Historical Background
Between 1941-1945, Philippine Literature was interrupted in its development when the Philippines was again conquered by another foreign country, Japan. Philippine literature in English came to a halt. Except for the TRIBUNE and the PHILIPPINE REVIEW, almost all newspapers in English were stopped by the Japanese. This had an advantageous effect on Filipino Literature, which

experienced renewed attention because writers in English turned to writing in Filipino. Juan Laya, who use to write in English turned to Filipino because of the strict prohibitions of the Japanese regarding any writing in English. The weekly LIWAYWAY was placed under strict surveillance until it was managed by Japanese named Ishiwara. In other words, Filipino literature was given a break during this period. Many wrote plays, poems, short stories, etc. about life in the provinces. A. FILIPINO POETRY DURING THIS PERIOD The common theme of most poems during the Japanese occupation was nationalism, country, love, and life in the barrios, faith, religion and the arts.
Three types of poems emerged during this period. They were: 1. Haiku ² a poem of free verse that the Japanese like. It was made up of 17 syllables divided into three lines. The first line had 5 syllables, the second, 7 syllables, and the third, five. The Haiku is allegorical in meaning, is short and covers a wide scope in meaning. 2. Tanaga ² like the Haiku, is short but it had measure and rhyme. Each line had 17 syllables and it·s also allegorical in meaning. 3. Karaniwang Anyo (Usual Form) ² like those mentioned earlier in the beginning chapters of this book.

Topics and themes were often

B. FILIPINO DRAMA DURING THE JAPANESE PERIOD The drama experienced a lull during the Japanese period because movie houses showing American films were closed. The big movie houses were just made to show stage shows. Many of the plays were reproductions of English plays to Tagalog. The translators were Francisco Soc Rodrigo, Alberto Concio, and Narciso Pimentel. They also founded the organization of Filipino players named Dramatic Philippines. A few of play writers were: 1. Jose Ma. Hernandez ² wrote PANDAY PIRA 2. Francisco Soc Rodrigo ² wrote sa PULA, SA PUTI 3. Clodualdo del Mundo ² wrote BULAGA (an expression in the game Hide and Seek).

1943. Julian Cruz Balmaceda ² wrote SINO BA KAYO?.  Other writers of this period were Juan Collas (19440. HIS NATIVE SOIL ² by Juan Laya (Novel)  President Manuel L. LIKE THE MOLAVE ² by Rafael Zulueta da Costa (Poetry) 2. and HIGANTE NG PATAY.4. Liwayway Arceo. The Commonwealth Literary Awards gave prizes to meritorious writers. Jose P. Ligaya Perez. Roman A. and Gloria Guzman. LITERATURE AND SOCIETY ² by Salvador P. Serafin Guinigindo. While some continued to write. SIX FILIPINO POETS. Antonio Rosales. among others. The few who dared to write did so for their bread and butter or for propaganda. Narciso Ramos. Tomas Confesor (1945). Quezon·s autobiography THE GOOD FIGHT was published posthumously. Many wrote short stories. THE FILIPINO SHORT STORY DURING THE JAPANESE PERIOD The field of the short story widened during the Japanese Occupation. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (1941-1945) Because of the strict prohibitions imposed by the Japanese in the writing and publishing of works in English. de la Cruz and Elisa Tabuñar. . DAHIL SA ANAK. NVM Gonzales. Arguilla (Short Story) 3. Writings that came out during this period were journalistic in nature. Jose Esperanza Cruz. Alicia Lopez Lim. Writers felt suppressed but slowly. The best writings in 1945 were selected by a group of judges composed of Francisco Icasiano. As a result of this selection. the majority waited for a better climate to publish their works. Lopez (Essay) 4. Carlos Bulosan·s works included THE LAUGHTER OF MY FATHER (1944).  Radio broadcasts echoed the mingled fear and doubts in the hearts of the people. Macario Pineda. the spirit of nationalism started to seep into their consciousness. Among them were: Brigido Batungbakal. HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGTH HOME A WIFE ² by Manuel E. Laurel published Forces that Make a Nation Great. 1942. Philippine literature in English experienced a dark period. Alfredo Litiatco published With Harp and Sling and in 1943. Those who won were: 1. THE VOICE OF BATAAN. C. Clodualdo del Mundo and Teodoro Santos. the following got the first three prizes: First Prize: Narciso Reyes with his LUPANG TINUBUAN Second Prize: Liwayway Arceo·s UHAW ANG TIGANG NA LUPA Third Prize: NVM Gonzales· LUNSOD NAYON AT DAGAT-DAGATAN D.

7 syllables and the third . The title of President Manuel L. Almost all newspapers in English were topped by the Japanese except for this two It is made up of 17 syllables divided into 3 lines. 4.Exercises 1-2. Like Haiku. 5. The first line had 5 syllables. the second. Quezon·s autobiography Common themes of most poems during the Spanish Occupation. I SEE THE PHILIPPINE RISE and HIS MOTHER AMERICA and MY BROTHER AMERICANS. 7-10. is short but it had measure and rhyme He won the Pulitzer Prize for his bestsellers I SAW THE FALL OF THE PHILIPPINES. . 6. 3. 5.

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