficiency in producing high wind velocities. Axial fan speeds can be regulated either by adjusting the rotational speed or the pitch of the blades. Δpd = (Kf + Ke) x (0. The Diffusers: The diffuser is used to reduce the wind speed velocity while minimizing losses. It is done to reduce flow turbulence at the sharp corners by reducing their angles as much as possible. The disadvantage of using axial fans is they impart a small amount of tangential velocity that has to be rectified with counter-rotational vanes and/or additional flow conditioners. Assuming constant material friction factor the frictional loss can be calculated using the following equation: Diffuser frictional loss coefficient.1)/ (tan θ) Ld = Diffuser Minimum Length Ri= Inlet Hydraulic Radius The diffusers are kept octagonal in shape.There are many different fans that can be used in the wind tunnel. which produce a more uniform velocity distribution. thus minimizing the power losses through the wind tunnel as they are a function of the cube of flow velocity. Total Pressure loss Coefficient. Kf = (1 – 1/ (A1/A2)2) x (f/8sinθ) Kf = Diffuser Frictional Loss Coefficient f = Diffuser Friction Factor q = Diffuser Expansion Angle The expansion loss equation is empirical and depends on the diffuser cross sectional area. KL=α1 – α2/ (A1/A2)2 – (p2 – p1)/ (0.5ρU12) For the first diffuser a taper angle of 1. The total pressure loss is the sum of the frictional and expansion loss components. as it would decrease wind velocity. Using a diffuser before the settling chamber decreases the speed of the air flow for screens and flow straighteners. but due to logistical limitations a regular octagon is selected for the cross sectional geometry. The total loss in the diffuser section is the sum of the frictional losses along its surface area and the expansion losses. 4 .

First Diffuser Second Diffuser 5 .

The objective of these ducts is to turn the flow’s direction 180 degrees causing the least disturbance possible. Corner vanes are provided for this purpose. as well as between the second diffuser and the outlet. First Diffuser Second U-Duct 6 . They help guide the air along the 90 deg turn without preventing eddy formation.U-shaped regular octagonal ducts with corner vanes are located in between the first diffuser and settling chamber.

Settling Chamber: 7 .

52 mm. In the calculation. which for this wind tunnel correlates to a hydraulic cell diameter of 0.In the settling chamber the flow velocities are straightened parallel to the centre axis and made uniform. is defined as being the ratio between the downstream and upstream root-mean-square (RMS) of the instantaneous velocity ---. spatially uniform. it does this because the flow resistance of the wire is proportional to the speed squared. while mesh screens are used to reduce spatial variations in the axial velocity and reduce axial turbulence.000 cells in the honeycomb.31 mm. The screen axial turbulence reduction factor fu. a honeycomb screen is used to straighten the flow and suppress lateral turbulence (caused by the fan and expansion in the diffuser).39. The honeycomb is used to straighten the flow with minimal losses. and Screen Open Area Fraction. By incorporating a contraction following the settling chamber fewer number of mesh screens are required in the settling chamber to achieve flow uniformity. Wire Diameter. ψ = 0. That can be done because the flow resistance of the wire is proportional to the speed squared. While screens do act to turn the flow normal to the plane of the screen. which is defined as: ---.3 for average circular wire was assumed and used in The function of the settling chamber is to produce a parallel.(5) Ko is the pressure loss coefficient due to screen open area ReW is Reynolds number based on wire diameter β is fractional screen open area 8 . The mesh screens are used to create a uniform velocity profile.(3) ---. steady stream of air. In general. KL.(2) ---.(1) fu depends on the overall pressure drop coefficient. which is why the two are used in combination. It is suggested by Mehta and Bradshaw that to straighten the flow without impeding it there should be at a minimum approximately 25. For the screen pressure loss calculations a screen mesh factor of 1. slowing the faster flow regions more than the slower flow regions. In this section the irregularities caused by fan (imparting lateral velocities to the flow) and the minor inconsistencies from expansion are smoothed out. slowing the faster flow regions more than the slower flow regions. β = 0. only one mesh screen with attributes: Aperture. By incorporating a contraction following the settling chamber fewer number of mesh screens are required in the settling chamber to achieve flow uniformity. they are not as effective a flow straightener as honeycomb. In this proposed design there is one turbulence mesh screen and a honeycomb screen.1713 inches. thus creating a uniform velocity profile. Dw = 0.(4) ---.

ψ is aperture DW is wire diameter 9 .

It increases the incoming fluid velocity while minimizing pressure losses. flow separation. a contraction is used to improve flow uniformity and reduce the turbulence intensity in the working section. The wind speed in the inlet of the section is to be kept at 100 m/s. 10 .Contraction: In addition to improving circuit efficiency by reducing losses in the settling chamber. Test Section: The test section is a square duct with chamfered corners and houses the train model. and flow variability. A contraction ratio of 13 is employed and the profile is of a straight line.

