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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The ISO 9000 family of standards relates to quality management systems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders (Poksinska et al, 2002  ). The standards are published by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, and available through National standards bodies. ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems (Tsim et al, 2002  ), including the eight management principles (Beattie and Sohal, 1999; Tsim et al, 2002 ) on which the family of standards is based. ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard have to fulfill. Third party certification bodies provide independent confirmation that organizations meet the requirements of ISO 9001. Over a million organizations worldwide  are independently certified, making ISO 9001 one of the most widely used management tools in the world today. Despite widespread use, however, the ISO certification process has been criticized as being wasteful and not being useful for all organizations.
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1 Reasons for use 2 Background 3 Global adoption 4 Contents of ISO 9001
4.1 Summary of ISO 9001:2008 in informal language 4.2 Certification 5.1 1987 version 5.2 1994 version 5.3 2000 version
5 Evolution of ISO 9000 standards
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6 Auditing 7 Industry-specific interpretations 8 Effectiveness
8.1 Advantages 8.2 Problems
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9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 See also 13 External links
 Reasons for use
its history can be traced back some twenty years before that. interdepartmental communications. Rajan and Tamimi (2003)  showed that ISO 9001 certification resulted in superior stock market performance  and suggested that shareholders were richly rewarded  for the investment in an ISO 9001 system. and customer/supplier partnerships derived. The benefit of increased international trade and domestic market share. While the connection between superior financial performance and ISO 9001 may be seen from the examples cited. in addition to the internal benefits such as customer satisfaction. the improvement is partly driven by the fact that there is a tendency for better performing companies to seek ISO 9001 certification.  have suggested that while there is some evidence of this. a number of studies have identified significant financial benefits for organizations certified to ISO 9001. though longitudinal studies. It was based on the BS 5750 series of standards from BSI that were proposed to ISO in 1979. A number of major purchasers require their suppliers to hold ISO 9001 certification. Buttle (1997)  and Santos (2002)  both indicated internal process improvements in organizations leading to externally observable improvements. Chow-Chua et al (2002)  showed better overall financial performance was achieved for companies in Denmark. Naveh and Marcus (2007)  showed that implementing ISO 9001 led to superior operational performance. with a 2011 survey from the British Assessment Bureau showing 44% of their certified clients had won new business. Corbett et al (2005)  showed that certified organizations achieved superior return on assets  compared to otherwise similar organizations without certification. inventory reductions.  Background With permission of BSI Group ISO 9000 was first published in 1987. such as those of Corbett et al (2005)  may suggest it. Hendricks and Singhal (2001)  results indicate that firms outperform their control group during the post-implementation period and effective implementation of total quality management principles and philosophies leads to significant wealth creation.The ISO family of standards is the only international standard that addresses systemic change. Other writers. to the publication of the Department of Defense MIL-Q-9858 . work processes. Lo et al (2007)  identified operational improvements (cycle time reduction. according to Alcorn. The mechanism for improving results has also been the subject of much research. Sharma (2005)  identified similar improvements in operating performance and linked this to superior financial performance. Heras et al (2002)  found similarly superior performance  and demonstrated that this was statistically significant and not a function of organization size. such as Heras et al (2002). However. far exceeds any and all initial investment. etc. In addition to several stakeholders’ benefits.) as following from certification. there remains no proof of direct causation. The global adoption of ISO 9001 may be attributable to a number of factors.
standard in 1959. MIL-Q-9858 was revised into the NATO AQAP series of standards in 1969.152 6 Germany 47. 2007.076 2 Italy 130. and finally revised into the BS 5750 series of requirements standards in 1979 before being submitted to ISO. The development of the ISO 9000 series is shown in the diagram to the right.066 3 Japan 68.484 4 Spain 59. Worldwide total of ISO 9001:2000/2008 certificates Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec 2009 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 457. of certificates 1 China 257. Its first certification  (FM 00001) is still extant and held by Tarmac. BSI has been certifying organizations for their quality management systems since 1978.132 773.576 5 Russian Federation 53.2009 Rank Country No. 2008 and 2009.493 9 USA 28. which now accounts for approximately a quarter of the global certifications.785 Source: ISO Survey 2009 In recent years there has been a rapid growth in China. The worldwide total of ISO 9001 certificates can be found in the ISO Survey of 9001 in 2003. a successor to the original company which held this certificate.  Global adoption The growth in ISO 9001 certification is shown in the table below.486 982.919 660. Top 10 countries for ISO 9001 certificates .834 510.767 497.193 8 India 37. Today BSI claims to certify organizations at nearly 70. which in turn were revised into the BS 5179 series of guidance standards published in 1974.867 896.000 sites globally. Republic of 23.064.400 Source: ISO Survey 2009  Contents of ISO 9001 .929 951.156 7 United Kingdom 41.349 561.935 10 Korea.832 1.
