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Clinical Psychology Assignment Topic Developmental and Adulthood Disorders Submitted to Dr.

Syeda Shahida Batool Submitted by Nazia Qayyum Roll. No. 503 M.Phill Psychychology Session 2011-2013 GC University Lahore

Why do we separate developmental disorders from adulthood disorders? Developmental Disorders:


Many behaviors expected as growing milestones. When dont see them, then need treatment. One of several disorders that interrupt normal development in childhood. They may affect a single area of development (specific developmental disorders) or several (pervasive developmental disorders). With early intervention, most specific developmental disorders can be accommodated and overcome. Early intervention is absolutely essential for pervasive developmental disorders, many of which will respond to an aggressive approach that may combine speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, behavior modification techniques, play therapy, and in some cases medication.The most common developmental disorder is mental retardation. Cerebral palsy is the second most common developmental disorder, followed by autism spectrum disorders.

Adulthood Disorders:
Adulthood disorders includes disorders that appear in early or late adulthood. For example mood disorders, personality diorders, schizophrenia, etc. Difference between Developmental and Adulthood Disorders: The APAs Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (2000) recognizes the uniqueness of childhood disorders in a separate section for disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. However, this designation is viewed primarily as a matter of convenience, recognizing that the distinction between disorders in childrens and those in adults is not always clear. For example although most individuals with disorders display

symptoms during childhood and adolescence, they sometimes are not diagnosed until adulthood. In addition, many disorders not included in childhood disorders section of DSM-IV-TR often have their onset during childhood and adolescence, such as depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. Some criterion on which we can differentiate between developmental and adulthood disorders include age at onset, course of disorders, symptoms, causes and specific cultures age and gender features. Developmental disorders have their onset in at birth or after birth (initial years of childhood) while adulthood disorders have their onset in middle or late adulthood. Symptoms of every disorder are different from each other. Developmental disorders are caused by peri, pri and natal causes, environmental causes also play an important role.

Enlist and discuss types of childhood disorders result into adulthood disorder support your answer with latest researches. Childhood Disorders that runs into Adulthood Disorders:
There are very few diseases or disorders that are diagnosed in children and dont carry over into adulthood.Many of the disorders that are present in adults are also present in children in one form or another, although admittedly the pathways are complex. Even though children can have the similar mental health problems as adults problems, their problems often have a different focus. Children may experience difficulty with normal developmental tasks, such as beginning school, or they may lag behind other children their age or behave like a younger child during stressful periods. Even when children have problems that appear in adults, their problems may be expressed differently. For example, anxious children may be very concerned about their parents

and other family members and may want to be near them at all times to be sure that everyone is alright.  Mental Retardation  Learning Disorders  Motor Skill Disorder  Communication Disorder  Pervasive Developmental Disorder  Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  Tourettes Disorder  Conduct Disorder Mental Retardation:

Mental retardation is a disability that occurs in childhood characterized by substantial limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive skills.

A person with mental retardation may have difficulties with communication, conceptual skills, social skills, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work.

Diagnosis is performed through

a) standardized testing;

b) determining an individuals strengths and challenges in intellectual and

adaptive behavior skills, psychological and emotional considerations,

physical and health considerations, and environmental considerations; and

c) determining supports needed through an interdisciplinary team.

Cannot get diagnosis simply from being below average intelligence, must also have impairment. DSM criteria is at least under 70 for their IQ as well as impairment such as difficulty grooming themselves or problems with controlling their behavior.

Down Syndrome:

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that changes the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with the syndrome.

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Mild to severe mental retardation can be present among those affected. Speech and language may also be delayed. The diagnosis is usually suspected at birth due to the presence of physical characteristics such as a large tongue, heart problems, poor muscle tone, and flat facial features.

The disorder is associated with a lifelong disability but can be treated through a variety of appropriate educational and behavioral interventions in addition to occupational therapies, speech and language interventions, behavior modification, and parent training.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Term "pervasive development disorders," also called PDDs, refers to a group of conditions that involve delays in the development of many basic skills, most notably the ability to socialize with others, to communicate, and to use imagination. Children with these conditions often are confused in their thinking and generally have problems understanding the world around them. Because these conditions typically are identified in children around 3 years of age -- a critical period in a child's development -- they are called development disorders. Although the condition begins far earlier than 3 years of age, parents often do not notice a problem until the child is a toddler who is not walking, talking, or developing as well as other children of the same age.

Nature of Pervasive Developmental Disorder Problem occurs in language/communication, socialization, and cognition. Pervasive- means the problems span the persons entire life and across context.

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Example of pervasive developmental disorder: Autisitc Disorders Aspergers Syndrome Retts Disorder

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Autism Significant impairment in social inertaction and communication Restricted pattern of behaviors, interest, and activites.

