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# Thermodynamic Cycles

Lecturer Dr. Igor Pioro Room UA3042 Tel. 905-721-8668 ext. 2880 E-mail: Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca

## Thermodynamics is an exciting and fascinating subject that deals with energy.

Textbook: Yunus A. engel and Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics. An Engineering Approach, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2011, 1024 pages.

## Timeframe and course layout

13 lectures (3 h per week) including 1 midterm exam 17 chapters from textbook 4 laboratories (each 3 points from 100 points), 10 assignments (1 point each) (~5 problems) Quizzes ~1 (4 points each) Midterm exam (21 points) ~1/3 of the course by material Final exam (53 points)

Some Definitions

In physics, thermodynamics (from the Greek therme, meaning heat and dynamis, meaning power") is the study of energy conversion between heat and mechanical work, and subsequently the macroscopic variables such as temperature, volume and pressure. Its progenitor, based on statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior, is the field of statistical thermodynamics (or statistical mechanics), a branch of statistical physics. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of need to increase the efficiency of early steam engines.

Some Definitions

Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a hotter object to a cooler object ("object" in this sense designating a complex collection of particles which is capable of storing energy in many different ways). When an object or fluid is at a different temperature than its surroundings or another object, transfer of thermal energy, also known as heat transfer, or heat exchange, occurs in such a way that the body and the surroundings reach thermal equilibrium; this means that they are at the same temperature. Heat transfer always occurs from a higher-temperature object to a cooler-temperature one as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics or the Clausius statement. Where there is a temperature difference between objects in proximity, heat transfer between them can never be stopped; it can only be slowed.
5 Heat transfer is energy in transit due to a temperature difference.

Some Definitions
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. (Fluids include liquids, gases, and plasmas.) Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest, and fluid dynamics, the study of fluids in motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms. Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many unsolved or partly solved problems. Fluid mechanics can be mathematically complex. Sometimes it can best be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers. A modern discipline, called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), is devoted to this approach to solving fluid mechanics problems. Also taking advantage of the highly visual nature of fluid flow is particle image velocimetry, an experimental method for visualizing and analyzing fluid flow.

## Heat transfer is energy in transit due to a temperature difference.

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Why NIST?
The NIST REFPROP Version 9.0 includes various properties of 84 pure fluids, 5 pseudo-pure fluids (such as air) and mixtures with up to 20 components within a wide range of parameters including supercritical region: The typical natural gas constituents methane, ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, pentane, isopentane, hexane, isohexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, dodecane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and water; The hydrocarbons acetone, benzene, butene, cis-butene, cyclohexane, cyclopropane, ethylene, isobutene, neopentane, propyne, trans-butene, and toluene; The HFCs R23, R32, R41, R125, R134a, R143a, R152a, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, R245ca, R245fa, and R365mfc; The HCFCs R21, R22, R123, R124, R141b, and R142b; The traditional CFCs R11, R12, R13, R113, R114, and R115; The fluorocarbons R14, R116, R218, C4F10, C5F12, and RC318; The "natural" refrigerants ammonia, carbon dioxide, propane, isobutane, and propylene; The main air constituents nitrogen, oxygen, and argon; The noble elements helium, argon, neon, krypton, and xenon; The cryogens argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, krypton, neon, nitrogen trifluoride, nitrogen, fluorine, helium, methane, oxygen, normal hydrogen, and parahydrogen; Water (as a pure fluid or mixed with ammonia); Miscellaneous substances including carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl ether, ethanol, heavy water, hydrogen sulfide, methanol, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfur dioxide, and trifluoroiodomethane; 7 55 predefined mixtures (such as R407C, R410A, and air); the user may define and store others.

Why NIST?
This program uses the most accurate equations of state and models currently available:
High accuracy Helmholtz energy equations of state, including international standard equations for water, R134a, R32, and R143a and equations from the literature for ethane, propane, R125, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and others; High accuracy MBWR equations of state, including the international standard EOS for R123; The Bender equation of state for several of the "older" refrigerants, including R14, R114, and RC318; An extended corresponding states model for fluids with limited data; An excess Helmholtz energy model for mixture properties; Experimentally based values of the mixture parameters are available for hundreds of mixtures; And Viscosity and thermal conductivity are based on fluid-specific correlations (where available), a modification of the extended corresponding states model, or the friction 8 theory model.

Why NIST?

