A Simple Pulse Survey for Former President Gloria Macapagal (Fin Draft 1) | Government | Politics

A Simple Pulse Survey for Former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s Credibility among Sample Population of Filipino Citizens

In partial fulfillment of the requirements in History 1 Under Professor Remedios Ong Philippine Normal University (PNU- Main)

Submitted by: Ates, Clarissa Boller, Carlo Cariño, Ezra Dela Cruz, Charis Ann Estores, Allhia Charmaine Guarino, Ma. Leninia Perez, John Christoher Repellar, Rosanna Santoc, Jim Boy Siazon, Agatha Yague, Eileen Kaye

2011-2012

Abstract The objective of the paper is to make a simple pulse survey which can be a basis for the satisfaction of Filipino Citizens with regards to former president Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo’s (GMA) likewise, her administration’s credibility. This was been conducted since the researchers wants to have an idea of how the respondents appeal to GMA now that she had ended her term being the 14th president. This is so since popular local polling bodies such as Pulse Asia, Social Weather Station (SWS) and others have ended the attempt to conduct survey (to GMA) now that Pres. Benigno “Noynoy” Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III reigns. The pulse survey created consists of the following: A credibility rank from 1-10 (where 1 is the lowest and 10 is the highest) and a feedback portion wherein respondents can write their opinions or ideas on GMA or her administration. The poll was conducted on the 27th -28th of December 2011. For statistical analysis, the mean and mode were taken, and for descriptive analysis, the feedbacks of the respondents where synthesized. This was used to get a general satisfactory rating for the former president.

It was been concluded that 4.96 or 5 is the overall choice for the mean. Hence, the public had seen former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in somehow good and a greater bad convention (since 5.5 was the middle point). For the mode, five was the most choice among 100 respondents surveyed. It had garnered 17% of the tally. On the other hand, nine was the least choice having 1%. This concludes that rank five was the greatest choice. For descriptive analysis, the researchers concluded that somehow GMA has done well for the country, as could be generalized among respondents’ feedbacks and rank choices, still, anomalies done in her term made her, as well, popular. Among the respondent’s many say that she stolen the presidency not just once but twice and corruption was so rampant that time that cause her to overshadowed on what she did do for her countrymen.

Chapter I

The Background of the Study This chapter covers a brief introduction of the study, likewise, the objectives of the researchers for having this paper. This part also includes its significance for the public, the conditions and parameters set by the researchers, and some keywords. Introduction: Determining information about the society and the social issues from the people has been the job of public opinion polls. It is commonly known as survey and is basically conducted for the opinion of a large group of people, or usually, a small number to represent the whole subject of empirical study
(2) (1)

. It

can be traced back since the early nineteenth century in the United States that this became the . Aside from the fact that opinion polls are used for pulse survey, it was been also an aid for democracy, likewise, presidential responsiveness (3). In our country, Pulse Asia is known as the public opinion polling body in the Philippines. It had been monitoring salient socio-economic, political and cultural issues in the minds of the Filipino public
(4)

. Likewise, there are also Social Weather Stations (SWS) and other polling

bodies that provide statistical inferences on these matters.

1References: Public Opinion Poll (1996) The World Book Encyclopedia (vol. 15, p.839)

2 Cantril, A. (1991) Opinion Poll. From Answers.com. Retrieved from: http:// www.answers.com/ topic/publicopinion-polling

3 Shernisky, L.T. (n.d.) Public Opinion Polling and Presidential Responsiveness: Effects on Policymaking and Democracy. Retrieved from: http://www.thepresidency.org/storage/documents/Vater/Shernisky.pdf

4 Pulse Asia (n.d.). Pulse Asia. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/ Pulse_Asia

Before the 15th Presidential Term of Pres. Benigno “Noynoy” Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III in the Philippines, uses of public polls have been very much popular for former president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (GMA). It was been so since there were many events that unblocked the government anomalies that were done during her term. This includes: the Oakwood Mutiny, the lack of word of honor of GMA Change, and etc.
(6) (5)

, the “Hello Garci” controversy, the plan for Charter

. This created different feedbacks to the former president, apparently,

negative. On the 27 of July 2009, the Philippine Daily Inquirer released an article entitled “It’s Downhill after 2004” by Generalao M. and Pedroso, K. To quote a part: Different surveys tell the same story of continued public disenchantment with and distrust in President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. (7) Furthermore, public opinion polls have shown net satisfaction ratings for GMA. As she began her first quarter being the president of 2001, Arroyo, received a satisfaction rating of +24. On the other hand, she was also the first president to gain a rating of -14 from the SWS survey in 2003. It was also stated that her rating sunk up to -32 in 2009 (8). Indeed, an unlikeable leader.

5 since before the 2004 presidential election, she initially announced that she no longer seeks for presidency, yet she still run and eventually won References:

6 Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (n.d.) Presidency. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo

7 Generaldo M, & Pedroso, K. (2009) Arroyo’s performance, trust ratings. In 2010presidentiables.wordpress.com. Retrieved from: http://2010presidentiables.wordpress.com/the-presidency-of-gloria-macapagal-arroyo-reviewspoint-of-views/arroyo%E2%80%99s-performance-trust-ratings-it%E2%80%99s-downhill-after-2004-minervageneralao-kate-v-pedroso/

8 Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (n.d.) Public Perception. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo

After her term as the 14th president of the Philippines, there have been no official polls that surveyed with regards to GMA’s credibility. This could probably because she’s no longer the president and much eye for criticism is prioritizing for “PNoy”. The objective of this study is to actually create a simple pulse survey for the former president Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo. This is intended since the researchers wants to come up with a public inference for GMA during her post-presidency. This could be significant especially among historians and sociologists to come with a basis for concluding what is on the public’s mindset after all that passed.

