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W W L CHEN

c

W W L Chen, 1983, 2008.

This chapter originates from material used by the author at Imperial College, University of London, between 1981 and 1990. It is available free to all individuals, on the understanding that it is not to be used for ﬁnancial gain, and may be downloaded and/or photocopied, with or without permission from the author. However, this document may not be kept on any information storage and retrieval system without permission from the author, unless such system is not accessible to any individuals other than its owners.

Chapter 1

THE NUMBER SYSTEM

1.1. The Real Numbers In this chapter, we shall make a detailed study of some of the important properties of the real numbers. Most readers will be familiar with some of these properties, or have at least used most of them, perhaps sometimes unaware of their generality. Throughout, we denote the set of all real numbers by R, and write a ∈ R to indicate that a is a real number. We shall take an axiomatic approach to the real numbers. In other words, we oﬀer no proof of these properties, and simply treat and accept them as given. The ﬁrst collection of properties of R is generally known as the Field axioms. They enable us to study arithmetic. FIELD AXIOMS. (A1) For every a, b ∈ R, we have a + b ∈ R. (A2) For every a, b, c ∈ R, we have a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c. (A3) For every a ∈ R, we have a + 0 = a. (A4) For every a ∈ R, there exists −a ∈ R such that a + (−a) = 0. (A5) For every a, b ∈ R, we have a + b = b + a. (M1) For every a, b ∈ R, we have ab ∈ R. (M2) For every a, b, c ∈ R, we have a(bc) = (ab)c. (M3) For every a ∈ R, we have a1 = a. (M4) For every a ∈ R such that a = 0, there exists a−1 ∈ R such that aa−1 = 1. (M5) For every a, b ∈ R, we have ab = ba. (D) For every a, b, c ∈ R, we have a(b + c) = ab + ac.

Chapter 1 : The Number System page 1 of 13

1. b ∈ R. In the terminology of group theory. ORDER AXIOMS.2. Remark. in view of Axiom (M1). we have ac > bc. there exists a−1 ∈ R such that aa−1 = 1. They enable us to study inequalities. b. We also say that the set R forms a ﬁeld under addition and multiplication. Hence 0 = a + (−a) > 0 + (−a) = (−a) + 0 = −a as required. there exists −a ∈ R such that a + (−a) = 0. by Axiom (A3). On the other hand. To see this. a > b holds. then 1 = aa−1 = a0 =0 and so a = a1 = a0 =0 Chapter 1 : The Number System from above.2. (O2) For every a. For every a ∈ R. Then it follows from Axiom (O1) that a−1 = 0 or a−1 < 0. in view of Axiom (A4). note ﬁrst that by Axiom (M4). Suppose that the real number a > 0. c ∈ R satisfying a > b and b > c. we say that the set R forms an abelian group under addition. (O4) For every a. Example 1. these can be deduced from the Field axioms and Order axioms. The property (D) is called the Distributive law. it follows from Axioms (A3) and (D) that a0 = a(0 + 0) = a0 + a0. we have a > c. by Axiom (A2). b.3. exactly one of a < b. Suppose on the contrary that it is not true that a−1 > 0. note ﬁrst that a0 ∈ R. To see this. Clearly the Order axioms as given do not appear to include many other properties of the real numbers. Example 1. note ﬁrst that by Axiom (A4).1. by Axiom (O3).2. The properties (A1)–(A5) concern the operation addition.1. (O3) For every a. Then the real number −a < 0. by Axiom (A3). c ∈ R satisfying a > b and c > 0. To see this. Suppose that the real number a > 0.1. from above.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. If a−1 = 0. while the properties (M1)–(M5) concern the operation multiplication. by Example 1. Example 1. and that the set of all non-zero real numbers forms an abelian group under multiplication. b. page 2 of 13 . Hence 0 = a0 + (−(a0)) = (a0 + a0) + (−(a0)) = a0 + (a0 + (−(a0))) = a0 + 0 = a0 as required. we have a0 = 0. from above. by Axiom (M3). by Example 1. However. The second collection of properties of R is generally known as the Order axioms. Then the real number a−1 > 0. 1983.1. by Axiom (A5). by Axiom (M4).1. a = b. we have a + c > b + c. Note next that −(a0) ∈ R and a0 + (−(a0)) = 0. c ∈ R satisfying a > b. 2008 Remark. (O1) For every a. from above. by Axiom (A4).