Available properties: Temperature, Pressure, Density, Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, Specific Heat at constant volume and pressure, Sound Speed, Compressibility Factor, Joule Thompson Coefficient, Quality, 2nd and 3rd Virial Coefficients, Helmholtz Energy, Gibbs Energy, Heat of Vaporization, Fugacity, Fugacity Coefficient, K value, Molar Mass, Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, Kinematic Viscosity, Thermal Diffusivity, Prandtl Number, Surface Tension, Dielectric Constant, Isothermal Compressibility, Volume Expansivity, Isentropic Coefficient, Adiabatic Compressibility, Specific Heat Input, Exergy, dp/dr, d2p/dr2, dp/dT, dr/dT, dr/dp, and many 9 others.

Why NIST?
WindowsTM-based, graphical-user interface features: The fluid or mixture, units, reference state, properties to be displayed (among the 75 available), and other options are specified via pull down menus. A wide variety of tables in a scrollable, spreadsheet-style format may be calculated, including saturation properties (with temperature, pressure, density, enthalpy, entropy, composition, or quality as the independent variable) and tables at constant temperature, pressure, density, volume, enthalpy, or entropy (with temperature, pressure, or density varied). Input properties may be read from a file. Data in any table can be copied to the clipboard for export to other programs (such as spreadsheets). Data in any table can be plotted. A wide variety of property diagrams may be automatically generated, including pressureenthalpy and temperature-entropy diagrams and (for binary mixtures) temperature-composition and pressure-composition plots. User preferences and entire sessions may be stored for later use. A fluid search dialog is available to find fluids that match a certain criteria. A complete help system is available.
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Why NIST?

Source code: The FORTRAN subroutines and associated fluid data files are provided for those wishing to access REFPROP calculations from their own applications. Excel spreadsheets: Two sample spreadsheets are included that demonstrate how the REFPROP DLL can be linked to Excel. Most properties that are available in the graphical interface can also be calculated in the spreadsheets.

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## List of Selected Literature on Nuclear Reactors

Encyclopedias
1. International Encyclopedia of Heat & Mass Transfer, 1997. Editors: G.F. Hewitt, G.L. Shires and Y.V. Polezhaev, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1312 pages.

## Handbooks (Nuclear) / Thermophysical Properties of Liquids and Gases

1. 2. Nuclear Engineering Handbook, 2009. K.D. Kok, Editor, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, USA, 768 pages. NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport PropertiesREFPROP, 2007. NIST Standard Reference Database 23, Ver. 8.0, E.W. Lemmon, M.L. Huber and M.O. McLinden, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, U.S. Department of Commerce, April.
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## List of Selected Literature on Nuclear Reactors

Handbooks (General) / Thermophysical Properties of Materials, Liquids and Gases
1.
2. 3.

4.

5.

Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 2008. 8th ed., Eds.: D.W. Green and R.H. Perry, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, NY, USA. Mechanical Engineers Handbook, 2006. Editor: M. Kutz, 3rd ed., J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, 1088 pages. Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 1996. Editors: Eu.A. Avallone and Th. Baumeister III, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, NY, USA. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1993. Editor-in-Chief: D.R. Lide, 74th ed. 1993-1994, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. Handbook of Tables for Applied Engineering Science, 1973. 2nd ed., Eds.: R.E. Bolz and G.L. Tuve, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1168 pages.
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## List of Selected Literature on Nuclear Reactors

Reference / Text Books
1. Oka, Yo., Koshizuka, S., Ishiwatari, Y. and Yamaji, A., 2010. Super Light Water Reactors and Super Fast Reactors, Springer, 416 pages and 200 figures. Lewis, E.E., 2008. Nuclear Reactor Physics, Academic Press, Burlington, MA, USA, 293 pages. Shultis, J.K. and Faw, R.E., 2008. Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 591 pages. Pioro, I.L. and Duffey, R.B., 2007. Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Resistance at Supercritical Pressures in Power Engineering Applications, ASME Press, New York, NY, USA, 334 pages. Steed, R.G., 2007. Nuclear Power in Canada and Beyond, General Store Publ. House, Renfrew, ON, Canada, 409 pages. Lamarsh, J.R. and Baratta, A.J., 2001. Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 783 pages.
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2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

## List of Selected Literature on Nuclear Reactors

Reference / Text Books
7. Hewitt, G.F. and Collier, J.G., 2000. Introduction to Nuclear Power, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York, NY, USA, 304 pages. Canada Enters the Nuclear Age, 1997. AECL, 434 pages. Tong, L.S. and Weisman, J., 1996. Thermal Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactors, 3rd ed., American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, USA, 748 pages. Power Plant Engineering, 1996. Black & Veatch, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 879 pages. Lahey, R.T., Jr. and Moody, F.J., 1993. The Thermal-Hydraulics of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor, 2nd ed., American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, USA, 631 pages. Tang, Y.S., Coffield, R.D., Jr., and Markley, R.A., 1978. Thermal Analysis of Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors, American Nuclear Society (ANS), La Grange Park, IL, USA, 395 pages.
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8. 9.