Statement of the Problem:

This study aims to have a simple pulse survey for the former president Gloria MacapagalArroyo’s (GMA) credibility among sample population of Metro Manila-based Filipino citizens. Since the study uses a descriptive approach, and has no intention to compare the known formal pulse survey for GMA by recent years, the researchers formulated this set of problems: To what values would the sample population fall in the following areas of GMA’s pulse survey credibility rank:

A. For Statistical Analysis: 1. average of choices 2. most choice of rank B. For Descriptive Analysis: 1. overall feedbacks

Significance of the Study: As the study seeks for an evaluation of former president Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo’s credibility (GMA), a simple pulse survey was created. This is beneficial for them in the following reasons: Students: The study would be essential among the students as it gives them a chance to speak for their opinions with regards to GMA, likewise, her administration. This could somehow help them be more active in terms of political aspect. Educators: The results of the pulse survey would eventually be significant among them as they will have the idea of what their pupils think about the former president. Especially among social studies and history teachers, the study could also be their reference for the lessons they will discuss. Historians: A reference or basis could also be the most important contribution of this paper. This could help them have a background of what Filipino’s think about GMA and her administration during the present time. Sociologists: Since usually they are the ones that make poll surveys, the paper could also be a reference for them as it covers the mindset of the public on a post term of a politician. This could give also them the idea to conduct an “unseasonal” survey for research proper.

Politicians: As survey polls are also created for them in terms of its effects on their governance, this study could imply them that certain individuals make survey polls aside from the popular survey pollsters. Public: Aside from the fact they are the one evaluated; the whole results of these polls could give them an insight among their chosen leaders.

Scope and Delimitations: The researchers delimited coverage of the study with the following conditions and parameters: The data gathered for the present study is through a simple pulse survey (see appendix A) which is composed with a credibility rank ranging from 1-10, where the former is lowest and the latter is highest. Moreover, the survey has a feedback section for GMA. These are all used for descriptive analysis. Before the respondents were given the survey papers, they were interviewed first for the qualifications. These are: 1. citizenship (should be a Filipino) 2. age (should have at least reached 13 onwards during GMA’s administration) (9) 3. residency (living in Philippines for at least 10 years) 4. able to read and write (for survey purposes)

9 based on L. Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory (1958). Researchers assumed that at this stage, an individual had reached the Stage IV of this personality development, making him aware of the laws and orders of the society.

The approximate number of respondents surveyed is at about 100 on 27-28 of December 2011. The mean and the mode are the quantities that were taken for quantitative data. For qualitative data, the overall feedbacks for GMA were taken and analyzed. Furthermore, the survey was done in random places in Metro Manila. This is simply for the convenience of the researchers.

Conceptual Paradigm: Below shows how the variables interrelate for the outcome of the study:

Definition of Terms:

These are the terms encountered by the researchers and their meaning/s as they are used during the study.

Simple Pulse Survey: This was the method used by the researchers in order to get their assumed credibility for the former president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (GMA). Former President Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo: She was the subject for the research proper. Her credibility among the Filipino Citizens was taken. Filipino Citizens: These are the respondents that were given the survey paper. The outcome of the study will be based among them (only a sample was taken). Credibility Rank: This was the ordinal scale used to get the Filipino’s “pulse” for GMA. Average of choices/ Mean: One of the statistical methods used for computing the central tendency of respondent’s choice for GMA’s rank of credibility. Most choice of rank/ Mode: Another statistical method used for analyzing the highest number of Filipino’s choice in the credibility rank. Feedbacks: These were used for the descriptive analysis/ qualitative data for GMA’s credibility among the Filipino citizens.

Chapter II Review of Related Literatures and Study

This part includes the collection of information gathered from various references that served as a guide throughout the study. A Biography for Former President Gloria Macapacal- Arroyo (GMA)

Her Early Life Before Presidency(10) Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal- Arroyo, popularly known as GMA, was born April 5, 1947. She is the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal ang Evangelina MacaraegMacapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo MacapagalSalgado. In year 1968, she became the wife of lawyer and businessman Jose Miguel Arroyo. They had three children namely: Juan Miguel Arroyo, Evangelina Lourdes Arroyo, and Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria Arroyo. GMA finished her elementary and high school at Assumption Convent as Valedictorian. She also studied for two years at Georgetown University's Walsh School of Foreign Service in Washington D. C. and a consistent Dean's Lister. Furthermore, she became US President Bill Clinton's classmate. She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics at Assumption College as Magna cum Laude. Then, she pursued a Master's Degree in Economics at Ateneo de Manila University. She had her Doctorate Degree in Economics from the University of the Philippines Diliman and had her teaching positions at the same school. Likewise, she also taught at Ateneo de Manila University where “Noynoy” Aquino was one of her students. In year 1987, she served as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of the late President Corazon Aquino. In year 1992 to 1998, she was elected as Senator; filed 400 bills and authored or sponsored 55 laws such as: Anti- Sexual Harassment Law, the Indigenous People Rights Law, and the Export Development Act.

10 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo(n.d.). Early Life. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo

From June 30, 1998 up to 2001, she became the first female Vice President of the Republic of the Philippines. While being Vice President, she became the Secretary of Social Welfare and Development. She resigned as the Secretary of DSWD on October, 2000.

