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LIBRARY

OFTHE

UNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIA

GIFTOF

P

MRS.MARYWOLFSOH-N

INMEMORYOF

HENRYWOLFSOHN

r

TIIE

SYMBOLISMOFFREEMASONRY:

ILLUSTRATINGANDEXPLAINING

JSricttfe andgUilojsophjf,its

ami

,

BY

ALBERT G.MACKEY,M.D.,

AUTHOROF"LEXICONOFFREEMASONRY,""TEXT-BOOKOFMASOXIC JURISPRUDENCE," " CRYPTICMASONRY,"

KTC.,ETC.

Eaenimquiescribunturtriahaberedecent,utilitatemprxsentem,

certumfinem,inexpugnabilefundamentum"

CARDANUS.

NEWYORK.-

CLARKANDMAYNARD,

5 BARCLAYSTREET.

i 869.

Entered,accordingtoActofCongress,intheyear1869,by

ALBERT G.MACKEY,

IntheClerksOfficeoftheDistrictCourtoftheDistrictofSouthCarolina.

StereotypedattheBostonStereotypeFoundry,

No.19SpringLane.

TO

GENERALJOHN C.FREMONT.

MYDEARSIR :

WhileanyAmericanmightbeproudofassociating

hisnamewiththatofonewhohas clonesomuchto

increasetherenownofhiscountry,andtoenlargethe

sumofhumanknowledge,thisbookisdedicatedtoyou

asaslighttestimonialofregardforyourpersonalchar

acter,andingratefulrecollectionofactsoffriendship.

Yoursverytruly,

A.G.MACKEY.

PREFACE.

namely,theinstructionbylegendsandthatbysymbols. OFthevariousmodesofcommunicatinginstructiontothe Itisto

uninformed,themasonicstudentisparticularlyinterestedintwo;

thesetwo,almostexclusively,thathe is indebtedforall thathe itiswithoutdocumentaryevidenceofauthenticity.

knows,andforall thathecanknow,ofthephilosophicsystem

whichistaughtintheinstitution. Allitsmysteriesanditsdog

mas,whichconstituteitsphilosophy,areintrustedforcommuni

cationtotheneophyte,sometimestoone,sometimestotheother ofthesetwomethodsofinstruction,andsometimestobothof

themcombined. TheFreemasonhasnowayofreachinganyof

theesotericteachingsoftheOrderexceptthroughthemedium

ofalegendorasymbol.

Alegenddiffersfromanhistoricalnarrativeonlyinthis that

Theremaybenointernalevidencetothecontrary, Itistheoff

Itsdetailsmaybetrueinpartor

springsolelyoftradition.

inwhole.

ortheremaybeinternalevidencethattheyarealtogetherfalse.

Butneitherthepossibilityoftruthintheonecase,northecer

taintyoffalsehoodintheother,canremovethetraditionalnar-

4

PREFACE.

rativefromtheclassoflegends.

Itisalegendsimplybecause

it rests on nowrittenfoundation.

It

is

oral,

and

therefore

legendary.

Ingraveproblemsofhistory,suchastheestablishmentofem

pires,thediscoveryandsettlementofcountries,ortheriseandfall

ofdynasties,theknowledgeofthetruthorfalsityofthelegenda

rynarrativewillbeofimportance,becausethevalueofhistory

isimpairedbytheimputationofdoubt.

ButitisnotsoinFree

masonry. Herethereneedbenoabsolutequestionofthetruth

orfalsityofthelegend. Theobjectofthemasoniclegendsisnot

toestablishhistoricalfacts,buttoconveyphilosophicaldoctrines.

The}areamethodbywhichesotericinstructioniscommunicated,

andthestudentacceptsthemwithreferencetonothingelseex

cepttheirpositiveuseandmeaningasdevelopingmasonicdog

mas. Take,forinstance,theIliramiclegendofthethirddegree.

