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she's owed, what's respectful, right, pious, prudent, and also free to decide all of these questions for the behavior of everyone else as well, and to act on her judgments as she thinks best, enforcing her views where she can. In this situation where there is no common authority to resolve these many and serious disputes, we can easily imagine with Hobbes that the state of nature would become a “state of war”, even worse, a war of “all against all”.
According to Hume, our sympathy-based sentiments can motivate us towards the pursuit of non-selfish ends, like the utility of others. For Hume, and for fellow sympathy-theorist Adam Smith, the term "sympathy" is meant to capture much more than concern for the suffering of others. Sympathy, for Hume, is a principle for the communication and sharing of sentiments, both positive and negative. In this sense, it is akin to what contemporary psychologists and philosophers call empathy. In developing this sympathy-based moral sentimentalism, Hume surpasses the divinely-implanted moral sense theory of his predecessor, Francis Hutcheson, by elaborating a naturalistic, moral psychological basis for the moral sense, in terms of the operation of sympathy. After providing various examples, Hume comes to the conclusion that most, though not all, of the behaviors we approve of increase public utility. Does this then mean that we make moral judgments on selfinterest alone? Unlike his fellow empiricist Thomas Hobbes, Hume argues that this is not in fact the case, rejecting psychological egoism-the view that all intentional actions are ultimately self-interested. In addition to considerations of self-interest, Hume maintains that we can be moved by our sympathy for others, which can provide a person with thoroughly non-selfish concerns and motivations, indeed, what contemporary theorists would call, altruistic concern In order to prove anything, we must first start with a foundation that is accepted as truth. Augustine begins with the platform that we exist. We can not argue this because if we do it is proving ourselves wrong. The mere fact that we can argue is a proof of our existence. Next he asks us if we are alive. We must also agree to this because in order to agree or to not agree we must be alive. Now he asks us if we understand these two steps to be true. If we do, then he has proven his next step, we have reason. For without reason, we could not understand these two basic concepts. He then puts all of existence in a hierarchy. The lowest form of existence is illustrated by a rock. It exists, and this is all it does. It has no concept of life, or even of it's own existence. One step up on Augustine's hierarchy is a tree. It is both alive, and it exists. It
and touch. Since this truth is greater than human reason. and does not depend on us. that it must be God. we exists. and choosing. but because it is a truth that exists in this world and that truth must come from somewhere. have life.g. nor does it have mobility. It can chose whether or not to eat a certain item. and have one thing that all the others lack. say it is. "Is it true that X is Y?" Such a question is an open question if a conceptually competent speaker can question this. (Conclusion) X is not (analytically equivalent to) good. The type of question Moore refers to in this argument is an identity question. It has what he calls an inner animal sense. otherwise the question is closed. If the pupil accepts. It is not ten because we want it to be. then there must be a God. because it should be. (Premise 2) The question "Is it true that X is good?" is not meaningless (i. A dog is next on his list. it is an open question). to be true. but does he eat meat?" would be a closed question. E. the greatest being in the hierarchy. "Is the morning star the . where as nothing below a dog in the hierarchy can do any of that. A dog exists.g.e. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903). lives. It is true. Still higher than the dog. The argument takes the form of syllogistic modus tollens: (Premise 1) If X is good. smell. The Open Question Argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G.does not have understanding. and of survival. taste. some truth. If. and is sensate. it can move freely. This is where Augustine takes a jump. It alone gives us more power than any other being on this earth. However. one things that sets us apart from all the others. The pupil must now accept that if he can prove there is something greater than human reason. are sensate. God's command). It has an understanding of life. because it might be. He argues that this is true. which is greater than human reason. Augustine will point out the mathematical truth that seven plus three equals ten. whether or not we exist. as humans. For example. because it's supposed to be. not because we. pleasure) or meta-physical (e. to refute the equating of the property good with some non-moral property. "I know he is a vegetarian. hear. we have reason. It can feel. because it could be. whether naturalistic (e. then the question "Is it true that X is good?" is meaningless. is the human. and only if the pupil accepts can the argument continue. and respond freely. And that fact alone demonstrates that there is something out there. it is because it is. We are capable of understanding.
