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1. Viewed from above the North Pole, the earth appears to rotate: Toward the A.

east Toward the B. west In a counterclockwise C direction

both a. and D c.

2. In the geographic grid coordinate system, parallels of latitude: are used to specify east-west A. position converge toward the B. poles are used to specify north-south C position

both b. and c. D above

3. The surface distance represented 1 of latitude is approximately: 1 A. km 11 B. km 111 C km

1111 D km

4. When the earth is represented as a sphere, a meridian of longitude: describes a great A. circle describes a small B. circle either a. or C b.

will never describe a D circle

5. The map projection most useful for navigation is the .. Polar A. Projection Mercator B. Projection Goode C Projection

Interrupted D projection

6. If the time in New York is 9 a.m., the time in Los Angeles will be: earlie A. r

late B. r the C same

7. The earth is closest to the sun at: perihelio A. n equino B. x aphelio C n

summer D solstice

8. The noon sun is directly overhead at 23 N at the: vernal A. equinox summer B. solstice autumnal C equinox

winter D solstice

9. At the spring equinox, the area between the Arctic Circle (66N) and the North Pole:

receives 24 hours of A. daylight experiences 24 hours of B. night receives 12 hours of C daylight

receives more than 12 hours but less than 24 hours D of daylight

10 The Earth's axis is always tilted at an angle of _________ degrees to the . perpendicular. A. 15

23. B. 5 33. C 3

66. D 5



11 The Meridian at 0 degrees is: . the Prime A. Meridian the B. Equator the Arctic C Circle

. the Antarctic D Circle the International Date E. Line 12 What forces cause the Earth to assume the shape of an . oblate ellipsoid? Gravit A. y Earth's rotation on its B. axis Earth's revolution around C the Sun

Tectonic D forces Gravitational influence of the E. Moon

13 Passengers traveling by air from Tokyo to San Francisco hear the pilot announce . that the plane is about to cross the international date line. Their watches at that moment indicate that the correct local time is 2:00 p.m. on Monday. Upon crossing the date line they should _______. change their watches to 3:00 p.m. on A. Monday change their watches to 1:00 p.m. on B. Monday change their watches to 2:00 p.m. on C Tuesday

change their watches to 2:00 p.m. on D Sunday change their watches to 3.00 p.m. on E. Tuesday

14 Which of the following associations in the Northern Hemisphere . is incorrect? Winter Solstice A. December 22 Summer Solstice B. June 22 Spring Equinox C March 21

Autumnal Equinox D October 23

15 The only line of longitude that is a great circle is . the equator. Tru A. e Fals B. e 16 At the Autumnal (Fall) Equinox, the noon sun is directly . overhead at 0. Tru A. e Fals B. e 17 The earth's axis always points toward . Polaris.

Tru A. e Fals B. e 18 If you travel eastward across the International Date Line, you must advance . your watch ahead by one day. Tru A. e Fals B. e 19 The Coriolis effect causes flows in the Northern Hemisphere to be deflected to . the left. Tru A. e Fals B. e 1. The majority of the earth's radiation is emitted in: ultraviolet A. wavelengths visible B. wavelengths short wave infrared C wavelengths

thermal infrared D wavelengths

2. The majority of the sun's radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths is absorbed by: Ozon A. e

Carbon B. Dioxide Water C vapour

Nitroge D n

3. Daily insolation at a location depends on The angle of the sun's A. rays. Daylengt B. h Latitud C e

All of the D above

4. At the equator, maximum daily insolation occurs at The summer A. solstice The B. equinox The winter C solstice

None of the D above.

5. The most abundant gas in the earth's present atmosphere is: nitroge A. n oxyge B. n carbon C dioxide

water D vapour

6. The ozone layer is located in: the A. lithosphere the B. hydrosphere the C stratosphere

the D thermosphere

7. The heat energy that is stored or released when a substance changes state is Sensible A. heat Latent B. heat Mechanical C heat

Radiant D heat

8. On a clear day, what percentage of solar radiation arriving at the outer edge of the atmosphere, penetrates the atmosphere and reaches the earth's surface? A. 5%

20 B. % 50 C %

80 D %

9. The albedo of the earth is approximately 15 A. % 30 B. % 45 C %

60 D %

10 Annual net radiation at the earth . surface: is nearly zero at all A. latitudes

is negative near the B. equator is positive near the C equator

is positive near the D poles

11 Approximately what proportion of the total solar radiation entering the Earth's . atmosphere is directly absorbed by the Earth's surface? 27 A. % 31 B. % 49 C %

69 D % 100 E. %

12 Which of the following has the shortest . wavelength? ultra-violet (UV A. radiation) visible B. light xC rays

infrared D radiation gamma E. radiation

13 What does the Wien's Law describe? . The temperature of the Sun is a function of the wavelength of the A. energy it emits The amount of energy emitted by the Sun is a function of its B. temperature The wavelength of the energy emitted by the Sun is a function of its C temperature

The wavelength of the energy emitted by the Sun is a D function of its size Some of the solar radiation is lost as it travels to E. the Earth

