Contents

List of Figures xiii List of Tables xvii Foreword xix Preface xxi

1

Piping Codes, Standards, and Specifications............. 1
1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Definitions 2 1.3 Codes 3 1.3.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler Pressure Vessel Codes 3 1.3.2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31, Codes for Pressure Piping 14 1.4 Standards and Specifications 24 1.4.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers 26 1.4.2 American Petroleum Institute 30 1.4.3 American Society for Testing and Materials 32 1.4.4 American Society for Nondestructive Testing 39 1.4.5 American Society for Quality 39 1.4.6 American Welding Society 40 1.4.7 American Water Works Association 41 1.4.8 Copper Development Association 42 1.4.9 Compressed Gas Association 43

1.4.10 Canadian Standards Association 43
vii

1...4..5 Bolts and Gaskets (Fasteners and Sealing Elements) 101 2..11 Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association 43 1.1..5.4..3 The Flanged Joint System 111 3 Metallic Materials for Piping Components ...2.1 Pipe Sizes 62 2.3 Valve Classification 92 2.....1 The Process of Joint Integrity 102 2.viii Contents 1...3 Alloying of Steel 122 ......1 Chemical Properties of Metals 117 3.4.4 Valves 80 2....2 Metallic Materials 122 3..5..3.1....3 Flanged Joints 74 2.15 Pipe Fabrication Institute 46 1..4..2 Pipe 51 2..1 Valve Codes and Standards 82 2.13 National Association of Corrosion Engineers 45 1.4..3 Elongation and Reduction of Area 119 3.4.12 Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry 43 1.3.3 Pipe Fittings 70 2. 49 2.4...4.1 Introduction to Piping Components 50 2..4 Valve Components 94 2.....2 Mechanical Properties of Metals 118 3...2 Flange Joint Components 103 2... 1 15 3...4.16 Society of Automotive Engineers 48 2 Piping Components.1 Properties of Piping Materials 117 3.14 National Fire Protection Association 45 1.....2 Classification of Operation Valves 87 2....4.2 Pipe Ends 67 2..1 Butt-Weld End Fittings 72 2.2 Socket-Weld and Threaded-End Fittings 73 2.....1..5.3.2.4 Physical Properties of Metals 120 3..

.4...5.1 Annealing 131 3.1 Mild (Low-Carbon) Steel 125 3.5 Stainless Steel 126 3...1 Project Lead Piping Materials Controller 146 4.3.4.3 Piping Design Group 142 4..2.5....1 Process Engineering 151 4.7.1 Project Lead Piping Materials Engineer 140 4....5 Piping Stress Engineering Group 148 4.3....4 Tempering 132 3.2 Unified Numbering System of Ferrous Metals and Alloys 135 4 Roles and Responsibilities .4 High-Tensile Steel 125 3..4.2 Project Piping Stress Engineer 148 4..7..6 Other Engineering Disciplines Involved 150 137 4.2 Project Piping Materials Controller 147 4..6.1 American Society for Testing and Materials 133 3.5.Contents ix 3..4.2 Mechanical Engineering 154 ..3 Project Piping Designers-Checkers 144 4..5.2 Senior Piping Materials Engineer 141 4.3.2 Medium-Carbon Steel 125 3..4.2 Piping Materials Engineering Group 139 4.6 Nonferrous Metals in Alloying 132 3.5.4 Piping Materials Control Group 145 4.4 Types of Steel 125 3.......5 Steel Heat-Treating Methods 131 3.4.2 Normalizing 132 3.1 The Lead Piping Engineer 138 4...1 Project Piping Area/Unit Supervisor (Squad Boss) 143 4.2 Project Piping CAD Coordinator 143 4.1 Project Lead Piping Stress Engineer 148 4.3 High-Carbon Steel 125 3...2.4. 4.6....7 Material Specifications 133 3..5.3 Hardening 132 3.

2 6.6. Assembly. 6..2.....2......4... and Erection.....5 Construction Phase 166 5..6 Precommissioning and Commissioning Phase 169 5...7.7 Startup and Handover to the Owner 169 157 161 6 Fabrication..2.6..1 Cutting 174 6.7....1 Feasibility Phase 160 5....1 Project Types 157 5.............3 Pipe Cladding 186 .2..... 5.5....2 Project Phases 160 5..2 Internal Galvanizing of Pipe and Piping 171 Systems 184 6.2 Preheating 181 6.2 Beveling 174 6.....3 6...5 Structural Engineering 155 5 Projects .4 Codes and Standards Considerations 172 Fabrication Materials for Piping Systems 172 Fabrication Drawings 173 Fabrication Activities 174 6..7...3 Front-End Engineering Development Phase 5.3 Instrument Engineering 155 4...2...3 Heat Treatment 181 6...1 Corrosion Allowance 184 6..5..2 Conception Phase 160 5..2.5 Welding 178 6...6.4 Bending 175 6.4.1 6...x Contents 4.4..7 Protection of Carbon Steel in Corrosive Services 183 6.....3 Forming 175 6......4 Detailed Engineering Phase 162 5...4.2..6 Brazing and Soldering 183 6.l Welding Processes 179 6..5.4 Civil Engineering 155 4..

....Contents xi 6.....8........7 Punch List 206 A Listed Material .2 Types of Examination 196 7......l American Petroleum Institute 217 209 B General Engineering Data .2 Liquid Penetrant Examination 197 7...1 Alignment 186 6.4..2.1 Hydrostatic Leak Test 202 7......4 Radiographic Examination 199 7.....5 Choice of Testing Medium 205 7.2.. Index 231 21 9 ....3 Combination Hydrostatic-Pneumatic Leak Test 204 7.3 Preparation for Leak Test 202 7.3......3 Testing of Piping Systems 200 7......0.....2 Special Provisions for Testing 202 7....O.6 Test Pack 206 7....2 Pneumatic Leak Test 204 7..... A. 1 Ferrous Metals 209 A....2..8.4 Initial Service Leak Testing 205 7....3.........1 Visual Examination 197 7..2..............3 Magnetic Particle Examination 198 7.3.2 Flanged Joints 188 6..4 Leak-Testing Methods 202 7...3 Threaded Joints 188 7 Inspection and Testing ....8..2. 191 7.2 Nonferrous Material 213 A.5 Ultrasonic Examination 200 7.....8 Assembly and Erection 186 6.......................1 Some Limitations on the Pressure Testing of Piping Systems 201 7...4..4..1 Piping Codes 191 7...4.

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