Reg No: 521135115

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0049 – Project Management - 4 Credits Assignment Set- 1

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115

Q.1 List and explain the traits of a professional manager. Ans. Being a good manager is like putting a jigsaw puzzle together. The first time you try to fit the pieces together, it takes a while to get everything to fit smoothly. The second time you attempt to make the pieces fit, you are a little more familiar with the pattern. Each time after that, it becomes more and more natural to easily match everything together and have it all turn out right. The pieces of the puzzle a manager has to put together are: 1. advertising 2. recruiting 3. holding productive meetings 4. motivating a person who is in an emotional or financial slump 5. handling types of personalities they don’t relate to 6. recruiting people that are happy on other jobs, but are ready for change. All of these techniques combined together make a great manager. In fact, great managers have ten characteristics, and if each of these ten characteristics is developed, you will become a great leader and a great manager. Let’s start off with quality number one. The very first thing we find in a great manager is a total commitment to building a team that functions in unison to reach their goals. Great managers realize they are a team. Their team is made up of individuals that have different beliefs, values, and ideals, but they all have to function in unison to reach the goals of the company. The second characteristic we find in a great manager is they live what they teach and they command respect by their example. You can’t be one thing and say another because you’ll lose respect. It’s not that important that your salespeople just like and admire you. It is important that they respect you first ? the other things will follow. Quality number three is very important. Great managers don't become buddies. They practice business detachment with subordinates off the job. Number four is also very important. Don’t play favorites. What do I mean by this? Make a mental note of the words ‘justice? and ‘fairness.? These two words are critical in leadership? that you are totally just and totally fair through everything. You’re going to have to realize that if you play favorites in the office, the group will know it, and you will lose respect. Not only that, they start saying to themselves, “The reason I’m not doing good is not my skills, not my ability. I’ve got a manger that gives the best business to other people. I can’t make it? And by the way, the person you’re playing favorites with over the years can be the one that will cause you the biggest challenge when you go through change in policy or leadership, or when you really need something done. So remember, just be fair and don’t play favorites! Number five is so critical. Great managers develop future vision. They see their company position, their market share, and their competitive edge in the future. But great managers also have to start seeing themselves in the future, the office in the future, the number of salespeople they’ll have, and how they are going to delegate. How do you develop future vision? It comes back to having a plan and a goal. You must learn how to delegate authority and eventually replace yourself. What do you delegate? Anything you can train anyone else to do which keeps

Presented By Prashant Balikai

the things they buy. Teach your salespeople they have to take a little risk in order to grow. so that as they grow income-wise. Good managers look at change as healthy.2 Describe in brief the various aspects of project management? Ans. For the success of any project management program. a specific skill set is required. training. It may not be who you are. and retaining top people. they also grow emotionally and enjoy their income. self-image is a mirror reflection of who you think you are. They keep everyone on their toes. Salespeople lack confidence because they are afraid and don't know what is going to happen to them. As a good manager. A manager’s job is not only to instill confidence. and the way they live. of course. You want to promote risk-taking with your salespeople. Now number nine is interesting. we help people increase their overhead with balance. and not only that. Some of the main challenges of project management are Proper and effective communication with the firm’s stake holders Presented By Prashant Balikai . They don’t come in at the same time every day. And don’t forget number eight. they make decisions so slowly. they must gradually ‘up? Their overhead as you teach them to ‘up? their income. Don’t forget number seven if you really want to build a great sales force: promote risk-taking. Average managers don’t make decisions. The last characteristic great managers must learn is to help people change their self-images by using their individual needs to be comfortable. It starts with how they see themselves Q. Change excites an office. but also to increase the way salespeople look at themselves. It motivates people to go far beyond what they normally would. Until you totally learn your skill of managing. they will develop their schedule right around yours. because if you can't duplicate yourself and the concepts you used as a super salesperson. You see. and training. It keeps people on their toes. it keeps people out of a rut. you see? Now. that eventually there is no need for a decision. Promote risk-taking. Number six. as far as making decisions about managing your office. They attack pending problems and rapidly make tough decisions. Becoming a great trainer or teacher is necessary. I’ll tell you a basic truth about salespeople: if you have a set schedule. They don’t eat lunch at the same time every day. managing. Your goal is to develop your salespeople and to get them to grow far beyond their wildest dreams. Rely on others for your knowledge and growth until. accurate analysis and skill based objective building that is centered round the project at hand. That’s why great managers don’t do the same thing every day. so there is no need to do anything. Great managers are specialized at recruiting. In essence. you won't be able to complete the entire puzzle. In fact. What do I mean by risk-taking? I’m talking about your salespeople going out a little bit on the edge as to the things they own. you have all the answers.Reg No: 521135115 you from doing three things: recruiting. All project management programs are unique and have their own set of challenges obstacles and solutions. That is a great manager’s main specialty. A successful project management plan should have a dedicated team that concentrates on effective planning. rely on the people above you and run decisions past them. there’s one thing I want to warn you about. What they had to decide upon has already taken place.

