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DYNAMICS OF MACHINE
GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON THE MILLING MACHINE
RAVINDER SINGH AHUJA RB4803B55 10806064
This is an original work and neither is it copied but takes help and some ideas from net nor is any of its part taken from any other work of such kind.Acknowledgement:- I am thankful to my teachers and colleagues for their support in making this project assigned by lovely professional university. Thanks . I have tried my level best for this project.
It was Foucault who gave the device its modern name. circle or rotation).Introduction: Gyroscope is very useful in many applications. The French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace. manufacturing industry and robots etc. so in mechanical industry it`s gain ample respect and application. etc. Similar principles were later employed in the development of inertial guidance systems for ballistic missiles. its play very vital role in imparting right amount of force in right direction.. In 1852. such as power consumption. must be taken into consideration. American Walter R. To choose the right rate gyro sensor. Foucault used it in an experiment involving the rotation of the Earth. some features. and thus it came to the attention of Léon Foucault. who first wrote about it in 1817. In 1832. During World War Two. other inventors attempted (unsuccessfully) to use gyroscopes as the basis for early black box navigational systems by creating a stable platform from which accurate acceleration measurements could be performed (in order to bypass the need for star sightings to calculate position). the first functional marine gyrocompass was patented in 1908 by German inventor Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe. electric motors made the concept feasible. In the 1860s. In the first several decades of the 20th century. automobile. In case of milling machine its play role in reduce chattering sound and make it more precise. weight. recommended the machine for use as a teaching aid. the gyroscope became the prime component for aircraft and antiaircraft gun sights . Its uses approx everywhere but some very specific fields are aerospace. in an experiment to see (Greek skope in. leading to the first prototype gyrocompasses. which was visible in the 8 to 10 minutes before friction slowed the spinning rotor. dimension. to see) the Earth's rotation (Greek gyros. Johnson developed a similar device that was based on a rotating disk. Gyroscope history: The earliest known gyroscope instrument was made by German Johann Bohnen berger.
its orientation remains nearly fixed. A mechanical gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. such as the electronic. . This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin. Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals.What is Gyroscope? A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation. microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscope devices found in consumer electronic devices. solid state ring lasers. fibre optic gyroscopes and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope. based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted.
B. When a tilting force is applied to the top axis. Since this gyro is rotating in a clockwise direction. D.How gyroscopic couple work Instead of a complete rim. Point A is still traveling in the upward direction when it is at the 90 degrees position in FIG 2. point A is sent in an upward direction and C goes in a downward direction. The same goes for point C and D. and point C will be . represent the areas of the rim that are most important in visualizing how a gyro works. C. FIG 1. The bottom axis is held stationary but can pivot in all directions. point A will be where point B was when the gyro has rotated 90 degrees. A. four point masses.
traveling in the downward direction. A hydraulic cylinder pushes or pulls. A gyro's axis will move at a right angle to a rotating motion (In this case to the right). When the gyro has rotated another 90 degrees FIG 3. as needed. the axis will rotate in the tilting force plane in this example. Actually. The axis will rotate because some of the energy in the upward and downward motion of A and C is used up in causing the axis to rotate in the precession plane. The downward motion of point C is now countered by the tilting force and the axis does not rotate in the "tilting force" plane. curved. point C is where point A was when the tilting force was first applied. The more the tilting force pushes the axis. on one axis of a heavy gyro. the tilting force ( being constant) is more than the upward and downward counter acting forces. This is called precession. Sometimes precession is unwanted so two counter rotating gyros on the same axis are used. The main . which has several cutting teeth. Then when points A and C finally make it around to the opposite sides. MILLING PROCESS Milling is the process of machining flat. the precession would be to the left. or irregular surfaces by feeding the work piece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. the more the rim on the other side pushes the axis back when the rim revolves around 180 degrees. the axis would move in the precession plane to the left. The property of precession of a gyroscope is used to keep monorail trains straight up and down as it turns corners. If in the clockwise example the tilting force was a pull instead of a push. The combined motion of A and C cause the axis to rotate in the "precession plane" to the right FIG 2. Milling is a process where material is removed by a spinning tool. If the gyro were rotating counterclockwise.
Several types of milling exist:• Upmilling. Some process parameters are shown: • Feed per tooth f. where the entry angle PHI. and exit angle PHI’. • • • Down-milling. • Axial depth-of-cut up • Spindle speed w A schematic representation of the milling process. where the entry angle is zero and the exit angle is 180'. where the entry angle is nonzero and the exit angle is zero..difference between modeling the milling and the turning process is that the chip thickness in milling is not constant. Slotting. MILLING CUTTERS .. where the entry angle is zero and the exit angle is non-zero.. of the milling cutter relative to the workpiece are nonzero. Face milling. but periodic.
