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Regd. No. : 0601215258

Prachi Vihar, Anantapur, Phulanakhara,Bhubaneswar-1


DEPARTMENT OF electronics & communication ENGG.


This is to certify that this is the bona fide record of the seminar work entitled

Which has been successfully carried out by

the student of

PHULNAKHARA A DEGREE ENGG. COLLEGE, BHUBANESWAR, Towards the partial fulfillment of bachelor’s degree in ECE from BIJU PATTNAIK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY in the Academic year 2006-2010.


N. -3- . SEMINAR GUIDE Er .O. S.Er.D of Electronics & Communication Engineering and Er.K. through my seminar work . H.This facilitates me to express my heartful gratitude to all who have really helped and encouraged me in the completion of this seminar.SARANGI Seminar guide.N. I owe my obligation to Er.MOHANTY. I am very thankful to the staff of the library for the help and co-operation extended during my study and search for materials in the precincts of the library. J.S.SANGITA SWAIN SEMINAR IN CHARGE ER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is obviously a very delightful feeling for me to build an indigenous real venture by using practical electronic components . Er.MOHANTY .SARANGI HEAD OF DEPT.K. motivation and invaluable guidance through out the completion of the seminar work.J. SANGITA SWAIN seminar in charge for providing me their suggestions.

Last but not the least. I am very thankful to my parents and to all my friends for their constant source of encouragement and motivation to prepare the seminar successfully. PARTHA PRATIM BEURA(El & TC) Regd No :(0601215258) -4- .

 Environmental monitoring. earth-resource mapping. earth-resource mapping.  Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar in which multiple radar images are processed to yield higher-resolution images than would be possible by conventional means. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. In all such cases SAR turns out to be very useful and efficient. and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions.  Environmental monitoring. In all such cases SAR turns out to be very useful and efficient  SAR has seen wide applications in remote sensing and mapping -5- . and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Either a single antenna mounted on a moving platform is used to illuminate a target scene or many low-directivity small stationary antennae are scattered over an area near the target area. The many echo waveforms received at the different antenna positions are post-processed to resolve the target.ABSTRACT ON SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR . Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day.

What is a RADAR ? 2.Reference PAGE-NO.Limitations 14. Polerimetry 10. Principle of RADAR 3. Synthetic Aperture RADAR & utility 5. why called Synthetic Aperture RADAR 7.Table of Contents SUBJECT 1.Application of SAR 12.Interferometery 11.Advantages of SAR 13. Sources of SAR data 8. How does Synthetic Aperture RADAR works 6. 9. How does RADAR system works 4. 6 7 9 10 11 14 15 16 16 17 18 21 21 22 23 -6- .Conclusion 15. Enhanced SAR system.

By measuring the direction in which the antenna is pointing when the echo is received. guidance. The electrical signal picked up by the receiving antenna is called echo or return. both the azimuth and elevation angles from the radar to the object or target can be determined. This switching is necessary because the high-power pulses of the transmitter would destroy the receiver if energy were allowed to enter the receiver.  It is a method of locating distant targets by sending bursts of electromagnetic radiation and measuring their reflections. remote sensing and global positioning  In the transmitter of radar Instead of a fixed frequency pulse. The radar antenna illuminates the target with a microwave signal. the transmitted pulse is modulated by a specific phase or frequency pattern during a wider pulse interval.WHAT IS RADAR  RADAR stands for Radio Detection And Ranging.  Fully operational RADAR systems were first seen during the time of world war -II when Robert Watson and his team devised a system of radar stations and backup information-processing centers. The radar signal is generated by a powerful transmitter and received by a highly sensitive receiver. Directivity is the ability of the antenna to concentrate the transmitted energy in a particular direction.The wide transmitter pulse is effectively compressed to a narrow pulse at the output of the correlator  The angular determination of the target is determined by the directivity of the antenna. which is then reflected and picked up by a receiving device. The receiver uses a pulse-matched filter to pass reflected pulses that match the pattern of the outgoing pulse and reject noise and other signals.  . An antenna with high directivity is also called a directive antenna. The accuracy of angular -7- .  A duplexer alternately switches the antenna between the transmitter and receiver so that only one antenna need be used.  Radar has long been used for military and non-military purposes in a wide variety of applications such as imaging.