4) Internal Audits (8. analysis and improvement • Pages 2 to 14 132 1 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ In effect. The business makes decisions about the quality system based on recorded data.3) Control of Records (4. closely linked to the business and marketing plan and to customer needs. users need to address all sections 1 to 8. but only 4 to 8 need implementing within a QMS.2) Preventive Action (8.2. The quality policy is understood and followed at all levels and by all employees. . Each employee works towards measurable objectives. which do not contain specific requirements and are not used directly in certification. not specified in ISO 9000) Section 4: Quality Management System Section 5: Management Responsibility Section 6: Resource Management Section 7: Product Realization Section 8: Measurement. Outline contents for ISO 9001 are as follows: • • • Page iv: Foreword Pages v to vii: Section 0 Intro Pages 1 to 14: Requirements ○ ○ ○ Section 1: Scope Section 2: Normative Reference Section 3: Terms and definitions (specific to ISO 9001.2) Control of Nonconforming Product / Service (184.108.40.206. ISO 9000:2005 Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary and ISO 9004:2009 Managing for the sustained success of an organization — A quality management approach.3) The standard specifies six compulsory documents: • • • • • • In addition to these. • • Pages 15 to 22: Tables of Correspondence between ISO 9001 and other standards Page 23: Bibliography Control of Documents (4.3) Corrective Action (8.  Summary of ISO 9001:2008 in informal language • • • The quality policy is a formal statement from management.ISO 9001 certification of a fish wholesaler in Tsukiji ISO 9001:2008 Quality management systems — Requirements is a document of approximately 30 pages which is available from the national standards organization in each country.2. It is supplemented by two other standards. ISO 9001:2008 requires a quality policy and Quality Manual (which may or may not include the above documents).
or internal problems). with three 'models' for quality management systems. the selection of which was based on the scope of activities of the organization: . The business (1) makes sure no one uses bad product. There are no grades of competence within ISO 9001: either a company is certified (meaning that it is committed to the method and model of quality management described in the standard) or it is not. the business plans the stages of development. products. and complaints. with appropriate testing at each stage. but must be renewed at regular intervals recommended by the certification body. The business deals with past problems and potential problems.g. contracts. It has a documented procedure for internal audits. or after it receives a satisfactory improvement plan from the management showing how any problems will be resolved. Both the accreditation bodies and the certification bodies charge fees for their services. regulatory requirements. which audit organizations applying for ISO 9001 compliance certification. orders. Many countries have formed accreditation bodies to authorize certification bodies. and (4) keeps records to use as a tool to improve the system.• • • • • • • • • The quality system is regularly audited and evaluated for conformance and effectiveness. Records show how and where raw materials and products were processed to allow products and problems to be traced to the source.  Evolution of ISO 9000 standards  1987 version ISO 9000:1987 had the same structure as the UK Standard BS 5750. customers. services. The certificate is limited by a certain scope (e. the actual standard to which an organization's quality management can be certified is ISO 9001:2008. A list of problems ("action requests" or "non-compliance") is first made known to management. The business determines customer requirements. feedback. the certification body will issue an ISO 9001 certificate. If there are no major problems on this list. The business determines whether the quality system is working and what improvements can be made. The business has documented procedures for dealing with actual and potential nonconformances (problems involving suppliers. The various accreditation bodies have mutual agreements with each other to ensure that certificates issued by one of the Accredited Certification Bodies (CB) are accepted worldwide. production of golf balls) and names the locations covered. and monitors their effectiveness. ISO certification contrasts with measurement-based quality systems such as the Capability Maturity Model. It tests and documents whether the product meets design requirements. In this respect. It keeps records of these activities and the resulting decisions. The business has created systems for communicating with customers about product information. and user needs. inquiries. (3) deals with the root cause of problems. When developing new products. and processes. functions. (2) determines what to do with bad product. Although commonly referred to as ISO 9000:2000 certification.  Certification ISO does not itself certify organizations. An ISO certificate is not a once-and-for-all award. The business regularly reviews performance through internal audits and meetings. usually around three years. The applying organization is assessed based on an extensive sample of its sites.