Ofwhatimportance is it tothediscipleofMasonrywhether it

betrueorfalse? Allthathewantstoknowisitsinternalsigni

fication ; andwhenhelearnsthatitisintendedtoillustratethe

doctrineoftheimmortalityofthesoul,he is contentwiththat

interpretation,andhedoesnotdeemitnecessary,exceptasamat

terofcuriousorantiquarianinquiry,toinvestigate its historical wouldbeofnovaluewereitnotforthepreciousjewelcontained

accuracy,ortoreconcileanyofits apparentcontradictions. So

ofthelostkeystone;soofthesecondtemple;soofthehidden

ark : thesearetohimlegendarynarratives,which,likethecasket,

within. Eachoftheselegendsistheexpressionofaphilosoph

icalidea.

Butthereisanothermethodofmasonicinstruction,andthat

isbysymbols. Noscienceismoreancientthanthatofsymbol

ism. Atonetime,nearlyallthelearningofthe-worldwascon

veyedinsymbols. Andalthoughmodernphilosophynowdeals

onlyin abstractpropositions,Freemasonry still cleavestothe

PREFACE.

5

ancientmethod,andhaspreserveditinitsprimitiveimportance

asameansofcommunicatingknowledge.

AccordingtothederivationofthewordfromtheGreek, " to

symbolize" signifies

"to

compare

one

thingwith

another."

Henceasymbolis theexpressionofanideathathasbeende

rivedfromthecomparisonorcontrastofsomeobjectwithamoral

conceptionorattribute. Thuswesaythattheplumbisasymbol

ofrectitudeofconduct. Thephysicalqualitiesoftheplumbare

orrectitude. herecomparedorcontrastedwiththemoralconceptionofvirtue, ThentotheSpeculativeMasonitbecomes,afterhe

hasbeentaught its symbolicmeaning,thevisibleexpressionof

theideaofmoraluprightness.

ButalthoughtherearethesetwomodesofinstructioninFree

masonry,

bylegendsandbysymbols,

caldifferencebetweenthetwomethods.

therereallyisnoradi

Thesymbolisavisible,

andthelegendanaudiblerepresentationofsomecontrastedidea

ofsomemoralconceptionproducedfromacomparison. Both

thelegendandthesymbolrelatetodogmasofadeepreligious

character;bothofthemconveymoralsentimentsinthesame

peculiarmethod,andbothofthemaredesignedbythismethod

toillustratethephilosophyofSpeculativeMasonry.

Toinvestigatethereconditemeaningoftheselegendsand

symbols,andtoelicitfromthemthemoralandphilosophicalles

sonswhichtheywereintendedtoteach,is towithdrawtheveil

withwhichignoranceandindifferenceseektoconcealthetrue

philosophyofFreemasonry.

TostudythesymbolismofMasonryis theonlywaytoinves

tigate its philosophy. This is theportalofits temple,through

whichalonewecangainaccesstothesacellumwhere its apor-

rhetaareconcealed.

Itsphilosophyisengagedintheconsiderationofpropositions

relatingtoGodandman,tothepresentandthefuture life. Its

6

PREFACE.

scienceisthesyrrbolismbywhichthesepropositionsarepresent

edtothemind.

Theworknowofferedtothepublicisanefforttodevelopand

explainthisphilosophyandscience.

Itwillshowthatthereare

inFreemasonrythegermsofprofoundspeculation.

If it does

notinterestthelearned, it mayinstructtheignorant. Ifso, I

shallnotregretthelaborandresearchthathavebeenbestowed

uponitscomposition.

ALBERTG.MACKEY,M.D.

CHARLESTON,S.C.,Feb.22,1869.

CONTENTS.

II. I. Preliminary TheNoachidce

IV. ThePrimitiveFreemasonryofAntiquity. TheSpuriousFreemasonryofAntiquity.

III.

  • V. TheAncientMysteries.

.

VI. TheDionysiacArtificers

PAGE

9

22

26

32

39

45

VII. TheUnionofSpeculativeandOperativeMasonry

attheTempleofSolomon

......

VIII. TheTravellingFreemasonsoftheMiddleAges. XII. TheSymbolismofSolomotisTemple.

IX.

X.

DisseveranceoftheOperativeElement.

TheSystemofSymbolicInstruction.

.

.

XI. TheSpeculativeScienceandtheOperativeArt.

XIII.