If you measure the time it takes for the echo to return and if you know sepeedof sound. which is a function of the size of the antenna. you can calculate the depth of the well fairly -8- . PRINCIPLE OF RADAR All the activities that use RADAR make use of the following two concepts. the sound of your shout travels down the well and is reflected (echoes) off the surface of the water at the bottom of the well. Ifyou shout into a well or a canyon. The length of time between the moment you shout and the moment that you hear the echo is determined by the distance between you and the surface that creates the echo. àECHO àDOPPLER EFFECT ECHO Echo is something you experience all the time. When you shout into a well.measurement is determined by the directivity. The echo occurs because some of the sound waves in your shout reflect off of a surface (either the water at the bottom of the well or the canyon wall on the far side) and travel back to your ears. the echo comesback a moment later.

DOOPLER SHIFT If the object is approaching the radar unit. the frequency of the returned signal is greater than the frequency of the transmitted signal. The person in front of the car -9- . the return signal will have the same frequency as the transmitted signal. Doppler shift: The person behind the car hears a lower tone than the driver because the car is moving away. the returned frequency is less. if the object is receding from the radar unit.accurately. and if the object is not moving relative to the radar unit.

high-intensity burst of high-frequency radio waves. The burst might last a microsecond.000 feet per microsecond  So if the radar set has a good high-speed clock. Radio waves travel at the speed of light. roughly 1.  To start with the radar set turns on its transmitter and shoots out a short.10 - . The RADAR makes use of these two concepts to accomplish its task. Using special signal . Left: Antennas at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (part of NASA's Deep Space Network) help provide radio communications for NASA's interplanetary spacecraft.  The radar set measures the time it takes for the echo to arrive. it can measure the distance of the airplane very accurately.hears a higher tone than the driver because the car is approaching towords him. as well as the Doppler shift of the echo. The radar set then turns off its transmitter. turns on its receiver and listens for an echo . Right: Surface search radar and air search radar are mounted on the foremast of a guided missile destroyer HOW DOES A RADAR SYSTEM WORKS?  By now we have understood that ECHO determines how far is the object from The RADAR system and DOPPLER SHIFT tells us how fast is the object moving away from it.

 Synthetic aperture radar complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constraints on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies.  Environmental monitoring.  .processing equipment. SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR & UTILITY  Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar in which multiple radar images are processed to yield higher-resolution images . These are mainly used by space shuttles and orbiting satellites to create detailed topographic maps of the surface of planets and moons .11 - . and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Either a single antenna mounted on a moving platform (such as an airplane or spacecraft) is used to illuminate a target scene or many low-directivity small stationary antennae are scattered over an area near the target area. the radar set can also measure the Doppler shift very accurately and determine the speed of the airplane. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. In all such cases SAR turns out to be very useful and efficient. . earth-resource mapping.

power pulses per second are transmitted toward the target or imaging area. with each pulse having a pulse duration (pulse width) of typically 10-50 microseconds (us). The pulse normally covers a small band of frequencies. which implies that the system pulse-topulse phase must be stable as the essential information lies not in the magnitude but the phase of the received data.12 - . polarizations (waves polarized in a single vertical or horizontal plane). 1500 high.. In all such cases SAR turns out to be very useful and efficient. .  In SAR microwave signals (300 MHz to 30 GHz) are used because it can pass through clouds and permits unobstructed observation.  Environmental monitoring. Typical bandwidths for an imaging radar are in the range 10 to 200 MHz  SAR being a coherent system requires both the magnitude and the phase of the echo samples to be preserved. and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. These are mainly used by space shuttles and orbiting satellites to create detailed topographic maps of the surface of planets and moons . earth-resource mapping. centered on the frequency selected for the radar. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day.

 range = c•time/2 where c=velocity of microwave signals=3*10^8 m/sec . The synthetic aperture RADAR gives 2-D images of the target objects. i. The two dimensions are  RANGE  AZIMUTH RANGE  The range is just a distance. How does Synthetic Aperture Radar work? • Consider an airborne SAR imaging perpendicular to the aircraft velocity as shown in the figure below.e.Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) uses pulse compression to obtain high range resolution and synthesizes a large antenna width to obtain high azimuthal resolution.13 - . range resolution is determined by the transmitted pulse width. Range measurement and resolution are achieved in synthetic aperture radar in the same manner as most other radars: Range is determined by precisely measuring the time from transmission of a pulse to receiving the echo from a target and. This aperture synthesis is achieved by coherently integrating the returned signal pulse-to-pulse as the radar moves along its path.Range (or cross track) is a measure of the "lineof-sight" distance from the radar to the target. in the simplest SAR. narrow pulses yield fine range resolution. The unit vector in the azimuth direction lies in the plane in which the image is focused and is perpendicular to the projection of the range unit vector u into that plane.