Design and development procedures were required only if a company does in fact engage in the creation of new products.• ISO 9001:1987 Model for quality assurance in design. installation. 9002. which was likely the actual intent. ISO 9003:1987 Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test covered only the final inspection of finished product. in ISO 9001:2008.  2000 version ISO 9001:2000 combined the three standards—9001.  Auditing Two types of auditing are required to become registered to the standard: auditing by an external certification body (external audit) and audits by internal staff trained for this process (internal audits). called 9001. and servicing had basically the same material as ISO 9001 but without covering the creation of new products. There were no new requirements. For example. installation. production. Another goal was to improve effectiveness via process performance metrics: numerical measurement of the effectiveness of tasks and activities. who receive feedback from those professionals who are implementing the standard. instead of just checking final product. ISO 9001:2008 only introduced clarifications to the existing requirements of ISO 9001:2000 and some changes intended to improve consistency with ISO 14001:2004. and other Defense Standards ("MIL SPECS"). The 2000 version sought to make a radical change in thinking by actually placing the concept of process management front and center ("Process management" was the monitoring and optimizing of a company's tasks and activities. and continued to require evidence of compliance with documented procedures. ISO 9002:1987 Model for quality assurance in production. instead of just inspecting the final product). and to correct or prevent problems identified. and 9003—into one. Expectations of continual process improvement and tracking customer satisfaction were made explicit. As with the first edition. so as to bring a degree of independence to their judgments. and servicing was for companies and organizations whose activities included the creation of new products. It is considered healthier for internal auditors to audit outside their usual management line. development. The ISO 9000 standard is continually being revised by standing technical committees and advisory groups. The emphasis tended to be placed on conformance with procedures rather than the overall process of management.  1994 version ISO 9000:1994 emphasized quality assurance via preventive actions. the down-side was that companies tended to implement its requirements by creating shelf-loads of procedure manuals. . and so was well-suited to manufacturing. The aim is a continual process of review and assessment to verify that the system is working as it is supposed to. a quality management system being upgraded just needs to be checked to see if it is following the clarifications introduced in the amended version. with no concern for how the product was produced.S. adapting and improving processes could actually be impeded by the quality system. In some companies. to find out where it can improve. and becoming burdened with an ISO bureaucracy. • • ISO 9000:1987 was also influenced by existing U. The 2000 version also demanded involvement by upper executives in order to integrate quality into the business system and avoid delegation of quality functions to junior administrators.
professional soccer teams (Mexico) and city councils (UK)—have successfully implemented ISO 9001:2000 systems. unlike ISO 9001 or other sector standards. rather than merely adhering to what is formally prescribed. This is partly to ensure that their versions of ISO 9000 have their specific requirements. Northrop Grumman. The current version is AS9100. but also to try and ensure that more appropriately trained and experienced auditors are sent to assess them. Auditors are expected to go beyond mere auditing for rote compliance by focusing on risk. the latest version is based on ISO 9001:2008. yet the ISO 9001 guidelines. the auditing process could be adequately addressed by performing "compliance auditing": • • • Tell me what you do (describe the business process) Show me where it says that (reference the procedure manuals) Prove that this is what happened (exhibit evidence in documented records) The 2000 standard uses a different approach. especially software development. TL 9000 includes standardized product measurements that can be benchmarked. It includes techniques such as FMEA and APQP.0. whereas under the 2000 version. The difference from the previous standard can be explained thus: Under the 1994 version. PS 9000 * QS 9000 is an interpretation agreed upon by major automotive manufacturers (GM. Developing software is not like making cheese or offering counseling services. TL 9000 is the Telecom Quality Management and Measurement System Standard. General Electric Aircraft Engines. Those major manufacturers include AlliedSignal. status. Over time. • The TickIT guidelines are an interpretation of ISO 9000 produced by the UK Board of Trade to suit the processes of the information technology industry. ISO/TS 16949:2009 is an interpretation agreed upon by major automotive manufacturers (American and European manufacturers). Pratt & Whitney. McDonnell Douglas. the questions are more specific: "Will this process help you achieve your stated objectives? Is it a good process or is there a way to do it better?"  Industry-specific interpretations The ISO 9001 standard is generalized and abstract. because they are business management guidelines. can be applied to each of these. Rockwell-Collins. the question was broad: "Are you doing what the manual says you should be doing?". an interpretation developed by major aerospace manufacturers. Diverse organizations—police departments (US). various industry sectors have wanted to standardize their interpretations of the guidelines within their own marketplace. Chrysler). Sikorsky Aircraft. its parts must be carefully interpreted to make sense within a particular organization. Allison Engine. and importance. Ford. This means they are expected to make more judgments on what is effective. and Sundstrand. • • • • . ISO/TS 16949:2009 contains the full text of ISO 9001:2008 and automotive industry-specific requirements. The emphasis on a process approach is stronger than in ISO 9001:2008. The current version is 5.Under the 1994 standard. QuEST Forum. Lockheed-Martin. Boeing. In 1998 QuEST Forum developed the TL 9000 Quality Management System to meet the supply chain quality requirements of the worldwide telecommunications industry. AS9000 is the Aerospace Basic Quality System Standard. an interpretation developed by the telecom consortium. QS 9000 is now replaced by ISO/TS 16949.