etc. establish objectives and goals. CFO. a project management planning and information system is put in place.3 Compare the following: a. This would normally include a Central Project Office or Project Management Office (PMO). In the traditional organization. projected Organization Ans. having titles such as COO.and within the organization's resource (people and funding) constraints. under a Chief Project Officer (or similar title) will develop standards and practices directed at the effective execution of projects and the attainment of schedule. A problem. In doing so. Decide the necessary methods and equipment required for implementation of the plan beforehand itself so that you can start on time without any delays and loss of valuable resources. is that there is no connection between the Operations and Projects functions. nor is there a structured. conduct a detailed analysis of your business and understand its structure and mode of operation fully and accurately. and periodic measurements of project progress and performance are conducted. CIO. Traditional Vs. and develop strategies to achieve these. CTO. Senior managers. Set definite goals that are sound and realistic within achieve-able timelines. scope and quality objectives. it is expected that the organization will establish. and specialized personnel to manage projects. in parallel with the Operations function. common to many organizations. The objective is to create the mix of projects most likely to support the achievement of the organization's goals . Q. The PMO. Presented By Prashant Balikai . Strategic Planner. This is highly important as money matters the most in any project management plan for any firm. And lastly make a thorough plan with the complete details of all expected expenses and resources that will be required. responsibility for determining and achieving the organization's goals are assigned to the Operations function.. these senior managers are expected to select from a menu of proposed and pending projects. Take care of even the smallest and most irrelevant detail before implementing a project management program. Firstly. a function to manage the projects.within the preferred strategies . cost.Reg No: 521135115 Managing employee stress and pressures that arise out of projects Proper allocation of resources that results in high profits Preparing in advance for potential problems that may arise in the project Assigning responsibilities to employees based on their capabilities. When there are projects associated with these goals. When the execution of projects is a normal part of the organization's business. Here are some of the key aspects of a successful project management program: You can call your project management plan a full success when three main factors are taken care of: Resource allocation Completion of targets within time lines Completion of targets within the allocated budget and resources This can happen only when you have a full understanding of the business and what you desire from it.

E-engineering Ans. a New York City company that makes load balancers for Web Presented By Prashant Balikai . and there is nobody capable of working on the system's maintenance. Ion Badulescu. As these systems supplement each other. the data must be copied to all three systems). A projected organization refers specifically to the particular and specific organization in question that has been built through the utilization of an organizational structure that has been set up in a manner in which the project manager leads the group and in which the project manager has the ultimate authority to make any and all decisions involving the organization. stability and performance. and also any and all direct workings of persons that have been assigned to the project already or may be assigned in the future. we don't have the detailed documentation on this system or a knowledgeable enough staff. but we'd like to change several things. e-engineering makes it "a lot easier finding technical talent because we're working with an international labor pool. from a slight renovation to a total overhaul. scheduling adjustments have to be made when working with colleagues in another time zone. When attempting to determine exactly how an organization fits in to the grand scheme of the organization and analysis as well as the conducting of any of a number of series of given projects. Reengineering Vs. the assignment of all priorities. What shall we do? A software component was written by someone who is no longer with the company. Reengineering implies changes of various types and depth to a system. It supports 24-hour-a-day operations while avoiding the burnout that is common among American techies who work grueling hours. This makes their work more complicated (starting one system means first shutting down the other two) and adds a lot of extra work for the system administrators (when a new user is added. it is helpful to attempt to categorize as to whether a particular organization can be deemed to be that of a projected organization. More than just a source of cheap labor. But. However. What shall we do? E-engineering is a competitive tool for boosting profits and increasing productivity. Offsetting the advantages of running an around-the-clock business. according to Hossein. which work on different platforms. There is no documentation or comments in the program. usability. the application of any predestinated resources. How do we implement the desired changes? We have three systems with roughly the same functionality. communication among programmers can be tricky when there is a 10hour time difference. a software engineer at Hydra WEB Technologies Inc. and meaningful flow of information between these two groups. b. security. change the system's architecture or adjust it for another platform. no company wants to undertake its maintenance. and the periodic measurements made by the projects group cannot be related to these objectives. namely improve the system's functionality. We have a best-selling software solution and received an order from a major client to modify it. We want to have one system instead of three. The organization's objectives (enterprise-level goals) are hardly ever communicated to the Project Office. but no necessarily limited to..Reg No: 521135115 consistent. users have to use all three of them. Some of the typical challenges our clients have: A system was developed for us." he adds. including. Unfortunately.