10. 11.

12.

## List of Selected Literature on Nuclear Reactors

Reference / Text Books
13. 14. Power Plant Engineering, 1996. Black & Veatch, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 879 pages. Glasstone, S. and Sesonske, A., 1994. Nuclear Reactor Engineering,: Reactor Systems Engineering, 4th edition, Vol. 2, Chapman & Hall, New York, NY, USA. Lahey, R.T., Jr. and Moody, F.J., 1993. The Thermal-Hydraulics of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor, 2nd ed., American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, USA, 631 pages. Todreas, N.E., and Kazimi, M.S., 1990. Nuclear Systems I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Taylor & Francis, New York, NY, USA, 703 pages. Todreas, N.E., and Kazimi, M.S., 1990. Nuclear Systems II: Elements of Thermal Hydraulic Design, Taylor & Francis, New York, NY, USA, 506 pages. Krane, K.S., 1988. Introductory Nuclear Physics, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 845 pages. Tang, Y.S., Coffield, R.D., Jr., and Markley, R.A., 1978. Thermal Analysis of Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors, American Nuclear 16 Society (ANS), La Grange Park, IL, USA, 395 pages.

15.

16.

17.

18. 19.

## List of Selected Nuclear Journals

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Journals Annals of Nuclear Energy. J. of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Journal of Nuclear Materials. Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management. Nuclear Engineering and Design. Nuclear Engineering International. Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear Fusion. Nuclear News. Nuclear Plant Journal. Nuclear Power Today. Nuclear Safety. Nuclear Science & Engineering. Nuclear Technology.

Green recommended for HT publications Orange recommended for general reading on nuclear power events in17 the world

## List of Selected Nuclear Conferences

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

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Conferences International Conference On Nuclear Engineering (ICONE) (annually). International Congress on Advances in nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) (annually). International Topical Meeting on NUclear REactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH) (once in 2 years). Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference (PBNC) (once in 2 years). International Symposium on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (ISSCWR) (once in 2-3 years). International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Technology (once in 2 years). International Conference Global. American Nuclear Society Semi-Annual Meetings. ASME Meetings. International Topical Meeting on NUclear reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operations and Safety (NUTHOS). Joint International Conference Global Environment and Nuclear Energy Systems / Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (GENES4/ANP2003). International Conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe (Slovenia) (annually).

## List of Selected Nuclear Conferences

13. 14. Conferences International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES). International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR). European Nuclear Conference (ENC). IAEA international conferences on water-cooled reactors. IAEA Technical Meeting on Heat Transfer, Thermal-Hydraulics and System Design for SCWRs. Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Symposium (USA) (once in 2-3 years). Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) Conferences. Canada-China Joint Workshop on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (CCSC).

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## 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Major libraries 1. Library of Congress: http://catalog.loc.gov 2. CISTI (Canada): http://cat.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/search 3. British Library: http://catalogue.bl.uk/F/?func=file&file_name=login-bllist

Physics
ThermoDynamics Heat Transfer
Conduction

Fluid Mechanics

Convection

Single & Natural (over surfaces & inside enclosures) Forced (external & internal) Combined (mixed)

## Two-phase Boiling (pool & flow) Condensation (film & dropwise)

Major Topics
nature of thermodynamics first law of thermodynamics second law of thermodynamics properties and behaviour of pure substances ideal gases and mixtures equation of state for a perfect gas Carnot and Rankine Cycles Thermodynamic Efficiency Steam Tables and Charts Superheating and Reheating; Regenerative Feedwater Heating Conventional and Nuclear Steam Cycles Heat Exchanger Thermal Balance Steam Turbine Expansion Lines Steam Generator Thermal Characteristics

## Chapters from the textbook

1. Introduction and basic concepts. 2. Energy, energy transfer, and general energy analysis. 3. Properties of pure substances. 4. Energy analysis of closed systems. 5. Mass and energy analysis of control volumes. 6. The second law of thermodynamics. 7. Entropy. 8. Exergy: A measure of work potential.

## Chapters from the textbook

9. Gas power cycles. 10. Vapor and combined power cycles. 11. Refrigeration cycles. 12. Thermodynamic property relations. 13. Gas mixtures. 14. Gas-vapor mixtures and air-conditioning. 15. Chemical reactions. 16. Chemical and phase equilibrium. 17. Compressible flow.

## 3. Two-shaft gas turbine unit

4. Refrigeration and heat pump unit

## Thermodynamics and basic concepts

Thermodynamics is that part of science which is concerned with the conditions that material systems may assume and the changes in conditions that may occur either spontaneously or as a result of interactions between systems.

## Thermodynamics and basic concepts

Zeroth Law The Zeroth Law is the basis for the measurement of temperature. It states that two bodies which are in thermal equilibrium with a third body are in thermal equilibrium with each other. First Law The First Law of thermodynamics formally states that while energy assumes many forms, the total quantity of energy is constant. When energy disappears in one form it appears simultaneously in other forms.

## Thermodynamics and basic concepts

Second Law The microscopic disorder of a system is described by a system property called Entropy. The Second Law of thermodynamics states that whenever a process occurs, the entropy of all systems involved in the process must either increase or, if the process is reversible, remain constant. Third Law Nernsts Law or the Third Law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a thermodynamic system approaches zero for T 0 K.

## Application of thermodynamics 4. Engines.

Temperature scales
Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energies of the molecules.

## 3 E kT 2 E average kinetic energy of molecules k constant of Boltzmann (1.38 10 -23 J/K)

Units named after scientists written with capital letters: J, K, W, A, V, C, etc. Use prefix correctly: M mega (value 106, for example, MJ) but m milli (value 10-3, for example, mm). G. Fahrenheit (1686-1736) German instrument maker, 0 F mixture of water and salt (-32 F is water freezing point) and 98.6 F body temperature (water boiling point 212 F). R. de Reaumur (1683-1757) French physicist, 0 R freezing point of water and 80 R boiling point of water. A. Celsius (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer, ice melting point-water boiling point at normal conditions scale: 0 C and 100 C.

Temperature scales
Lord Kelvin (W. Thomson) (1824-1907) British physicist, thermodynamic absolute temperature scale, triple water point, 0.01 C (1 C=1 K). W. Rankine (1820-1872) Scottish physicist, thermodynamic absolute temperature scale for F, 0 Ra=-459.67 F. Absolute 0 reached in 1989 - 0.000 000 002 K. t ( F) = 1.8 t ( C) + 32 F t ( R) = 0.8 t ( C) T (K) = t ( C) + 273.15 T (Ra) = 1.8 T (K) Temperature accuracy: for technical applications 0.1 C, i.e., for example: 205.3 C. Temperature measured with mercury thermometers, thermocouples (TCs), resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and other devices. Temperature difference: T = 1 K = 1 C = (9/5) Ra = (9/5) F

Units conversion
(Bezrodny, M., Pioro, I. and Kostyuk, T., 2005. Transfer Processes in Two-Phase Thermosyphon Systems. Theory and Practice, 2nd ed., Fact, Kiev, Ukraine, 704 pages (in Russian))

Area 1 m2 = 10.76391 ft2. 1 ft2 = 0.092903 m2; 1 in2 = 6.4516 cm2 = 645.16 mm2; 1 mil2 = 6.45210-4 mm2; 1 circular mm = 0.7853982 mm2; 1 circular (circ.) in = 506.707479 mm2; 1 circ. mil = 5.067110-4 mm2; 1 yd2 = 0.8361 m2; 1 acre = 4840 yd2 = 4046.86 m2; 1 mi2 = 2.59 km2. Density 1 kg/m3 = 6.24280102 lb/ft3. 1 lb/ft3 = 16.0185 kg/m3. 1 slug/ft3 = 515.38 kg/m3.

Electrical resistivity (specific) 1 Ohmcirc. mil/ft = 1.6624261109 Ohmm; 1 Ohmin = 0.0254 Ohmm. Sometimes instead of Ohm used a symbol .