TheFormoftheLodge

XIV. TheOfficersofaLodge

58

62

66

7*

77

85

100

106

XV.

ThePoint "within aCircle.

.

.in

XVI. TheCoveringoftheLodge.

 

.

.

.

.

117

XVII. RitualisticSymbolism.

.

.

,

.

.

.123

CONTENTS.

1.

PRELIMINARY.

THEORIGINANDPROGRESSOFFREEMASONRY.

NYinquiryintothesymbolismandphilosophy

ofFreemasonrymustnecessarilybeprecededby

abriefinvestigationoftheoriginandhistoryof

theinstitution.

Ancientanduniversalas it is,

whencediditarise? Whatweretheaccidentsconnected

withitsbirth? Fromwhatkindredorsimilarassociation

did itspring?

Orwas it originalandautochthonic,in

dependent, in its inception,ofanyexternalinfluences,

andunconnectedwithanyotherinstitution? Theseare

questionswhichan intelligentinvestigatorwillbedis

posed to propound in theverycommencementofthe

inquiry ; andtheyarequestionswhichmustbedistinctly ofthisinquirymustfirst

answeredbeforehecanbeexpectedtocomprehend its

truecharacterasasymbolicinstitution.

Hemustknow

somethingofitsantecedentsbeforehecanappreciateits

character.

Buthewhoexpectstoarriveatasatisfactorysolution

asapreliminaryabsolutely

10

THEORIGINANDPROGRESS

necessarytosuccess

releasehimselffromtheinfluence

ofanerrorintowhichnovicesinMasonicphilosophyare

tooaptto fall. Hemustnotconfoundthedoctrineof

Freemasonrywith itsoutwardandextrinsicform. He

mustnotsupposethatcertainusagesandceremonies,

toextensivevariationsindifferentcountries,constitutethe whichexistatthisday,butwhich,evennow,aresubject

sumandsubstanceofFreemasonry. uPrudentantiqui

ty," saysLordCoke,udidformoresolemnityandbetter

memoryandobservationofthatwhich is tobedone,

expresssubstancesunderceremonies."

But it mustbe Butdivestmanofthatoutwardapparel,andyou still

alwaysrememberedthattheceremony is notthesub

stance. It is buttheoutergarmentwhichcoversand

perhapsadorns it, asclothingdoesthehumanfigure.

havethemicrocosm,thewondrouscreation,with AndsotakefromMa all his

nerves,andbones,andmuscles,and,above all,withhis

brain,andthoughts,andfeelings.

sonrytheseexternalceremonies,andyou still havere

maining its philosophyand science. Thesehave,of

course,alwayscontinuedthesame,whiletheceremonies

havevariedindifferentages,and still varyindifferent Butthisdefinitioncontains

countries.

ThedefinitionofFreemasonrythatitis " ascienceof

morality,veiledinallegory,andillustratedbysymbols,"

hasbeensooftenquoted,that,were theexactprinciplethathasjustbeenenunciated. it notforitsbeauty,

itwouldbecomewearisome.

Free

masonryisascience

aphilosophy

asystemofdoc

trineswhich istaught,inamannerpeculiarto itself,by

allegoriesandsymbols.

This is its internalcharacter.

Itsceremoniesareexternaladditions,whichaffectnotits

substance.

OFFREEMASONRY.

II

Now,whenweareabouttoinstituteaninquiryinto

theoriginofFreemasonry, it is ofthispeculiarsystem

ofphilosophythatwearetoinquire,andnotofthecere losophywasmaintainedandtaught. Butifweconfound

monieswhichhavebeenfoistedonit. Ifwepursueany

othercourseweshallassuredlyfallintoerror.

Thus,ifweseektheoriginand firstbeginningofthe

Masonicphilosophy,wemustgoawaybackintotheages

ofremoteantiquity,whenweshallfindthisbeginningin

thebosomofkindredassociations,wherethesamephi

theceremoniesofMasonrywiththephilosophyofMason

ry,andseektheoriginoftheinstitution,mouldedinto

outwardformasitisto-day,wecanscarcelyberequired

tolookfartherbackthanthebeginningoftheeighteenth

century,and,indeed,notquitesofar. Formanyimpor

tantmodificationshavebeenmadeinitsritualssincethat

period.

theMasonicritual,buttheMasonicphilosophy,whose Having,then,arrivedattheconclusionthat it is not

originwearetoinvestigate,thenextquestionnaturally

relatestothepeculiarnatureofthatphilosophy.