having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date. but can be by funding or deliverables). And. organizing." he says. the collaborative use of packages such as: • Microsoft Project Server • Microsoft Project Professional Presented By Prashant Balikai . The best way to communicate is via email. trusted. powerful statistical tools that can be used to analyze situations under risk—often very effectively—by individuals with little or no understanding of the advanced statistics or decision theory upon which these tools are based are available. has encountered problems when working with developers in other parts of the world. Three issues that can contribute to a project's success or failure." Q. people (distributed project-team members) have become. and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals[4] and objectives while honoring the preconceived project constraints. Enterprise-level project management systems typically include.. a fungible resource. securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. Badulescu works from his home in Irvine. which are repetitive.4 List out the macro issues in project management and explain each. however technically that is actually a higher level construction: a group of related and somehow interdependent engineering projects.[5] Typical constraints are scope. and budget.Reg No: 521135115 servers. A project is a temporary endeavor.[1] The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives. "Conference calls with three or four people are difficult. but prior to that he worked for HydraWEB from his home country of Romania. Project management is the discipline of planning. with business globalization. usually to bring about beneficial change or added value. Ans. security technology is readily available and easy to use. It is sometimes conflated with program management. "Phone contact with a foreign country is chancy at best. Calif. time. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast to business as usual (or operations). At the same time. Today. relatively low-cost. to a much greater extent. permanent or semi-permanent functional work to produce products or services. Today. In practice. the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different. but are not limited to.

that are associated with a public and private key pair. your data is safe. But. My concern in this article is the exogenous security that you must provide. More than any other security protocol or technology available today. They perversely inspire abuse. open-ended subject.) Today. And. Digital certificates are important because today's password authentication schemes are little more than security placebos. What I'll do here is make the point that you can't assume that. You're far more secure with a layered approach to authentication—one that starts with a digital certificate. To that end. in addition. encrypt outgoing emails to be deciphered only by their intended recipients. As such. First. misuse. but can they can also be USB-based devices or integrated into employee badges. Presented By Prashant Balikai . how you might get a false sense of security from using PKI. (See Reference 2 for an account of what to believe and what to disbelieve about what you've been told by PKI marketers. and then. A smart card is a programmable device containing an integrated circuit that stores your digital certificate. the all-too-frequent careless use of PKI can lead to unwanted consequences. PKI can define trust in a granular way. You can use its strengths to protect information about the status of your project from outside competitors or even inside personnel who might misuse information about your work-in-process. Physical possession of the smartcard and knowledge of the PIN must be combined to authenticate successfully.Reg No: 521135115 • Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server • Microsoft SQL Server • Microsoft Exchange • Microsoft Visual Studio Team Suite (used to develop custom Web Parts for SharePoint) developers) • Microsoft Team Foundation Server (used for further collaboration among Each of these applications has plenty of endogenous security built in. and criminal mischief by deliberately making users the weakest link in the security chain. smart cards can be combined with a PIN (which you can think of as a password) to provide two-factor authentication. a little background information on. Security is a big. I'll focus on system authentication and authorization and data encryption using digital certificates (the foundation of Public Key Infrastructure. they allow you to digitally sign documents and e-mail messages. These portable cards serve as positive. Smart cards traditionally take the form of a device the size of a credit card that is placed into a reader. so that unauthorized individuals don't have access to your project management applications and data. and automatically log into Internet and Intranet Web sites. right out of the box. "by-the-book" security practices. authenticate into a domain (certificate logon). To use a smart card. a user must be issued a smart card certificate by his or her certificate authority. just because you implement a number of layers of de rigeur. because of PKI's mystique. the user interface to your PKI-based security system often starts with his or her use of a smart card. These are electronic credentials. The certification authority certifies that the person who has been issued a digital certificate is indeed who he or she claims to be (see Reference 1 for further details). issued by a certification authority (CA). or PKI). nonrefutable proof of your identity during electronic transactions.