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## Energy, work and heat amount

1 horse power per hour (h.p.h) = 2647.8 kJ; 1 electronvolt (eV) = 1.6021019 J; 1 erg = 1 dyne (dyn)cm = 0.1106 J; 1 liter (L, l or )atm = 101.33 J. 1 British thermal unit (B.t.u. or BTU) (thermal) = 1.05435 kJ; 1 B.t.u. = 1.055056 kJ; 1 B.t.u. (mean) = 1.05587 kJ. 1 calorie (cal) (thermal) = 4.184 J; 1 cal = 4.1868 J; 1 cal (at 15 C) = 4.1858 kJ; 1 cal (at 20 C) = 4.1819 J; 1 cal (mean) = 4.19002 J; 1 Calorie (Cal) (food) = 4.1868 kJ. 1 lbfft = 1.355817 J; 1 poundal(pdl) ft = 0.04214 J; 1 therm = 105506 kJ; 1 pound centigrade unit (pcu) = 1.8 B.t.u. = 1.8978 kJ.
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Enthalpy 1 kcal/kg = 1 cal/g = 4.1868 kJ/kg; 1 B.t.u./lb = 2.326 kJ/kg; 1 centigrades heat unit (chu) /lb = 4.1868 kJ/kg; 1 ftlbf/lb = 0.00299 kJ/kg.

Flowrate volumetric (or volume flowrate) 1 gallon (US)/min (gpm) = 0.06309 dm3/s; 1 ft3/min (cfm) = 471.95 dm3/s.
Force 1 N = 105 dyn = 0.101972 kgf; 1 kgf = 9.80665 N. 1 lbf = 4.448222 N; 1 cental = 100 lbf = 444.822 N; 1 kip = 1000 lbf = 4448.222 N; 1 poundal (pdl) = 1 lbfft/s2 = 0.138255 N; 1 grain = 0.6355103 N; 1 stone = 62.2751 N. 1 lbf = 0.01 cental = 0.001 kip = 32.174 pdl = 7000.00 grain = 16 ozf.
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Heat flux 1 W/m2 = 0.8598 kcal/hm2 = 7.988102 kcal/hft2 = 0.31791 B.t.u./hft2 = 0.17611 centigrades heat unit (chu) /hft2. 1 kcal/hm2 = 1.163 W/m2; 1 cal/scm2 = 41868 W/m2. 1 kcal/hft2 = 12.5184 W/m2; 1 B.t.u./hft2 = 3.154 W/m2; 1 chu/hft2 = 5.6783 W/m2.
Heat flux volumetric

## 1 B.t.u./hft3 = 10.35 W/m3.

Heat transfer coefficient 1 B.t.u. / hft2 F = 5.6782 W/m2K

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## Heat transfer rate and power

Units 1 W = 1 J/s 1 kcal/h 1 kgfm/s 1 h.p. (metric) W 1.0 1.163 9.81 735.5 kcal 0.86 1.0 8.44 633 kgfm/s 0.102 0.118 1.0 75 h.p. (metric) 1.36103 1.58103 1.33102 1.0

1 W = 107 erg/s; 1 m3atm/h = 28.146 W; 1 h.p. (el.) = 746 W. 1 horse power (h.p.) (UK) = 745.7 W; 1 B.t.u./h = 0.29307 W; 1 lbfft/min = 0.022597 W; 1 lbfft/s = 1.35582 W; 1 cheval-vapor = 1 h.p. (metric) = 735.5 W; 1 centigrades heat unit (chu) /h = 0.52753 W.
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Length

1 m = 3.2808 ft. 1 yard (yd) = 0.9144 m = 3 ft (3'); 1 ft = 12 inch (in) (12"). 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 in (1") = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.001 in = 0.0254 mm; 1 m = 106 m; 1 mile (mi) = 5280 ft = 1609.344 m; 1 nautical mile (nmi) = 6076.1 ft = 1852 m. Mass 1 pound (lb) = 16 ounces (oz) = 453.59237 g; 1 oz = 28.3495 g; 1 slug = 32.174 lb = 14.594 kg; 1 short ton (or tonne) (t) (US 2000 lb) = 0.9072 metric ton; 1 long ton (imperial ton, UK 2240 lb) = 1.016 metric ton.