The Presidency(11) Soon, Arroyo began her term as a vice president on June 30, 1998. But at the month of October 1998, she was distancing herself from President Estrada who, in that time, accused of corruption by the former supporter, Chavit Singson, governor of Ilocos Sur. She had initially resisted pressure from allies to speak out against Estrada, but eventually joined calls for Estrada's resignation. On May 1, thousands of people marched at the Malacañang Palace, for their demand of realising Estrada and to give in Arroyo to their demands. Violence erupted when the protesters attempted to storm the presidential palace and the military and police were forced to use their arms to drive them back. Arroyo declared a state of rebellion because of the violence and prominent political personalities affiliated with Estrada were charged and arrested. The so-called EDSA III was the first serious political challenge to the Arroyo presidency. In October 2003, Arroyo announced that she will be going to run for president on May 2004 elections. She explained that, "there is a higher cause to change society...in a way that nourishes our future". With her decision, the initial criticisms hurled against Arroyo cantered on her lack of word of honor. Arroyo won the election over one million votes against Poe. However, the congressional canvassing was quite contentious as opposition lawmakers in the National Board of Canvassers and argued that there were many discrepancies in the election returns and insinuations of cheating were raised. Still, On June 23, 2004, the Congress proclaimed that Arroyo and Noli de Castro as president and vice president, respectively. As a graduate of doctor’s degree in economic education, she focused more at this firekd in Philippines. The economy of the Philippines grew as its fastest pace in the last three decades

11 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo(n.d.). Presidency. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo

of presidency of the other former president, with real GDP growth exceeded in 7%. The economy was one of the few avoiding contraction during the 2008 global crisis, in short she makes our economy better than others’ economy. Arroyo's handling of the economy has earned praise from former US President Bill Clinton, who cited her "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in shape. Despite this growth, the poverty in our country remained stagnant as the population increased its number and uneven distributing of income. A controversial expanded value added tax (e-VAT) law, considered the centerpiece of the Arroyo administration's economic reform agenda, was implemented in November 2005, aiming to complement revenue-raising efforts that could plug the country's large budget deficit. Her administration originally set a target to balance the national budget by 2010. The tax measure boosted confidence in the government's fiscal capacity and helped to strengthen the Philippine peso, making it East Asia's best performing currency in 2005–06. The peso strengthened by nearly 20% in 2007, making it by far Asia's best performing currency for the year, a fact attributed to a combination of increased remittances from overseas Filipino workers and a strong domestic economy. Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holiday economics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and allowing Filipinos more time with their families. The Government Anomalies Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Aroyo is faced various lawsuits. She was accused of big time corruption, election cheating, human rights violation and other anomalies that muddled the whole process of governance. Impunity is associated to the government of Mrs. Arroyo. It was like a bacchanalia of anomalies committed. These are the following anomalies that linked with her administration: (12)

NBN-ZTESCANDAL

12 Note: these are only backgrounds of the ff. anomalies. The references below can give further details among these:

The Philippine National Broadband Network controversy (also referred to as the NBN/ZTE deal or NBN/ZTE mess) involved allegations of corruption in the awarding of a US$329 million construction contract to Chinese telecommunications firm ZTE for the proposed government-managed National Broadband Network (NBN). The contract with ZTE was signed on April 20, 2007 in Hainan, China. Following the emergence of irregularities, PGMA cancelled the National Broadband Network project in October 2007. On July 14, 2008, the Supreme Court dismissed all three petitions questioning the constitutionality of the national broadband deal, saying the petitions became moot when the project was cancelled. (13) The following are taken from The Allegiance, the official Weblog of Student Council Alliance of the Philippines: (14) Extrajudicial Killings and Enforced “Disappearances are forms of extrajudicial punishments that include abduction, forced detainment and summary executions of groups or individuals that hold a certain political power that may serve as opposition to the current administration. While the victims of extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances in the Philippines often seem to be supporters of armed revolutionaries such as the New People’s Army or left wing political groups such as the Communist party of the Philippines, recent studies of extra judicial killings under the Arroyo Administration has revealed that other victims also include journalists, political and spiritual leaders, anti-mining supporters, activists, reformists and even professionals. Extrajudicial killings are problematic in the sense that they harm the citizen’s right to security, and is especially damaging for the political sphere of the country as it threatens and effectively slows down political dialogue for fear of violent government backlash.

13 Philippine National Broadband Network controversy (n.d.) Philippine National Broadband Network controversy. In the Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Philippine_National_ Broadband_Network_controversy

14 The Allegiance (n.d.) Why is Arroyo under arrest? In scaptionalwordpress.com. Retrieved from: http://scapnational.wordpress.com/

Karapatan, a non- governmental organization advocating human rights provided quarterly updates with regards to the figures of human rights violations that occured during Former President Arroyo’s administration. By the end of Arroyo’s regime in 2010, Karapatan has recorded at least 1,205 arbitrary executions and 206 enforced disappearances under her rule. The extremely high number of extra judicial killings and enforced disappearances under Arroyo’s regime is strongly attributed to her sanctioning of an anti insurgency program named “Operation Plan Bantay Laya” whose main main purpose is the eradication of insurgency from the communist party of the Philippines. Sadly, despite being in operation for at least eight years, Oplan Bantal Laya has failed to successfully eradicate the insurgency which has proven itself capable of counteracting the military tactic of the Philippine Special Forces.. Former President Arroyo, despite being completely aware about the alarming rate of EJK and ED remains silent on the issue which seems to point towards the possibility that many of the special forces participating in this operation remains under the protection of the military and the Arroyo Administration. Hello Garci Scandal Details: * Refers to the alleged wiretapped conversations where vote rigging in the 2004 elections was discussed by, among others, a woman presumed to be President Arroyo and man presumed to be Comelec Commissioner Virgilio “Garci” Garcillano. * Despite House and Senate Investigations and calls for Arroyo’s resignation, she refused to step down although formally admitted to conversing with a COMELEC official during the canvassing period and apologized for her “lapse in judgment.” Maguindanao Massacre Civil Case Against Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Details: * Relatives of 15 victims of the 2009 massacre, represented by Lawyer Henry Roque, filed a P15-million civil lawsuit against PGMA last November 22, 2011.