In Fluent. For the wall zone. For a fully developed pipe flow. the roughness height is given according to Table 1. The calculated values are arranged in Table 1 in results and discussion. 0. the 2nd U-duct.2 and roughness constant as 0. The Cooper meshing scheme is used for volume meshing of the diffusers. with its outflow meeting the inlet fan. often leading to better overall convergence. The 2 transport equations for this model are: For turbulent kinetic energy k.Procedure The modelling was done in Gambit as per the dimensions mentioned in the schematic diagram. the solution does not vary strongly. From the solution.16 (ReDH)-1/8 and Hydraulic Diameter. the outlet 11 .001 the solution was said to have converged. changes in the solution are too aggressive. the pressure at the inlet of the U-duct was found out. k and ε. The corner components of the U-ducts did not follow the first condition and hence Tet/Hybrid meshing scheme was used with t-grid type meshing for meshing the U-ducts. Under residual monitors. DH = 4Acs/P. A velocity was assumed for the inlet and on solving.5.001 is added as the absolute convergence criteria for z-velocity. Reduced under-relaxation factors damp out changes in the solution as the iterations progress. I = 0. So to solve the diffuser. defined as u’/u with u’ = (2k/3)1/2. The outflow was fixed at 0 Gauge pressure and the inlet was assigned a velocity-inlet Boundary condition with velocity calculated from continuity equation as the velocity of air entering the test section is 100 m/s. and test section using hex/wedge elements. hence the under-relaxation factors are kept intact. Residuals are like the average errors obtained in iteration and when they reduced beyond 0. and adversely affect convergence. The Boundary layers were assigned keeping in mind the minimum cell length adjacent to the wall as calculated earlier. And for dissipation ε. Under the present circumstances. the pressure conditions were assigned from the previous solution. contraction. The simulation was started from the last component. The pressure will be same as that of the outlet of the Diffuser preceding it. The turbulence specification method is chosen as intensity and hydraulic diameter with turbulent intensity. For using the Cooper meshing scheme it is important that the non source faces/side faces be mappable and the source faces/end faces are not previously meshed. the viscous model has been chosen as realizable k-ε model with default model constants and ‘near wall treatment’ being the standard wall functions. Sometimes as the program is iterating. we have Turbulent Intensity.

12 . Assign a velocity value at inlet and see if the velocity at outlet on solving matched the inlet velocity of the previous component. The other components were solved in a similar manner. This pressure was obtained from solving the previous component. Use the outflow pressure condition to specify the pressure at the exit. The process involved two parts: 1. It was a hit and trial approach.velocity was matched with the inlet velocity of the following component. and required repeatedly solving the mesh to finally acquire the desired outlet velocity within reasonable error. 2.

4187 The region between y+ = 5-7 and y+= 30 is the buffer/transition region. 13 . According to the following figure. u* = (τw /ρ)1/2 = friction velocity u = mean turbulent velocity y = normal length to the wall y+ and u+ are non dimensional parameters for y+> 30. the log law is employed beyond y+ = 11. we can see that the log law can be employed beyond the point of intersection of the two extrapolations. we need to ensure that the viscous sublayer and part of the transition layer of the flow are excluded from the analysis as the flow is not turbulent in those regions.0 2. we have the semi logarithmic equation.225. In the viscous sub layer. u+ = 2.Results and Discussions Calculating minimum cell length near wall boundaries: Before modelling the turbulent air flow in the hexagonal duct.5 = 1/k where k = von karman constant =0.5ln(y+) + 5. (valid for 0 < y+ < 5-7) u+ = u/u* = yu*/ν = y+ where. According to the Fluent manual.

Dh = 147. Δp = 530 Pa. y = (νρ/11. with fluid density ρ. Hence we can bypass the calculations for other components.2 e-5 m = 1.2 e-2 mm. Δp = f x L/DH x 0.2 e-2 mm hence we should keep the length of the cell closest to the boundary layer at least 1. Hydraulic Diameter and Turbulent Intensity: 14 . we make the minimum cell length 1.217 cm. and τw = 13 Pa therefore.u+ = u/u* = 11.0085 (from Table 2) therefore.225 (yu*/ν) For a given duct with length L. ρ = 1.225 kg/m3. L=1500 cm .5ρU2 and Δp x Acs = τw x Asurface so.2 e-1 mm. Hydraulic Diameter DH. Keeping a safety factor of 10. for the test section. and fluid velocity U: Static pressure drop. f=0. U = 100 m/s.225τw)u = 1.