Now,then,I contendthatthephilosophyofFreema immortalbeing,preparinginthepresentlifeforaneter

sonryisengagedinthecontemplationofthedivineand

humancharacter ; ofGODasoneeternal,self-existent

being,incontradictiontothemythologyoftheancient

peoples,whichwasburdenedwithamultitudeofgods

andgoddesses,ofdemigodsandheroes ; ofMANasan

nalfuture,inlikecontradictiontotheancientphilosophy,

whichcircumscribedtheexistenceofmantothepres

ent

life.

Thesetwodoctrines,then,oftheunityofGodandthe

12

THEORIGINANDPROGRESS

immortalityofthesoul,constitutethephilosophyofFree

masonry.

Whenwewishtodefine it succinctly,wesay

thatitisanancientsystemofphilosophywhichteaches

thesetwodogmas. Andhence, if, amidtheintellectual

darknessanddebasementoftheoldpolytheisticreligions,

wefind interspersedhereandthere,in allages,certain

institutionsorassociationswhichtaughtthesetruths,and associationswerethe incunabula

that,inaparticularway,allegoricallyandsymbolically,

thenwehavearightto saythat such institutions or

the predecessors

oftheMasonicinstitutionas it nowexists.

With these preliminaryremarks the readerwillbe

enabledtoenterupontheconsiderationofthattheory propositionsoftheunityofGodandtheimmortalityof thesoul. Ofthetruthofthesetwopropositionsthere

oftheoriginofFreemasonrywhich Iadvance in the

followingpropositions :

1. Inthefirstplace,Icontendthatintheveryearliest

agesof theworldtherewere existent certain truths

ofvastimportancetothewelfareandhappinessofhu

manity,which hadbeencommunicated,

nomatter

how,but,

mostprobably,bydirectinspiration from

Godtoman.

2. These truths principallyconsisted intheabstract

cannotbeareasonabledoubt. Thebeliefinthesetruths

is anecessaryconsequenceofthatreligioussentiment

whichhasalwaysformedanessentialfeatureofhuman

nature. Manis,emphatically,andindistinctionfromall

othercreatures,areligiousanimal. hisinterestingworkon " TheHeathenReligionin Grosscommences its

PopularandSymbolicalDevelopment"bythestatement

that " oneofthemostremarkablephenomenaofthe

OFFREEMASONRY.

13

humanraceistheuniversalexistenceofreligiousideas

a belief insomethingsupernaturaland divine,anda

worshipcorrespondingto it." Asnaturehadimplanted

thereligioussentiment,thesamenaturemusthavedi

rected it inaproperchannel.

Thebeliefandthewor

shipmustatfirsthavebeenaspureasthefountainwhence probablyhandeddownthrough thelineofpatriarchs

theyflowed,although,insubsequenttimes,andbeforethe

adventofChristianlight,the}maybothhavebeencor

ruptedbytheinfluenceofthepriestsandthepoetsover

anignorantandsuperstitiouspeople. Thefirstandsec

ondpropositionsofmytheoryreferonlytothatprimeval

periodwhichwasantecedentto thesecorruptions,of

whichIshallhereafterspeak.

3. ThesetruthsofGodandimmortalityweremost

oftheraceofSeth,butwere,atallevents,knownto

Noah,andwerebyhimcommunicatedtohisimmediate

descendants. worshipofGodcontinued,forsometimeafterthesub

4.

In consequenceofthis communication, the true

sidenceofthedeluge,tobecultivatedbytheNoachidae, theNoachites,orthedescendantsofNoah.

  • 5. Atasubsequentperiod(nomatterwhen,butthe

biblicalrecordplacesit attheattemptedbuildingofthe

towerofBabel),therewasasecessionofalargenumber

ofthehumanracefromtheNoachites.