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Pressure
Units
1 Pa=1 N/m2 = 1 bar = 1 kgf/cm2 = 1 at (tech.*) = 1 atm (phys.) = 1 mm Hg = 1 1.01325105 133.322 1.01325 1.0332 1.0 1.316103 9.678105 760.0 1.0 7.356102 1.0332104 13.595

Pa
1 105

bar
105 1.0

kgf/cm2
1.02105 1.02 1.0

atm (phys.*)
0.987105 0.98692 0.9678

mm Hg
7.5024103 7.5024102 735.56

mm H2O
0.10197 1.02104 104

9.80665104 0.980665

## 1.33103 1.36103 104

torr =
1 mm H2O = 1 kgf/m2 = 9.80665 9.80665 105 1.0

## * Phys. physical and tech. technical.

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Pressure
1 bar = 106 dyn/cm2 = 14.5038 lbf/in2 (psi) = 2088.543 lbf/ft2 = 29.530 inches of Hg = 401.463 inches of water = 1.4504102 kip/in = 69053.14 poundal/ft2.
1 lbf/in2 (pounds per square inch (psi)) = 6894.76 Pa; 1 lbf/ft2 = 47.88 Pa; 1 inch of Hg = 3.3864 kPa; 1 inch of water = 249.1 Pa; 1 kip/in = 6894.76 kPa.

Specific heat
1 B.t.u./lbRa = 4186.9 J/kgK; 1 ftlbf/slugRa = 0.16723 J/kgK.

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Temperature scales
Scale
Kelvin K = Celsius = Rankine Ra = Fahrenheit F= Raumur R = 0.8(T273.15) 0.8t 0.8(5/9T 273.15) The Rankine temperature scale (widely used in USA, Canada and other countries) is the absolute scale, 0 Ra = 0 K, at the same time 1 Ra = 1 F; sometimes degrees of Rankine have a symbol R, i.e., for example: 0 R; the same symbol is also related to degrees of Raumur; however, the sign of degree should be used in this case, i.e., 0 R. The temperature scale of Fahrenheit is the practical scale (also widely used in USA, Canada and other countries), 32 F = 0 C and 212 F = 100 . The Raumur temperature scale is the practical scale, 0 R = 0 C, but 80 R = 100 46 (currently, this scale used rarely). (t32)4/9 1.0t

K (T)
1.0 273.15 1.8T 1.8T459.67

C (t)
t+273.15 1.0t 1.8(t+273.15) 1.8t+32

Ra (T)
5/9T 5/9t273.15 1.0T T459.67

F (t)
5/9t+255.37 5/9(t32) t+459.67 1.0t

R (t)
5/4t+273.15 1.25t 1.8(1.25t+273.15) 2.25t+32

Temperature difference T = 1 K = 1 C = (9/5) Ra = (9/5) F. Degrees of absolute scales are more preferable to be used for the temperature difference. Thermal conductivity 1 W/mK = 1 W/m C = 0.8598 kcal/hm = 2.3885 cal/scm C = 0.5778 B.t.u./hft F = 0.5778 chu/hft C. 1 kcal/hm C = 1.163 W/mK; 1 cal/scm C = 418.68 W/mK; 1 B.t.u./hft F = 1 chu/hft C = 1.7307 W/mK; 1 B.t.u.in/h Fft2 = 0.144 W/mK.

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Viscosity dynamic
Units 1 Pas=1 Ns/m2 = 1 kg/ms = 1 kgfs/m2 = P (poise) = Pas 1.0 1.0 9.80665 0.1 kg/ms 1.0 1.0 9.80665 0.1 kgfs/m2 0.101972 0.101972 1.0 0.101972101 P (poise) 10.0 10.0 98.0665 1.0

1 Pas = 0.671969 lb/fts = 2419.088 lb/fth = 2.08855102 lbfs/ft2. 1 lb/fts = 1.4882 Pas; 1 lb/fth = 0.41338103 Pas; 1 lbfs/ft2 = 1 slug/fts = 47.8803 Pas.