a by Axiom (O4).5. by Example 1. by Axiom (M3). by Axiom (M3).1.1. To see this.4.1. by Axiom (M5). then 0 = a0 = 0a >a =1 and so 0 = a0 > a1 =a again a contradiction. Suppose that a. Then the real number ab > 0. Example 1. and from Example 1. ) by Axiom (M4). by Axiom (M5).4 that b−1 a−1 > 0. If ab < 0. If a−1 < 0. ) by Axiom (M4). by Axiom (M5). If ab = 0. Suppose on the contrary that it is not true that ab > 0. by Axiom (M2).Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. by Example 1. note ﬁrst that by Axiom (M1). by Axiom (M4). by Example 1. Chapter 1 : The Number System −1 1 −1 page 3 of 13 . To see this. = b−1 (a−1 a) = (b < (b −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 )a )b )b = (a b = a−1 (b−1 b) = a−1 (bb−1 ) =a =a as required. Suppose that the real numbers a > 0 and b > 0.1.2. Then it follows from Axiom (O1) that ab = 0 or ab < 0.1. note ﬁrst from Example 1. 2008 a contradiction. we have ab ∈ R. by Axiom (M5). = (ab)b−1 −1 = b−1 0 by Axiom (M3).2. Hence b−1 = b−1 1 =b −1 −1 −1 −1 by Example 1. 1983. b ∈ R and 0 < a < b. by Axiom (M2). by Axiom (O4).3 that b−1 > 0.1.1. it follows from Axiom (O1) that b = 0. = aa−1 by Axiom (M3). Since b > 0. from above.1. by Axiom (M2). by Axiom (M4).3 that a−1 > 0 and b−1 > 0. Example 1. by Axiom (M2). by Axiom (M5). and from Example 1. Then b−1 < a−1 . by Axiom (O4).1. −1 = (ab)b −1 = b−1 0 by Axiom (M3). then a = a1 = a(bb < 0b =0 again a contradiction.2.2. from Axiom (M4) that b−1 ∈ R. −1 (aa a a ) by Axiom (M4). by Axiom (M5). then a = a1 = a(bb = 0b =0 a contradiction. by Axiom (M5).

5. 2008 An important subset of the set R of all real numbers is the set of all natural numbers. then clearly (PIS1) does not hold. Consider the statement p(n). . Then p(n) is true for every n ∈ N. The following two forms of the Principle of induction are particularly useful. n0 say.5. We therefore exclude this possibility by stipulating that N has a least element. n belongs to S. The condition (WO) is called the Well-ordering principle. Suppose that the statement p(. . 3. both are equivalent to Axiom (WO). ((PIS) ⇒ (WO)) Suppose that a non-empty subset S of N does not have a least element. . . (N2) If n ∈ N. 1. 2. if N contained 5.5. contradicting (PIS2). . It now follows from (PIS) that S does not contain any element of N. In fact. . (N3) Every n ∈ N other than 1 is the successor of some number in N.5. S has a least element.5. N must also contain 4. If n0 = 1. If n0 > 1. then p(m) is true for all m ≤ n0 − 1 but p(n0 ) is false. and (PIS2) p(n + 1) is true whenever p(m) is true for all m ≤ n. 0. This is achieved by Axiom (WO).5. given by n ∈ S. Suppose next that p(m) is true for every natural number m ≤ n. 3. It can be shown that Axiom (WO) implies the Principle of induction.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. these two axioms alone are insuﬃcient to exclude from N numbers such as 5. By Axiom (WO). called the successor of n. Remark. then by Axiom (N3).) satisﬁes the following conditions: (PIS1) p(1) is true.5. . (N1) 1 ∈ N. . PRINCIPLE OF INDUCTION (STRONG FORM). note ﬁrst that Axioms (N1) and (N2) together imply that N contains 1. 2. 1983.5. Our ﬁrst step is to show that Axiom (WO) is equivalent to the Principle of induction (strong form) (PIS). . . Now. However. 3. contradicting the assumption that S is a non-empty subset of N. Suppose that the statement p(. . so that none of the numbers 1.}. (WO) Every non-empty subset of N has a least element. . ((WO) ⇒ (PIS)) Suppose that the conclusion of (PIS) does not hold. . . we complete the proof by showing that the Principle of induction (weak form) (PIW) is equivalent to the Principle of induction (strong form) (PIS). Proof of the equivalence of the Well-ordering principle and the two Principles of induction. To explain the signiﬁcance of each of these four axioms. −1. and so would not have a least element. AXIOMS OF THE NATURAL NUMBERS. −2.5. 2. Chapter 1 : The Number System page 4 of 13 . The following more complicated deﬁnition is therefore sometimes preferred.5. Then p(n + 1) must also be true. Then the subset S = {n ∈ N : p(n) is false} of N is non-empty. Then p(1) is true. However. Next. and (PIW2) p(n + 1) is true whenever p(n) is true. 2. . −0. 3. for otherwise n + 1 would be the least element of S. given by N = {1. this deﬁnition does not bring out some of the main properties of the set N in a natural way. Then p(n) is true for every n ∈ N. PRINCIPLE OF INDUCTION (WEAK FORM). also belongs to N. otherwise 1 would be the least element of S.) satisﬁes the following conditions: (PIW1) p(1) is true. then the number n + 1.