14 What is the range of wavelengths of . visible light? 1.2 to 3.0 A. micrometers 0.7 to 1.2 B. micrometers 0.4 to 0.7 C micrometers

8 to 12 D micrometers

3 to 6 E. micrometers 15 The lower solar angles characteristic of high latitude locations leads to lower . levels of insolation because: the solar radiation has further to travel and so looses A. its strength the solar radiation is spread over a larger B. unit area the solar radiation is spread over a smaller C unit area

the solar radiation must travel through more volume of atmosphere and D so more radiation is reflected back to space the high latitude regions receive solar radiation from the cooler E. part of the Sun

16 As the temperature of an object increases, the wavelength at which most . electromagnetic radiation is emitted will increase. Tru A. e Fals B. e 17 The highest daily insolation during the summer solstice occurs at . the south pole. Tru A. e Fals B. e 18 100% of the earth's atmosphere lies within 30 km of the . earth's surface. Tru A. e

Fals B. e 19 Black pavement has a low albedo, while snow has a . high albedo. Tru A. e Fals B. e 20 The earth's atmosphere causes the earth to be cooler than it would be without . an atmosphere Tru A. e Fals B. e 21 Latent heat transfer occurs when two objects of unlike temperature come into . contact with each other. Tru A. e Fals B. e 22. The albedo of water is generally high for near vertical rays of sunlight on calm water. Tru A. e Fals B. e 1. The annual temperature range at coastal sites: is less than at continental A. sites is greater than at continental B. sites

is no different than at C. continental sites

2 In a mountain range, one would expect to find: . that the daily temperature variation increases A. with altitude that the mean daily temperature decreases B. with altitude that the mean daily temperature increases C. with altitude both a. and b. D. above

3 Maximum daily air temperature usually cycle occurs at . approximately noon A. . 1 B. p.m. 3 C. p.m. 6 D. p.m.

4 The layer of the atmosphere nearest to the earth in which most weather . processes operate is the: mesosphe A. re thermosphe B. re stratosphe C. re tropospher D. e

5 The least variable temperatures on earth would be . found in: Equatorial continental A. sites Equatorial maritime B. sites High latitude continental C. sites High latitude maritime D. sites

6 The coldest month of the year at coastal locations in the northern . hemisphere is Novemb A. er Decemb B. er Januar C. y Februar D. y

7 The isotherm of maximum air temperature around the earth during July . tends to be: deflected southward over the A. oceans deflected southward over the B. continents deflected northward over the C. continents both a. and b. D. above

8 The most abundant greenhouse . gas is Carbon A. dioxide methan B. e nitrous C. oxides chlorofluorocarbo D. ns

9 Temperature increases with . elevation in: the A. troposphere the B. stratosphere the C. mesosphere None of the D. above

10 Which of the following factors are contributing to lower the earth's . temperature? Land cover A. alteration Tropospheric B. ozone Changes in solar C. output All of the D. above

11 What is the primary reason for thermometers being housed in a . thermometer shelter? To keep them A. clean To keep them B. secure To make them easy to C. find To control the effect of air D. flow To allow observers to easily read the temperature in a E. convenient location

12 During a temperature inversion _______. . there is no change in air temperature as one ascends through the A. troposphere there is no change in air temperature as one descends through the B. troposphere temperatures increase as one ascends through the lower C. atmosphere temperatures decrease as one ascends through the lower D. atmosphere the stratosphere is the same temperature as the E. troposphere

13 A parcel of air at the base of a mountain range has a temperature of 30 . degrees Celsius . If the parcel of air moved 500 metres up the slope, its temperature would be approximately _______ degrees Celsius. 24 A. B. C. 27 33

D. E.

36 40

14 Which of the following is not one of the four important thermal difference . between land and ocean surfaces? downwelling of solar radiation that penetrates A. the water water is slower to heat than B. land warm water surfaces can mix with cooler C. water below the greater heat capacity of D. dry soil open water can be easily cooled by open E. evaporation

15 Urban air temperatures are generally lower than rural air . temperatures. Tru A. e Fals B. e

16 Sensible Heat transfer occurs through . conduction Tru A. e Fals B. e

17 Temperature inversions are common in the winter over snow . covered surfaces. Tru A.

e Fals B. e

18 The lowest annual temperature ranges occur in the subarctic and arctic . zones of Asia and North America. Tru A. e Fals B. e

19 Four of the five warmest years on record since 1400 occurred . during the 1990's. Tru A. e Fals B. e

20 The warming effect of vegetation is the result of transpiring leaves and . their interception of solar radiation. Tru A. e Fals B. e

21 The altitude of the tropopause varies with season . and latitude. Tru A. e Fals B. e 1. The hydrologic cycle is a/an Closed matter flow A. system B. Open matter flow

system Closed energy flow C. system Open energy flow D. system

2 The largest reservoir of fresh water on the earth's . surface is in .. Groundwat A. er Glaciers and ice B. sheets Lake C. s Stream D. s

3 In a mass of air in which water is neither added nor removed, a . temperature increase will Increase both specific humidity and relative A. humidity Decrease both specific humidity and relative B. humidity Increase specific humidity but have no effect on C. relative humidity Decrease relative humidity but have no effect on D. specific humidity

4 If a parcel of air is capable of holding 40 grams per cubic meter of water . but is only holding 8 grams per cubic meter, its relative humidity is... 4% A. 16 B. %

20 C. % 32 D. %

5 All adiabatic temperature changes occur as a . result of The addition or removal of heat energy from A. the air. Changes in the absolute humidity of B. the air. Changes in the relative humidity of C. the air. Expansion or compression of D. the air.

6 A rain cloud is a . Cumulus A. cloud Stratus B. cloud Cumulonumbus C. cloud Altocumulus D. cloud

7 A fog that develops when warm, moist air blows over a cold suface is . an example of .. Advection A. fog Radiation B. fog Convection C. fog

Evaporation D. fog

8 The term orographic refers to . Convection stimulated principally by local A. heating Lifting along the edges of conflicting air B. masses Air mass modification and the formation of secondary C. air masses Forced uplift die to the presence of a physical D. barrier.

9 Which of the following clouds is composed mainly of . ice crystals? altostrat A. us cirru B. s cumulonimb C. us altocumul D. us

10 The primary way large amounts of condensation is brought about . in nature is: by warming A. air by making air B. rise by adding more water vapour to C. the air D. by making air


11 The average environmental lapse rate is _______________ degrees Celsius . per 100 metres 1 A. B. 10

0.6 C. 4 6. D. 4 E. 5

12 Which of the following orderings of clouds is correct as one . increases in altitude? cirrus, cumulonimbus, A. stratocumulus stratus, altocumulus, B. cirrus cumulonimbus, cirrocumulus, C. cumulus altocumulus, cumulonimbus, D. stratus cirrus, stratus, E. altocumulus

13 During adiabatic cooling as air rises, what stage has the parcel of air . reached at the lifting condensation level? a. point of A. vaporization dew B. point

absolute C. humidity latent heat of D. fusion specific E. humidity

14 Cumulus clouds forming from convection have flat bases . that mark the: location of the dew point A. temperature mixing B. layer tropopaus C. e zone of unstable D. air lifting condensation E. level

15 The sound generated by thunder is the result of which . phenomena? The impact of lightning hitting the A. ground The rapid expansion of air heated by B. lightning The sound of the electrical current associated with C. lightning The sound of D. updrafts The sound of E. downdrafts

16 Latent heat is released when liquid water changes to . water vapour. Tru A. e Fals B. e

17 The wet adiabatic lapse rate is constant at . 10C/km. Tru A. e Fals B. e

18 Sleet is formed when rain drops fall through a freezing layer and produce . pellets of ice. Tru A. e Fals B. e

19 Stable air will rise to great heights and create . thunderstorms Tru A. e Fals B. e

20 Air pollutants can be from either human or natural . sources. Tru A. e Fals B. e

21 Air continues to cool above the lifting . condensation level. Tru A. e Fals B. e

22. The density of air depends on its temperature warm air is less dense than cooler air. Tru A. e B. Fals e

1 Standard sea level atmospheric . pressure is : 1013.2m A. b 935.6 B. mb. 998.3 C. mb. 1045.9m D. b.

2 An air parcel in motion near the earth's surface is . affected by Coriolis A. effect Pressure gradient B. force Frictio C. n All of the D. above

3 At the beach in the summer: . winds blow from land to sea at A. night winds blow from land to sea during B. the day pressure is greater over the land during C. the day both b. and D. c.

4 The flow of air around a high pressure centre in the . northern hemisphere is: outward and A. clockwise outward and B. counterclockwise. inward and C. clockwise. inward and D. counterclockwise.

5 Which of the following is true of atmospheric pressure . patterns in the northern hemisphere. The continents are centres of low pressure A. in winter The continents are centres of high pressure B. in winter The ocean surfaces are centres of high pressure C. in winter The ocean surfaces are centres of low pressure in D. summer

6 A warm, dry wind that is produced by the passage of air . over a mountain range and is common in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains, is a: mountain A. breeze valley B. breeze chinoo C. k drainage D. wind

7 A geostrophic wind is an upper atmosphere wind . which blows: perpendicular to A. isobars parallel to B. isohyets oblique to C. isotherms parallel to the D. isobars

8 Which of the following statements is not true of the . polar jet stream It follows the edges of the Rossby A. waves. It is an easterly flow of high velocity B. wind. It forms along the boundary of cold polar air and C. warm subtropical air. It has wind speeds of 350 to 450 D. km/hr.

9 Warm ocean currents are usually . found on: both sides of the ocean A. basins the eastern sides of the ocean B. basins the western sides of the ocean C. basins

10 A monsoon is: . a zone of low pressure in the northern A. hemisphere a flow of air that reverses direction B. seasonally. a westerly ocean current along the C. equator a zone within the D. heterosphere.