a. and then adjusted for mitigating controls that were confirmed as being in place. Intrinsic likelihood The likelihood levels table below provides suggested definitions for the likelihood scale. Risk Analysis: Risk analysis covers both the potential impact (or consequence) of the identified risks. Most of the risks identified will be managed by managers and staff within the Gene Bank or larger Genetic Resources Unit (or equivalent) in which the Gene Bank staff are organizationally located. To develop a quantitative risk assessment. The major risks to Gene Banks are germplasm mis-identification. but need not be limited to these. (Example: seven and more occurrences in ten years. the general area of Gene bank operations and specific activity and the risk source/indicator should be identified. consistent with the approach taken by many CGIAR Centers for their enterprise wide risk management frameworks. The point system was simplified and. Above 60% of the time. a 3-point scale was proposed: 1 point (Low). analyzing. The generic risk assessment tool for seed crops and clonal crops serves as the input forms for risks and other information required for a particular Gene bank.) Moderately frequent to frequent. For this step. a 2point scale could be adopted: 1 point (Low) and 2 points (High) for both likelihood and impact. This means identifying the organizational unit or manager who is responsible for monitoring. 0-10% of the time. An extensive list of risks gathered in documents from five CGIAR Centers and Gene Bank of the Philippine Rice Research Institute. 20-60% of the time. taking into account the nature of the risk and its probability in the absence of controls or other mitigations. (Example: one or no occurrence in ten years. discussions with four USDA-ARS conservation and database management sites and information contained in various Gene Bank management literature has been compiled and is set out in Table 1 for seeds and Table 2 for clonal materials.Reg No: 521135115 Q. a point system for the scales or levels of the likelihood and impact of risks was devised in the context of Gene Banking operations. These can be selected from those listed in Table 1a and Table 2a. (Example: two or six occurrences in ten years. Ans. Also. an intrinsic likelihood was first considered.) Occasional. 2 points (Medium). These likelihood levels can be amended to suit a particular Gene Bank’s conditions. In the case of likelihood. risk ownership should be identified. as part of the risk identification step. evaluating the risk and implementing the controls or contingency plans associated with the risk. Should a Gene Bank wish to initially simplify this further. Risk Identification: Taking into account information gathered in Risk assessment. Likelihood levels Low (1) Medium (2) High (3) Very unlikely to practically impossible.5 Describe the various steps in risk management listed below: Ans.) Presented By Prashant Balikai . unstable storage facilities and insufficient funding support. an inventory of relevant risks to the Gene Bank operations should be made. b. and 3 points (High) for both likelihood and impact. and their likelihood (probability).

Enterprise environmental factors – Enterprise environmental factors reveal the risk tolerance of the organization and the individuals involved in the project. and amount of risk management to apply in the project. project constraints. c. Understanding how much risk your stakeholders and organization are comfortable with help with decisions regarding the type. This could be considered a Project Management Planning Risk. d. Presented By Prashant Balikai . VaR increased in 2007 as a consequence of increased volatility and growth in the financial markets business of the Wholesale Bank. Process assets included are risk categories.Reg No: 521135115 Ans. allows one to task to plan versus innovating and deciding after the fact and in the midst how to handle a risk. This is a risk. Organizational process assets – The organizations’ process assets may contain defined standards and policies pertaining to risk management. This is especially true in non-for-profit organizations like hospitals. if the WBS has usability testing being the last item completed after integrated testing. patient billing departments or leaders commonly have absolutely no risk tolerance for any impact to cash flow. Risk Management planning is an important part of project management. project objectives. one could have two ranges of risk tolerance. Market risk is tightly controlled using Value at Risk (‘VaR’) methodologies complemented by stress testing. Therefore in an academic medical center. notwithstanding the turbulent market conditions in some western markets in the second half of the year triggered by the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the United States. Risk Management Planning: Risk Management Planning is about defining the process of how to engage and oversee risk management activities for a project. level. Ans. Having a plan on how to manage risk. Africa and the Middle East has resulted in no direct exposure to US sub-prime mortgages and extremely limited indirect exposure. The inputs for Risk Management Planning are: Project Scope Statement – The Project Scope Statement documents the project scope including a description. and a statement of work. project assumptions. In Risk Management Planning. and processes of how to have a decision made. The Group’s liquidity remains strong and is being used to strengthen relationships with key clients and to continue to support growth opportunities. For example. The Group’s strategy to pursue growth in Asia. The usability of the application may have affect on how the information is passed into and out of the application. For example. roles and responsibilities. major deliverables. However educators and researchers have a high level or risk tolerance. the project scope statement is commonly used for identifying project boundaries and assumptions. Risk Review: The credit environment in the majority of the Group’s core markets remained generally benign throughout 2007. The earlier Risk Management planning is engaged within increases the possibility of success of all risk management activities and processes especially if the process definition was created with input and buy-in from the project manager and key project stakeholders. Project Management Plan – The Project Management plan contains the WBS which is used in Risk Management Planning to determine possible areas where risks can occur.