Consider a statement q(. then there is a unique real number m ∈ R satisfying the following two conditions: (I1) For every x ∈ T . the inequality x ≥ m holds. It now follows from (PIS) that p(n) is true for every n ∈ N. there exists x ∈ T such that x < m + . It is not diﬃcult to prove that the number M above is unique. Then the two conditions (PIS1) and (PIS2) for the statement p(. Definition. Definition.). Chapter 1 : The Number System page 5 of 13 . 2008 ((PIS) ⇒ (PIW)) Suppose that (PIW1) and (PIW2) both hold. where p ∈ Z and q ∈ N. since it is the same as (PIW1). Then q 2 = 2r2 is even. that p and q have no common factors apart from ±1.) imply respectively the two conditions (PIW1) and (PIW2) for the statement q(. In particular. The set Q of all rational numbers is the set of all real numbers of the form pq −1 . A good starting point is the following well known result. then p(n) is true in particular. 1983. where r ∈ Z.). We shall ﬁrst of all introduce completeness via the Axiom of bound. We may assume. THEOREM 1A. AXIOM OF BOUND. The number k is called a lower bound of the set T . We say that the set Q is not complete. so it follows from (PIW2) that p(n + 1) is true. ((PIW) ⇒ (PIS)) Suppose that (PIS1) and (PIS2) both hold for a statement p(. It is easy see that the Field axioms and Order axioms hold good if the set R is replaced by the set Q. There are a number of ways to describe the completeness of the set R. Proof. so that p is even. and this gives (PIS2). so that q is even. Completeness of the Real Numbers The set Z of all integers is an extension of the set N of all natural numbers to include 0 and all numbers of the form −n.). We can write p = 2r. On the other hand.2. (I2) For every > 0. where p ∈ Z and q ∈ N. where n ∈ N. we want to ensure that the set R contains numbers like 2. Our idea is then to distinguish the set R √ from the set Q by completeness. where q(n) denotes the statement p(m) is true for every m ≤ n. (S2) For every > 0. It follows from (PIW) that q(n) is true for every n ∈ N. Remark. The number K is called an upper bound of the set S. Suppose that a non-empty set S of real numbers is bounded above. there exists x ∈ S such that x > M − . We therefore need to ﬁnd a property that distinguishes R from Q.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. A non-empty set S of real numbers is said to be bounded above if there exists a number K ∈ R such that x ≤ K for every x ∈ S. Then p2 = 2q 2 is even. Then there is a real number M ∈ R satisfying the following two conditions: (S1) For every x ∈ S. the inequality x ≤ M holds. It is also easy to deduce that if a non-empty set T of real numbers is bounded below. contradicting that assumption that p and q have no common factors apart from ±1. 1. and this clearly implies that p(n) is true for every n ∈ N. √ It follows that the real number we know as 2 does not belong to the set Q. No rational number x ∈ Q satisﬁes x2 = 2. Suppose that pq −1 has square 2. without loss of generality. A non-empty set T of real numbers is said to be bounded below if there exists a number k ∈ R such that x ≥ k for every x ∈ T . if p(m) is true for all m ≤ n. Then clearly (PIS1) holds.

