®

Even Failsafe Is Subject to Change
By Wayne Colonna Technical Editor

I

believe it is “safe” to say that the 41TE (A604) was the first to have a “limp-in mode” (also referred to as “failsafe”) in which the strategy of the transmission control module (TCM) was to place the transaxle into a specific gear (2nd) after it detected a fault. The E4OD transmissions were on the road at that time, and Ford’s strategy was to elevate line pressure (FMEM - Failure Mode Effect Management) rather than placing the transmission into one specific gear. Since then, technology has leaped forward at a vicious pace, not breaking for breath. And with this technological race among the “Big 3” manufacturers (U.S., Japan and Europe) comes the need for various computer strategies. Failsafe is one of those strategies that has experienced a change. For example, in the August 2002 issue of Transmission Digest I wrote an article called “Howzetwerks” pertaining to the Mercedes 722.6 transmission. In that article I presented the shift sequence of the solenoids through an ON/OFF application chart, as you can see in this article in Figure 1. Shift solenoids 1-2/4-5, 2-3 and 3-4 are toggled off- on-off in making their respective shifts. While the transmission is in gear they remain in the off state. This type of strategy allows the computer to

failsafe the transmission in whichever gear it was in at the time the computer system observed a fault. Not until after the vehicle is brought to a stop and the ignition is cycled will the transmission default to second gear (using the equivalent trans-

mission with the W5A 580 designation, this strategy remains the same in Jaguar’s V-8 XJ8 and XK8 models). Another manufacturer that incorporates a slight twist in its failsafe strategy is ZF Industries in its ZF-4HP-18 FLE and FLA transmis-

1
Gear Shifts

722.6 Solenoid Application Chart
Solenoid
1-2/4-5 Off On Off Off Off Off Off On Off

First Shift Second Shift Third Shift Fourth Shift Fifth

2-3 Off Off Off On Off Off Off Off Off

3-4 ● Off Off Off Off Off On Off Off Off

Mod PC ▼ PWM PWM PWM PWM PWM PWM PWM PWM PWM

Shift PC ■ Off PWM Off PWM Off PWM Off PWM Off

▲ 1-/4-5 Solenoid is pulsed during ignition crank. ● 3-4 Shift solenoid is pulsed continuously while in Park and during selector lever movement (Garage Shifts). ▼ A) It is pulsed constantly while idling in Park or Neutral at approximately 40% Duty cycle. B) Voltage observed varied with throttle opening as well as during selector lever movement. ■ A) It is pulsed constantly while idling in Park or Neutral at approximately 33% Duty cycle. B) Voltage observed varied with throttle opening during each gear shift only. The TCC solenoid not listed here is also Pulse Width Modulated and duty cycles to apply the clutch.

30

Transmission Digest

When vehicle is in January 2003 31 . vehicle remains in gear until engine *** Electrical failure once again started. is turned off. ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON *** * ON For Reverse Inhibit Feature.® 2 ZF-4HP-18FLE (2WD Version) ZF-4HP-18FLA (A WD Version) sions (see Figure 2). Before we enter the explanation of this failsafe strategy. ** Pressure Regulating. This piece of information will enter into the failsafe strategy in just a little while. it is important to note that this particular unit has a 3-4 clutch called the E clutch that is driven through the damper plate in the converter similar to that of a Ford AOD or VW/Audi’s Phase 0 and 1 transmissions. 199496 Audi A8 and 1991-94 Porsches. This means that there is no converter-clutch operation and that 3rd and 4th gears basically are driven off the crankshaft. Vehicles in the United States that would have this style of transmission are 199197 Audi 100 Quatro and A6. A careful observation of this chart reveals that the MV1 and MV3 solenoids are the two shift solenoids that shift this transmission through its four 3 Range Park/Neut Reverse Drive-1st Drive-2nd Drive-3rd Drive-4th Manual-1st "Failsafe" ZF-4HP-18FLE SOLENOID AND COMPONENT APPLICATION CHART MV-1 MV-2 MV-3 EDS-1 A Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid Clutch ON ON ON B Clutch 2-4 Band C Clutch D Clutch E Clutch * ON ON ON ON ON ** ** ** ** ** ** ** Max. Figure 3 illustrates both a clutch and solenoid application chart. transaxle will be 4thFailsafe 2nd gear. while in 4th gear.