it would have been more than acceptable to hold this first position. and his nearer precursors Voltaire and Hume. Prayer assumes that one can bend the Will of God to the pious penitent’s human will.... “pleasure is good” is a meaningful..... what Moore is saying is that any attempt to define good in terms of a naturalistic property fails because all definitions can be transformed into closed questions (the subject and predicate being conceptually identical. It’s still controversial whether good is the same thing as pleasure....... However.......... The first of these notions was not new... say. These two did not hold well together for Nietzsche.......... for example. he is working within a tradition of atheist and non-Christian scholars that included Roman scholars such as Plato (who was well-respected by the humanists before Nietzsche)... the question cannot be deduced from the conceptual terms alone.... .. Moore further argued that if this is true... Nietzsche would use the concepts that were accepted by Christianity in order to refute the dogmas that were enforced by the Church.... informative statement.. Moore said if you define good as pleasure (or any other naturalistic property) you could substitute “good” for “pleasure” anywhere it occurs.. Neitzsche found these two ideas (the power of prayer and the omniscience of God) to be mutually exclusive.. In Nietzsche’s time..... Put another way.........same thing as the evening star?" is an open question.. The Open Question Argument claims that any attempt to identify morality with some set of observable........ then moral facts cannot be reduced to natural properties and that therefore ethical naturalism is false............. however..... Meanwhile. but was supported by many other writers of similar bent... all purported naturalistic definitions of good are transformable into open questions.... ........ In order to make his point......... Rather. Shortly before (in section §11). [TOP] Logic Against Religion Nietzsche’s argument against Christian beliefs was twofold: Christianity was plainly incorrect. Nietzsche spent much of his career defending this position.... Christian dogma states that God is omniscient and knows all...... which can be defined in terms of observable properties).... non-informative tautology.. but “good is good” (after making the substitution) is an empty. His writings against the religion started in Menschliches Allzumenschliches... However it is in Der Antichrist that he writes his capstone condemnation of Christianity. there could not be a “both-and” structure of belief for him as many Christian theologians would vie for when discussing the nature of God’s Will.. and it was degrading to the human condition. In fact....... Nietzsche’s discourse on Christianity might be what he is best known for. natural properties will always be an open question (unlike. it is given in language itself that the two terms mean the same thing).......... In Menschliches Allzumenschliches.. a horse. etc..... writes how the Christian practice of prayer is a worthless and meaningless act.
to illustrate the deficiencies in this argument.... The difference relates to the motivation of the act (my will)...... Many agnostics.... in Also sprach Zarathustra. (“Constitution” 16-20) [TOP] "God Is Dead" Perhaps Nietzsche’s most quoted phrase is “God is Dead....... most expressly in the polemic Der Antichrist.. for accumulation of forces.. for instance. and in acting in accordance with duty. . Christianity called humans to halt natural human progress for spiritual advancement..... the action is the same...... Nietzsche’s second argument against Christianity that is most notable. He wrote: I call an animal... and tendency to will to live rather than to die.... focusing and founding his theory of morality against Christianity. humanitarian at its core. we have killed God in our actions.. those of us in the West and those within the judeo-Christian tradition) survived as long as we have with the belief in the Golden Rule and the entire moral code that is connected to it? Nietzsche would argue that it is because there are so few true practitioners of Christianity and similar moral codes... for power: where the will to power is wanting. however...... for continuance. That the spiritual realm did not exist added insult to the injury of evolutionary stalling caused by Christianity’s ideas..... when it prefers what is injurious to it […] Life itself is an instinct for growth.. and therefore die. The difference: In acting from duty. argued that it was still a worthwhile human system......... but thanks to humanity’s nature. we....... call people to give of themselves and to put others before themselves. an individual... even though denying Christianity’s belief system..... there is decline.......[TOP] The Human Appeal Nietzsche took it upon himself to defend such ideas throughout much of his career... For Nietzsche this was against human nature... when it selects.. depraved when it loses its instincts. To criticize Christianity’s alleged “humanitarian” side........... then... took it upon himself. Why have we as a human race (particularly.. denying life itself if necessary..... have been the human opportunists that our nature demands us to be..... as a society.... that humanity has killed God through its efforts to survive.. It is... ..” This mantra comes from the idea........... Nietzsche....... God asks us to deny ourselves.... The Beatitudes....... Nietzsche explained how Christianity’s survival and fundamental principals relied on humanity’s complete disregard for their own survival.. a species..
but because it will help build his good reputation. and it gives him no pleasure. Contrariwise. Rather I do it because I am inclined to – it pleases me or is in my interests. not because this is his duty. irrespective of whether or not I am inclined to do it. in acting from duty. but because it pleases him – he finds ‘inner satisfaction in spreading joy’. (1) A shopkeeper is honest with a naive. (3) The philanthropist is going through a really bad time in his life. and his business. duty. he acts in accordance with. Now he acts from duty. Nevertheless he does it because it is the right thing to do. He no longer has any inclination to help the needy. I perform the action because it is my duty. not from. Kant’s examples illustrate. He acts in accordance with duty (he is honest) but not from duty (ie not because honesty is right whether or not it helps his reputation and business). in acting in accordance with duty. I don’t do it for that reason. not because it is his duty to be honest.Thus. (2) A philanthropist helps the needy. easily duped customer. Again. whilst I do perform the action that duty commands. or of whether or not it is in my interests. .
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