Suppose on the contrary that M 2 = 2. contradicting conndition (S1). so that x ∈ S. √ √ Example 1. If M 2 < 2. Remark. The argument concerning Chapter 1 : The Number System √ 2 and inﬁmum √ 2 can be adapted to prove the following result. Let us investigate these two cases separately. The real number M satisfying conditions (S1) and (S2) is called the supremum of the non-empty set S.5. It follows from the Axiom of bound that there is a real number M satisfying conditions (S1) and (S2).2.6. Example 1. then we must have x2 > 4.2. Note that the supremum and inﬁmum belong to the interval.4. Then it follows from Axiom (O1) that M 2 < 2 or M 2 > 2. Note that the most important point of the Axiom of bound is that the supremum M is a real number. If M 2 > 2. Hence S is a non-empty set of real numbers and S is bounded above.2. The closed interval [ 2. Similarly. Example 1. Recall that there is√ rational no number which satisﬁes the equation x2 = 2. for example.3. and denoted by M = sup S.2. 1983. with √ supremum 2 and inﬁmum 2. 2M √ This implies that any x > M − will not belong to S.2. On the other hand. The set {x ∈ Q : x2 < 2} is bounded above and below. Note that the supremum and inﬁmum do not belong to the interval.2. The set {x ∈ R : x = (−1)n n−1 for some n ∈ N} is bounded above and below. The real number m satisfying conditions (I1) and (I2) is called the inﬁmum of the non-empty set S.2. 2 − M2 2M + 1 . contradicting condition (S2). The set Z is not bounded above or below. since 0 ∈ S. with √ supremum 2 and inﬁmum 2. page 6 of 13 . √ Let us now try to understand how numbers like 2 ﬁt into this setting. The open interval ( 2. The set N is not bounded above but is bounded below with inﬁmum 1. with supremum 1/2 and inﬁmum −1. Example 1. Clearly the set S is non-empty. This means that M + ∈ S. it is not diﬃcult to show that if x ∈ S. Note that M 2 = 2 and M is a real number. We now want to show that it is a real number. with supremum √ − 2. the inﬁmum m is also a real number. and denoted by m = inf S. 2008 Definition. This means that the number that we know as 2 is not a rational number. 2) = {x ∈ R : 2 < x < 2} is bounded above and below. We shall show that M 2 = 2. for if x > 2. √ √ Example 1. the set S is bounded above. 2] = {x ∈ R : 2 ≤ x ≤ 2} is bounded above and below. Let S = {x ∈ R : x2 < 2}. then we must have x ≤ 2.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. then we have (M + )2 = M 2 + 2M + 2 <2 whenever < min 1. It follows that what we know as 2 is a real number. Example 1. then we have (M − )2 = M 2 − 2M + 2 >2 whenever < M2 − 2 .1.

. n ∈ Q. . Suppose that a real number c ∈ R is positive. Using the Well-ordering principle. r2 ∈ Q such that x < r1 < r2 < y.1. Consider the positive real number qx. Hence M − 1 is an upper bound for N. By the Archimedean property. there exists k ∈ N such that k > −x. and so M − 1 ≥ 1. It now follows that qx < p = (p − 1) + 1 < qx + q(y − x) = qy. and so x < z < y. is independent of the choice of p and q. there exist a rational number and an irrational number. q Suppose now that x ≤ 0. so that 1 < q(y − x). so that qx < p < qy. if we choose a natural number q large enough.. For every p ∈ Z and q ∈ N. Heuristically. then p − 1 = 0 < qx. so that x< p < y. By the Archimedean property. This is a consequence of the Axiom of bound. Furthermore. 1983. let p be the smallest such natural number n.. and suppose on the contrary that n ≤ x for every n ∈ N. we have M ≥ 2. where m = p/q with p ∈ Z and q ∈ N. then the interval (qx. and prove formally that the set N is not bounded above. In particular. Suppose that x ∈ R. there exists a natural number n ∈ N such that n > x. between any two distinct real numbers. there exists a unique positive real number x ∈ R such that xq = c. but is based entirely on this idea. M − 1 ≥ 2. say. M ≥ 3.. note that if p = 1. then p − 1 > qx would contradict the deﬁnition of p. so that x < s − k < y. the Index laws are satisﬁed: For every positive real number c ∈ R and rational numbers m.. page 7 of 13 . There exists s ∈ Q such that x + k < s < y + k. and conclude that there exist r1 . M ≥ 4. contradicting the hypothesis that M is the supremum of N. y ∈ R and x < y. THEOREM 1C. we have cm cn = cm+n and (cm )n = cmn . We next elaborate on Example 1. The rational numbers and irrational numbers are dense in the set R. there exists n ∈ N such that n > qx. Chapter 1 : The Number System . To show that there exists z ∈ R \ Q such that x < z < y. qy) has length greater than 1 and must contain an integer p. 2008 THEOREM 1B. To see this. The formal argument is somewhat more complicated. THEOREM 1D.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. √ We denote by c1/q or q c the unique positive real solution of the equation xq = c given by Theorem 1B. Then clearly p − 1 ≤ qx. We now establish the following important result central to the theory of mathematical analysis. so that k + x > 0. Then the set N is bounded above by x. if p = 1. We shall ﬁrst show that there exists r ∈ Q such that x < r < y. It can be shown that the deﬁnition of cm . there exists q ∈ N such that q > 1/(y − x). Clearly s − k ∈ Q.2. Proof. we ﬁrst use our earlier argument twice. The number 1 z = r1 + √ (r2 − r1 ) 2 is clearly irrational and satisﬁes r1 < z < r2 . By the Archimedean property. . Consider the special case when x > 0. we deﬁne cp/q = (c1/q )p . M − 1 ≥ 3. Proof.. Then for every natural number q ∈ N. Suppose that x. (ARCHIMEDEAN PROPERTY) For every real number x ∈ R. and so has a supremum M . The idea is very simple. More precisely.