* Complaint is based on Mrs. Arroyo’s issuance of Executive Order No. 546 authorizing the Philippine National Police to deputize barangay tanods (village watchmen) as force multipliers in enforcing peace and order which ultimately acknowledged “the legitimacy of the private armies of the Ampatuan clan” according to Atty. Roque. Electoral Sabotage Last Nov. 18, 2011, COMELEC filed electoral sabotage charges in connection with the 2007 elections against Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, former Maguindanao governor AndalAmpatuan Sr. and former Comelec election supervisor Lintang Bedol before the Pasay City RTC. The document filed states that on or before May 14, 2007, Arroyo, Ampatuan, and Bedol “conspiring, confederating, and willfully helping one another in order to ensure a ’12-0’ victory for the candidates of ‘Team Unity’ did then and there willfully, feloniously and unlawfully tamper the Provincial Certificates of Canvass of Votes” in Maguindanao. The information said that this took place after a meeting in Malacanang by the three a few days before election where Arroyo personally instructed Ampatuan to ensure a “12-0” victory form candidates of Team Unity. Ampatuan, in turn, the Information further stated, instructed Bedol and the chairman of the Provincial Board of Canvassers in Maguindanao, to tamper the provincial certificate of canvass (PCOC), the statement of votes by municipality (SOVM), and the summary of the statement of vote (SSOV). Midnight Appointments Former President Arroyo nearing the approach of the end of her administration last 2010 drafted at least 200 midnight appointments for her administration’s loyalists. Some of her earlier appointments include her personal manicurist, her husband’s accountant, and her gardener. Some critical appointments included loyal generals and Rotary Club mates and Supreme Court Chief

Justice Renato Corona. These appointments have been set to last two to six years beyond her term with the assumption that the appointments will be upheld. Upon President Aquino’s assumption of his role as the country’s Chief Executive, he immediately issued Memorandum Circular no. 1 “Declaring all non-career exec service positions vacant as of June 30, 2010 and extending the services of contractual employees whose contract expire on June 30, 2010.” The immediate effect of this memorandum was the vacancy of at least 4000 government positions that needed to be filled. Following Memorandum Circular no. 1, President Aquino issued Executive. Order 2 “recalling, withdrawing, and revoking appointments issued by the previous administration in violation of the constitutional ban on midnight appointments.” The ban on appointments began 45 days before the elections, but constitutionally, the president is no longer allowed to make appointments at least two months before the elections on his or her last term. Chief Presidential Legal Counsel Eduardo de Mesa mentions that there were at least 977 appointments made before the 45 day banning period. He strongly believes that the great number of appointments made was an attempt to deprive the incoming president the opportunity to make his own appointments and would prevent him from exercising his power by serving as obstructions to policies. Helicopter Scam On May 2009, the Philippine National Police engaged in negotiation with Manila Aerospace Products Trading Corporations for the purchase of new helicopters for its Special Action Force. The total price for the helicopters amounted to P105 million. On July 2011, Senator Panfilo Lacson revealed in a speech that two of the helicopters were in fact, not brand new but were refurbished helicopters previously owned by Former President Arroyo and her husband Former First Gentleman Mike Arroyo. Mike Arroyo denied the allegation, but with the investigations done by the blue ribbon fact finding committee, it was revealed that the travel logs indicated Arroyo’s immediate family; specifically her husband and eldest son were in control of the helicopters in several of their trips.

Plunder charges against Mike Arroyo were filed on September 2 by Antifraud Division Chief Superintendent Edgar Danao in relation to the Helicopter Scam.” The following are the government anomalies in PGMA’s term respectively: 1. NBN-ZTE Scandal (2007) 2. Millions of bribe money to Congressmen and Governors (October 2007) 3. ”Hello Garci” 2004 Elections Scandal 4. Joc-JocBolante Case (P728 million Fertilizer Scam) 5. Jose Pidal Bank Account (Unexplained Wealth, P200 Million) 6. Nani Perez Power Plant Deal ($2 Million) 7. Use of Road User’s Tax for Campaigning 8. Billion Peso Macapagal Boulevard (Overprice of P532 Million) 9. Jueteng (Illegal Numbers game kickbacks) 10. Extra-Judicial Killings 11. Arroyo Moneys in Germany (Exposed by Senator Cayetano) 12. General Garcia and Other Military Men 13. Billion Peso Poll Automation contract to Mega Pacific (P1.3 Billion) 14. NorthrailProject($503 Million) 15. Maguindanao Results of 2007 Elections (Zubiri, Bedol) 16. NAIA-3 17. Venable Contract (Norberto Gonzales) 18. Swine Scam (Exposed by Atty. Harry Roque) 19. Mikey Arroyo’s Hidden Assets in the United States 20. Euro Generals Scandal 21. Calamity Fund Scandal