® 4 Suction Normal Safety Mode Valve Operation 6 Normal Safety Mode Valve Operation To SV-2 Suction Output Output To SV-1 To SV-2 To SV-1 Safety Mode Valve Safety Mode Valve To SV-3 To SV-3 To SV-2 1/R Valve To SV-3 To SV-3 To SV-2 1/R Valve To SV-2 1/R Valve To MOD. Valve MV 1 OFF MV 2 OFF MV 3 OFF EDS 1 x MV 1 OFF MV 2 ON MV 3 ON EDS 1 x X X X Park Position Engine Off X X X Park Position Engine OnMV-1 Off MV-2 On MV-3 On 5 Limp In While Driving Safety Mode Valve Operation To SV-2 7 Limp In Before Engine Start Up Now After The Engine Is Started The Safety Mode Valve Is Held To The Right By The Spring To SV-2 Suction Output To SV-1 Suction Output To SV-1 Safety Mode Valve Safety Mode Valve To SV-3 To SV-3 To SV-2 1/R Valve To SV-3 To SV-3 To SV-2 1/R Valve To SV-2 1/R Valve To MOD. Valve To SV-2 1/R Valve To MOD. Valve MV 1 OFF MV 2 OFF MV 3 OFF EDS 1 x MV 1 OFF MV 2 OFF MV 3 OFF EDS 1 x X X X X X X D 4th Gear .All Off 32 Transmission Digest .All Off D 2nd Gear . Valve To SV-2 1/R Valve To MOD.

030" .029" .046" MAIN REGULATOR VALVE B C D E .050" x A ORIFICE I.030" . . . x x EDS 1 F . .070" ORIFICE E "A" CLUTCH x C' ACCUMULATOR x SV-2 x x "E" CLUTCH SAFETY MODE VALVE * 1st & REVERSE VALVE x x "D" CLUTCH F MODULATING PRESSURE PORT .099" "C" CLUTCH TRACTION VALVE 030" .029" . MODULATING PRESSURE x 030" .068" x x SV-3 LEGEND "E" ACCUMULATOR x .068" "B" CLUTCH x x .030" .020" ORIFICE "D" ACCUMULATOR C' BAND 2-4 BAND x .060" ORIFICE January 2003 X X TO CONVERTER (LUBRICATION) TORQUE CONVERTER LIMIT VALVE MANUAL VALVE P R N D 32 1 SUCTION OUTPUT .020" 050" .040" .068" x x 470U D .025" "A" CLUTCH CHECK VALVE .050" C "D" CLUTCH ONE-WAY CHECK VALVE .030" MAIN LINE PRESSURE PUMP SUCTION CONVERTER PRESSURE CUTBACK PRESSURE 4-3 TRACTION VALVE 3-4 TRACTION 068" EDS1 PRESSURE x MV1-3 REDUCING PRESSURE CONNECTED CIRCUIT "A" CLUTCH PREFILL .029" .050" .029" EDS1 SCREEN x x x x PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FOR MV1-3 * NOTE: MV2 IS INITIALLY ENERGIZED IN PARK/NEUTRAL TO STROKE THE SAFETY MODE VALVE FILTER MV 1 OFF MV 2 OFF MV 3 OFF SUMP X X x X PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FOR EDS1 x x MODULATING VALVE DRIVE POSITION 4th GEAR Copyright © 2001 ATSG ® 33 .8 . .030" "A" ACCUMULATOR B . 030" 030" .030" "C" CLUTCH A MAIN LINE CHECK PORT x SV-1 .030" .D.

029" . .030" .050" x B C D ORIFICE I.030" A "A" ACCUMULATOR B .030" "A" CLUTCH CHECK VALVE E F .068" "B" CLUTCH x .020" .029" .030" ® "C" CLUTCH A MAIN LINE CHECK PORT x SV-1 .068" .029" x x EDS 1 x x x * NOTE: MV2 IS INITIALLY ENERGIZED IN PARK/NEUTRAL TO STROKE THE SAFETY MODE VALVE FILTER MV 1 OFF MV 2 OFF MV 3 OFF SUMP X X x PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FOR MV1-3 x X Transmission Digest PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FOR EDS1 x x MODULATING VALVE DRIVE POSITION 2nd GEAR (LIMP-IN) Copyright © 2001 ATSG .050" 3-4 TRACTION .D.030" .099" .030" .046" MAIN REGULATOR VALVE .020" ORIFICE x "D" ACCUMULATOR C' BAND 2-4 BAND x .029" "C" CLUTCH TRACTION VALVE .050" C "D" CLUTCH ONE-WAY CHECK VALVE .030" .070" ORIFICE E "A" CLUTCH x C' ACCUMULATOR x SV-2 x x "E" CLUTCH SAFETY MODE VALVE * 1st & REVERSE VALVE x x "D" CLUTCH F MODULATING PRESSURE PORT .030" MODULATING PRESSURE x MAIN LINE PRESSURE PUMP SUCTION CONVERTER PRESSURE .040" .025" .030" CUTBACK PRESSURE 4-3 TRACTION VALVE EDS1 PRESSURE x MV1-3 REDUCING PRESSURE CONNECTED CIRCUIT "A" CLUTCH PREFILL ..068" SV-3 x x LEGEND "E" ACCUMULATOR x .068" x x 470U D .050" .030" .030" EDS1 SCREEN .060" ORIFICE 34 9 X X TO CONVERTER (LUBRICATION) TORQUE CONVERTER LIMIT VALVE MANUAL VALVE P R N D32 1 SUCTION OUTPUT .