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Fail to recognize that other people have other perspective, dont have theory of mind. Failure to develop social attachements. Sensory abilities are intact but there are impairment in integrating sensation or perception. Effects such as unusual reaction to sights, sounds and touch.

50% never acquire useful speech;Echolalia (repeating other peoples words) or other blocks on interpersonal communication, or unwillingness to talk.

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Autism occurs worldwide. Symptoms usually develop before 36 months of age. During adolescent behavior and emotional problems emerge: Aggression, oppositional behavior and tantrums may occur and are quite distressing to parents. Estimates have suggested that approximately 75% of autistic children fall in the moderate range of mental retardation and that 25% develop seizure disorder by adulthood ( Crnic and Reid, 1989)

The social deficit in autistic children persists into adulthood. Although this topic has only recently been studied, the data suggest that masturbation was the most common sexual behavior. In one study, one third of the autistic adults engaged in person-oriented behavior such as touching and holding with some kissing. Known attempts at sexual intercourse are rare ( Van Bourgondien, Reichle, and Plamer, 1997).

Although some individuals with autistic disorder shows improvements, most autistic children continue into adulthood severally handicapped and unable to take full care of themselves. (Newsom, 1998).

Asperger Disorder: part of Autistic Spectrum.

**not yet sure if it is a separate disorder, or a high functioning form of autism. It is considered the functional autism because people with asperger can speak and function normally except for their significant social impairments and inability to understand social cues and situations, they cannot relate to others. y These children (and adults) are generally of normal (and sometimes high) intelligence, but have difficulty in social interaction. y They often have obsessive like interests with a few things which seems similar to the symptoms of OCD. y Little professor syndrome because they speak in a very professional manner and can go into great detail about many different subjects. . y y They seem exceptionally shy and have a hard time making eye contact. They have trouble learning what is called pragmatics - the part of communication between people that involves recognizing turn-taking, facial expressions, gestures, and other non-verbal cues. y They tend to focus intensely on one thing at a time, don't like abrupt changes, and develop obsessive routines. y As adults, they usually adapt, but are seen as being socially inept, absent minded, and eccentric. Retts Disorder: Retts disorder has its onset prior to age 4 years, usually in the first or second year of life. The duration of the disorder is life long Loss of skills is persistent and progressive.

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The communicative and behavioral difficulties usually remain relatively constant throughout life.

Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of those disorders that is usually diagnosed early on in childhood and persists throughout the persons life. y It is a myth that as we become adults ADHD just disappears or goes away. In most cases the person will have some if not all the same symptoms in adulthood as they did in childhood. y While the symptoms of ADHD are similar in childhood and adult ADHD, their appearance presents itself quite differently. y Poor concentration, hyperactivity, distractibility, impulsiveness, and restlessness are key characteristics of ADHD. y Adult ADHD primary symptoms include trouble concentrating or hyper focus, disorganization and forgetfulness, impulsivity, emotional difficulties, and restlessness. y Adults are much less likely to be hyperactive than children, however it is included in the symptomology. For these problems to be diagnosed as AD/HD, they must be out of the normal range for the child's age and development. y y Engage in abad behavior despite of consequencies. Even in adulthood. ADHD is a lifelong disorder that can negatively impair many aspects of daily life if not treated, including home, school, work, and interpersonal relationships.

Research:A longitudinal study report that 50%-70% children with ADHD continue to showing impairing symptoms into adulthood ( Faraone et al, 2006).

Research:Inattention tends to persist through childhood and adolescence into adulthood, while the symptoms of motor hyperactivity and impulsivity tend to diminish with age. Many children with ADHD develop learning difficulties that may not improve with treatment (Mannuzza et al., 1993).

Learning Disabilities (LD)

Learning disabilities are a group of neurological disorders which become evident in childhood and which are characterized by difficulty learning, sorting, and storing information.

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Reading disorder is most common and disorder of written expression is least common. Reading disorder - better known as dyslexia - is the most common learning disorder. Here, the child's reading scores are significantly below their IQ, their expected age level, or their general abilities.

These kids seem to have trouble with the usual left to right scanning of words, which leads them to reverse letters and jumble the spelling.

Basically if you achieve lower than your cognitive abilities say you should be achieving then you have a learning disorder. Usually affected individuals have with average or above average intelligence. Children with learning disabilities may have one or more difficulties with skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities that

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interfere with academic performance, achievement and, in some cases, activities of daily living. y y Often these disabilities are not identified until a child reaches school age. Learning disabilities are lifelong, but with proper intervention, training, and strategies, individuals can lead successful, fully functioning lives. y Reading disorders may persist into adult life.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder (or manic depression) is a form of mood disorder characterized by a variation of moods that fluctuate between a manic phase of elation, hyperactivity and hyper imagination, and a depressive phase of inhibition, slowness to conceive ideas and move, and anxiety or sadness.

