Part 1

Individual parameters: Registration Number: 0921833 Subnet A = 18 Subnet B = 12 Subnet C=15 IP range 192.168.11.0 ± 192.168.12.255 Mask length 27

Part 3
y y dns nntp
FIGURE 1 TOPOLOGY DIAGRAM

Subnet

Network Address

A B C D E

192.168.11.0 192.168.11.32 192.168.11.64 192.168.11.96 192.168.11.128

Mask in dotted decimal form (e.g. 255.255.255.0) 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224

Number of hosts including PCs and router interfaces 19 13 16 3 2

Number of unused addresses 11 17 14 27 28

TABLE 1 SUBNET DETAILS

Device

Interface

IP Address

R1

R2 1st PC subnet A Last PC subnet A 1st PC subnet B Last PC subnet B 1st PC subnet C

FA0/0 FA0/1 S0/0 FA0/0 FA0/1 S0/0 NIC NIC NIC NIC NIC

192.168.11.30 192.168.11.62 192.168.11.129 192.168.11.126 192.168.11.94 192.168.11.130 192.168.11.1 192.168.11.20 192.168.11.33 192.168.11.46 192.168.11.65

Subnet mask in dotted decimal form (e.g. 255.255.255.0 for a /24 mask length) 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224

Default gateway

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.168.11.30 192.168.11.30 192.168.11.62 192.168.11.62 192.168.11.94

and the probability of occurring host name conflicts (a lot of hosts with the same name) increased.94 192.98 255.168. Therefore.71 192.168.specialised machines carry out a search of the DNS query. 3. 30 Because.11. provided by the Internet to control Internet e-mail delivery and to make a translation between names and IP addresses.UDP and TCP.126 192. otherwise.255.11. I could have used a different mask length for subnets in order to reduce the number of unused addresses. through port 53. a very brief description of how the protocol works. DNS mostly uses UDP.224 255. DNS query: computer tries to find out in cache information about the domain.224 255.uk the computer completes several steps in order to access the page: 1. Analysis of address space usage With the IP range 192.11.168. For example. The mask length for my network was 27.0 ± 192.255.126 TABLE 2 ADDRESSING TABLE 1. Application Layer services y DNS.168. 11 remained unused. y y DNS uses 2 transport layer protocols.Domain Name System The Domain Name System is a client /server application that identifies each host on the Internet unique user-friendly name. DNS is a service. the biggest Number of unused addresses was in the last two subnets E and D.168. therefore.168. In other words: the main goal of DNS was the creation of a hierarchical.255.11.224 192.essex. For a network with a few hundred big timesharing machines.255 I have been allocated. in 1983 in order to solve the upcoming problem Domain Name System was invented.168. it was obvious that this system could not to continue to work well. while the rest. y In 1980s.168.Last PC subnet C DNS server Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC 192.255. the number of web addresses was very small and there was simply a file ±³hosts. Recursive DNS server .txt´ that contained the names of all computers and their IP addresses. And by means of this to reduce the waist of IP addresses. But. it sends a request to root name servers (stores information about domain names. If the size of the response message is less than 512 bytes User Datagram Protocol is used. as. But I only used 5 of them.12.ac. the number of PCs and IP addresses increased. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is used. as can be seen from the table above. the following system was effective. but as we use 1st and last addresses for Network address and Broadcast address. for example the key messages sent by the protocol DNS organizes hostnames in domain hierarchy. If there is no response from recursive server. as the time passed. such as ± IP addresses) . most of UDP packages have a 512 byte limit on a packet size. 2. internets and different administrative organizations.11.255.11.97 192. actual number is 32. when someone visits particular domain as: www. domain-based naming scheme so that the names could be usable in a different networks.11. in the beginning of public Internet services. hosts. I had 16 subnets.255. I had 16 subnets and 30 IP host addresses for each subnet.

[1. was to provide users with remote access to news. First of all. [2. 4. NNTP uses TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) for news spread. 5. 3. i. then as soon as connection has been established. the client and the server interact by means of using commands and responses.. 2.7] y Network News Transfer Protocol y NNTP was composed for two reason: 1. as their computer was unable to receive news.4. After that it sends further requests an Address Record. these commands supply a straightforward method of articles interchange between collaborating hosts. Second goal. 2. but without copies.e opens the page. Do you want it?) Quit (Terminate the session) y y 1. Some of them and their meanings are listed below: List (gives the list of all newsgroups) GROUP grp (Gives a list of all articles created in the group) Article ID (gives a specific article) IhaveID (I have Article ID. First of NNTP establishes a TCP connection to port 119. Retrieves the record 7. Then it sends a request to TLD (Top Level Domain ) in this case top level domain is uk 5. Sends the respond to the computer.4. The commands are used to secure that the client receives all the articles.3. it was designed for providence of reliable connection between two machines during news circulation. then finds 6.2] .6.5. post and retrieval. inquiry.

2007 [5]J.org/html/rfc1035 . P. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. Pearson Education. November 1987 Available online from : http://tools. Computer Networks. February 1986.Lapsley. RFC-1034.Walrand. [6] P.Mockapetris. Varaya.ietf. Pearson Education.Mockapetris. 3rd edition. Network News Transfer Protocol ± NNTP.ietf. Computer Networks. 2000. Available online from: http://tools. 2011 [4] Behrouz. 2nd edition. 4th edition. 5th Edition. RFC977. RFC-1034.ietf. November 1987 Available online from : http://tools.Kantor.pp 165-166. Domain Names ± Concepts and Facilities.Tanenbaum. 1996. accessed on 10/March/2011 [2] A. Data Communications and Networking.org/html/rfc977 .. chapter 7 [3]A.References: [1] B.Tanenbaum. Domain Names ± Implementation and Specification. P. A. High ±performance Communication Networks.org/html/rfc1034 [7] P. Forouzan. MC Graw Hill Higher Education.

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