22. C-5 road Controversy — Senator Manuel Villar 23.P550 Million worth of funds from the Overseas Workers’ Welfare Administration (OWWA) 24. P780-million LWUA funds-Prospero Pichay 25. Bishops’ SUV-Gloria Birthday gift 26. Arroyo linked in P325M lotto intelligence fund 27. Arroyo got P200M in kickbacks from government projects according to ZaldyAmpatuan 28.P200.41 billion or $4.6 billion in Malampaya royalties from 2002 to May 2011 29.Lacson accused Former Gentleman Mike Arroyo of selling 3 refurbished helicopters to PNP at P105 Million each 30. 600,000 metric tons of Rotten rice imported from India. Kishore Hemlani, an Indian trader allegedly close to Arroyo, reportedly bagged the P9.5 billion contract for the rice importation. 31.Dato Arroyo wife bought the condo unit for $570,000, 70-square-meter one-bedroom, one bathroom unit (Unit No. 533) at the luxury high-rise, full-service Gramercy Towers located at 1177 California St. in upscale downtown San Francisco. 32. P50-million bribe to Former Gentleman Mike Arroyo for the Gloria’s veto of two franchise bills. 33.The additional funding led to a 41-percent spike in advertisingexpenses, from P76.129 million in 2008 to P107.420 million in 2009, which went mostly to ads for Arroyo’s achievements. 34. PIA received from the Department of Budget and Management a notice of cash allocations amounting to P344.789 million, even though only P222.488 million was appropriated for it under the national budget. 35. Denial of pork barrel funds to Malacanang’s political enemies 36. Praises for JovitoPalparan, alleged mastermind of extra judicial killings of militants 37. Removal of government bodyguards for former President and Arroyo critic, Cory Aquino 38. Midnight appointment of an Arroyo, Renato Corona, as SC Chief Justice among 200+ other illegal midnight appointments; Appointment of Gloria’s manicurist as a member of the board of Pag-Ibig and her gardener as deputy of the Luneta Park Administration 39. Scrapping the requirement “Social Acceptability” after approving the Aboitiz-Sponsored Coal Power Plant in Subic (cash benefit behind it still unknown).” - The Allegiance, the official Weblog of Student Council Alliance of the Philippines

End of Terms (Presidency) PGMA ended her term on June 30, 2010 pursuant to the provision of the 1987 constitution. She left Malacañang and formally turned over the reins of government to incoming President Benigno Aquino III. According to the Supreme Court (SC), “President Arroyo can run for Congress representing the second district of Pampanga on May 10 without any impediment.” PGMA soon became officially a candidate for representative of Pampanga, second district in the 2010 elections. She then won by landslide as during the May 10 polls. She took her oath of office hours after she turned over the presidency to Benigno “Noynoy" Aquino III. (15) On the other hand, PGMA also faces plunder and electoral fraud charges. On November 18, warrant of arrest is served to her on orders of Pasay City Regional Trial Court (RTC) Branch 112 hearing on electoral fraud charges. Arroyo is currently under hospital arrest at St. Luke’s Medical Center in Taguig City. She was then transferred to Veterans Memorial Medical Center. If proven guilty, the former president may face life imprisonment. Arroyo’s lawyers are still making an effort in requesting the RTC to allow a house arrest soon after her doctors pronounce that she is “medically fit” to leave the hospital. The arrest of former president Arroyo signals that the Philippine government is serious in fighting corruption. (16)

A Pulse Survey during former president GMA’s term

15 Calonzo, D (2010). Arroyo Takes Oath of Office as Pampanga Rep. In www.gmanetwork.com. Retrieved from: http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/194848/news/nation/arroyo-takes-oath-of-office-as-pampanga-rep

16 Alvarez, K. (2011). Global Backlash over Arroyo Arrest ‘Unfounded’. In www.sunstar.com.ph. Retrieved from: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/manila/local-news/2011/11/28/global-backlash-over-arroyo-arrest-unfounded-192985

The Philippine Daily Inquirer published an article entitled “It’s Downhill after 2004” by Generalao M. and Pedroso, K, posted on the 27 of July 2009. To quote: MANILA, Philippines—Different surveys tell the same story of continued public disenchantment with and distrust in PGMA. Whether it is the Social Weather Stations surveys, which ask a respondent whether he or she is satisfied with the performance of the President, or Pulse Asia Inc. opinion polls, which ask whether one approves of her performance, the results show that Ms Arroyo’s performance ratings have deteriorated so much over the past eight years. Results of the surveys conducted by the two outfits also showed her markedly lower trust ratings.” Her downfall started last 2004 election which the “Hello Garci Tape” is exposed in which the biggest issue in 2004. The allegation is Arroyo cheated the election. This led for the Filipinos to lose their trust to PGMA and from that on the latter could not regain the trust of her fellow-men. In the second of June 2009, the SWS survey found that 26 percent of the respondents were satisfied, 56 percent were dissatisfied, and 18 percent were undecided with Ms Arroyo’s performance, thus, a bad net rating of -31 percent. Moreover, on the May 2009 survey by Pulse Asia, it showed that more Filipinos were critical of Ms Arroyo’s work, 26 percent approved of her performance, but 46 percent disapproved, giving her a net of -20 percent. And from 2005 up to the end of her term, PGMA gained negative ratings according to Social Weather Station survey (SWS) from 2004 to 2009.(17)

Below is a copy of SWS satisfaction survey for former president Gloria MacapagalArroyo during her presidential terms (18):

17 Generaldo M, & Pedroso, K. (2009) Arroyo’s performance, trust ratings. (see notes in Chapter 1:7)

Fig.1 Graph of Arroyo’s SWS net rating

2007-2Q: -3 2001-2Q: +16 2002-3Q: +18 2002-4Q: +6 2003-1Q: -14 2004-4Q: -5 2005-1Q: -12 2005-2Q: -33 2005-3Q: -23 2007-3Q: -11 2007-4Q: -16 2008-1Q: -26 2008-2Q: -38

18 Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (n.d.) Public Perception. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo

2003-2Q: +14 2003-3Q: +2 2003-4Q: -3 2004-1Q: +30 2004-2Q: +26 2004-3Q: +12

2005-4Q: -30 2006-1Q: -25 2008-3Q: -27 2006-2Q: -13 2008-4Q: -24 2006-3Q: -11 2009-1Q: -32 2006-4Q: -13 2009-2Q: -20 2007-1Q: -4

Fig.2. Quarterly ratings of PGMA’s term (SWS)

Synthesis:

From the entire basis used, it was clearly been identified that former president Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (GMA) can be regarded as a good and also, an unlikeable leader.

Economically speaking, the former president has contributed much to sustain our country such as the E-Vat Law and the only president to reach a real GDP growth that exceeds 7% (as cited from The Presidency), thus, her “good side”.

On the other hand, GMA was regarded an unlikeable leader due to the controversial issues in her administration, likewise her electoral sabotage (as cited in The Government Anomalies). These have been the main reasons of why the former president gained negative

ratings in SWS survey since the 4th quarter of 2004 to 2009 (as cited from A Pulse Survey during former president GMA’s term).

With these, the researchers came up with a simple pulse survey consisting of 1-10 values where the respondents must choose. This is to see whether PGMA for them is good or unlikeable. Furthermore, a part for feedback is given so the respondents may stand for their choice. This is also to see what part of GMA’s life influenced their choice. Indeed, an evaluation.

Chapter III

Methodology

In which the design and the procedures used in the research proper is thoroughly presented. Likewise, the methods used to analyze results are identified.

The Research Design The researchers used the Survey Research Design since opinion polls are made and distributed a sample from the Filipino people. It is also considered as a Descriptive Research since some parts of the results were analyzed through descriptive analysis.

Respondents used:

The respondents taken are interviewed first for the following requirements:

1. citizenship (should be a Filipino) 2. age (should have at least reached 13 onwards during GMA’s administration) 3. residency (living in Philippines for at least 10 years) 4. able to read and write (for survey purposes) This guideline used will help the researchers to obtain a credible survey enough to evaluate GMA’s performance during her reign.

Identifying the sample size: The researchers did not attempt to get the sample size equivalent for the total population of Filipino citizens since it will be vey inconvenient. Furthermore, only 100 are asked as a part of a requirement.

The Procedure (see Fig 2. The Procedure on succeeding pages): Gathering of Data:

Each of the members was assigned with different tasks and was asked to work on an intensive research about former president GMA. Book records and Media are used to gather enough information about her presidency.

Making of the Survey Form:

The survey form is a collaboration of the researchers’ ideas and opinions on how to get the people’s rating on GMA’s credibility. The survey consists of a question with rankings 1-10 (where 1 is the lowest and 10 is the highest) that helped the researchers collate the results statistically. Likewise, a portion for feedback among the respondents is asked for descriptive analysis.

Survey Proper:

Each of the members was required to have at least ten respondents for the survey proper. All in all, 100 samples are gathered from the Filipino population (100 samples are only taken instead of 110; this is for minimal basis). Moreover, each of the researchers was asked to make a pre-evaluation of feedbacks from the ten respondents.

Collation:

In this stage of the study is on evaluation: descriptively and statistically. The researchers counted the number of people with the same ranks and evaluated the comments they put on the survey form.

Statistical Analysis and Descriptive Analysis:

The researchers used mean and mode to know the results of the satisfactory pulse survey on GMA’s credibility. This is used to get the average, likewise, the most choice of rank of all the ratings from the respondents. On the other hand, the feedbacks that were taken were summarized as whole. This will be a part for the conclusion.

Conclusions:

The conclusions are determined based on the answers and comments of the sample.

The Materials:

The Survey Form (see appendix A)

The survey form, 8.5cm X 5.5 cm, consists of a question were the respondents are asked to rate the former president. The respondents should also put a comment or merely describe presidency for the descriptive analysis.

The Statistical Parameters: The researchers used the mean and mode to analyze the data from the respondents. These statistical methods are only used for the quantitative analysis of data. Mean for the average of the results of ranks (1-10) form the survey and is used to conclude GMA’s credibility as a whole. Mode is used to know the most choice of rating the respondents chose.

Fig.3. The Procedure

Chapter IV Data Gathering and Analysis The succeeding parts envelopes the collection and evaluation of the data gathered throughout the study. Moreover, conclusions as for the paper became distinct.

Presentation and Discussion of Data: Table 1. Choices of Rank in the Pulse Survey for PGMA’s Credibility

6

6

6

2

6

6

5

2

1

2

1

4

8

6

5

3

5

1

5

5

5

5

1

3

2

4

5

3

2

4

7

5

1

8

7

7

8

5

5

6

3

1

1

7

1

10

1

7

4

8

8

6

6

4

3

3

8

7

7

10

1

3

3

5

5

5

6

6

8

8

8

6

8

4

7

6

4

5

7

7

6

8

7

1

4

7

8

5

7

6

6

8

5

9

1

1

1

7

3

5

By getting the average/ mean of the ranks above, the researchers concluded that 4.96 or 5 is the overall choice (see appendix C for computational analysis). Hence, the public had seen former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in somehow good and a greater bad convention (since 5.5 was the middle point).