11 The Trade Winds blow from: . the Subtropical High to the A. Equatorial Low the Subtropical High to the B. Subpolar Low the Doldrums to the Horse C. Latitudes the Polar High to the D. Subtropical High the Polar High to the E. Doldrums

12 Trade winds: . are A. easterlies

are B. westerlies flow from the ITCZ to the Polar C. Front flow from the Polar Front to the D. Subtropical belts flow from the ITCZ to the E. Subtropical High

13 If the geostrophic wind is blowing into to your back . and an area of low pressure is to your right then: the wind is blowing parallel to the isobars and you A. are in the Northern Hemisphere the wind is blowing at right angles to the isobars B. and you are in the Northern Hemisphere the wind is blowing parallel to the isobars and you C. are in the Southern Hemisphere the wind is blowing at right angles to the isobars D. and you are in the Southern Hemisphere the wind is blowing from your right to your left E. and you could be in either Hemisphere

14 Upwelling is:__________________ . the rising of cold water from the ocean depths in A. open water near the center of the earth's major oceans the rising of warm water from the ocean depths in B. open water near the center of the earth's major oceans the rising of cold water from ocean depths near C. coastlines the rising of warm water from ocean depths near D. coastlines.

the development of eddies from ocean E. currents

15 Undulations in the westward flow of the upper-air . westerlies are referred to as: Hadley A. cells gyre B. s Jet C. Streams The Polar D. Front Rossby E. waves

16 Atmospheric pressure decreases with . altitude Tru A. e Fals B. e

17 Pressure gradients develop because of unequal . heating of the atmosphere. Tru A. e Fals B. e

18 Wind speed is measured by a . wind vane. Tru A. e

Fals B. e

19 The thermocline is a layer in the ocean in which . temperatures are cold but stable. Tru A. e Fals B. e

20 Most of the worlds great deserts are found in the . Intertropical Convergence Zone. Tru A. e Fals B. e

21 The highest clouds are located below the altitude at . which commercial jet aircraft fly. Tru A. e Fals B. e

22 The subtropical jet stream is located between 35 . and 65 degrees latitude. Tru A. e Fals B. e 1. Which of the following air masses would have the highest specific humidity? mE A.

mT B. . C. D. cT mP

2 Which of the following is false regarding an air mass. . They reflect the characteristics of their source A. regions They are homogeneous in terms of temperature B. and humidity They are classified on the basis of their latitudinal C. position and the underlying surface of their source regions. They tend to maintain their original characteristics D. as they migrate from their source regions.

3 At a warm front: . warm air is advancing against A. cold air. cold air is advancing against B. warm air warm air moves faster than C. cold air both b. and c. are D. correct.

4 The occluded stage of a wave cyclone . Occurs when the cold front overruns the slower A. moving warm front Occurs as soon as air begins to be uplifted along B. the cold front.

Is characteristic of an early stage of cyclone C. development Occurs at the time when the cold front and the D. warm front are distinctly separate.

5 Which of the following is not a travelling . cyclone? Wave A. cyclone Hurrican B. e Thunderstor C. m Tornad D. o

6 Wave Cyclones most commonly . travel from north to A. south south to B. north east to C. west west to D. east

7 An easterly wave is a weather system that . occurs In all areas of the A. earth. North of 30 B. latitude

Between 5and 30 north and south C. latitude Over the D. equator

8 Hurricanes develop in which of the following . areas? along the A. equator in the subtropical belts of high B. pressure 10 to 20 degrees away from the C. equator in the westerly wind D. belt.

9 The most devastating storm to occur in the United . States was Hurricane A. Andrew Hurricane B. Linda Hurricane C. Mitch Hurricane D. Billis

10 Pole ward heat transport in the mid and high latitudes . is produced by The Hadley cell A. circulation The Rossby wave B. mechanism

The intertropical convergence C. zone mT and cT air D. masses.

11 Which of the following statements concerning tropical . depressions is incorrect? They are weak low pressure A. troughs. Their formation is associated with easterly waves B. or equatorial lows. In some cases, they may develop into C. tropical storms. They have an anticyclonic D. organization. Air spirals inward at ground surface and E. then rises.

12 An air mass that forms over warm oceans from an . equatorial region would be designated by which of the following symbols? cP A. B. C. D. cE mE mA

mA E. A

13 The cold front overtakes the warm front during which . of the following stages in the development of a wave cyclone?

early A. stage open B. stage closed C. stage occlude D. d dissolving E. stage

14 Which of the following conditions is most likely to lead . to the development of tornadoes? Cool, stable air associated with interior, A. mountain regions Warm, stable air associated with continental B. interiors Cold front lifts a warm front leading to C. turbulence Cold front lifts another cold front leading to D. alternating patches of stable and unstable air Warm dry front lifts a cool maritime front leading E. to turbulence

15 Which of the following features does the Simpson-Safir . Scale not describe with regard to hurricanes? rainfall A. amounts cyclone B. intensity central C. pressure

storm D. surges mean wind E. speed

16 As a wave cyclone advances into a region which of the . following cloud types would be first observe? Cumulonimb A. us Stratu B. s Cumulu C. s Cirrus D. s Nimbostrat E. us

17 A typhoon and a hurricane are identical in physical . structure and properties although they occur in different parts of the world. Tru A. e Fals B. e

18 Tornados are most frequent and most violent in . Australia. Tru A. e Fals B. e

19 Travelling anticyclones are typically associated with . cloudy, wet weather. Tru A. e Fals B. e

20 Global temperatures have been rising over the past . 20 years. Tru A. e Fals B. e

21 Warm fronts often create severe . thunderstorms Tru A. e Fals B. e

22 When a cold front has overtaken the warm front in a . wave cyclone, it is referred to as occluded. Tru A. e Fals B. e

23 A pool of warm, moist air remains aloft after a wave . cyclone has dissolved. Tru A. e Fals B. e

1. Equatorial temperature regimes: Have no temperature seasons A. B. Have uniform insolation year round

Have temperatures close to 27 C. degrees Celsius all year-round. D. All of the above are true.

2. The most important basic control on temperature patterns is... Latitude A. B. C. D. Maritime or continental location Distance from the sun Air masses

3. Which of the following factors does not produce wet climates? The Intertropical Convergence Zone A. B. C. D. Trade-winds moving mT air onto continents Subsiding air in sub-tropical high pressure cells Orographic effects combined with the prevailing westerly winds.

4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the tropical deserts precipitation region? They are located on the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. A.

B. C. D.

They receive less than 25 cm. (10 inches) of precipitation annually They are located on the east coasts of continents. Located under the subtropical cells of high pressure.

5. The precipitation pattern experienced by Southern and Central California is Uniformly distributed precipitation A. B. C. D. Precipitation maximum during the summer months. Precipitation maximum during the winter months. Not enough precipitation to measure.

6. Which of the following is true of high latitude climates? They lie in the polar front zone. A. B. C. D. Wave cyclones move in an easterly direction through these climatic regions. Easterly waves are an important weather system. Tropical and polar air masses are in constant conflict.

7. Which of the following is true of mid-latitude climates ? They are influenced by mE, mT and cT air masses. A. They are related to the global circulation patterns that produce the Intertropical B. Convergence Zone.

C. D.

They include the dry-subtropical climate. None of the above are true.

8. The Mediterranean climate is classed as a Low latitude climate. A. B. C. Mid-latitude climate High latitude climate

9. The most important determinant of global precipitation patterns is Air masses A. B. C. D. Latitude Coreolis effect. High and low pressure systems.

10. The dry climate type does not include the Dry tropical climate A. B. C. D. Dry subtropical climate Ice sheet climate Wet-dry climate

11. The Intertropical Convergence Zone dominates all the low latitude climates except the... Wet equatorial climate A. B. C. D. Monsoon and trade wind coastal climate Wet-dry tropical climate Dry subtropical climate

12. The low latitude rainforest is associated with the... Wet equatorial climate A. B. C. D. E. Monsoon and trade-wind coastal climate Wet-dry subtropical climate All of the above climates Only climates a and b above

13. The native vegetation of the wet-dry tropical climate is The savanna A. B. C. D. The rainforest The grassland The desert

14. Which of the following characteristics is not true of the dry tropical climate? Rainfall is very rare. A. B. C. D. Daily temperature range is small. It is found in the centre and east sides of the Subtropical High Pressure Cells The driest areas are near the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

15. The driest regions on earth are found in The Sahara - Saudi Arabia Iran Thor Desert belt A. B. C. D. The Central Australian Desert The West coast of South America The Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa.

16. Which of the following pressure and wind systems plays a large role in the Dry Tropical Climate? The Intertropical Convergence Zone A. B. C. D. Tropical easterlies The Subtropical High Pressure Cells None of the above

17. The smallest annual temperature cycle is found in the Monsoon and trade-wind coastal climate. A.

B. C. D.

Wet-dry tropical climate. Wet equatorial climate Dry subtropical climate.

18. Trade wind coasts Are found along the western coasts of land masses A. B. C. D. Are dominated year around by the Subtropical high pressure cells Are affected by monsoons. Receive rainfall produced by mT and mE air masses

19. The most important plant for human use harvested in the low latitude climates is.. Yams A. B. C. D. Coconut palm Bananas Taro

20. Which continent does not experience the wet equatorial climate? South America A. B. C. Africa Asia



21. The midlatitude climates extend into all the following zones except The tropical latitude zone A. B. C. D. The subtropical latitude zone The midlatitude zone The subarctic latitude zone.

22. The mid-latitude climates are influenced by which of the following wind and pressure systems Intertropical convergence zone and subtropical high pressure cells A. B. C. D. Intertropical convergence zone and the trade wind belt. The trade wind belt and the subtropical high pressure cells Subtropical high pressure cells and the westerly winds

23. Which of the following midlatitude climates has a winter precipitation maximum? Moist subtropical A. B. C. D. Dry midlatitude Marine west coast Moist continental

24. The dominant source of precipitation in the moist subtropical climate is: The Intertropical convergence zone A. B. C. D. The flow of air out of the west sides of the sub tropical high pressure cells. Cyclonic storms None of the above

25. The natural vegetation of the moist subtropical climate is Broadleaf Deciduous Forest A. B. C. D. Southern Pine Forest Broadleaf evergreen forest All of the above.