  • 6. Thesesecedersrapidlylostsightofthedivinetruths

whichhadbeencommunicatedtothemfromtheircom

monancestor,andfell intothemostgrievoustheological rilyreceived.

errors, corruptingthepurityoftheworshipand the

orthodoxyofthereligiousfaithwhichtheyhadprima

14

THEORIGINANDPROGRESS

  • 7. Thesetruthswerepreserved intheirintegrityby

butaveryfewinthepatriarchalline,while still fewer

wereenabledtoretainonlydimandglimmeringpor

tionsofthetruelight.

the priests The first andphilosophers,and,perhaps, classwasconfinedtothedirectdescend still later,

8.

antsofNoah,andthe secondwastobefoundamong

amongthepoetsofthe heathen nations, andamong

thosewhomtheyinitiatedintothesecretsofthesetruths.

Oftheprevalenceofthesereligious truths amongthe hypothesisofanancientandhighlyinstructedbody

patriarchaldescendantsofNoah,wehaveample evi

dence in

the

sacred records.

As to

their

existence

amongabodyoflearnedheathens,wehavethe testi

monyofmanyintelligentwriterswhohavedevotedtheir

energies to

this subject.

ThusthelearnedGrote,in

hisu HistoryofGreece," says, " Theallegoricalinter

pretationof the mythshasbeen, by several learned

investigators,especiallybyCreuzer,connectedwiththe

ofpriests,havingtheirorigineitherinEgyptorinthe

East,andcommunicating to therudeandbarbarous " SpuriousFreemasonry " ofthesameperiod. These

Greeks religious, physical, and historical knowledge,

undertheveilof symbols."

What is heresaidonly

oftheGreeks is equallyapplicabletoeveryotherintel

lectualnationofantiquity.

9.

Thesystemordoctrineoftheformerclasshasbeen

calledbyMasonicwritersthe " PureorPrimitiveFree

masonry " ofantiquity,andthatofthelatterclassthe

termswere first used, ifI mistake -lot, byDr.Oliver,

andareintended torefer

thewordpuretothedoc

trinestaughtbythedescendantsofNoahintheJewish

OFFREEMASONRY.

15

line, andthewordspurioustohisdescendantsinthe

heathenorGentileline.

10.

Themassesofthepeople,amongtheGentiles

especially,were totally unacquaintedwith thisdivine

truth,whichwasthefoundationstoneofbothspeciesof

Freemasonry,thepureandthespurious,andweredeeply

immersedintheerrorsandfalsitiesofheathenbeliefand

worship.

11.

These errorsoftheheathen religionswerenot

thevoluntaryinventionsofthepeopleswhocultivated Noah ; and,indeed,sopalpablearethesecorruptions,that differentpeoples,theyhad,atonetimeoranother,devi

them,butweregradualandalmostunavoidablecorrup

tionsofthe truthswhichhadbeenat first taughtby

theycanbereadilydetectedandtracedtotheoriginal

formfromwhich,howevermuchtheymightvaryamong

ated. Thus,inthelifeandachievementsofBacchusor

Dionysus,wefindthetravestiedcounterpartofthecareer

ofMoses,andin thenameofVulcan,theblacksmith

god,weevidentlyseeanetymologicalcorruptionofthe

appellationofTubalCain,thefirstartificer inmetals.

ForVul-can is butamodifiedformofBaal-Cain,the whoweremadeacquaintedwiththetruth,receivedtheir

godCain.

12.

Butthoseamongthemasses

andthereweresome

knowledgebymeansofaninitiationintocertainsacred

Mysteries,inthebosomofwhich itwasconcealedfrom

thepublicgaze.

13.

TheseMysteriesexistedineverycountryofhea

thendom,ineachunderadifferentname,and tosome

extentunderadifferentform,butalwaysandeverywhere

withthesamedesignofinculcating,byallegoricaland

16

THEORIGINANDPROGRESS

symbolicteachings,thegreatMasonicdoctrinesofthe

unityofGodandtheimmortalityofthesoul.