Table 2. Frequency of Choices in Rank

Rank

Tally total

Rank

Tally total

1

15

6

16

2

5

7

14

3

9

8

13

4

8

9

1

5

17

10

2

Fig.4. Percentage of Choices among 100 Respondents Among all the choices, five was the most choice among 100 respondents surveyed. It had garnered 17% of the tally. On the other hand, nine was the least choice having 1%. This concludes that rank five is the greatest choice.

Overall analysis and Feedback Conclusions:

After conducting the survey, a hundred of people had spoken. And base on what the researchers gathered, five was the most choice among 100 respondents surveyed (having 17% of the votes). This could imply that GMA lies on somehow on the middle point of credibility (5.5). At satisfaction point, where 6 and above lies, it was concluded that among the respondents, only 45 got satisfied on what she did.

On the other hand, she got 55 votes of unhappy performance. Those believed that her administration is a very poor and people are somewhat were not updated on what is going on the country during her term. They are also not satisfied on the actions that GMA did to the Philippines (see survey papers for feedbacks). Money and power, according to them, blinded her. But on the other side, some says that her accomplishments as the president of the country were overshadowed by the government and her anomalies. According to them, some of her accomplishments are: the economic growth during her term, the make-over of the bridges, high ways and other public properties. Overall, the researchers concluded that somehow GMA has done well for the country, as could be generalized among respondents’ feedbacks and rank choices, still, anomalies done in her term made her, as well, popular. Among the respondent’s many say that she stolen the presidency not just once but twice and corruption was so rampant that time that cause her to overshadowed on what she did do for her countrymen.

Chapter V Conclusions and Recommendations In which the summary of the results are presented briefly; likewise, recommendations for the future researchers that will be using the paper as their reference.

Conclusions:

The following are the results of the survey proper: 1. The average/ mean choice in the credibility rank was 4.96 (or 5). This implied that GMA is a quite middle point among the surveyed Filipino citizens (5.5 is the middle point). Hence, the former president was seen in not so good and but a quite bad quality of a leader. This also concludes that she was not really an unlikeable leader after all since the rating is approximately 0.5 near to the middle point of satisfaction. Indeed, it was been pulled by the higher ranks somehow. 2. The most choice of rank/mode is 5. Apparently, it went through with the mean. This could imply that this choice made a critical point for pulling the score of the mean (with which is 4.96). And like the mean, this concludes that the public knows GMA in somehow good and quite bad quality of a leader. The generalization for this is that still, GMA is unlikeable among Filipinos. 3. By the feedbacks among the respondents, most say that GMA’s good performance for the country was more or less, overshadowed by the anomalies that she or her government did during her term. Likewise, corruption was given importance among the feedback as it was very present among the survey polls.

Recommendations: The following are suggestions for the future researchers who will use the present study as their reference: 1. As for survey questionnaires to be used: a. let it be more formal for the respondents that it would seem very credible enough likewise, more professional in all aspects b. let more questions regarding the topic be asked to the respondents

c. let it have a larger sample consisting of respondents that are truly aware about the subject d. let the questions be more critical and detailed 2. As for the study as a whole: a. let the subject be very unique and fresh among the public b. let more information be gathered and give priority to details which are unpopular to the public c. conduct also these types of test to other public officers not only the president or those in very high positions d. let results of the paper be given to those who are concerned which the subject matter

APPENDIX A The Survey Form (19)

A Simple Pulse Survey for Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s Credibility

Former president Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (GMA) was known as an economic leader. The fact that she was a graduate and master of this field; she was the main contributor of the concept of E-Vat. Likewise, the highest GDP growth (7%) among other presidents. However, controversies among government anomalies in her

19 The actual size of the questionnaire used is 8.5cm X 5.5 cm. Above is just for formality of the paper.

administration also made her popular. With these, if you are to rank GMA from 1-10, where will you place her, and why? Encircle your choice.

Note: 1 = lowest  10= highest 

1 6

2 7

3 8

4 9

5 10

What is your feedback for GMA/ her administration? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

APPENDIX B Compilation of Preliminary Survey Results and Evaluations

Name of Survey Conductor: Agatha V. Siazon Number of Respondents: 10 Rank Choices: 6 6 6 2 6

6

5

2

1

2

Most of my respondents were college students and they are aware of what happened during GMA's administration. Almost half of ten respondents gave GMA a rating of six because according to them, she did something good to our country as well as in our economy but the anomalies that happened during her term was so many and the corruption was so rampant that time.

Name of survey conductor: Allhia Charmaine S. Estores and Carlo Boller No of respondents taken: 20 correspondents Rank Choices: 1 3 5 4 4 5 5 5 8 1 1 3 6 5 3 2 5 5 2 4

Out of twenty, eleven said that PGMA is corrupt. For the remaining nine, the respondents pointed out her lack f word of honor, very poor administration etc. On the other hand, some say that they were not “updated” during her term.

Name of Survey Conductor: Ma. Leninia A. Guarino Number of Respondents: 10 Rank Choices:

7 7

5 8

1 5

8 5

7 6

The Respondents, all in all said that they are unhappy of the ACTIONS but not the PRESIDENCY. Actually some of them said that she has the potential of being a good leader but wasted it all when money and power blinded her eyes. These people are very much aware of the current events during GMA’s reign and are rating her GOOD for being a president. Although, one of them rated her the lowest; being a cheater during the last elections.