they simply ignore the reports and focus on what they do understand. and organization). When management doesn't understand why they were non-compliant and the business implications associated with noncompliance. Many organizations that implement ISO try to make their system fit into a cookie-cutter quality manual instead of creating a manual that documents existing practices and only adds new processes to meet the ISO standard when necessary. and service of products for the petroleum. installation. While ISO auditors may not provide consulting to the clients they audit. and natural gas industries. This means taking into account all processes that deal with the three stakeholders (customers. this is like speaking a foreign language. 2. Many auditors simply rely on submitting reports that indicate compliance or non-compliance with the appropriate section of the standard. Organizations that implement an ISO system without this desire and commitment often take the cheapest road to get a certificate on the wall and ignore problem areas uncovered in the audits. Compliance with ISO 13485 does not necessarily mean compliance with ISO 9001:2000. 3. Does it help to obtain ISO 9001:2000 certification? Effectiveness of the ISO system being implemented depends on a number of factors. some customers will have a higher tolerance for product failures if they always receive shipments on-time or have a positive experience in some other dimension of customer service. to most executives. .• ISO 13485:2003 is the medical industry's equivalent of ISO 9001:2000. in the 2000 version ISO attempted to address many concerns and criticisms of ISO 9000:1994). and seek to improve them on a continual basis. ISO 13485:2003 is a stand-alone standard. development. Commitment of senior management to monitor. petrochemical. Are the quality principles in ISO 9001:2000 of value? (Note that the version date is important. the most significant of which are: 1. however. An ISO system should take into account all areas of the customer experience and the industry expectations. Whereas the standards it replaces were interpretations of how to apply ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 to medical devices. production. 2. and improve quality. • •  Effectiveness The debate on the effectiveness of ISO 9000 commonly centers on the following questions: 1." This means that a company doesn't necessarily have to make a product that never fails. It is equivalent to API Spec Q1 without the Monogram annex. How well the ISO system integrates into current business practices. ISO/TS 29001 is quality management system requirements for the design. only then will a company be able to sustain improvements in the customer's experience. How well the ISO system focuses on improving the customer experience. Auditors that can clearly identify and communicate areas of improvement in language and terms executive management understands facilitate action on improvement initiatives by the companies they audit. The broadest definition of quality is "Whatever the customer perceives good quality to be. ISO/IEC 90003:2004 provides guidelines for the application of ISO 9001:2000 to computer software. 4. Does it help to implement an ISO 9001:2000-compliant quality management system? 3. How well the auditor finds and communicates areas of improvement. suppliers. there is the potential for auditors to point out areas of improvement. control.
