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Chapter 1 Study Guide

****Disclaimer: This is only a general guideline to aid in your studies.**** Chance nothing, know everything. Answers should be typed in a different color font or handwritten. All answers should be in your own words. Students who copy and paste from the internet or directly from the text will not be given extra credit for the study guide. Only complete study guides will earn extra credit. All study guides need to be completed by the due date and submitted using the assignments function in Blackboard. Typed study guides must be saved as a .doc or .docx file. Handwritten study guides must be scanned.

Module 1: 1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? How are they related?

2. Using examples from the muscular system, describe the six levels of organization from largest to smallest.

3. Name the systems that make up the human body. Identify the major organs in each system, the general functions of the system, and one way that each system contributes to overall homeostasis of the organism.

Module 2: 1. Define homeostasis and describe why this process is important in the human body. What happens if homeostasis fails? 2. Explain feedback systems and give examples of both positive and negative feedback.

Module 3: 1. What is meant by the term anatomical position? 1

2. Why do you think it is important to understand what is meant by anatomical right and left?

3. Differentiate between the appendicular and axial regions of the human body.

4. Using the list on p.24 of the Martini textbook (Regions of the Human Body), categorize the regions on the list into either the appendicular or the axial regions of the human body.

5. Define each of the following terms: a. Ventral b. Dorsal c. Anterior d. Posterior e. Superior f. Inferior g. Caudal h. Cranial i. Medial j. Lateral k. Proximal l. Distal m. Superficial n. Deep o. Prone p. Supine 6. Describe the three anatomical planes of reference (sagittal, frontal, transverse).

7. Identify the four quadrants and nine regions into which the abdomen can be divided.

8. Identify and describe the two major body cavities and their subdivisions.

Case Study
Apply what you have learned in chapter 1 to answer questions at the end of the following case study: Honey, I forgot to duck. Taken from Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, McConnell and Hull Clinical History: On March 30, 1981, two months after his first inauguration, Ronald Regan, 40th president of the United States, was shot in the thorax. After delivering a short speech at a Washington, D.C. hotel, Reagan approached his limousine, James Hinckley muscled his way to the front of a waiting crowd of admirers and reporters. At close range, Hinckley fired six shots from a .22 caliber pistol, wounding three of the presidential staff but missing a direct hit on the president. However, one bullet ricocheted off the presidents bullet-proof limousine and struck Reagan in the left posterior chest, near his axilla. The bullet traveled inferiorly, anteriorly, and medially, coming tot rest in his lung about 2 cm from his heart. Reagan immediately began coughing up blood and complained of shortness of breath as he was rushed to a nearby hospital. He walked part way to the emergency room but became faint, collapsed to one knee, and was carried the remaining distance. Physical Examination: Reagan was pale, short of breath, and complaining of chest pain. Systolic blood pressure was 80 (normal 120), heart rate was 80 beats per minute (normal 70), and respirations were 30 breaths per minute (normal 14). A small wound was found in the skin of the posterior chest near his left axilla at the level of the fourth rib. A chest x-ray revealed blood in the chest and a small metal object in the inferior left chest. Clinical Course: Oxygen was provided immediately and a solution containing fluid and minerals was administered intravenously while awaiting blood from the blood bank. A suction tube was inserted into the left chest, about 500 mL of concentrated red blood cells and 3000 mL of fluids had been administered intravenously. Systolic blood pressure was 160 (80 on admission), heart rate was 90 (80 on admission), and respirations were 25 (30 on admission). Reagan continued to bleed through the suction tube in his chest, and his physicians decided to open his chest anteriorly between the fifth and sixth ribs. When 3

informed he was to have chest surgery, he quipped ot the surgeon. I hope youre all Republicans. On entering the chest, the surgeon evacuated 500 mL of blood, bringing the total blood loss to 3000 mL. The heart and nearby organs were normal, but a pulsing jet of dark blood was discovered coming from a small lung artery. The vessel was tied off and the bleeding ceased. In the left lung near the heart, a dime-sized flattened bullet was found and removed. While in the operating room, Reagan received an intravenous infusion of about 5000 mL of fluids and blood. Reagan, who was 69 years old at the time of the injury, convalesced slowly but never lost his famous sense of humor. During recovery, he explained his wound to First Lady Nancy Reagan by saying, Honey, I forgot to duck. A line used by Jack Dempsey to his wife after he lost the word heavyweight boxing championship in 1927. Reagan was discharged on the 12th hospital day but did not return to a full schedule for another six weeks. 1. Physicians noted a small wound in the skin of Reagans posterior chest. Was this a gross anatomic observation or a microscopic one? 2. The bullet that struck the president severed an artery and lodged in his left lung. To which systems do these structures belong? 3. Why was Mr. Reagan pale? 4. Which intervention was mainly responsible for increasing Mr. Reagans blood pressureconcentrated blood cells or intravenous fluid? 5. The bullet entered and traveled inferiorly, anteriorly, and medially through the presidents chest. Did the bullet move: a. Toward or away from the head? b. Toward or away from his breastbone? 6. An x-ray was taken of Reagans chest that showed his lungs side by side. Was this x-ray taken in the frontal or sagittal plane? 7. The president was wounded near his armpit. What is the medical term for armpit? 8. The bullet came to rest in President Reagans lung. In which body cavity are the lungs? 4

9. The bullet passed through two membranes covering his lung. Which membrane was encountered first? 10. Reagan was pale and complaining of chest pain. Is pallor a symptom or sign? How about chest pain?