26. The subtropical high pressure cells are not a significant factor in which of the following mid latitude climates. Mediterranian Climate A. B. C. D. Moist Continental Climate Dry Subtropical Climate Dry Midlatitude Climate.

27. Which of the following is not true of the Dry Midlatitude Climate? The largest expanse of Dry Midlatitude climate is in Eurasia. A. B. C. D. Most areas of this climatic type experience a rain shadow effect. mP air masses dominate in winter. This climate exhibits a large temperature range.

28. Which of the following is true of High Latitude Climates? High latitude climates coincide with the westerly wind belt. A. B. High latitude climates experience frequent wave cyclones along an arctic front

Summer precipitation results from mT air masses interacting with polar air C. masses. D. All of the above are true.

29. Which of the following climates experiences the greatest annual temperature range? The boreal forest climate A. B. C. The tundra climate The ice sheet climate

30. The coldest temperatures on earth are found: At Eismitte, Greenland A. B. At the North Pole

C. D.

At Vostok, Antarctica At the South Pole

31. Wet climates associated with equatorial regions are the result of: high temperatures A. B. C. D. E. large areas of oceans high wind speeds high atmospheric pressures low atmospheric pressures

32. Which of the following is not one of the five major climate groups? Microthermal A. B. C. D. E. Mesothermal Tropical Rainy Semiarid Polar

33. What does the h stand for in the climate classifications of BWh and BSh? humid A. B. hot

C. D. E.

habitat hours of daylight highland

34. Which of the following classifications represents the Mediterranean climate type? Cfb A. B. C. D. E. BSk BWk DWb CSa

35. Which of the following types of vegetation is associated with dry mid-latitude climates? sclerophylls A. B. C. D. E. taiga short grass prairie needleleaf trees broad leef trees

36. In the moist subtropical climate, agricultural land-use patterns are very similar in both the United States and South East Asia. True A. B. False

37. Soil fertility in valley and lowland areas of the Mediterranean climates is naturally high. True A. B. False

38. The moist continental climate is only found in the northern hemisphere: True A. B. False

39. Average winter temperatures in the tundra climate are colder than average winter temperatures in the Boreal Forest Climate: True A. B. False

40. In the ice sheet climate, glaciers accumulate due to very high precipitation: True A. B. False

41. Soils of the low latitude rainforest have a low fertility for growing crops associated with modern agriculture: True A. B. False

42. In all of the low latitude climates, the precipitation maximum corresponds with the low sun season: True A. B. False

43. The highland climates of the low latitudes experience colder and drier climates than the climates of surrounding locations at low elevation: True A. B. False

44. The greatest diversity of plant and animal species is found in the low latitude rainforest: True A. B. False

45. In desert climates, flash flooding is a serious hazard: True A. B. False

46. The study of climates on a worldwide basis is based on temperature and precipitation. True A. B. False

47. The monsoon and trade wind coastal climate is considered a low latitude climate. True A. B. False

48. The wettest precipitation region is the midlatitude west coast precipitation region. True A. B. False

49. The Ice Sheet climate is only found in Antarctica. True A. B. False

50. Polar and Arctic Deserts receive little precipitation because the air is too cold to hold much moisture. True A. B. False

51. The isolines on a map describing average precipitation are referred to as isohyets True A. B. False

52. Of the five major climate groups, most are defined by precipitation-to-evaporation ratios True A. B. False


Dry tropical climates are dominated by low pressures associated with the ITCZ. True A. B. False

1. Those organisms in the food web that use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates are primary producers A. B. C. D. primary consumers secondary consumers decomposers

2. The ecosystem with the highest average rates of net primary productivity is agricultural land A. B. midlatitude forests

C. D.

fresh water swamps and marshes equatorial rainforest

3. An ecosystem is a(an) ________ system with respect to energy and a(an) _______ system with respect to matter. closed; closed A. B. C. D. closed; open open; open open; closed

4. The three most abundant macronutrients are: oxygen, calcium and potassium. A. B. C. D. nitrogen, calcium, potassium. hydrogen, carbon and oxygen calcium, carbon and oxygen.

5. Carbon enters the atmosphere from: volcanic activity A. B. C. fossil fuel combination plant, animal and soil respiration

D. E.

all of the above only b and c above.

6. Oxygen is removed from the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels A. B. C. D. photosynthesis volcanic activity all of the above.

7. Which of the following organisms would be at the top level of a food web in a salt marsh ecosystem? aquatic plants A. B. C. D. owls small fish blue heron

8. Plant growth is determined by rates of respiration minus rates of photosynthesis. A. B. C. rates of photosynthesis only rates of respiration only


rates of photosynthesis minus rates of respiration.

9. A climate with very low productivity of 0 to 100 kg. of carbon per square meter per year is boreal forest A. B. C. D. mediterranean wet-dry tropical all of the above

10. Energy can be extracted from biomass by burning plant materials A. B. C. D. anaerobic digestion to produce biogas conversion of agricultural wastes to alcohol all of the above.