.1. + |an |) . The real number x is called the real part of z. a1 . THEOREM 1E. page 8 of 13 x2 + y 2 = Re1 = 1. and denoted by x = Rez. . . The numbers a + bi. . we lose the Order axioms and the Axiom of bound. We shall use this to establish the following result which shows that a polynomial is eventually dominated by its term of highest order. and the restriction i2 + 1 = 0. The set C = {z = x + yi : x. Then |z| + |w| |z| |w| z w = + = + |z + w| |z + w| |z + w| z+w z+w z z w w ≥ Re + Re = Re + z+w z+w z+w z+w The result follows immediately. an ∈ C and an = 0. Applying the Triangle inequality a ﬁnite number of times. with coeﬃcients a0 . and denoted by y = Imz. Deﬁne the number i by i2 + 1 = 0. . . Furthermore. The Complex Numbers In this section. To prove the Triangle inequality (b). we have to introduce extra numbers into our number system. . and (b) |z + w| ≤ |z| + |w|. 1983. . 2(|a0 | + |a1 | + . y ∈ R. 2008 1. which is then combined with the real numbers by the operations addition and multiplication in accordance with the Field axioms in Section 1. For every z. we write |z| = and call this the modulus of z. The ﬁrst part is left as an exercise. We then extend the ﬁeld of all real numbers by adjoining the number i. of the extended ﬁeld are then added and multiplied in accordance with the Field axioms. + |zk |. we brieﬂy review some important properties of the complex numbers.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. Note that in C. |an | . behaves like the real number a. . In order to solve this equation. . where a. Consider a polynomial P (z) = a0 + a1 z + . w ∈ C. The real number y is called the imaginary part of z. note that the result is trivial if z + w = 0. we have (a) |zw| = |z||w|. suitably extended. where x. + zk | ≤ |z1 | + . . . Note that the number a + 0i. Definition. we have |z1 + . y ∈ R} is called the set of all complex numbers. + an z n in the complex variable z ∈ C. . Proof. THEOREM 1F. Suppose that z = x+yi. A set S of complex numbers is said to be bounded if there exists a number K ∈ R such that |z| ≤ K for every z ∈ T . we can show that for every z1 . . zk ∈ C. For every z ∈ C satisfying |z0 | ≥ R0 = we have n 1 2 |an ||z| Chapter 1 : The Number System 3 ≤ |P (z)| ≤ 2 |an ||z|n . . where a ∈ R. b ∈ R. Suppose now that z + w = 0. It is easy to see that the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no solution x ∈ R. .3.