The Wholesale Banking asset backed securities portfolio includes mortgage backed securities and collateralized debt obligations. 2) Planning The second phase should include a detailed identification and assignment of each task until the end of the project. in which the project plan is executed. characterized by breaking down the project into smaller parts/tasks. what are the various phases in which the project lifecycle should be divided. the scope of the project is defined along with the approach to be taken to deliver the desired outputs. 3) Execution and controlling Presented By Prashant Balikai . And paying close attention to such details is the difference between doing things well and excelling as project managers. Forward credit portfolio quality indicators remain stable. Business Plan. he selects the team members based on their skills and experience. The asset backed securities portfolio continues to be closely monitored and proactively managed. Q. and procedures when it comes to projects. The governance process is defined. Diverse project management tools and methodologies prevail in the different project cycle phases. who joined the company recently. It is of great importance to organize project phases into industry-specific project cycles. has been affected by the market dislocation but has had limited impact on the Group’s performance. There is first an Initiation or Birth phase. an Execution phase. correct. Regardless of scope or complexity. representing around two per cent of assets. Let’s take a closer look at what’s important in each one of these stages: 1) Initiation In this first stage. and also objectively measure achievement of goals and justify their decisions to move ahead. that marks the completion of the project. and lastly a Closure or Exit phase. The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. The absolute level of recoveries in 2007 was lower than in recent years due to a lower stock of problem accounts after several years of benign credit conditions. Why? Not only because each industry sector involves specific requirements. stake holders identified and reporting frequency and channels agreed. It should also include a risk analysis and a definition of a criteria for the successful completion of each deliverable.Reg No: 521135115 The Wholesale Banking portfolio remains robust with new provisions continuing at a low level. Project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so. The project manager is appointed and in turn. In order to execute the project successfully. or terminate.6 ABC Company implements got a very big project and they decided to allot the same to a new project manager. The most common tools or methodologies used in the planning stage are Business Plan and Milestones Reviews. and Milestones Reviews. followed by a Planning phase. tasks. the project manager and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity. This portfolio. in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined. any project goes through a series of stages during its life. Project Framework (or Overview). but also because different industry sectors have different needs for life cycle management methodology. Business Case Justification. Ans. and good progress in management of these accounts. The most common tools or methodologies used in the initiation stage are Project Charter.

releasing project resources. No special tool or methodology is needed during the closure phase. The closure phase is characterized by a written formal project review report containing the following components: a formal acceptance of the final product by the client. and a formal project closure notification to higher management. 4) Closure In this last stage. In product and system development. the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem specified in the project's requirements. production. groups across the organization become more deeply involved in planning for the final testing. Presented By Prashant Balikai . testing. rewarding the team. As the execution phase progresses. the project manager must ensure that the project is brought to its proper completion. The most common tools or methodologies used in the execution phase are an update of Risk Analysis and Score Cards. Weighted Critical Measurements (matching the initial requirements specified by the client with the final delivered product). and support. and reviews. in addition to Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.Reg No: 521135115 The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and controlled. This convergence is measured by prototypes. a list of lessons learned. a design resulting in a specific set of product requirements is created. During the execution phase.

2 Presented By Prashant Balikai .4 Credits Assignment Set.Reg No: 521135115 Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0049 – Project Management .

or any combination. the WBS also helps map requirements from one level of system specification to another. materials. is a tool used to define and group a project's discrete work elements in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project. In addition to its function in cost accounting. Work Breakdown Structure: A work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering. The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure.1 Write a short note on the following: Ans. duration. project. a. The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical. data. Using industry experience 2. etc. Estimation Approach: Project managers are under a lot of pressure to produce estimates of time and cost for systems development very early in a project. Three approaches can be taken to estimating: 1. For each element of the work breakdown structure. which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective. b. estimating a development project from outline requirements and not from a physical design is like a home buyer saying. or about the number of rooms. schedule. cost. materials. subtasks. and work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective.g. but that they can be made and met at all. components. and responsibility (e. Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager.Reg No: 521135115 Q. The WBS is organized around the primary products of the project (or planned outcomes) instead of the work needed to produce the products (planned actions). A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. a service. a description of the task to be performed is generated. Rolling up more or less detailed estimates of the project effort Using Industry Experience: Function Points Presented By Prashant Balikai . and labor hour reporting can be established. systems. into their successively higher level “parent” tasks. typically in the first two weeks. for example a requirements cross reference matrix mapping functional requirements to high level or low level design documents.. tasks. or whether it should be of brick or wood. A work breakdown structure permits summing of subordinate costs for tasks.. and contract. In a project or contract. However. the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size. Using the experience of one’s own organization 3. This technique (sometimes called a System Breakdown Structure) is used to define and organize the total scope of a project. for example a program. “Quote me a price for building a house. A well-designed WBS makes it easy to assign each project activity to one and only one terminal element of the WBS. they form a relatively stable set of categories in which the costs of the planned actions needed to achieve them can be collected. but I am not sure where I want the house located. etc. A work breakdown structure element may be a product. subsystems. Since the planned outcomes are the desired ends of the project.” It is not surprising that project estimates are as bad as they are.