Viscosity kinematic
1 m2/s = 1104 St (stokes) = 10.7639 ft2/s = 38750.0775 ft2/h = 91440.0 liter (L, l or )/inh; 1 St = 1104 m2/s. 48

Volume 1 m3 = 35.3147 ft3; 1 = 1 dm3 = 0.001 m3. 1 ft3 = 0.028317 m3; 1 in3 = 16.3871 cm3; 1 gallon liquid US = 3.7854 and 1 gallon UK = 4.54609 ; 1 fluid oz (UK) = 28.413 m; 1 fl oz (US) = 29.574 m; 1 pint (pt) (UK) = 0.5683 dm3. Notes B.t.u. British thermal unit; chu centigrades heat unit, 1 circular mil area of circle with diameter 1 mil, f force, fl fluid, ft foot or feet, h hour, Hg mercury, in inch, (L or l) liter (litre), lb pound, lbf pound force, mi mile; m micrometer; psi pounds per square inch, psia psi absolute, psig psi gauge, pcu pound centigrade unit, UK United Kingdom (i.e., British unit), US United States unit, yd yard. Normal conditions are the physical conditions at a pressure of p = 101325 Pa = 760 mm Hg (normal atmosphere) and a temperature of t = 273.15 K = 0 at which a molar gas volume is Vo = 2.24141102 m3/mol; normal acceleration due to gravity gn = 9.80665 m/s2; universal gas constant R = 8.31451 J/molK.

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Thermophysical properties
You should know symbols used in the textbook and their units. How read data in tables: For example, dynamic viscosity, symbol or , unit Pa s or kg/m s (or kg/(m s) or kg m-1s-1). Table. Dynamic viscosity of saturated steam. T 106 105 , 10-6

Pa s

Pa s

Pa s

Pa s

10-6, Pa s

Pa s

Pa s

273.0

9.22

0.922

9.22

9.22 10-6

9.22

0.00000922

9.22

Selected Nomenclature (quite often symbols are in Italic style) A - area, m2 a - acceleration, m/s2 E - energy, J F - force, N g - acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 L - length, m m - mass, kg P - pressure, Pa or N/m2 T - temperature, K or oC t - time, s V - volume, m3 Greek symbols - density, kg/m3

Unit rule
kg kg m 3 m V, s m3 s Non dimensionl ess number Prandtl number - Pr , m2 s m2 s m2 , cp s k W mK J kg kg K m 3

Thermal diffusivity

Unit rule
Exceptions Some empirical correlatio ns (example from thermal hydraulics ) : CHF a P b G c d P eG f x CHF - critical heat flux (at flow boiling), W/m 2or MW/m 2 or kW/m 2 a, b, c, d, e, and f coefficien ts P - pressure, Pa or MPa or kPa G - mass flux,kg/m 2s or Mg/m 2s, m/A cr s x quality

## Some examples of using units

Q m h out

h in

m c p Tout

Tin

usually, m (mass - flow rate) in kg/s; h (enthalpy) in kJ/kg; c p (specific heat) in kJ/kg K; temperatur e in oC or K; therefore, Q (heat - transfer rate) will be in kW. In this particular example, there is no need to convert kJ into J. Just to remember that Q will be in kW.

## Thermophysical properties of selected fluids and air

Thermophysical properties of fluids and gases Nomenclature in international symbols Latin symbols a thermal diffusivity, m2/s (/cp) (North America ) cp specific heat, J/kg K i enthalpy, J/kg (North America h or H) p pressure, Pa r latent heat of evaporation, J/kg (North America hfg or Hfg) t temperature, oC Greek symbols coefficient of thermal expansion, 1/K dynamic viscosity, Pa s (North America ) thermal conductivity, W/m K (North America k) surface tension, N/m kinematic viscosity, m2/s Non-dimensional number Pr Prandtl number, ( cp/ = /a)

Thermophysical properties of fluids and gases Nomenclature: Subscripts b cr f fm g p s v boiling critical fluid freezing-melting gas (vapor) at constant pressure saturation vapor

## Comparison of air, water and steam properties (P=0.1 MPa)

Fluid T, oC , kg/m3 cv, kJ/kg K cp, kJ/kg K h, kJ/kg

Air

20
100 500

1.19
0.93 0.45

0.72
0.72 0.81

1.01
1.01 1.09

419
500 919

1000
1300 Water Steam Air: Water: 20

0.27
0.22 998.21

0.90
0.93 4.16

1.18
1.22 4.18

1490
1851 84

100
100

958.35
0.60

3.77
1.56 1351 kJ/kg;

4.22
2.08

419
2676

h for T=1300-100=1200

Ice-water:

h for T=

0- 0=

## Water/steam properties at various pressures

Fluid Water P, MPa 0.1 3.0 10.0 15.0 T, oC 99.6 234 311 342 , kg/m3 958.6 0.6 821.9 15.0 688.4 55.5 603.5 96.7 cp, kJ/kg K 4.22 2.08 4.72 3.61 6.12 7.14 8.51 13.0 hfg, kJ/kg 2257 1794

1317
1001

22.1
25.0

374
350 625

322.0
625.5 67.6

6.98 2.88

0
h=1943

## Examples of various interpolations

310 300 290
Thermal Conductivity, W/m K

Data for pure aluminum th Interpolating curve - 5 order polynomial Be carefull with interpolation based on higher-order polynomials. They may give you unrealistic results, i.e., waving between two points, etc. Also, higher-order polynomials cannot be used for extrapolation.