. . Definition. .}. an2 . without loss of generality. . . is constant from some point onwards. Remark.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. page 9 of 13 . + an−1 z n−1 | + |an ||z|n and |an ||z|n = |P (z) − (a0 + a1 z + . . . . A set is ﬁnite if it contains a ﬁnite number of elements. 2008 Proof.4. . an example of an inﬁnite set. We may therefore assume. .. Then we can write X = {x1 .. . . . . so that if |z| ≥ R0 . + an−1 z n−1 | ≤ |a0 | + |a1 ||z| + . . Here we understand that there is a bijective mapping φ : X → N where φ(xn ) = n for every n ∈ N... we may write Xn = {an1 . with the convention that if Xn is ﬁnite. Note ﬁrst of all that |P (z)| ≤ |a0 + a1 z + . we have |a0 + a1 z + . . + an−1 z n−1 |. . Clearly R0 > 1. . THEOREM 1G. . 1. Proof. Suppose that X is countably inﬁnite. .}. the set Xi is countable. Since I is countably inﬁnite. A set X is said to be countable if it is ﬁnite or countably inﬁnite.. an3 . . + an−1 z n−1 | ≤ 2 |an ||z|n .. where for each i ∈ I. . a13 a23 a33 . To treat inﬁnite sets. . Countability In this brief account. 1983. We shall only consider (b). an3 . we treat intuitively the distinction between ﬁnite and inﬁnite sets. or (b) I is countably inﬁnite. + |an−1 | + |an |)|z|n−1 = 2 R0 |an ||z|n−1 ≤ 2 |an ||z|n as required. . . since (a) needs only minor modiﬁcation. . . then the sequence an1 . .. our starting point is the set N of all natural numbers. . . that I = N. Either (a) I is ﬁnite. . there exists a bijective mapping from I to N. It therefore remains to establish the inequality 1 |a0 + a1 z + . A set X is said to be countably inﬁnite if there exists a bijective mapping from X to N. x2 . . A countable union of countable sets is countable. an2 . Hence we have a doubly inﬁnite array a11 a21 a31 . since Xn is countable. . . x3 . . + an−1 z n−1 )| ≤ |P (z)| + |a0 + a1 z + . Chapter 1 : The Number System a12 a22 a32 . Let I be a countable index set. + |an−1 ||z|n−1 ≤ (|a0 | + |a1 | + . . For each n ∈ N. + |an−1 |)|z|n−1 1 1 ≤ (|a0 | + |a1 | + .

where n1 = min{n ∈ N : xn ∈ Y }. note that any x ∈ Q can be written in the form The set is countable. then we say that X2 has greater cardinality than X1 . the above clearly gives rise to a bijection from X to N. we ﬁrst need an intermediate result. Since both can be mapped to N bijectively. xn3 . then the result is is trivial. If X is inﬁnite. To see this. . where p ∈ Z and q ∈ N. For example. The set QQ iscountable. −3. It is easy to see that for every n ∈ N. The set ZZ is countable. Cardinality can be considered as a way of measuring size. THEOREM 1H. Any subset a countable set is countable. WeWe therefore assume that X is countably inﬁnite. . The set is countable. x3 . then we can write Y = {xn1 . we ﬁrst need an intermediate result. Let be a countable set. the set Qn = {p/n : p ∈ Z} is n countable. We shall now show that R has greater cardinality than Q. If there exists a one-to-one mapping from X1 to X2 and no one-to-one mapping from X2 to X1 . We now list these elements in the order indicated by • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • but discarding duplicates. . The result follows from Theorem 1G on observing that Q= n∈N Qn .4.}. so that can write is countably inﬁnite. Simply note that Z = N ∪ {0} ∪ {−1.}. −2. Any subset ofof a countable set is countable. To see this. . xn2 . If Y is ﬁnite. so that we we can write X = {x1 . therefore assume that X Proof. then the result is trivial. If Y is inﬁnite. 2008 of elements of the set X= n∈N Xn . . In this case. Simply note that Z = N ∪ {0} ∪ {−1. Example 1. . . x2 . then the result trivial.2. . −3. it follows that each can be mapped to the other bijectively..4. If X is ﬁnite. If X is ﬁnite. . Example 1. −2. we say that the two sets X1 and X2 have the same cardinality. N and Q have the same cardinality..}. ToTo do so. Since both can be mapped Suppose that two sets XX1 and X2are both countably inﬁnite. do so.}. note that any x ∈ Q can be written p/q.1.. Suppose that two sets 1 and X2 are both countably inﬁnite.1–10 WW Fundamentals of AnalysisL Chen : Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. Let Y be a subset of X. Let XX be a countable set. Chapter 1 : The Number System page 10 of 13 . 1983.