Symptoms may be present from infancy or early childhood, or may suddenly emerge in adolescence or adulthood.

Childrenwhose symptoms present differently than those of adultscan experience severe and sudden mood changes many times a day.

For a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, adult criteria must be met through a variety of measures.

There are as yet no separate criteria for diagnosing children.

Cerebral Palsy:

Cerebral palsy is a disorder caused by damage to the brain that occurs before, during, or shortly following birth.

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It affects body movement and muscle coordination. Individuals with cerebral palsy may also experience seizures, abnormal speech, hearing and visual impairments, and mental retardation.

Children with cerebral palsy may not be able to walk, talk, eat, or play in the same ways as most other children.

Cerebral palsy can include milder versions or more severe symptoms which lead to total dependency.

Although cerebral palsy is a lifelong condition, training and therapy can help improve function.

Expressive Language Disorder

Expressive language disorder is a developmental disorder where a child will have problems expressing him or herself in speech.

Characteristics may include limited vocabulary, difficulty recalling words and producing complex or lengthy sentences.

Children with expressive disorder often start speaking late and experience delays acquiring expressive language.

Standardized expressive language and non-verbal intellectual tests, and in certain cases functional assessments, should be conducted if an expressive language disorder is suspected.

Expressive language disorders may interfere with academics and social communication. Speech therapy and social skills therapies may benefit children affected by this disorder.

Tourette Syndrome:

Tourette Syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized, in mild form, by recurring involuntary body movements and sounds (called tics) and, in advanced cases by large involuntary bodily movements, noises like barks and whistles, and in many instances an uncontrollable urge to utter obscenities.

People with Tourette Syndrome are often impulsive and have other symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder.

While the average age of onset of Tourette Syndrome is 6-7 years old, there are many cases where parents later realized that their child's tics had actually started much younger.

In almost all cases, Tourette Syndrome emerges before age 18, but there are exceptions.

Approximately 10-15 percent of those affected have a progressive or disabling course that lasts into adulthood.

Conduct disorder:

Children or adolescents with conduct disorder behave aggressively by fighting, bullying, intimidating, physically assaulting, sexually coercing, and/or being cruel to people or animals.

The behavior interferes with performance at school or work, so that individuals with this disorder rarely perform at the level predicted by their IQ or age.

Between 25 and 50% of children with conduct disorder are believed to develop into antisocial adults. (George, 2009)

Conduct disorder, if continuing into adulthood, may be diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder.

Conclusion: In nut shell it is concluded that childhood disorders are developmental and progressive in their nature. Onset of these disorders is before and after birth. Researches have proved that many childhood disorders runs into adulthood, depending on their severity of symptoms.

References:

Dr. C. George Boeree. 1999, General Psychology Psychological Problems of Childhood. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/childdisorders.html

Irving B. Weiner, Donald K. Freedheim, George Stricker, John A. Schinka, Thomas A. Widiger, Wayne F. Velicer. Handbook of Psychology: Clinical psychology. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pokpYGHuPh8C&pg=PA30&dq=difference+between+ch ildhood+disorders+and+adulthood+disorders&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6wf3TrWkKofirAfi3bDM Bg&ved=0CGAQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=difference%20between%20childhood%20disor ders%20and%20adulthood%20disorders&f=false Phillip C. Kendall, 2000,Childhooddisorders. Psychology press limited, Publishers,UK.
http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=BUovnOCHiMEC&pg=PA144&lpg=PA144&dq=difference+bet ween+childhood+disorders+and+adulthood+disorders&source=bl&ots=XrOP296GEv&sig=FQbw3Nv gexsMSldhnMGClpMajw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8Pv2TuDfENCIrAeJxY0E&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepa ge&q=difference%20between%20childhood%20disorders%20and%20adulthood%20disorders&f=fal se.

Sam Goldstein, Jack A. Naglieri, Melissa DeVries . Learning and Attention Disorders in Adolescence and Adulthood: Assessment retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=2RhHdJDO0mkC&pg=PT116&dq=adulthood+disor ders&hl=en&sa=X&ei=cR33TqbfGMTtrQeg8vjeDw&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage &q=adulthood%20disorders&f=false

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_disorder

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_disorder

https://www.firstsigns.org/delays_disorders/other_disorders.htm http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11145 http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/development-disorder http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/home.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/41654233/developmental-disorders http://www.scribd.com/doc/54743986/Developmental-Disorders-Continued http://www.scribd.com/doc/41752271/PDD-and-Adjustment-Disorders http://www.universalhealthinfo.com/Adult_ADHD.html

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm