都市に

る刑務所:李国林受刑者

広島刑務所

佐藤清文

Prisons in Cities : Inmate Li Guolin and Hiroshima Penitentiary by Seibun Satow

2012年1月11日

殺人未遂罪

服役中

李国林受刑者が広島刑務所

ら脱走

An inmate, Li Guolin who was convicted for attempted murder and other crimes, es caped from the Hiroshima prison on Jan. 11th, 2012.

懲役23年

脱走犯

事件に伴

都市部に刑務所が置

疑問が人

With the news about the jailbreak of a 23-year-sentenced inmate a controversy ov er the location of a jail has surged. Why is it located in a middle of a city?

た迷惑施設

日常生活

ら隔離

People wonder why facilities like prisons with potentials of causing problems to a society can't be built secluded from other law abiding citizens' life.

刑務所

法務省による

矯正施設

一種

刑務作業を受注

るた

都市部に立

However, a prison is considered as a correction facility and has to be built in a city where the prison industry for a city is more accessible for it to be read ily utilized.

刑務所内

作業

職業訓練

自営作業

生産作業

に分

れる

The tasks in prisons are divided into 3 such as job training, house working and producing.

職業訓練に

溶接

電気工事

自動車整備

ど60種ほど

自営作業

掃除

洗濯

掃除

ど施設維

Job training includes welding, electric construction, maintaining cars and 60 ot her varieties.

受刑者

80%が従事

が生産作業

House working includes cleaning and washing, namely tasks related to keep the fa cility. 80% of prisoners selects producing task.

山奥

離れ小島に施設を設置

刑務作業

取引がまま

輸送に時間

If the prison is located in mountain or isolated island, it will be difficult to control the tasks. Shipping costs much time and money.

刑務所内

作業

私語厳禁

During the tasks in prison, prisoners are not allowed to talk.

土日祝祭日

年末年始を除き

1日8時間(例外的に12時間

週40時間労働

労働基準法が適用

Without Saturdays, Sundays, holidays, New year's eve and day, they had to work 8 hours in a day under the Labor Standards Act. 安定 た労働力 提供 ロ 労務管理 必要が 等 刑務作業 様 利点が評価 れ

"Supplying stable working force, costing less and labor-control free etc., there are many points good for companies in prison workforce. Therefore around 2,150 companies currently apply it as of April, 2010." (Ministry of Justice, A guide o f Prison-workforce)

生産作業を提供

中小企業が多

取引先企業

倒産

下請

発注

減少

人件 費

Producing is applied by minor business. Bankruptcy, declining of orders or order ing abroad, which costs less make prison-workforce disengaged.

内容

将棋盤

前掛

工業

工芸品

製造が主

The work is mainly to produce industrial and craft products such as chests, tabl es, shogi (Japanese chess) boards, BBQ sets and aprons.

作業に

報奨金制度が設

られ

A bonus plan is provided for such production work.

作業報奨金

作 業成績を基準に見習

ら1等工

10段階に格付

This production work bonus is ranked into 10 stages, from trainee workers to fir st-rank workers, based on task performance as a norm.

支給金

月額

平均

現在

4000円弱

出所時

総額

平均

5万円超が30%前 後

1万円以下が20

The average amount provided monthly is currently a little less than 4,000 yen, a nd about 30% of the inmates receive the average total amount of 50,000 yen upon their release from the prison, and those who receive less than 10,000 yen accoun ts for a little more than 20%.

ろが

長引

不況

産業

空洞化によ

生産作業が激減

However, due to the prolonged recession period and the de‐industrialization, this production work has been reduced greatly.

物品

販売

受刑者

労賃

得た刑務所

歳入

1987年

157億円をピ

に下が

2000年に

The revenue prisons earned from selling goods and generating from inmates' produ ction work has continually been reduced since the peak year of 1987 where the re venue was 15.7 billion Japanese yen, and in year 2000, it dropped below the leve l of 10 billion Japanese yen.

厳罰化

流れに伴

一時期 受刑者数が増加

Additionally, with the movement of severe punishment, the number of inmates incr eased at one point.

作業が減

受刑者

受刑者一人当た

年250万円

経費が

The production work has decreased, but the number of inmates has increased. A co st of at least 2.5 million Japanese yen is required for one inmate per year. Soc ial conditions are reflected even on the prisons.

刑務所

社会情勢を 反映

不景気に

犯罪者が増

た直観的

This is more than a intuitive story that the worse the situation gets, the more criminals we get. Even Japan's industrial structures and population composition affect the situation within the prisons.

平成16年版犯罪白書

意義に

に述

In Crime Report 2004, the signification to this point is indicated as follows.