## 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 0 100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Temperature, K

This plot made in SigmaPlot shows: (a) Polynomial interpolation does not work; (b) Extrapolation cannot be applied; and (c) Only linear interpolation between two points can be used. Remember that for solids, especially metals, thermal conductivity is strongly affected with actual content of impurities in pure metals or various elements in alloys.

## Example of linear interpolation

Linear interpolation (for example, find k at T=487 K): Table data: at Ti=400 K - ki=240 W/m K; at Ti+1=600 K ki+1=231 W/m K;

k 487 K

ki

ki ki Ti Ti

1 1

487 Ti

236 W/m K

Thermodynamic system quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary.

Some definitions

Some definitions

Geometrical calculations
A - area; C - circumfere nce; D, d - diameter external and internal; R, r - radius external and internal, V - volume. Circle : D 2 R; C D
2

2 R; A r
2

R2

3.1416 R 2

D2 ; 4

## Circular ring : A Cylinder : A side Sphere : A

2 D d2 ; 4 D L; V 4 R3 3 R2 L D3 . 6 D2 L; 4

2 R L

4 R2

D2 ; V

Some definitions

Some definitions
Closed system consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. But heat or energy can cross.

Some definitions
Closed system consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. But heat or energy can cross. Isolated system is when energy or heat not allowed to cross the boundary. Open system is a properly selected region in space. Any characteristic of a system is called property. Extensive properties (values depend on the size of the system) per unit mass are called specific properties.

How to solve a problem (General scheme) 1. Read and understand the problem (what is known and what to find). 2. Make a drawing with dimensions and other data. Think about possible assumptions to simplify the problem. 3. Find to which part of thermodynamics this problem belongs. 4. Write main equation/correlation: 4.1. Understand each symbol; 4.2. Check for units; and 4.3. Check for limits and restrictions. 5. Rewrite the problem in terms of the symbols from the main equation/correlation. 6. Convert all values into International system of units (SI) (usually without prefixes, exception kg, kmol, etc.). 7. Redraw picture according to Positions 3 6. 8. Find thermophysical properties according to the temperature(s) (remember about Position 6). 9. Compute each term inside equation/correlation. Remember about Positions 4.2 and 4.3 and about "unit rule". 10.Compute the main equation/correlation (for some problems remember about possibility of iterations). Think creatively about results.

## Common pit falls and mistakes found in solutions to thermodynamics problems

UnitsEquations must be dimensionally sound. The failure to use units in a consistent manor is one of the most frequent errors made in the solution to thermodynamics problems. One must recognize that every term in an equation must have the same set of units. Often the knowledge of the units assigned to the parameters of a problem will lead to the definition of an equation that applies to the problem solution. System definition (closed vs. open)Systems must be well defined before a solution can proceed. Using energy balance equations developed for the open system or control volume cannot led to a successful completion of the solution to a closed system problem. Using energy balance equations developed for the closed system cannot led to a successful completion of the solution to an open system problem.

## Common pit falls and mistakes found in solutions to thermodynamics problems

AlgebraSimple algebraic mistakes often occur in the solutions to thermodynamics problems. These mistakes unnecessarily lead to a great deal of student frustration that is not related to the thermodynamics theory applied to the problem solution. System sketchesStudents often omit sketches of the system hardware and/or omit indications of energy interactions at the system boundaries. These sketches are invaluable to the thought process that must take place to understand the requirements of the problem solution. When sketching systems, show the directions of mass transfer, if any, across the system boundaries and the direction of any heat transfer or work crossing the system boundary.

Used literature

engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2008. Pioro, L.S. and Pioro, I.L., Industrial Two-Phase Thermosyphons, 1997, Begell House, Inc., New York, NY, USA, 288 pages. International Encyclopedia of Heat & Mass Transfer, Editors: G.F. Hewitt, G.L. Shires and Y.V. Polezhaev, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1997, 1312 pages.