This is

animportantproposition,andthefactwhichitenunciates

mustneverbelostsightofinanyinquiryintotheorigin

Masters ofFreemasonry lodgesaretotheFreemasonryofthepresent ; forthepaganMysteriesweretothe

spuriousFreemasonryofantiquityprecisely whatthe

day.

Itisneedlesstoofferanyproofoftheirexistence,

sincethis is admittedandcontinuallyreferredtobyall practised amongthe pagan nations,floweddownthe

historians,ancientandmodern ; andtodiscussminutely

theircharacterandorganizationwouldoccupyadistinct

treatise.

TheBarondeSainteCroixhaswrittentwo

largevolumesonthesubject,andyetleft itunexhausted.

14.

Thesetwo divisionsoftheMasonic Institution

whichweredefinedinthe9thproposition,namely,the

pureorprimitive FreemasonryamongtheJewishde

scendantsofthepatriarchs,whoarecalled,bywayof

distinction,theNoachites,ordescendantsofNoah,be

oftheirgreatancestor,andthespuriousFreemasonry causetheybadnotforgottennorabandonedtheteachings

streamoftimeinparallelcurrents,oftenneartogether,

butnevercommingling.

  • 15. Butthesetwocurrentswerenotalwaystobekept

apart,for,springing,inthelonganteriorages,fromone

commonfountain,

thatancientpriesthoodofwhomI

havealreadyspokeninthe8thproposition,

andthen

dividing into the pure and spuriousFreemasonryof

antiquity,andremainingseparatedfor centuriesupon

centuries,theyatlengthmetatthebuildingofthegreat

templeofJerusalem,andwereunited, in the instance

oftheIsraelitesunderKingSolomon,andtheTyrians

OFFREEMASONRY.

17

underHiram,KingofTyre,andHiramAbif. The

spuriousFreemasonry,itistrue,didnotthenandthere

ceasetoexist. Onthecontrary, it lastedforcenturies paganMysterieswerefinallyandtotallyabolished. But mutualinfusionoftheirrespectivedoctrinesandceremo

andinthereignoftheEmperorTheodosius,thatthe subsequenttothisperiod ; for itwasnotuntillongafter,

bytheunionoftheJewishorpureFreemasonsandthe TyrianorspuriousFreemasonsatJerusalem,therewasa

nies,whicheventuallyterminatedintheabolitionofthe

twodistinctivesystemsandtheestablishmentofanew

one,thatmaybeconsideredastheimmediateprototype

ofthe present institution.

HencemanyMasonic stu

dents,goingnofartherbackintheirinvestigationsthan

thefactsannouncedinthisI5thproposition,arecontent

tofindtheoriginofFreemasonryatthetempleofSolo

mon.

But ifmytheorybecorrect,thetruth is, that it

therereceived,not itsbirth,butonlyanewmodification

ofits character.

Thelegendofthethirddegree

the

goldenlegend, the legendaaurea

ofMasonrywas

thereadoptedbypureFreemasonry,whichbeforehad

nosuchlegend,fromspuriousFreemasonry.

Butthe

legendhadexistedunderothernamesandforms,in all

theMysteries,foragesbefore.

Thedoctrineofimmor

tality,whichhadhithertobeentaughtbytheNoachites

simplyasanabstractproposition,w r asthenceforthtobe

inculcatedbyasymboliclesson

thesymbolofHiram

theBuilderwasto becomeforeverafterthedistinctive

featureofFreemasonry.

16. Butanotherimportantmodificationwaseffectedin

theMasonicsystematthebuildingofthetemple.

Pre

vioustotheunionwhichthentookplace,thepureFree-

2

18

THEORIGINANDPROGRESS

masonryoftheNoachiteshadalwaysbeenspeculative,

butresembledthepresentorganizationinnootherway

thaninthecultivationofthesameabstractprinciplesof

divinetruth. theirJewishcontemporaries,infusedintothespeculative andspeculativeMasonry. WeseethisintheCollegia

17. TheTyrians,onthecontrary,werearchitects vry

profession,and,astheir leadersweredisciplesofthe

schoolofthespuriousFreemasonry,they,forthefirst

time,atthetempleofSolomon,whentheyunitedwith

science,whichwaspractisedbythelatter,theelements

ofanoperativeart.