This may appear to be satisfactory. Then we can write [0. . . 1. 9} and yn ≡ xnn + 5 (mod 10). . as we simply choose one. . . For each n ∈ N. x3 = . Cardinal Numbers It is easy to show that there exists a bijective mapping from a ﬁnite set X1 to a ﬁnite set X2 if and only if the two sets X1 and X2 have the same number of elements. . which satisﬁes the following property: For any two sets X and Y . x3 .x21 x22 x23 . 1) is not countable. x2 = .x31 x32 x33 . .x11 x12 x13 . np = min{n > np−1 : xn ∈ Y }. . The result follows. . .4. . In view of Theorem 1H. we have ℵ0 = c. we say that the two sets have the same cardinality. (2) We write ℵ0 = |N| and c = |R|. The set R is not countable. but it does not matter. we have |X| = |Y | if and only if there exists a bijective mapping f : X → Y . . THEOREM 1J. POSTULATE OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS. . contradicting (1). . . . It is then convenient to denote the cardinality of a ﬁnite set by the number of elements that it contains. . (1) 1.3. Note that the set R \ Q of all irrational numbers is not countable. since there cannot be a bijective mapping from an inﬁnite set to a ﬁnite set. we express xn in decimal notation in the form xn = . Note that this expression may not be unique. 2. Suppose on the contrary that [0. . there are far more irrational numbers than rational numbers. (1) Note that the cardinal number of an inﬁnite set cannot be equal to the cardinal number of a ﬁnite set. 1). Example 1. . . . We now have x1 = . . we need the following axiom which covers inﬁnite sets as well. where for each k ∈ N. For every set X. 1) is countable. . Then clearly y = xn for any n ∈ N. 1) = {x1 . But y ∈ [0. it suﬃces to show that the set [0. 2008 and where.xn1 xn2 xn3 . the digit xnk ∈ {0. Remarks. x2 .y1 y2 y3 .Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. . Proof. (3) Note that |X| = ℵ0 for any countably inﬁnite set X. yn ∈ {0. 1. . Strictly speaking.}. there exists an object |X|. In this case. . . Let y = . 1983.5. 9}. (4) In view of Theorem 1J. It follows that in the sense of cardinality. and take the non-negative integers to represent the ﬁnite cardinal numbers. . Chapter 1 : The Number System page 11 of 13 . called the cardinal number of X. where for each n ∈ N. for every p ≥ 2. 2. .

−− −− −− −− −− −− −− Here y1 is the predecessor of x. (CANTOR-BERNSTEIN-SCHRODER THEOREM) Suppose that X and Y are sets. where g(y) = x. Similarly. . Similarly. (1) Note that the deﬁnition is consistent with our observation at the beginning of this section and the usual meaning of the inequalities ≤ and < when applied to non-negative integers. we shall say that y has no predecessor. . we shall say that y1 is the predecessor of x. Remarks. g f g f g f g f g f g f g f Chapter 1 : The Number System page 12 of 13 . The special case when the sets X and Y are ﬁnite is obvious. • For any element x ∈ X whose chain terminates on the left with an element of Y with no predecessor. (2) We say that |X| < |Y | when |X| ≤ |Y | and |X| = |Y |. 1983. In this case. y1 is the predecessor of x1 . there exist injective mappings f : X → Y and g : Y → X. The purpose of this section is to prove the following famous result. y2 is the predecessor of x1 . we can construct a chain as follows: . . exactly one of the following holds: • For every x ∈ X. Suppose further that |X| ≤ |Y | and |Y | ≤ |X|. . ¨ THEOREM 1K. Then |X| = |Y |. we have f (x) = y. It follows that for every element x ∈ X. and that every y ∈ Y is the predecessor of a unique element g(y) in X. We now deﬁne a mapping h : X → Y as follows: • For any element x ∈ X whose chain does not terminate on the left or terminates on the left with an element in X with no predecessor. x1 is the predecessor of y1 . for every y ∈ Y . − − → y2 − − → x1 − − → y1 − − → x − − → f (x) − − → g(f (x)) − − → . Again the chain does not terminate on the right. (2) Note that |X| < |Y | for every ﬁnite set X and inﬁnite set Y . 2008 Definition. Note that the function h : X → Y deﬁned in this way gives a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of X and the elements of Y in each chain. − − → x2 − − → y1 − − → x1 − − → y − − → g(y) − − → f (g(y)) − − → . we can construct a chain as follows: . Here the uniqueness follows from the injective property of the mapping f : X → Y .Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. • There exists a unique y1 ∈ Y such that g(y1 ) = x. . but may terminate on the left at an element with no predecessor. for every element y ∈ Y . we shall say that x has no predecessor. and so gives a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of X and Y . It is easy to see that no element of X or Y can be in two distinct chains. x2 is the predecessor of y1 . . Here the uniqueness follows from the injective property of the mapping g : Y → X. and so on. Observe also that every x ∈ X is the predecessor of a unique element f (x) in Y . . we let h(x) = y. Note that the chain does not terminate on the right. • There exists a unique x1 ∈ X such that f (x1 ) = y. but may terminate on the left at an element with no predecessor. (1) We say that |X| ≤ |Y | if there exists an injective mapping f : X → Y . we shall say that x1 is the predecessor of y. exactly one of the following holds: • For every y ∈ Y . we let h(x) = f (x). . and so on. For every x ∈ X. Suppose that X and Y are sets. −− −− −− −− −− −− −− Here x1 is the predecessor of y. In this case. so that y is the predecessor of x. we have g(y) = x. Since |X| ≤ |Y | and |Y | ≤ |X|. Proof. In this case. In this case.