11. An assemblage of organisms that live an a particular location and interact with each other is a(an) community A. B. C. D. ecological niche habitat biome

12. Plants that are adapted to drought conditions are tropophytes A. B. C. D. epiphytes xerophytes hydrophytes

13. The geographic boundary that marks the limit of potential distribution of a species is a biome limit A. B. C. D. geomorphic limit phyton bioclimatic frontier

14. Which of the following is an edaphic factor important in differentiating habitat? soil texture A. B. C. D. time light all of the above.

15. The phenomenon in which chemical toxins produced by one species serves to inhibit the growth of others is predation A. B. C. D. allelopathy parasitism herbivory

16. The relationship between an epiphytic plant and the plants they live on is commensalism A. B. C. D. protocol-operation mutualism parasitism

17. Succession that occurs on a site that has been burnt in a forest fire is primary succession A. B. C. D. secondary succession tertiary succession ecological succession.

18. Pioneer species are well adapted to dry soil conditions. A.

B. C. D. E.

able to withstand temperature extremes larger than other species that replace them. all of the above a and b above.

19. The process by which species are differentiated and maintained is recombination A. B. C. D. mutation speciation variation

20. Humans have created species extinctions by: over hunting A. B. C. D. E. habitat alteration and fragmentation the use of fire. all of the above. a and b above

21. Detritus is associated with which of the following processes? decay A.

B. C. D. E.

respiration metabolism net photosynthesis gross photosynthesis

22. The amount of net carbohydrate remaining after respiration has broken down sufficient carbohydrate to power a plant is the: primary production A. B. C. D. E. net primary production biomass gross photosynthesis net photosynthesis

23. Which of the following factors is responsible for higher productivities in marine coastal areas? rate of decomposition A. B. C. D. E. day length upwelling light intensity temperature

24. Which of the following forms of carbon dominates it storage in organic matter? carbon dioxide A. B. C. D. E. carbon monoxide hydrocarbons calcium carbonates carbohydrates

25. Which of the following cycles is responsible for moving elements that do not have a dominant gaseous phase? nitrogen cycle A. B. C. D. E. oxygen cycle sedimentary cycle carbon cycle phosphorous cycle

26. Algae floating at the surface of a freshwater pond would be said to occupy which level in a food chain? Producers A. B. C. First order consumers Second order consumers

D. E.

Third order consumers Decomposers

27. Which of the following features does not characterize cold-blooded animals? active only in warmer times of the year A. B. C. D. E. become dormant in cooler time of the year hibernate in burrows or nests sweat to reduce temperature in hot weather seek shelter in winter to reduce fluctuations of temperature

28. The positive interaction between individuals of different species whereby one species is benefited and the other is unaffected is known as: commensalism A. B. C. D. E. symbiosis mutualism protocooperation herbivory

29. Few plant and animal species are found in the equatorial rainforest: True A.



30. Most animals are cold-blooded and lack a physiological mechanism for internal temperature regulation: True A. B. False

31. Scientist estimate there are 2 million species of plants on earth: True A. B. False

32. A cosmopolitan species is found in one location and no where else: True A. B. False

33. Human activity is rapidly decreasing the earth's biodiversity: True A. B. False

34. As light intensity increases, net photosynthesis constantly increases: True A. B. False

35. The carbon cycle is an example of a sedimentary biogeochemical cycle: True A. B. False

36. Normally there are 6 levels of consumers in a food web: True A. B. False

37. Duration of daylight is more important than light intensity for plant growth: True A. B. False

38. At present, nitrogen is accumulating in the life layer: True A. B. False

39. Although many different species may occupy the same habitat, only a few of these species will ever share the same ecological niche. True A. B. False

40. Sympatric speciation occurs where populations are geographically isolated and gene flow between the populations does not take place. True A. B. False


Net photosynthesis is the total amount of carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis before respiration breaks down the carbohydrate to power the plant True A. B. False

1. A woody perennial plant with several stems branching from a base near the soil surface is a tree A. B. C. D. shrub liana herb

2. The tree crowns of the _____________ tend to form two or three layers low latitude rainforest A. B. C. D. monsoon forest montane forest subtropical evergreen forest.

3. Midlatitude deciduous forests are evergreen A. B. C. D. E. are found in moist continental climates include oak, maple and elm trees all of the above are true only b and c are true.

4. Shrubs and trees that can survive the long summer drought of the Mediterranean climate are sclerophylls A. B. C. D. E. chaparral cacti a and b above. b anc c above.

5. Which of the following is not true of the Savanna Biome. trees are closely spaced A. B. C. D. fire is a frequent occurance the vegetation is described as rain green Savanna woodland has many similarities to the monsoon forest

6. A vegetation type consisting of short grasses occurring in sparse clumps or bunches is steppe A. B. C. D. E. short grass prairie semi-desert all of the above a and b above.

7. Cacti are a natural vegetation type found in the semi-desert A. B. C. D. E. thorn-tree semi-desert dry desert All of the above b and c above.