especially the MV2. So the question arises: How can all the solenoids be off to make 4th gear yet also all be off to make 2nd-gear failsafe? This task is achieved via the MV2 solenoid. Without stroking the safety-mode valve. the pump and the safety-mode valve.com 35 . Coming to a stop in fourth gear would stall the engine. but when it comes to a stop. The new 5L40-E transmission in some late-model 3 and 5 Series BMWs and Cadillac’s CTS vehicles employs a similar strategy in that it too uses a safety-mode valve to determine different failsafe modes. the pump pressure routed to the left side of the valve holds it to the left and the pump pressure on the right side of the valve is blocked. Figure 9 shows both solenoids off in 2nd-gear failsafe. When both solenoids are turned off and the safety-mode valve is held to the left by pump pressure. it will be in failsafe 4th gear. though. it can shut the solenoids off and the vehicle will be in fourth gear. You also can see that both these solenoids are off for 4th gear and for 2nd-gear failsafe. Platinum is compatible with all popular formulations of ATF.atsgmiami. If you look carefully. both shift valves 2 and 3 are held closed by spring tension and fourth gear is achieved (see Figure 6). 800-333-LUBE www. 98 We need more information. MV2 solenoid oil strokes the safetymode valve to the left.lubegard. This concept of the safetymode valve with ZF is not unique. directing oil to the appropriate band or clutches. If you didn’t know this unit’s operation. the pump pressure going to the right end of the valve is able to be directed to and stroke both shift valves. but after an ignition cycle. TD THE BOTTOM LINE: Tell us your opinion of this article: Circle the corresponding number on the free information card. Figure 4 provides a partial hydraulic diagram in the Park position with the engine off. And that is exactly what Figure 5 illustrates with the vehicle started in Park. If you remember from just a few paragraphs ago. it becomes a gateway for the MV3 solenoid oil to act on shift valves (SV) 2 and 3. But when the ignition is cycled. the MV2 solenoid turns on. So the transmission can failsafe to fourth while the vehicle is being driven. You will notice that pump pressure is routed to the right side of the valve as well. which strokes both shift valves. You can use these two figures for comparison. you will see that pump pressure is routed to and blocked by the land of the safety-mode valve closest to the spring. Now that you have this understanding. Lubegard Platinum is a new and unique universal ATF protectant that offers unsurpassed heat transfer and decrease of wear to parts. During driving conditions it will failsafe to 5th gear.com. Figure 7 illustrates what happens now when the vehicle is turned off and pump pressure stops.® gears. January 2003 Now. the spring is holding the safety-mode valve to the right. it would be reasonable to think that failure of the converter-clutch solenoid was the problem. 3rd and 4th gears basically are driven off the crankshaft via the E clutch through the damper plate in the converter. if the computer system detects a fault while the vehicle is being driven. In short. As soon as the engine starts and there is pressure in the system. This type of configuration adds another dimension to the computer’s failsafe shift strategy. But it cannot come to a stop in fourth gear. 96 Useful information. the ZF strategy is a bit more involved because of the direct link from the crankshaft into the transmission when the vehicle is in third or fourth gear. The safety-mode valve is forced to the right by spring tension. Containing the patented LXE and Synergol technology. Without hydraulic pressure and with all solenoids off. This action will prevent a stall from occurring. It also means that if loss of power to the solenoids occurred while you were driving a vehicle with one of these ZFs. When the vehicle is started. the computer will not cycle any of the solenoids. with the safety-mode valve stroked to the left. the computer will command second gear electronically by energizing both shift solenoids. illustrated in Figure 8 is a full hydraulic schematic of both solenoids off in fourth gear. it would dump to fourth and when you came to a stop would stay in fourth and stall the engine. complete oil schematics and valve-body mapping for this ZF transmission and VW/Audi 01M transmission are available in ATSG’s online bookstore at www. Once the valve is stroked. With the safety-mode valve now stroked to the left. Admittedly. 97 Not useful information. the MV1 and MV3 solenoids can work together. How surprising it would be when you tried to order one and learned that it does not exist! Many thanks to Jim Dial for all the ZF illustrations used in this article! Full. placing the vehicle in 2nd-gear failsafe with both solenoids off.

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