受 刑者

中に

勤労習慣を持た

自己中心的

協調性を欠

者,忍耐力に乏

どが少

There are some who have no labor practice, some who are self-oriented and lack s pirits of cooperation, and some who do not have much patience among inmates. Thr ough prison work, these inmates are expected to gain the results of :

1規則正

勤労習慣

規律 る生活態度を身に付

(1) learning regular labor practice and disciplined daily manners, 2心 身 健康を維持 る

(2) maintaining their mental and physical health, 3他人 共同作業を通 社会生活 順応性を養 ,

(3) developing adaptability to social lives through group work with others, 4勤労意欲及 職業的 知識 技能を養

4) cultivating the will to work and professional knowledge and skills, 5忍耐力 集中力を養 た効 果が期待 れ お 刑務作業 我が国 行刑上重要

位置を占

(5) cultivating the patience and concentration. As such, prison work holds an i mportant position as the country's prison administration.

日本

た意義

ら内観によ

矯正に努

製を

In Japan, there is such a specification. Thus, the Pennsylvania system, reformin g inmates by applying self-contemplation method single-mindedly, is not taken.

刑務所

少人数

た作業

人員を増加

品質

回数を増

This is the reason why prisons have to increase the number of workers for tasks which were before done by a smaller number of workers.

およ

反資本主義的

出所後 社会適応に齟齬をきた

Also, they have increased the number of quality control tasks.

法務省

ラン

活動

ど刑務所外

作業を多

る方針を

This is almost like an anti-capitalism, and might cause contradictions of social adaptation after the inmates are released from prisons. The Ministry of Justice , therefore, takes a course of action to increase the tasks outside of prisons s uch as volunteer works.

都市部

立地が必須に

Doing so, prisons need to be located to urban areas all the more.

受刑者

れ社会に復帰

が前提に

Supposing all inmates will eventually return to the society.

社会

ら隔離

適応

る人間を育

出所後にまた犯罪を繰

If they are isolated from the society, they will be grown to be people who will adapt only to that specific place, and this may lead to them repeating crimes af ter they return to the society.

再販防止

観点

ら刑務所

都市部に立地

ざるを得

In view of prevention of repeat convictions, prisons cannot help but to locate t hemselves in urban areas.

今回

脱走

受刑者に逃走歴が

おき

起きた

The prison escape by Li Guolin proves that it was bound to happen, setting aside that this inmate had had a history of escape before.

性悪説

受刑者に臨

日本

性善説を

ら逃げられた

In America, they face inmates with a view that human nature is fundamentally evi l, but Japan's view is that human nature is fundamentally good. But this is not the reason why the inmate managed to escape.

刑務所

過剰収容が以前

ら指摘

The prison's overcrowding issue has long been pointed out.

限られた数

刑務官

る受刑者を監視

It is not an easy task observing ever-increasing inmates with a limited number o f prison guards.

予算

削減圧力

Additionally, there is a strong pressure of budgetary cutback.

法務省

手を打

The Ministry of Justice has already taken a measure.

収容率

2000年代半

110%を超

たが

近年

各刑務所にお

る収容棟

増築

新設PFI

The housing rate of inmates had hit 110% in the middle of year 2000, but it has now been reduced to less than 100% after some extensions of inmates' accomodatio

n buildings at all prisons, operation of newly built PFI prisons (private prison s), and also the improvement in the housing rate due to the decrease in total nu mber of inmates in recent years.

平均

However, this is just an average standard.

刑期が長

服役囚

女 子受刑者

施設 過剰収容

状態が継続

Facilities for convicts who are serving long-term sentences and female inmates a re continually having an overcrowding issue.

らに広島刑務所

収容分類級が幅広

刑務官に

多様

人材が必要

れる

Additionally, the Hiroshima Penitentiary is known to have a wide range of housin g ranks. This means they require many different types of prison guard resources.

人数

問題

It is not just a problem of the number of people.

裁判員制度が始ま

今ま

市民に知られる

が少

た刑事司法

世界が徐

に明ら

The citizen judge system began in Japan, and the once-unknown world of criminal justice is gradually made clear.

今回

脱走事件を刑務所

監視体制

問題に帰着

制度導入以前

認識

Logically concluding the escape incident as a problem of the prison's monitoring system is nothing but just a recognition before the citizen judge system came i n effect.

刑務所

社会復帰予定者

過剰収容

課題をど

に考

対処

が市民

建設的

The general public need to discuss constructively about the opinions on the over crowding problem of the inmates who are waiting to return to the society and als o on how this problem shall be dealt with.

伝統的

非収容型

刑罰

早期釈放制度

拡充

検討

予算次第

Also, expansion of the traditional non-housing punishment and the early release system shall be considered further. These, of course, depend on the budgets. Cri minal cases should no longer be consumed just as news stories.

http://twcritique.jugem.jp/?eid=59

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