Often.Reg No: 521135115 Perhaps the most useful form of recorded industry experience comes in function point counts. an algorithm coded in one language requires more lines to be coded in another language. The trouble with this measure is that the same function involves many more lines in a low-level language than in a high-level language. tables and practical examples you need. you also need to check to see if further improvements will deliver still greater benefit. It includes all of the sections. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization. a department. Presented By Prashant Balikai . to deliver the process that addresses the specific business need you intended to meet. as it allows an independent party to validate the success of the project and give confidence to the stakeholders that it has met the objectives it set out to achieve. Q. Your objective wasn't to simply deliver a process – but rather. Many people measure software efforts based on the number of lines of code. because it is based on the number of inputs. however. To make the most of the benefits that the project can deliver. Simply finishing doesn't ensure that the organization benefits from the project's outcome. Performance management (PM) includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. The International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG) has put considerable effort into devising and maintaining standard methods for sizing software. you want to make sure that what you set out to do was actually achieved. outputs. This template helps you perform a Post Implementation Review by: Measuring the benefits and objectives Deciding whether the project was within scope Assessing the final deliverables produced Reviewing the project against schedule Comparing the expenditure against budget Stating the final outcome of the project The Post Implementation Review template also helps you to: Identify the key project achievements and milestones Document any lessons learned for future projects Communicate its success to stakeholders This Post Implementation Review template provides you with the steps needed to review a project and document its overall level of success. The post project review is the last critical step in the project life cycle. files. A function point count is a more stable measure of software size than lines of code. For example. This is the real measure of success. Ans.2 List and define in Brief all the tools for Post Implementation Review Ans. Completing a project" is not the same thing as ending the project management process. and other measures of complexity. Q. after completing a yearlong project to establish a new quality management process for your organization. to document a Post Implementation review today.3 Define the Basic categories of performance management.

can apply wherever people interact — schools. as well as an individual person. The performance process is appropriately named the self-propelled performance process (SPPP). Following the commitment analysis is the work analysis of a particular job in terms of the reporting structure and job description. sports teams.e. Armstrong and Baron (1998) defined it as a “strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors. health setting.4 Write a short note on the following: Ans. Performance management as referenced on this page is a broad term coined by Dr. community meetings.Reg No: 521135115 employee. It can be applied by organizations or a single department or section inside an organization. Professional Responsibility: Professional Responsibility is the area of legal practice that encompasses the duties of attorneys to act in a professional manner. and the failure to observe deadlines or conduct thorough research is considered a breach of ethics. or even the processes to build a product or service. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous critical objectives and performance standards for each job. a. two critical elements of what is known as performance This is used most often in the workplace. customers. or other reasons. avoid conflicts of interest. a commitment analysis must be done where a job mission statement is drawn up for each job. science imbedded in applications methods) for managing both behavior and results. If a job description is not available. Q. Conflicts of interest.anywhere in the world people interact with their environments to produce desired effects. Mishandling of client money. Incompetent representation. The job mission statement is a job definition in terms of purpose. as well as many other areas. governmental agencies. product and scope. In countries with the adversarial system of justice. then a systems analysis can be done to draw up a job description. Clients often advance money to lawyers for a variety of reasons. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous key objectives and performance standards for each job position. and put the interests of clients ahead of their own interests. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s to describe a technology (i. The money must be kept in special client trust accounts until Presented By Prashant Balikai . [citation needed] First. a conflict of interest violates the right of each client to the undivided. or previously represented one side. churches. Conflicts may also occur if the lawyer's ability to represent a client is materially limited by the lawyer's loyalty to another client. zealous loyalty of his lawyer. This occurs where the same lawyer or firm is representing both sides in a lawsuit.” It may be possible to get all employees to reconcile personal goals with organizational goals and increase productivity and profitability of an organization using this process. and even political settings . Attorneys have a duty to provide competent representation. obey the law. a personal relationship.