14 - .Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Concept AZIMUTH  It is the other dimension It is a measurement which is perpendicular to that of the range azimuth (or along track) and is perpendicular to range. To obtain fine azimuth resolution. Similarly. . a physically large antenna is needed to focus the transmitted and received energy into a sharp beam. The sharpness of the beam defines the azimuth resolution. It is the ability of SAR to produce relatively fine azimuth resolution that differentiates it from other radars.

A target's position along the flight path determines the doppler frequency of its echoes: Targets ahead of the aircraft produce a positive doppler offset. . oriented behind one another. targets behind the aircraft produce a negative offset. echoes are resolved into a number of doppler frequencies. the finer the resolution in this dimension. Azimuthal resolution is controlled by beam width as only targets separated by more than one beamwidth can be displayed separately.  Azimuthal resolution is often called bearing or directional resolution.optical systems.15 - .  The length of the radar antenna determines the resolution in the azimuth the longer the antenna. .But SAR uses a mobile platform and hence to have antennas with large aperture is not possible. Thus the air-borne RADAR covers this distance by flying in order to collect data. WHY CALLED SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR?  To obtain fine azimuth resolution.line targets separately. As the aircraft flies a distance (the synthetic aperture). The target's doppler frequency determines its azimuth position. require large apertures (mirrors or lenses which are analogous to the radar antenna) to obtain fine imaging resolution. . This distance which the aircraft flies to synthesize the aperture is called synthetic aperture. It is a radar’s ability to display side-by-side targets correctly. a physically large antenna is needed to focus the transmitted and received energy into a sharp beam .  Achieving fine azimuth resolution may also be described from a doppler processing viewpoint. Range resolution affects targets along the beam.  Range resolution is the radar’s ability to display in. such as telescopes.

the returned echoes are Doppler-shifted (negatively as the radar approaches a target.Because the radar is moving relative to the ground.16 - . What are the sources of SAR data? . positively as it moves away). Comparing the Doppler-shifted frequencies to a reference frequency allows many returned signals to be "focused" on a single point.

17 - . . this process creates a synthetic aperture much larger than the length of the antenna. The amplitude and phase of the signal returning from a given piece of ground are recorded. This antenna keeps on sending out narrow pulses and receives them.How does a typical SAR application works?  In a typical SAR application a single radar antenna is attached to the side of an aircraft. These pulses are combined as if they had all been made simultaneously from a very large antenna.

Different materials reflect radar waves with different intensities. Frequently three such images are used as the three color channels in a synthesized image. Most of these methods use the same basic principle of combining many pulses to form a synthetic aperture. By emitting a mixture of polarizations and using receiving antennae with a specific polarization. This is what has been done in the picture at left.NASA's AirSAR instrument is attached to the side of a DC-8 ENHANCED SAR SYSTEMS The basic design of a synthetic aperture radar system can be enhanced in various ways to collect more information. . several different images can be collected from the same series of pulses. Some materials will also convert one polarization into another. but anisotropic materials such as grass often reflect different polarizations with different intensities. Interpretation of the resulting colors requires significant testing of known materials.18 - . but they may involve additional antennas or significant additional processing. One of such implementation is polerimetry POLERIMETRY Radar waves have a polarization.

a minimum of one pair of data sets is necessary. . Interferometric data applications use the phase change between acquisitions from the same orbital track. digital elevation models and mapping of small (centimeter-range) Earth movements. Mapping height changes provides information on earthquake damage. to produce stereo images. The combination of two radar measurements of the same point on the ground. and glacier movement.SAR image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry INTERFEROMETRY A technique that uses the measured differences in the phase of the return signal between two satellite passes to detect slight changes on the Earth's surface. taken at the same time. landslides. In principle. Data application includes coherence maps. volcanic activity.19 - . but from slightly different angles.