8. Which of the following biomes is found at both high latitude and high elevation? grassland A. B. C. D. tundra savanna desert

9. The sequence of natural vegetation zones in the Colorado Plateau region of Northern Arizona in order of increasing elevation is desert shrub, grassland, woodland, forest, alpine meadow. A. B. C. D. desert shrub, woodland, forest, grassland, alpine meadow forest, woodland, desert shrub, grassland, alpine meadow grassland, desert shrub, woodland, forest, alpine meadow

10. A natural vegetation transect from Nevada to Ohio along 40 latitude would gradually change from : short grass prairie to tundra to desert shrub to tall grass prairie. A. B. tropical desert to sclerophyl forest to midlatitude deciduous forest.

midlatitude desert and steppe to short grass prairie to tall grass prairie to C. midlatitude deciduous forest. savanna woodland to short grass prairie to tall grass prairie to midlatitude D. deciduous forest.

11. A plant that lacks a woody stem, is small in size and is fairly tender would be best described as a: perennial A. B. C. D. herb annual liana



12. Epiphytes characterize which of the following assemblages of vegetation? low-latitude rainforest A. B. C. D. E. subtropical evergreen forest mid-latitude deciduous forest needleleaf forest coastal needleleaf forest

13. Which of the following biomes is characterized by xerophytes? forest A. B. C. D. E. tundra savanna desert monsoon

14. Which of the following types of biome is represented in the regions with dry tropical climates? Subtropical needleleaf forest A. B. Thorntree Tall Grass

C. D. E.

Tall grass Prairie Boreal woodland Sclerophyll forest

15. How do subtropical broadleaf evergreen forests differ from low latitude forests? Low latitude rainforests have generally taller trees than in subtropical broadleaf A. evergreen forests Subtropical broadleaf evergreen forests normally have fewer species than low B. latitude forests C. Low latitude rainforest trees normally have larger leaves

Low latitude rainforests normally have a canopy that is more dense than that of D. the subtropical broadleaf everygreen forests Subtropical broadleaf evergreen forests does not usually have a well-developed E. lower layer of vegetation.

16. Much of the land surface in the midlatitudes still supports natural vegetation: True A. B. False

17. A plant that attaches itself to the trunk, branches or foliage of a tree or liana is an epiphyte: True A. B. False

18. Many areas of needleleaf forest consist of only 1 or 2 species: True A. B. False

19. The dry desert has no visible plant cover at all: True A. B. False

20. The boundaries of vegetation zones are usually abrupt: True A. B. False


Low latitude rainforest never occurs where there is a dry season. True A. B. False

1. Soils that contain abundant amounts of humus are __________ in color yellow A. B. C. D. red ash grey black

2. The smallest sized soil particles are sand A. B. C. D. colloids clay silt

3. A strongly acid soil would have a pH of 5.0 A. B. C. D. 6.0 7.0 8.0

4. Available water capacity is greatest in __________soils. sand A. B. C. D. clay loam loam clay

5. Water vapour loss to plants under ideal conditions is transpiration A.

B. C. D.

evaporation evapotranspiration potential evapotranspiration

6. Illuviation takes place predominantly in the ______ soil horizon. A A. B. C. D. E B C

7. The decomposition of organic matter to form humus is the result of a soil forming process called soil enrichment A. B. C. D. leaching translocation transformation

8. Soils that form in semi-arid and sub-humid grasslands are classified as mollisols A. B. alfisols

C. D.

vertisols oxisols

9. Which of the following soils is found in low latitude regions? histosols A. B. C. D. inceptisols spodosols oxisols

10. A soil in which more than half of the parent mineral matter is volcanic ash: entisols A. B. C. D. andesol oxisols ultisols

11. The proportion of sand, silt and clay in a soil is referred to as the: soil profile A. B. C. D. soil configuration soil enrichment soil structure


soil texture

12. Which of the following describes the order of soil horizons from the surface downwards? A, E, O, C, B A. B. C. D. E. A, O, E, B, C O, A, E, B, C O, E, A, B, C O, A, B, E, C

13. Ustolls are a particular type of which of the following soils? mollisol A. B. C. D. E. inceptisol aridisol andisol histosol

14. Which of the following soils would you expect to find in a constantly changing environment such as floodplain? inceptisol A. B. oxisol

C. D. E.

histosol ultisol spodosol

15. Which of the following soil has a very high content of organic matter in a thick, dark upper layer? vertisol A. B. C. D. E. entisol aridisol andisol histosol

16. The soil consists of matter in solid, liquid and gaseous forms: True A. B. False

17. Soils with high base status generally have low fertility: True A. B. False

18. In moist, hot climates, rates of decomposition are so rapid that very little organic matter is present in the soil: True A. B. False

19. Soil texture refers to the amounts of sand, silt, clay and organic matter contained in a soil: True A. B. False

20. Soils that form under forest vegetation tend to be acidic: True A. B. False

21. If clay minerals can hold abundant base ions, the soil is of low base status and is generally less fertile. True A. B. False

22. Argillic horizons are characteristic of oxisols, alfisols and mollisols. True A. B. False