18.

Thereforethesystemcontinuedthenceforward,for

ages,topresentthecommingledelementsofoperative

Fabrorum,orCollegesofArtificers,firstestablishedat

RomebyNuma,andwhichwerecertainlyofaMasonic

formintheirorganization ; intheJewishsectoftheEs-

senes,whowroughtaswell as prayed,andwho are

ers,andalso,andstillmoreprominently,intheTravelling claimedtohavebeenthedescendantsofthetemplebuild

Freemasonsofthemiddleages,whoidentifythemselves

bytheirverynamewiththeirmodernsuccessors,and

whose societies werecomposedoflearned menwho

thoughtandwrote,andofworkmenwholaboredand

built. AndsoforalongtimeFreemasonrycontinuedto

bebothoperativeandspeculative. camewhollyspeculative. Theexacttimeofthischange

19.

Butanotherchangewastobeeffectedintheinsti

tutiontomakeitpreciselywhatitnowis,and,therefore,

ataveryrecent period (comparativelyspeaking),the

operativefeaturewasabandoned,andFreemasonrybe

is notlefttoconjecture. Ittookplaceinthereignof

OFFREEMASONRY.

19

QueenAnne,ofEngland,inthebeginningoftheeigh

teenthcentury. Prestongivesustheverywordsofthe

decreewhichestablishedthischange,forhesaysthatat

thattimeitwasagreedto " thattheprivilegesofMasonry

shouldnolongerberestrictedtooperativeMasons,but

extendtomenofvariousprofessions,providedtheywere

regularlyapprovedandinitiatedintotheorder."

Thenineteenpropositionshereannouncedcontaina

briefbutsuccinctviewoftheprogressofFreemasonry

fromitsoriginintheearlyagesoftheworld,simplyasa

systemofreligiousphilosophy,throughallthemodifica

tionstowhichitwassubmittedintheJewishandGentile

races,untilatlengthitwasdevelopedinitspresentper

fectedform. Duringallthistimeitpreservedunchange

ablycertainfeaturesthatmayhencebeconsideredasits

specificcharacteristics,bywhichithasalwaysbeendis

tinguishedfromeveryothercontemporaneousassociation,

howeversuchassociationmayhavesimulated itinout

wardform. Thesecharacteristicsare,first,thedoctrines

whichithasconstantlytaught,namely,thatoftheunity ondly,themannerinwhichthesedoctrineshavebeen

ofGodandthatoftheimmortalityofthesoul ; and,sec

taught,namely,bysymbolsandallegories.

Takingthesecharacteristicsastheexponentsofwhat

Freemasonryis, wecannothelparrivingattheconclu

sionthatthespeculativeMasonryofthepresentdayex

hibitsabundantevidenceoftheidentityofitsoriginwith

thespuriousFreemasonryoftheante-Solomonicperiod,

bothsystemscoiningfromthesamepuresource,butthe

onealwayspreserving,andtheothercontinuallycorrupt

ing,thepurityofthecommonfountain.

Thisisalsothe

necessaryconclusionasacorollaryfromthepropositions

advancedinthisessay.

20

THEORIGINANDPROGRESS

Thereisalsoabundantevidenceinthehistory,ofwhich

thesepropositionsarebutameagreoutline,thatamani

festinfluencewasexertedonthepureorprimitiveFree

masonryoftheNoachitesbytheTyrianbranchofthe

spurioussystem, in the symbols,myths,andlegends

whichtheformerreceivedfromthelatter,butwhichitso

modifiedandinterpretedastomakethemconsistentwith

itsownreligioussystem.