.  SAR mainly have use in mapping something which is different from that of RADAR. bright areas to high erosion occurring between March 5 and May 14.20 - . USA.  We use large antennas in case of RADAR but we use small effective antennas with synthetic aperture in case of SAR. Dark areas correspond to low erosion. 1993.Erosion mapping of the Amargosa Valley. Main difference between RADAR and SAR  In RADAR system we have a fixed platform whereas in case of SAR we have a mobile platform.

autonomous navigation and guidance.21 - . The techniques are directed at removing ambiguities in estimates of surface heights and are referred to as 2-D least squares phase unwrapping. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) data can be acquired using two antennas on one aircraft or by flying two slightly offset passes of an aircraft with a single antenna. . These applications are driven by the military's need for all-weather. Sandia has developed new mathematical techniques for relating the radar reflection from the terrain surface to the time delay between radar signals received at the two antenna locations. Position accuracies of less than a SAR resolution cell can be obtained. Navigation and Guidance. and targeting. Synthetic aperture radar provides the capability for all-weather. and Targeting. Surveillance. SAR may also be used to guidance applications by pointing or "squinting" the antenna beam in . day-and-night imaging sensors. By forming SAR reflectivity images of the terrain and then "correlating" the SAR image with a stored reference (obtained from optical photography or a previous SAR image). a navigation update can be obtained. Interferometric SAR can be used to generate very accurate surface profile maps of the terrain. Interferometry (3-D SAR). SAR can provide sufficiently high resolution to distinguish terrain features and to recognize and identify selected man made targets. surveillance. The azimuth resolution produced by SAR is relatively fine as compared to RADAR Application of sar Reconnaissance. Many applications for synthetic aperture radar are for reconnaissance.

In dry sand.) and target size. penetration depths of 10's of meters are possible. This provides the capability for imaging targets normally hidden by trees. The motion of a ground-based moving target such as a car. SARs must operate at relatively low frequencies (10's of MHz to 1 GHz). etc. Low-frequency SARs may be used under certain conditions to penetrate foliage and even soil. A technique known as coherent change detection offers the capability for detecting changes between imaging passes. bunkers. Synthetic aperture radars offer the capability for penetrating materials which are optically opaque.To detect whether or not a change has occurred. such as utility lines. or military vehicle.the direction of motion of the airborne platform. conductivity. causes the radar signature of the moving target to shift outside of the normal ground return of a radar image. Foliage and Ground Penetration. etc. the SAR may image a target and guide a munition with high precision. In this manner.22 - . speed. and Radar Cross Section (RCS) from these target signatures. but individual measurements have shown the capability for detecting 55-gallon drums and power lines at depths of several meters. To obtain adequate foliage and soil penetration. Depth of penetration varies with soil conditions (moisture content. Moving Target Indication. two images are taken of the same scene. mines. Recent studies have shown that SAR may provide a limited capability for imaging selected underground targets. and other ground cover. arms caches. brush. Sandia has developed techniques to automatically detect ground-based moving targets and to extract other target information such as location. Change Detection. and thus not visible by optical or IR techniques. but at different times. truck. size. These images are .

Advantages of SAR • • • Use day and night " Active sensor Sees through clouds (mostly) . Where a change has not occurred between the imaging passes. Of course. (Example: SAR image of a naturally occurring oil seepage) Oil spills can often be detected in SAR imagery because the oil changes the backscatter characteristics of the ocean. After the images are registered. and oil spills. will naturally decorrelate and show as having "changed. it does not measure direction or the magnitude of change. whereas if a change has occurred. Synthetic aperture radar is used for a wide variety of environmental applications. such as monitoring crop characteristics. thereby decreasing the radar backscatter. they are cross correlated pixel by pixel. oil slicks appear dark in SAR images relative to oil-free areas. deforestation. The presence of oil dampens the capillary waves. targets that are not fixed or rigid. Thus. Environmental Monitoring.23 - . Radar backscatter from the ocean results primarily from capillary waves through what is known as Bragg scattering (constructive interference from the capillary waves being close to the same wavelength as the SAR). the pixels remain correlated. the pixels are uncorrelated." While this technique is useful for detecting change. ice flows.then geometrically registered so that the same target pixels in each image align. such as trees blowing in the wind.

24 - . CONCLUSION .It requires a moving platform. spacecraft or a satellite.• • Good for physical feature detection Resolution Limitation • •It’s a costly process as it requires high end signal processing equipments to process the data. like a plane. • Extensive computation at the air-borne radar leads to delays.

gov/RADAR/sar.25 - . Thus we may conclude that Synthetic Aperture Radar would play a major role in detecting and locating objects with much advance resolutions in future. Its use as to generate interferometric images is very vital to detect the faults and other seismic activities.We come to see that Synthetic Aperture Radar scores over the conventional radar on a number of parameters. REFERENCE  www.html .sandia. Though it requires high level and speed signal processing techniques but this can be overcome due to rapid research in signal processing. The synthetic aperture radar succeeds in generating a much larger aperture with a better resolution using smaller antennas as compared to the conventional radar techniques.

html    www.htm .26 - .udec.htm  www.8k

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