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Contents

Baseline wander filtering Power line interference filtering Muscle noise filtering

Summary

Here a general prelude to ECG signal processing and the content of this chapter (3-5 pages) will be included.

Very nice, but lets take a little more detail for those of us not quite so familiar with the subject...

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a time-varying signal reflecting the ionic current flow which causes the cardiac fibers to contract and subsequently relax. The surface ECG is obtained by recording the potential difference between two electrodes placed on the surface of the skin. A single normal cycle of the ECG represents the successive atrial depolarisation/repolarisation and ventricular depolarisation/repolarisation which occurs with every heart beat. Simply put, the ECG (EKG) is a device that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart from electrodes placed on the skin in specific locations

Screening test for coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, left ventricular hypertrophy Preoperatively to rule out coronary artery disease Can provide information in the precence of metabolic alterations such has hyper/hypo calcemia/kalemia etc. With known heart disease, monitor progression of the disease Discovery of heart disease; infarction, coronal insufficiency as well as myocardial, valvular and cognitial heart disease Evaluation of ryhthm disorders All in all, it is the basic cardiologic test and is widely applied in patients with suspected or

Measuring ECG

Typical ECG

ECG Waves

P wave: the sequential activation (depolarization) of the right and left atria QRS comples: right and left ventricular depolarization T wave: ventricular repolarization U wave: origin not clear, probably afterdepolarizations in the ventrices

ECG Example

ECG Filtering

When filtering any biomedical signal care should be taken not to alter the desired information in any way A major concern is how the QRS complex influences the output of the filter; to the filter they often pose a large unwanted impulse Possible distortion caused by the filter should be carefully quantified

Baseline Wander

Baseline Wander

Can cause problems to analysis, especially when exmining the low-frequency ST-T segment Two main approaches used are linear filtering and polynomial fitting

Basically make a highpass filter to cut of the lower-frequency components (the baseline wander) The cut-off frequency should be selected so as to ECG signal information remains undistorted while as much as possible of the baseline wander is removed; hence the lowest-frequency component of the ECG should be saught. This is generally thought to be definded by the slowest heart rate. The heart rate can drop to 40 bpm, implying the lowest frequency to be 0.67 Hz. Again as it is not percise, a sufficiently lower cutoff frequency of about 0.5 Hz should be used. A filter with linear phase is desirable in order to avoid phase distortion that can alter various

Linear phase response can be obtained with finite impulse response, but the order needed will easily grow very high (approximately 2000, see book for details)

Figure shows leves 400 (dashdot) and The complexityand a be reduced by for example 2000 (dashed) can 5th order forwardforward-backward IIR filtering. This has some bacward filter (solid) drawbacks, however:

not real-time (the backward part...) application becomes increasingly difficult at higher sampling rates as poles move closer to the unit circle, resulting in unstability hard to extend to time-varying cut-offs (will be

Another way of reducing filter complexity is to insert zeroes into a FIR impulse response, resulting in a comb filter that attenuates not only the desired baseline wander but also multiples of the original samping rate.

It should be noted, that this resulting multistopband filter can severely distort also diagnostic information in the signal

Yet another way of reducing filter complexity is by first decimating and then again interpolating the signal Decimation removes the highfrequency content, and now a lowpass filter can be used to output an estimate of the baseline wander The estimate is interpolated back to the original sampling rate and subtracted from the original signal

Baseline wander can also be of higher frequency, for example in stress tests, and in such situations using the minimal heart rate for the base can be inefficeient. By noting how the ECG spectrum shifts in frequency when heart rate increases, one may suggest coupling the cut-off frequency with the prevailing heart rate Schematic instead

example of Baseline noise and the ECG

A simple betweenbut useful way is just to estiamet the length of the interval R peaks, the RR interval Linear interpolation for interior values

Time-varying cut-off frequency should be inversely proportional to the distance between the RR peaks

In practise an upper limit must be set to avoid distortion in very short RR intervals

A single prototype filter can be designed and subjected to simple transformations to yield the other filters

BW Polynomial Fitting

One alternative to basline removal is to fit polynomials to representative points in the ECG