Onething,atleast, is inca

pableofrefutation ; andthat is,thatweareindebtedto

theTyrianMasonsfortheintroductionofthesymbolof HiramAbif. Theideaofthesymbol,althoughmodified

bytheJewishMasons,isnotJewishinitsinception. It

wasevidentlyborrowedfromthepaganmysteries,where

Bacchus,Adonis,Proserpine,andahostofotherapothe

osizedbeingsplaythesamerolethat Hiramdoesinthe

Masonicmysteries. Andlastly,wefindinthetechnicaltermsofMasonry,

in itsworkingtools,inthenamesofitsgrades,andin

alargemajorityofits symbols,ampletestimonyofthe

stronginfusioninto its religiousphilosophyofthe ele

mentsofanoperative art. Andhistoryagainexplains

thisfactbyreferringtotheconnectionoftheinstitution

withtheDionysiacFraternityofArtificers,whowereen

gagedinbuildingthetempleofSolomon,withtheWork

mensCollegesofNuma,andwiththeTravellingFree

buildingsofthatperiod. masonsofthemiddleages,whoconstructedallthegreat

Thesenineteenpropositions,whichhavebeensubmit

tedinthepresentessay,constituteabriefsummaryor

outlineofatheoryofthetrueoriginofFreemasonry,

whichlongandpatientinvestigationhasledmetoadopt.

Toattempttoprovethetruthofeachoftheseproposi-

OFFREEMASONRY.

21

tionsinits orderbylogicaldemonstration,orbyhistori

calevidence,wouldinvolvethewritingofanelaborate

treatise. Theyarenowofferedsimplyassuggestionson

whichtheMasonicstudentmayponder. Theyarebut

intendedasguide-posts,whichmaydirect himinhis

journeyshouldheundertakethepleasantalthough diffi

culttaskofinstitutinganinquiryintotheoriginandprog

ressofFreemasonryfrom itsbirthtoitspresentstateof

full-grownmanhood.

Buteveninthisabridgedformtheyareabsolutelyne

cessaryaspreliminarytoanytrueunderstandingofthe

symbolismofFreemasonry.

II

THENOACHID^E.

PROCEED,then,toinquireintothehistorical

originofFreemasonry,asanecessaryintroduc

tiontoanyinquiryintothecharacterofits sym

bolism.

Todo this, withanyexpectationof

renderingjusticetothesubject,it is evidentthatIshall

havetotakemypointofdepartureataveryremoteera.

Ishall,however,reviewtheearlyandantecedenthisto

ryoftheinstitutionwithasmuchbrevityasadistinct

understandingofthesubjectwilladmit.

Passingoverallthat is withintheantediluvianhistory

oftheworld,assomethingthatexerted,sofarasoursub

jectisconcerned,noinfluenceonthenewworldwhich

sprangforthfromtheruinsoftheold,wefind,soonafter

thecataclysm,theimmediatedescendantsofNoahinthe

possessionofatleasttworeligioustruths,whichthey receivedfromtheircommonfather,andwhichhemust

havederivedfromthelineofpatriarchswhopreceded

aSupremeIntelligence,theCreator,Preserver,andRuler him. Thesetruthswerethedoctrineoftheexistenceof

oftheUniverse,and,asanecessarycorollary,thebelief

THENOACHID^E.

23

intheimmortalityofthesoul,*which,asanemanation

fromthatprimalcause,wasto be distinguished,bya

futureandeternal life,fromthevileandperishabledust

whichformsitsearthlytabernacle.

Theassertionthatthesedoctrineswereknowntoand

recognizedbyNoahwillnotappearasanassumption

tothebelieverindivinerevelation. Butanyphilosophic

mindmust, I conceive,cometothe sameconclusion,

independentlyofanyotherauthoritythanthatofreason.

Thereligioussentiment,sofar,atleast,asitrelatesto

thebeliefintheexistenceofGod,appearstobeinsome

senseinnate,orinstinctive,andconsequentlyuniversalin

thehuman

mind."}*

There is norecordofanynation,

howeverintellectuallyandmorallydebased,thathasnot

givensomeevidenceofatendencytosuchbelief. The

rupted,butitisneverthelessthere,andshowsthesource sentimentmaybeperverted,theideamaybegrosslycor

whenceitsprang.j

* " Thedoctrineoftheimmortalityofthesoul, ifitis areal

advantage,followsunavoidablyfromtheideaofGod. Thebest

Being,hemustwillthebestofgoodthings ; thewisest,hemust

deviseplansforthateffect;the