Suppose that A is a bounded set of real numbers. 5. Show that b−1 > a−1 . b) Discuss the case A − B = {a − b : a ∈ A and b ∈ B}. Suppose that A and B are non-empty sets of real numbers bounded above and below. 13. a) Let A + B = {a + b : a ∈ A and b ∈ B}. Suppose that A and B are non-empty sets of positive real numbers bounded above and below. a) Let A ∪ B = {x : x ∈ A or x ∈ B}. 2. determine whether sup A and inf A exist. For each of the following sets A. a) b) c) d) Find a bijection from (0. B ∈ R with A < B. 1). Chapter 1 : The Number System page 13 of 13 . 1) to (0. B) to (−1. b) Discuss the case A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}. a) Let AB = {ab : a ∈ A and b ∈ B}. Show that ab < 0. n ∈ N} 3 e) A = {x ∈ R : x − 4x < 0} f) A = {1 + x2 : x ∈ R} 4. For any real number k ∈ R. Explain why inf A ≤ inf B ≤ sup B ≤ sup A. Show that sup A ≤ a. b) Discuss the case when the sets A and B can contain negative real numbers. Suppose that a. What is the cardinality of the interval (A. sup B} and inf(A ∪ B) = min{inf A. 10. What can we say about sup(kA) and inf(kA)? 11. a) Suppose that x ≤ a for every x ∈ A. 1983. Find a bijection from (−1. b) Show that the corresponding statement with ≤ replaced by < does not hold. Prove that the cartesian product of two countable sets is countable. 2008 Problems for Chapter 1 1. Prove that a ≤ b. Suppose that A. 1) to R.Fundamentals of Analysis c W W L Chen. Find a bijection from (A. Prove that any isolated point set in C is countable. ∞). 9. inf B}. Suppose that A is a non-empty set of real numbers bounded above and below. consider the set kA = {ka : a ∈ A}. and that B is a non-empty subset of A. Suppose that a. Prove that sup(A ∪ B) = max{sup A. Suppose that A and B are non-empty sets of real numbers bounded above and below. b ∈ R satisfy b < a < 0. 6. Prove that sup(A + B) = sup A + sup B and inf(A + B) = inf A + inf B. Prove that sup(AB) = (sup A)(sup B) and inf(AB) = (inf A)(inf B). 14. 3. 7. Prove that the set of all rational points in C is countable. 12. Prove that the set of all real algebraic numbers is countable. b ∈ R satisfy a > 0 and b < 0. B) in part (c)? 15. b ∈ R satisfy a < b + n−1 for every n ∈ N. and ﬁnd their values if appropriate and determine also whether sup A and inf A belong to the set A: a) A = {n−1 : n ∈ N} b) A = {(|n| + 1)−2 : n ∈ Z} −1 c) A = {n + n : n ∈ N} d) A = {2−m − 3n : m. 8. A real algebraic number is any real solution of a polynomial equation with coeﬃcients in Z. Suppose that a. A rational point in C is one with rational real and imaginary parts.

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