Many of us have had experience with both types of organization and we know intuitively what BPO feels like. Advertising by attorneys is also strictly regulated. several models have emerged during the last few years that have been presented as the high performance. while improving business performance. Byrne. BPO has remained remarkably hard to pin down. product quality. if you're like me. The research results showed that BPO is critical in reducing conflict and encouraging greater connectedness within an organization. Porter. For a central concept. little to no empirical data existed substantiating its effectiveness in facilitating improved business performance. Rummler-Brache and Melan have all defined what they view as the new model of the organization. Communication with represented parties. b. lawyers may not reveal or use this information to the detriment of their clients. For example. Most of the literature on business process orientation has been in the popular press and lacks a research or empirical focus. more process-oriented ("I report to my customer. Fee-splitting arrangements. illustrated through better organizational connectedness and less internal conflict. Moreover. Attorneys may not split fees with non-attorneys. or with other attorneys who have not worked on the matter for which the client is represented. Deming. According to each model’s proponent. Lawyers are under a strict duty of confidentiality to keep information received in the course of their representations secret. process oriented organization needed in today and tomorrow’s world. Davenport."). Short. Hammer. Although empirical evidence is lacking. one that has become something of a Holy Grail for 1990s managers. you want a more solid foundation on which to make decisions and recommendations. more cooperative. The research also showed that high BPO levels within organizations led to a more positive corporate climate. Business Orientation: Although many firms have adopted the BPO concept. Absent law to the contrary. Another empirical study by Kohlbacher (2009) reveals that BPO is positively associated with customer satisfaction. Its champions argue that it is a new approach to management that replaces the rigid hierarchies of the past ("I report to my boss") with structures that are much flatter. the “building” of this model requires a new approach and a new way of thinking about the organization which will result in dramatic business performance Presented By Prashant Balikai .Reg No: 521135115 it is actually earned by the lawyer or spent on court fees or other expenses. in a civil suit. Improper solicitation and advertising. Disclosure of confidential information. Attorneys generally may not solicit business by personally offering their services to potential clients who are not already close friends or family members. Imai. McCormack (2000) conducted an empirical study to explore the relationship between BPO and enhanced business performance. companies with strong measures of BPO showed better overall business performance. the plaintiff's attorney may not speak to the defendant directly if the attorney knows that the defendant is represented by counsel without their attorney's express consent. Drucker. to prevent puffery and other misleading assertions regarding potential results. Yet. An attorney may not communicate directly with a person who they know to be represented by counsel with respect to a matter for which the attorney is seeking to communicate. delivery speed and timeto-market speed.

Neither is it considered the same as conflict transformation. Misconduct of fellow attorneys. or other legal practitioners should also be reported. Personnel Productivity: Personnel Productivity pertains to the obligation of a lawyer to perform his duties in a fitting manner. This creates a predetermined bias for or against the potential client. As a professional. The most that a lawyer can do in this situation is refer the person to another legal practitioner or give general legal advices outside of court. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip.Reg No: 521135115 improvements. mediation. This “new way of thinking” or “viewing” your organization has been generally described as business process orientation. a lawyer is also not allowed to directly seek out for clients. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structure—or social geometry—of the case. or even murder. Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution. In order for actual conflict to occur. but also to the moral aspect of the profession. law. In terms of court duties. whereas the former concerns an ongoing process that may never have a resolution. emotionally. sexual assaults. c. and judgment. warfare. the withdrawal is also mandated by court. One popular issue with regard to Personnel Productivity is “conflict of interest.” a guideline of appropriate conduct that a legal practitioner is obligated to perform both to his clients and to the court. ridicule. A client’s failure to give the arranged fees can also result in withdrawal. actions. d. which seeks to reframe the positions of the conflict parties. genocide. Conflict Management: Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. an attorney must discontinue representing a client." This situation usually occurs when a lawyer is closely related to or in intimate affinity with a person subjected to court rulings. judges. Presented By Prashant Balikai . which is not always specified by the law. and avoidance. Given certain circumstances. The latter refers to resolving the dispute to the approval of one or both parties. or lying under oath. Personnel Productivity is also largely related to “legal ethics. which can influence a lawyer’s decisions. terrorism. such as in fraudulence. and tell why the conflict was expressed the way it was. but is often connected to a previous issue. Lawyers are recommended. Withdrawal from representation” is another issue under the area of Personnel Productivity. Not only does this include a professional and legal approach to an attorney’s duties. a lawyer should also make known to the court instances of perjury. if not required. Conflict is not just about simple inaptness. to refuse the person as a client. as this somehow removes the latter’s freedom of decision. If the attorney is not physically. lynching. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances—standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. and mentally able to take on his responsibility. there should be an expression of exclusive patterns. whether voluntarily or out of necessity. Many lawyers perform a voluntary withdrawal if they discover their client is the guilty party. feuding.

procedural adherence.Reg No: 521135115 Q. Scope definition—subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller. Scope planning—developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions. These projected mantras help in identifying. time series. and only the work required. b. defect metrics. evaluating. Improve. process flow map. Define: benchmark. The phases associated with each projected mantra of production management are: 1. and robust design 5. Presented By Prashant Balikai . root cause analysis. more manageable components. and selecting the right improvement solutions for managing a project. Knowledge areas of project management: A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. Integrated change control—coordinating changes across the entire project. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required.5 Comment on the following Ans. a. quality function deployment. modeling. Standardize (DMAIS). A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. It consists of: Activity definition—identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables. Scope verification—formalizing acceptance of the project scope. Measure: data collection. It consists of: Project plan development—integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent. Improve: design of experiments. decision and risk analysis. customer requirement. project management plan 2. It consists of: Initiation—authorizing the project or phase. Scope change control—controlling changes to project scope. Standardize: control charts. The mantras also help in identifying the critical issues thus assisting the organization to adapt to the changes introduced through the implementation of different solutions. failure modes and effect analysis. Importance of DMAIS in project management cycle The projected mantras of production management can be broadly identified as Define Measure. to complete the project successfully. Analysis: cause and effect. reliability analysis 4. sampling 3. preventive activities displays the various phases of DMIAS. Activity sequencing—identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. coherent document. Analyze. performance management. Project plan execution—carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.

