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Abstract:- In this experiment I simulated, constructed and made varies analytic calculations of multiply circuits.

Introduction:- The equations that describe electronic circuits can be summarised by just a few general equations that after a bit of manipulation completely describe every electrical circuit within the experimental error that is caused by the production of electronic components and the error involved with reading the output on the multimeter and the oscilloscope. I.e. For example a voltage divider equation can easily derived from the equation describing resistors in series.

n

R(total ) ! Ri

i !1

And knowing the fact that the potential difference is the product of the total resistance and the current.

V (in ) ! I * R(total ) @I ! V (in ) R1 R2

V (out ) ! IR2 ! R2 V (in) R1 R2

Where R, I and V are the resistance the current and the potential difference respectfully.

Apparatus:- The apparatus that was used, was resistors, potentiometers, capacitors, light dependent resistors(LDR s),light emitting diodes(LED s), transistors and operational amplifiers(op-amps) . The circuits were tested using multimetres and an oscilloscope. These circuits were driven by alternating currents(ac) or direct current(dc) depending on the circuit specifications. Experimental Procedure:- In the first part of the experiment we were asked to simulate a voltage divider with an input voltage of 5volts and the two resistors at one kilaohm each.

R1 1k VS1 5 +

VM1 R(Load) 1k

+ 2.5V V

V (out ) ! 2.5

If we change the load resistor and plot the output voltage in response to this change we get a graph as given below.

At low load resistance less than 1 kilaohm the bottom term is only slightly larger than the top part and the potential drop across the two resistors are nearly equal. As the load resistor gets larger the potential difference across the load resistor converges to the input voltage in this case 5volts when the load resistor tends to infinity.

In the next part of the experiment(part 5) a resistor and a capacitor was connected in series with an input voltage that is a square ac wave with a potential difference of 5volts. The voltage across the resistor is given by the equation

V ! A exp( t ) RC

Setting the capacitance of the capacitor to 1 micro farad and the resistance of the resistor is 1 kilaohm.

OSC1 1u

+ Ch1 -

+ Ch2 -

C1 1u

VG1 +

R1 1k

Channel 1 in red is simple the input voltage while channel 2 in green gives the potential difference across the resistor which decays like the theoretical model with A set to 10.

t @V ! 10(exp( 3 ) 10

In the next part of the experiment(7) we are using the same circuit set up as in part (5) but with an input that is an alternating current of frequency ( ) and with an output voltage giving by the equation.

i ZC ) R V (out ) ! IR ! V (in)( 1 R2 2 2 Z C R

Gain is defined as output voltage divided by input voltage. The Gain in decibels was plotted against frequency on a linear log plot also the phase in degrees was plotted against

5

the frequency on a linear log plot. This type of plot is called a Bode plot.

The Gain at low frequencies shows how there is little gain. While at high frequencies of around 1 kilohertz the gain is zero therefore this circuit is a high pass filter.

In this part of the experiment (19) a current amplifier was constructed as well as simulated. With a base resistor of 1kilaohm and a potentiometer of 100kilaohm.

P1 100k

AM2 3.69mA +

A

T1 2N4400 R1 1k V1 5 +

A

42.75uA

AM1

h fe !

I(c) 4.8*10^(-3) 4.76*10^(-3) 4.78*10^(-3) I(B) 53*10^(-6) 54.3*10^(-6) 53.65*10(-6)

Average

In this part of the experiment (20) the circuit below was simulated and values of the load resistor was changed from values of 10 ohms to 10kilaohm.

V1 5

R(Load) 1k

VM2

V

+

T1 2N4400 R1 10k

V2 5

VM1

V

+

As the load resistor increases to a value of around 1.85kilaohm the potential across the transistor decreases to 0 volts while the potential difference across the load resistor increases to a maximum value of 5 volts.

In this part of the experiment (21) a light sensitive alarm was constructed and simulated.

LED1 CQX35A

R3 1k R1 1k T1 2N4400 R2 25k V1 5

R' NORPS-11

The values of the resistors are derived in the appendices. The circuit work s but the output brightness was slightly dimmer than anticipated but to change to a brighter light output lowering the resistance of R(3) by a very small amount will increase brightness or increasing the resistance of R(1) will also increase brightness but the light source will turn on with a smaller background flux of radiation.

In this part of the experiment (22) the load resistor was set to 500 ohms while 3 different setting of the input voltage were applied by an alternating current set to 1000 hertz s.

1 2 3 dc offset(volts) 1.2 0.6 0.8 amplitude(volts) 0.3 0.3 1.2

OSC1 1u + VS1 5

+ Ch1 -

+ Ch2 -

The graph above demonstrates how this circuit can act as a switch as the voltage across channel 1 cuts off as the voltage across channel 2 goes above around 1 volt.

In this part of the experiment (24) an op-amp was used as a voltage multiplier

R(f) 4k

+

2 4

VS1 12

R(i) 1k V1 100m

OP1 !OPAMP 6 3

499.07mV

V

+

The calculations of R(i) and R(f) are done in the appendices. Voltage input is 100 milivolts and the output is 499.07 milivolts and V(out) divided by V(in) is just under 5.The desired gain is four and the circuit provides a gain of 4.9907

In this part of the experiment (25) an op-amp circuit was constructed to give a gain of 20.

10

gain ! @1

Rf Ri

@19 !