Based on mounting o Arbour mounted o Shank mounted o Nose mounted Base on rotation o Right hand rotation (Counter clockwise) o Left hand rotation (Clockwise) Based on helix o Right hand helix o Left hand helix .
This behavior is usually undesired. Early studies have shown that the border between stable and unstable cuts in terms of the depth-of-cut can be visualized as a function of spindle speed. .g. because in such a case a nonsmooth surface of the workpiece is caused by heavy vibrations of the cutter. During the milling process chatter can arise at certain combinations of spindle speed and depth-of-cut. the airplane building industry. In addition the machine and cutting tool wear out rapidly. With the help of these diagrams it is possible to find the point with a combination of spindle speed and depth-of-cut which has the largest metal removal rate while avoiding chatter. To make the process the most efficient. where large amounts of material are removed. The milling of large structures is done in e. This results in a Stability Lobe Diagram (SLD). where nonlinearities are modeled in several different ways. Several studies have been done to understand and model the phenomenon chatter.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON MILLING MACHINE The process of milling is used widely in many sectors of industry. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed. the speed of the process should be as high as possible while maintaining a high quality level.
three parameters are varied at a spindle speed of 135 rpm: • Radial depth of cut. increases if the number of flutes decreases. the average chip thickness is shown.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT AS A FUNSTION OF SPINDLE SPEED For low spindle speeds (100-400 rpm) a stability analysis is applied. • Federate per minute. If the federate decreases then chip thickness also decreases. In the experiments. so the feed per tooth f. .5 mm and an axial depth of cut of 6. where the mean chip thickness is measured. whereas chip thicknesses below the line result in a chatter-free cut. • Number of flutes. The federate per minute is held constant. Experiments and simulations done are down milling of 30' helix angle end mill set at an radial depth-of-cut of 1.4 mm. If the federate is 70 mm/min. Note that on the vertical axis. the chip thickness is above the stability border. Figure shows the limit of stability decreases with an increasing feed. The model is validated by experiments. this increases the stability of milling machine spindle. Chip thicknesses above the line result in an unstable cut.
it increases the real parts of the Eigen values of the system or reduces the critical axial depth of cut. it makes the stability prediction less conservative.Gyroscopic couple in case of milling machine spindle: A new dynamic milling model of a rotating spindle is developed and the gyroscopic effect of the spindle on the stability characteristics of the milling system is investigated for the first time. In other words. so for avoiding that . It’s pure application of gyroscopic effect. and avoiding such important disturbance which enhance productivity gyroscopic effect is very important. there are certain force which directly work on spindle. . because when the cutting done with help of tool. which bound it to some short of motion. The results show that although the gyroscopic effect of the rotating spindle does not change the instability regions in milling.
Experiments are performed to study chatter and to validate the models. are to be constructed by experiments at first. 6. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed in different ways. against the corresponding exerted force. a. Ω. is. the dynamic model shown in Fig. Chatter is the result of several causes. In Fig. the spindle speed and feed rate are generally retained constants.For the milling process aided by AMB. the lateral force to the spindle.. a. 6a. Therefore. Fm. a. i. in fact. By comparison of the two dynamic models in Fig. shown in Fig. the models of the subsystems. Conclusion Several researchers have studied and modeled the phenomenon chatter. In order to counterbalance the cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation. d. They show that the milling process contains phenomena which cannot be modeled using linear models. at normal operation mode. d. Several researchers conclude that nonlinearities should be modeled for a more accurate prediction of chatter. against the axial cut depth. Fc. Gyroscope is very important and powerful arrangement for removing directional alignment and for maintain balancing. and spindle speed. The friction force can be modeled as a nonlinear function of the cutting parameters. 6a. represents the magnetic force exerting on the spindle by the AMB while the cutting process is not engaged at all. Also the gyroscopic effect of the spindle speed has been modeled. Partial tool jump-out can be modeled. Primary chatter is the consequence of friction effects between the tool and the chip. Fm. is mainly determined by the axial cut depth. 6. 6b represents the spindle position deviation. shown in Fig. feed rate. However. can be estimated for a given axial cut depth and the available measurement of spindle position. the key factor to determine the pattern of cutting dynamics. due to milling process. Similarly.e. the magnetic force. the cutting force. . the resulted cutting force. The spindle model at idle operation mode. shown in Fig. is constructed in order to explore the link of the shaft position deviation. its device which used in balance the specimen like milling machine spindle and lots more. d. mode coupling or thermodynamics of the cutting process. f. the axial cut depth. Secondary chatter is caused by regeneration of waviness of the surface of the workpiece. 6.
wikipedia.P. Internet websites • • • www.com .scribd.com/Gyroscopes/ www. Faassen. Research work on Non-contact measurements and modeling of milling machine tool vibrations by Matti Rantatalo.H.org www.gyroscope.References Research papers • • Research work on Investigation of the phenomenon "chatter" in the milling process by R.
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