and resource requirements to create the project schedule. Q. ARROW 2. combining open source and proprietary Software Why Arrow Arrow is preferred support software because it: • Provides a platform for promoting research output in the ARROW context • Safeguards digital information • Gathers an institution’s research output into one place • Provides consistent ways of finding similar objects • Allows information to be preserved over the long term Presented By Prashant Balikai . VITAL 4. Schedule control—controlling changes to the project schedule. It consists of: Resource planning—determining what resources (people. Ans. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Cost budgeting—allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work activities. activity durations. equipment.Reg No: 521135115 Activity duration estimating—estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activities. materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities. Cost estimating—developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to complete project activities. PILIN 5. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. The various support software that may be used for managing projects are: 1. MS EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 The ARROW Project It is a consortia of institutional repository solution. Cost control—controlling changes to the project budget.6 What are the various SCMo soft wares available in project management? Explain each in brief. Quality assurance—evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Schedule development—analyzing activity sequences. FEDORA 3. It consists of: Quality planning—identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Quality control—monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.

VITAL architecture overview VITAL is part of creative development of ARROW institutional repositories. built on top of Fedora. Addition of annotation capability Presented By Prashant Balikai . The ARROW project’s Technical Architect is a member of Fedora Advisory Board and sits on Fedora Development Group. Since the beginning of the project ARROW has worked actively and closely with Fedora and the Fedora Community. while respecting access constraints • Enables effective communication and collaboration between researchers The vision of project ARROW: “The ARROW project will identify and test software or solutions to support best practice institutional digital repositories comprising e-prints.Reg No: 521135115 • Allows information from many repositories to be gathered and searched in one step • Enables resources to be shared. VALET – Web Self-Submission Tool 5. Batch Loader Tool 6.” What did the ARROW project set out to achieve? ARROW project wanted to be a solution for storing any digital output. Google Indexing and Exposure 8. well architected underlying platform and a flexible object-oriented data model to be able to have persistent identifiers down to the level of individual data streams. Why Fedora ARROW wanted a robust. It currently provides: 1. Every member has their own hardware and software. Inclusion of multimedia and creative works produced in Australian universities 2. This association is reinforced by VTLS Inc. Handles Server (CNRI) 7. VTLS President is a member of Fedora Advisory Board and VITAL Lead Developer sits on Fedora Development Group Why VITAL VITAL refers to ARROW specified software created and fully supported by VTLS Inc. Their initial focus was on print equivalents such as thesis and journal articles among others. digital theses and electronic publishing. It is not a centralized or hosting solution. VITAL Access Portal 4. VITAL has the following features: 1. It provided solution that could offer on-going technical support and development past the end of the funding period of the project. VITAL. SRU / SRW Support 9. Open Journal Services (OJS). VITAL Manager 2. It accommodates the content model to be able to be version independent. VITAL Portal 3. What is ARROW now? It’s in a development stage combining Open Source and proprietary software such as Fedora. Limited exposure nationally or internationally 3.

Add Picture 5. The broad objectives are to: 1. Inclusion of datasets and other research output not easily provided in any other publishing channel 5.Reg No: 521135115 4. Plan for a sustainable. Being developed in conjunction with the DART (ARCHER) Project 6. Presented By Prashant Balikai . Exploration of the research-teaching nexus tools that will allow value added services for repositories 7. Integration with or development of new tools that will allow value added services for repositories (for instance the creation of e-portfolios or CVs of research output of individual academics) PILIN – Persistent Identifiers and Linking Infrastructure There has been a growing realization that sustainable identifier infrastructure is required to deal with the vast amount of digital assets being produced and stored within universities. PILIN is a particular challenge for e-research communities where massive amounts of data are being generated without any means of managing this data over any length of time. Support adoption and use of persistent identifiers and shared persistent identifier management services by the project stakeholders 2. shared identifier management infrastructure that enables persistence of identifiers and associated services over archival lengths of time 3. Deploy a Worldwide Site Consolidation Solution for Exchange Server 2003 at Microsoft 4. let us look at Microsoft Model Enterprises (MME). Use Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 to consolidate more than 70 messaging sites worldwide into seven physical locations In this context.

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