Name of Survey Conductor: Rosanna R. Repelar Number of Respondents Taken: 10 Rank Choices: 3 10 1 1 1 7 7 4 1 8

Among all the respondents taken, three out of ten believed that GMA is a good leader; in fact, they want to join her administration. However, the seven left says that she was corrupt and many government anomalies happened in her term. Name of survey conductor: Jim Boy V. Santok No. of respondents taken: 10 Rank Choices:

8

6

6

4

3

3

8

7

7

10

Many of my respondents are teachers in Our Lady of Sacred Heart School and many of them say that even though she was involved in different anomalies, she do better than the present administration. Corruption was the only basis of saying that she is not effective leader because they do believe that any administrations also have that same problem, and as an economist, she used for the country to make our economy better.

Name of survey conductor: Eileen Kaye Yague No. of respondents taken: 10 Rank Choices: 1 5 3 6 3 6 5 8 5 8

The highest score that Gloria got on my survey was eight. They said that even though there were many issues and anomalies about her she’s fine doing her job and she makes some changes on our country’s economy. Others say that she’s fine but not that much. On the other hand, some say that the more she has projects, the more she makes some issues. Second to the last she got two 3s. Most of them said, because of the anomalies she did and her family.. Lastly she got the lowest score of 1. I interviewed one woman who hates GMA. So she said that she deserved all the things she experiencing now.

Name of survey conductor: Clarissa Ates No. of respondents taken: 10 Rank Choices:

8 6

6 4

8 5

4 7

7 7

The result of my survey was random although the most rank is seven, which is quite good for Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. It showed that behind her anomalies there are still some who believes in her credibility. Most of my correspondents believe in the ability and knowledge of our former president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo they are aware that GMA has this capability to rule our country and bring economic growth if only she had used her power wise and think of the good of the country and focused only on its growth, than to think of her personal growth and interest. Her achievements were overshadowed by her anomalies that the people didn’t notice of what good she had for the country. Also there are correspondents who believe that GMA had no bid accomplishment at her term and it was no difference with the past administration, the poor are still poor and they felt no change in it.

Name of survey conductor: John Christopher Perez No. of respondents taken: 10 Rank Choices:

6

8

7

1

4

7

8

5

7

6

As for my respondents, many said that she indeed is a better leader than PNoy only that her anomalies are the main factors that give her bad remarks. Also, political dynasty among her family gives these unsatisfactory ranks. Name of survey conductor: Ezra Len Ian Joy L. Cariño No. of respondents taken: 10

Rank Choices: 6 1 8 1 5 7 9 3 1 5

In my survey, it seems that there are some people that in with favor of GMA but others are not. Some honestly said that the former President did a lot of things for our beloved country but she was influenced by the people around her to do something bad. That led her to have a bad image in the eyes of the Filipino.

Appendix C

Computations used in the Paper For Average/ Mean of Rank Choices x= x1+x2+x3+…x100100

6+6+6+2+6+6+5+2+1+2+1+4+8+6+5+3+5+1+5+5+5+5+1+3+2+4+5+3+2+4+7+5+1+8+7+ 7+8+5+5+6+3+1+1+7+1+10+1+7+4+8+8+6+6+4+3+3+8+7+7+10+1+3+3+5+5+5+6+6+8+8 x= +8+6+8+4+7+6+4+5+7+7+6+8+7+1+4+7+8+5+7+6+6+8+5+9+1+1+1+7+3+5 100 x= 4.96 or 5 *where x is the mean x1 is the first choice entry x2 is the second choice entry x3 is the third choice entry x100 is the last choice entry For Rank Middle Point mi=Hr+Lr2 mi=10+12 mi=5.5 *where Hr is the highest rank Lr is the lowest rank

References:

Alvarez, K. (2011). Global Backlash over Arroyo Arrest ‘Unfounded’. In www.sunstar.com.ph. Retrieved from: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/manila/local-news/2011/11/28/globalbacklash-over-arroyo-arrest-unfounded-192985 Calonzo, D (2010). Arroyo Takes Oath of Office as Pampanga Rep. In www.gmanetwork.com. Retrieved from: http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/194848/news/nation/arroyotakes-oath-of-office-as-pampanga-rep Cantril, A. (1991) Opinion Poll. From Answers.com. Retrieved from: http:// www.answers.com/ topic/public-opinion-polling Generaldo M, & Pedroso, K. (2009) Arroyo’s performance, trust ratings. In 2010presidentiables. wordpress.com. Retrieved from: http://2010presidentiables.wordpress.com/thepresidency-of-gloria-macapagal-arroyo-reviews-point-of-views/arroyo%E2%80%99sperformance-trust-ratings-it%E2%80%99s-downhill-after-2004-minerva-generalao-katev-pedroso/ Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (n.d.). Early Life. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (n.d.) Presidency. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo (n.d.) Public Perception. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo Philippine National Broadband Network controversy (n.d.) Philippine National Broadband Network controversy. In the Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Philippine_National_ Broadband_Network_controversy Public Opinion Poll (1996) The World Book Encyclopedia (vol. 15, p.839) Pulse Asia (n.d.). Pulse Asia. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia. org /wiki/ Pulse_Asia Shernisky, L.T. (n.d.) Public Opinion Polling and Presidential Responsiveness: Effects on Policymaking and Democracy. Retrieved from: http://www.thepresidency.org /storage/ documents/Vater/Shernisky.pdf The Allegiance (n.d.) Why is Arroyo under arrest? In scaptionalwordpress.com. Retrieved from: http://scapnational.wordpress.com

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