The standard is seen as especially prone to failure when a company is interested in certification before quality. "If you just want the certificate on the wall. elevate inspection of the correct procedures over broader aspects of quality. competitive advantage. Promotes international trade 7. according to Wade and also to Barnes. and paperwork required for registration. market share. sales margins. but that promoting it as a standard "helps to mislead companies into thinking that certification means better quality. Abrahamson argues that fashionable management discourse such as Quality Circles tends to follow a lifecycle in the form of a bell curve. effective operation 2. [undermining] the need for an organization to set its own quality standards. "has become a vehicle to increase consulting services. Creates a more efficient. then most of the paperwork has already been completed. and morale 6. Increases profit 8. Certifications are in fact often based on customer contractual requirements rather than a desire to actually improve quality. and procedures rather than understanding and improvement." Wilson suggests that ISO standards ".. Wade's argument is that reliance on the specifications of ISO 9001 does not guarantee a successful quality system. time.  Problems A common criticism of ISO 9001 is the amount of money. According to Barnes. who says that "ISO 9000 guidelines provide a comprehensive model for quality management systems that can make any company competitive. ." According to Seddon."  Paraphrased. Certification by an independent auditor is often seen as the problem area." and therefore. ISO 9001 promotes specification. "the workplace becomes oppressive and quality is not improved. leading to a softer approach to the defects noticed in the operation of the Quality System of a firm."  In fact.. most consumers are not aware of ISO 9000 and it holds no relevance to them. possibly indicating a management fad. Increases customer satisfaction and retention 3. While internationally recognized.. Reduces audits 4.. . and avoidance of litigation. ISO itself advises that ISO 9001 can be implemented without certification. simply for the quality benefits that can be achieved. The cost can actually put a company at a competitive disadvantage when competing against a non-ISO 9000-certified company. and according to Barnes." said ISO's Roger Frost." Implementing ISO often gives the following advantages: 1. "Opponents claim that it is only for documentation. awareness. control. Another problem reported is the competition among the numerous certifying bodies. Advantages It is widely acknowledged that proper quality management improves business. Proponents believe that if a company has documented its quality systems. often having a positive effect on investment. The added cost to certify and then maintain certification may not be justified if product end users do not require ISO 9000. Improves employee motivation. Wade argues that ISO 9000 is effective as a guideline. Reduces waste and increases productivity. chances are you will create a paper system that doesn't have much to do with the way you actually run your business. The quality principles in ISO 9000:2000 are also sound. Enhances marketing 5. sales growth.
T. ^ ISO 9001 proven to help win new business. M. Stephanie Clifford. J. 30.. ^ a b Corbett..A longitudinal analysis of performance before and after .J. Antoni. W. Chapter one of "The Case Against ISO 9000". May 2005. The TQM Magazine 14 (5). ^ Patrick D. Total Quality Management 10 (1): 95–106. Sunday November 19. S. (2002).R. M. E. C. (1999). ^ Poksinska. K. Dahlgaard.A. Not So. ^ a b Tsim. Casadesus. retrieved 2010-11-22 3. (2002).J. Montes-sancho. Dick. Yeung.P.S. 11.J. V. The Observer. Kirsch. 9. "The financial impact of ISO 9000 certification in the United States: An empirical analysis". 5. 8. 2nd ed. Sohal. 2011) 10. John Seddon.. ^ ISO Press Release. I. A... G. 2000. 2010. Managerial Auditing Journal 17 (5).C. retrieved 2010-11-22 4. ^ a b Heras.. ^ a b Ian Wilson. D. ^ a b c "The 'quality' you can't feel". (accessed 30 Sept 2011) 7. "ISO 9000 registration's impact on sales and profitability .. ISO 9000: Help or Hoax (accessed Sept. Is ISO the way to go? Some say. ^ Beattie. "Implementing ISO 9000: A study of its benefits among Australian organizations". Oak Tree Press. "An adaptation to ISO 9001: 2000 for certified organisations". M. "The state of ISO 9000 certification: A study of Swedish organisations". June 04. Y. 13. Management Science 51 (7): 1046–1059. John Seddon. O'Connor. 6. B. retrieved 2010-11-22 12.aerospace industry implementation of ISO 9000/1 List of ISO standards Quality management system Test management Verification and Validation  References 1.. M. 25 October 2010. ISBN 1-86076-173-9. so little payoff". ^ a b "So many standards to follow. Leung. November 2000.. (2005). retrieved 2010-11-22 2. (2002). Inc Magazine. ^ Interstate ISO 9000 Case Study. C.. T. See also • • • • • • • • • • • Conformity assessment—Containing ISO published standards ISO 10006—Quality management—Guidelines to quality management in projects ISO 14001—Environmental management standards ISO 19011—Guidelines for quality management systems auditing and environmental management systems auditing ISO/TS 16949—Quality management system requirements for automotive-related products suppliers ISO/IEC 27001—Information security management AS 9100 . ^ "A Brief History of ISO 9000: Where did we go wrong?" (accessed 30 Sept 2011).