Rf Ri

Since there were no resistors that were exactly a factor of 19 in a difference I used one resistor of 82 ohms and a resistor of 1.5 kilaohm

1500 ! 18.293 82

In this part of the experiment (26) an inverting amplifier was simulated and its output was verified. By doing a direct-

11

R1 1k

V

VM1

Current transfer characteristics using a feedback resistor in the range from 0 to 10kilaohm returns the above linear graph. Taking two values of R(f) and R(i) with a set initial voltage gives the data

V(in){volts} 5 5 R(f){ohms} 10000 1000 R(i){ohms} 10000 1000 V(out){volts} -50 -1

A(cl ) ! V (out ) R ( f ) ! V (in) R (i )

50 ! 10 5 10 ! 10 1

And since 10 = 10 we verified the circuit for A(cl) were A(cl) represents the gain in a closed loop. Equals to 10.

12

In this part of the experiment(27) a 4-bit digital to analogy converter was simulated.

VS1 5 SW-SPST1 R1 18.75k R5 6k

SW-SPST2 SW-SPST3

SW-SPST4

Where the switches select weather a binary 0 or 1 is used at that input. The calculations are all done out in the appendices with my reasoning for them.

In this part of the experiment (29) the values of the resistors and components where giving in the lab manual. The circuit that was constructed and tested using a universal remote, the images below are the output signals of varies buttons and the transfer between two different signals sent by the remote.

13

These four images are only a few of the varies possible signals the remote can put out and there very sharply defined in the above pictures.

In this part of the experiment (30) I simulated a comparator with resistors of 3kilaohms and 6kilaohms respectfully.

OSC1 1u

Gnd

Ch1

Ch2

+ R1 6k

VS1 5

IOP1 -

R2 3k

+ + VG1

14

In this part of the experiment (31) I simulated a circuit with two integrators in series to solve the differential equation.

d2y ! 10 dt 2

The capacitors and resistors were set to 1 to make the calculations easy

V (out ) ! 1 V (in )dt RC

@ V (out ) ! V (in)dt

But since we need two integrators set up in series the two minus signs cancel out leaving the equation.

V (out ) ! V (in )dtdt

@ y ! 5t 2

15

Conclusion:- Circuits work very close to the expected values by the theoretical models, but due to small variations in the resistors, capacitors and all the other components in the circuit there are errors that propagate throughout the circuit but are generally too small to measure or are neglect able.

Appendices:Part 1

V (out ) ! RLoad 1000 V (in) ! (5) ! 2.5 R1 RLoad 1000 1000

Q ! CV

Where C is the capacitance and V is the potential difference. Differentiating the above equation

dV dQ !C dt dt

I !C @ dV dt

16

Part (7)

I! V (in) Z (total )

i R V (in ) ZC ) ! V (in)( I! i 1 R( R2 2 2 ) ZC Z C therfore i ZC ) R V (out ) ! IR ! V (in )( 1 R2 2 2 Z C R

Part (19)

I c ! 3.69 * 10 3 I b ! 45.75 *10 6

h fe !

@ h fe !

4.78 *10 3 ! 89.09 53.65 * 10 6 89.09 86.316 ! 2.774 2.774 * 100 ! 3.2 86.316

17

Therefore the difference between expected and experimental values is 3.2 percent. Part (21)

LED1 CQX35A

R3 1k R1 1k T1 2N4400 R2 25k V1 5

R' NORPS-11

Light on:

R 1 ! ( 1 1 ) 1 R1 R2 R3 RLED R2 R d

Light off:

R ! R2 R d R2 R1

R2 ! R3 ! 1kilaohm

18

And R(1) being around 25kilaohm i.e. so that when R is around 0.06 kilaohm the resistor R(1) acts like a massive resistance and most of the current will flow through R . When R is around 200 kilaohm the R(1) resistor is really small and that the total resistance of R from above is low in comparison to R .

1

Part 24

Acl ! Rf V (out ) ! 1 V (in) Ri

1 Rf Ri !5

@ R f ! 4 Ri

Letting R(i) equal to 1kilaohm therefore R(f) equals to 4 for a gain in the closed loop of 5. Part 26

A(cl ) ! V (out ) R ( f ) ! V (in) R (i )

Where R(f) is the feedback resistor and R(i) is the input resistor.

Part 27

I1 ! V / 8R I 2 ! V / 4R I 3 ! V / 2R I4 ! V / R

19

Current I(1) is the least significant bit while I(4) is the most significant bit. The factors of 1,2,4 and 8 are because we use a binary system i.e. base 2 math.

20 ! 1 21 ! 2 22 ! 4 23 ! 8 V (out ) ! I (5) R(5)

But the current through the fifth resistor is simple the summation of the current through the other four resistors.

4

I (5) ! I (i)

i !1

1.875 )V V (out ) ! R(5)( 18.75 @V (out ) ! 3 @ (0.1)(5) R(5) ! 3 @ R(5) ! 6

The minus sign on the output is because an inverter was used to get the desired effect that is why it was neglected above. Also the factor of 18.75 was used because we are using a 4 bit system that means having 16 possible state, and 3volt output divided by the 16 possible states give the factor of

3 ! 0.1875 16

20

Instead of using a tinny resistance I decided to use a more reasonable resistance of 18.75 as my R value.

Sources:- The art of electronics by Horowitz and Hill. The advanced laboratory manual.

21

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