80 1836.01 1.293 1.3 5 554. In this process it considerably reduces the velocity magnitude.80 1836. thus creating a uniform velocity profile.55 532. Acs (cm2) 81741 254558 254558 254558 254558 19600 19600 19600 19600 81741 81741 81741 Perimete r.80 1836. Sr.97 100.55 0.180 1.43 100. Intensity.56 0.After modelling in Gambit.29* 7.3 5 147.198 1. The Hydraulic diameter being 4A/P is calculated and the velocity (area weighted average) at the various cross sections is taken from Fluent. *The meshed screen reduces spatial variations in the axial velocity and reduces axial turbulence.4 314.065 1.80 532.55 532.2 17 147.55 1056 1056 1056 2.4 554.26 0.99 26.4 Velocit y V (m/s) 120. (x109) Turb.59 1.2 17 147. Dia.14 1.290 1..78 25.44 25.38 29. 1 Component Crosssec. Area.01 1.19 101.3 5 554.3 5 554. 15 .395 1.67 33.4 314.2 17 147.198 1. DH (cm) 314.55 532.94 29.30 1.165 1.198 1.01 1. the perimeter and Cross sectional area is calculated.57 1. P (cm) Hyd.16(ReDH)-1/8 (x100) (%) 2 3 4 5 6 First Diffuser inlet First Diffuser Outlet First UCurve inlet First UCurve outlet Contraction inlet Contraction Outlet Test Section inlet Test Section outlet Second Diffuser inlet Second Diffuser outlet Second UCurve inlet Second UCurve outlet 1056 1836.45 100.6 Re.01 0.287 Table 1 From the above table we have the values of turbulent intensity and hydraulic diameter for all boundary conditions in Fluent modelling. No . TI = 0. which are then used through iterations.2 17 314.13 1. From these values the values for Reynolds number and turbulent intensity are found. no.198 1.182 1.

so it straightens the flow but doesn’t alter the velocity magnitude. k0 = 2. fu = 0.23 = 34. ψ = 0. the input velocity is found to be 7.97 m/s. with output velocity being 7.The specifications of the considered meshed screen are: Aperture. with n=1. kL = 3.52 mm.88 From equation 3. 16 .23 Therefore. Wire Diameter. The honeycomb screen acts as a flow straightener. =0.2 From equation 2.35 m/s. Dw = 0.97/0.31 mm From equation 5.39 From equation 4.

4 Curve Roughness ratio. ε = 0.0108 0.0115 0.4 First U-Curve 554.41 0.21 Diffuser 7 Second U314. the default value of friction factor is assumed.01 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Component Hyd.0085 0.54 Table 2 Re.35 Contraction 554.0085 0.30 1. DH (cm) First Diffuser 314. No . Once the factors are calculated. no. Dia.0115 17 .56 Friction factor 0. we take the lower limit. f = f (Re. friction factor.54 5. ε/DH (x 10-5) 9.3-1 mm As the wind tunnel is made of polished concrete.0108 0. the iterations are again done using the values.3 mm Using the Moody Diagram.01 1.. (x109) 2. ε/DH) ε = relative roughness of inner duct wall ε/DH = roughness ratio for ordinary concrete.13 0.21 7 Second 147.59 1.20 0.35 Test Section 147. For initial calculation of velocity. we can calculate the friction factor at the flow boundaries of each component.41 5. ε = 0. Sr.20 9.Roughness ratio and Friction factor: For a turbulent flow.

18 .

Contours: The contours for static pressure. total pressure and velocity are given for each component First Diffuser: 19 .

First U-Duct: 20 .

21 .

Contraction: 22 .

23 .

24 .

Test Section: 25 .

26 .

Second Diffuser: 27 .

28 .

Second U-Duct: 29 .

30 .

7 ΔPdyn (Pa) ΔPtotal (Pa) Wall Shear Stress(Pa ) 4.4 267 548 700 409.79 21.11 8884. 3 Table 3 * All pressure values are Gauge Pressures ** All pressure values are Area Weighted Averages The total pressure drop across the tunnel is found out to be 2881 Pa and the Wall Shear Stress is 21. 6 629 51. 5 Pdynamic (outlet ) (Pa) 1094.04 1.6 8562. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Componen ts First Diffuser First UCurve Contractio n Test Section Second Diffuser Second UCurve Pstatic (inlet ) (MPa ) 262.Calculations of pressure drops across the individual components: Sr. These specifications can be now used to make the inlet fan. No . 5 Pstatic (outle t) (Pa) 7087 3951.7 516.69 0.2 2881.0 ΔPstatic (Pa) Pdynami c (inlet ) (Pa) -7349 887 8778 574 -5467 560.26 0.8 6 999. 9 -4827 -5401 560 0.9 1.5 2016.6 8511 -26 6167 151.8 7960 6697 515. 1 4838 .8 7986 531 666.4 7789.3 4898 440. 31 .11 Pa.9 3951 4827 5407 560. 7 370.43 12.

but a 5th order polynomial curve works best and minimises exit flow irregularities as well as boundary layer separation and energy loss. it is also prudent to attach sensors in the wind tunnel that measure the temperature of the body in the tunnel. For high wind speed testing.Scope for improvements 1. The present calculations have been done only for an empty tunnel. 32 . Such a model can be modelled in Gambit. The contractor surface is kept straight in the present design. 2. 3. The calculations for a tunnel with the train model in the test section haven’t been done.

and testing of an open atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel” – University of Florida dissertation 2. M. Sep 24. pg 465-473 33 . construction. Render: “Design methodology and performance of an indraft wind tunnel” – The Aeronautics Journal. Johl. Passmore and P. G.References 1. Harold Sherwood Boudreau: “design.

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