C. Cheng. Management Science 47 (3): 359–368. Accident Analysis & Prevention 39 (4): 731–742. ^ DFDS Transport ISO 9000 Case Study 17. 21(1):254-285. F.. D. "Managerial fashion." Academy of Management Review. 35. Chris K. "Impact of ISO 9000 on time-based performance: An event study". K. J.. "The association between ISO 9000 certification and financial performance". E. ISO Management Systems – May–June 2002. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings 16 (2): 15–18. 33. ISO. retrieved 2010-11-18 27. retrieved 2010-11-22 20. Yeung. "Payoff to ISO 9000 registration". Tamimi.S.. retrieved 2010-11-22 25. Singhal. (2003).. ISO 9000 standard and safe driving practices effects on accident rate in the U. ^ Lo. ^ Sharma. "Financial performance. (2002). International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 14 (9): 936–947. motor carrier industry". 31. "Benefits of ISO 9000 Certification". ^ Naveh. retrieved 2010-11-22 19. ^ Accenture ISO 9000 Case Study 21. E. ^ Abrahamson. 34. retrieved 2010-11-22 14.. ^ More About BSI Group. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 19 (6): 774–791.R. ^ "Is ISO 9000 really a standard?" Jim Wade. "ISO 9000: marketing motivations and benefits". Marcus. Edwin (2007). M." Mark Henricks. T.S. A. T. retrieved 2010-11-22 23. (2001). Journal of Investing 12 (1). ^ Fast Facts About BSI Group 29. ^ a b "ISO a GO-Go. L. ^ Buttle. ^ Santos. "The long-run stock price performance of firms with effective TQM programs". 3 MB). M.B. 2005. (1996). Goh. ^ Tarmac Certificate of Registration 30. Andy C. ^ The ISO Survey – 2005 (abridged version. ^ a b c "Good Business Sense Is the Key to Confronting ISO 9000" Frank Barnes in Review of Business. ^ Hendreicks. ^ British Gas ISO 9000 Case Study 22. ^ History of the BSI Group 28.  Further reading .. V. PDF. ^ Chow-chua. retrieved 2010-11-22 24. PMID 17166474 16. (2007). The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 20 (8): 936–953. C. Spring 2000. 32. ^ Alcorn. Wan. "Benefits of the ISO 9000:1994 system: Some consideration to reinforce competitive advantage". Engineering and Technology 30 (7): 35–40. JSTOR 2661504 26. E. World Academy of Science.B. The international Journal of Accounting 40: 151–172. (1997). (2002).accreditation". International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 19 (3): 321–344. (1995). retrieved 201011-22 18.. Entrepreneur Magazine Dec 2001. ^ Rajan.Y. N.L. (2005). ^ Hardies ISO 9000 Case Study 15. "Does ISO 9000 certification improve business performance?".
iso.• Bamford. CRC-Press. FAQs on ISO 9000 . A. which is responsible for developing ISO 9000 standards. E. 176.General ISO's Technical Committee 176 on Quality Management and Quality Assurance. ISBN 978-0849320637 Naveh. • • •  See also International Organization for Standardization  External links • • • • • • • ISO 9001 overview: British Standards Institution ISO 9000 at the Open Directory Project. ISO 9001: 2000 for Software and Systems Providers: An Engineering Approach (1st ed. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. ○ ○ ○ Technical Committee No.iso.. Sub-committee No. Basic info on ISO 9000 development. 51(3). [show]v · d · eISO standards View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories: • • • • • • ISO standards Quality management Quality Log in / create account Article Discussion . International Organization for Standardization.). 2. Marcus. William (2003). ISBN 0849320631.General FAQs on ISO 9001 . http://www. Robert.org/iso/survey2007. http://www.pdf .pdf . (2004).An abstract of the 2007's ISO survey of certificates. ISO Management and leadership standards.An abstract of the 2008's ISO survey of certificates. Deibler. 352–363. ISO 9000 FAQs.org/iso/survey2008. "When does ISO 9000 Quality Assurance standard lead to performance improvement?".
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