Knots selected from a silent segment, often the best choise is the PQ interval A polynomial is fitted so that it passes through every knot in a smooth fashion This type of baseline removal requires the QRS complexes to have been identified and the PQ interval localized

Higher-order polynomials can provide a more accurate estimate but at the cost of additional computational complexity A popular approach is the cubic spline estimation technique

third-order polynomials are fitted to successive sets of triple knots By using the third-order polynomial from the Taylor series and requiring the estimate to pass through the knots and estimating the first derivate linearly, a solution can be found Performance is critically dependent on the accuracy of knot detection, PQ interval detection is difficult in more noisy conditions

Polynomial fitting can also adapt to the heart rate (as the heart rate increases, more knots are available), but performs poorly when too few knots are available

a) b)

baseline wander removal at a heart rate of 120 beats per minute Original ECG time-invariant filtering heart rate dependent filtering cubic spline fitting

c)

d)

Electromagnetic fields from power lines can cause 50/60 Hz sinusoidal interference, possibly accompanied by some of its harmonics Such noise can cause problems interpreting low-amplitude waveforms and spurious waveforms can be introduced. Naturally precautions should be taken to keep power lines as far as possible or shield and ground them,

A very simple approach to filtering power line interference is to create a filter defined by a comple-conjugated pair of zeros that lie on the unit circle at the interfering frequency 0

This notch will of course also attenuate ECG waveforms constituted by frequencies close to 0 The filter can be improved by adding a pair of complex-conjugated poles positioned at the same angle as the zeros, but at a radius. The radius then determines the notch bandwith. Another problem presents; this causes increased transient response time, resulting in

Pole-zero diagram for two second-order IIR filters with idential locations of zeros, but with radiuses of 0.75 and 0.95

More sophisticated filters can be constructed for, for example a narrower notch However, increased frequency resolution is always traded for decreased time resolution, meaning that it is not possible to design a linear time-invariant filter to remove the noise without causing ringing

One possibility is to create a nonlinear filter which buildson the idea of subtracting a sinusoid, generated by the filter, from the observed signal x(n)

The amplitude of the sinusoid v(n) = sin(0n) is adapted to the power line interference of the observed signal through the use of an error function e(n) = x(n) v(n) The error function is dependent of the DC level of x(n), but that can be removed by using for example the first difference : e(n) = e(n) e(n-1) Now depending on the sign of e(n), the value of v(n) is updated by a negative or positive increment , v*(n) = v(n) + sgn(e(n))

The output signal is obtained by subtracting the interference estimate from the input, y(n) = x(n) v*(n) If is too small, the filter poorly tracks changes in the power line interference amplitude. Conversely, too large a causes extra noise due to the large step alterations

Filter convergence : a) pure sinusoid b) output of

a) b)

c)

Comparison of power line interference removal: original signal scond-order IIR filter nonlinear filter with transient suppression, =

PLI EstimationSubtraction

One can also estimate the amplitude and phase of the interference from an isoelectric sgment, and then subtract the estimated segment from the entire cycle

Bandpass filtering around the interference can The location of the segment be used can be defined, for example, by the PQ interval, or with some other detection criteria. If the interval is selected poorly, for example to include parts of the P or Q wave, the interference might be overestimated and actually cause an increase in the

The sinusoid fitting can be solved by minimizing the mean square error between the observed signal and the sinusoid model

As the fitting interval grows, the stopband becomes increasingly narrow and passband increasingly flat, however at the cost of the increasing oscillatory phenomenon (Gibbs phenomenon)

The estimation-subtraction technique can also work adaptively by computing the fitting weights for example using a LMS algorithm and a reference input (possibly from wall outlet)

Muscle noise can cause severe problems as low-amplitude waveforms can be obstructed

Muscle noise is not associated with narrow band filtering, but is more difficult since the spectral content of the noise considerably overlaps with that of the PQRST complex However, ECG is a repetitive signal and thus techniques like ensemle averaging can be used

A time-varying lowpass filter with variable frequency response, for example Gaussian impulse response, may be used.

Here a width function (n) defined the width of the gaussian, 2 - (n )k h(k,n) ~ e The width function is designed to reflect local signal properties such that the smooth segments of the ECG are subjected to considerable filtering whereas the steep slopes (QRS) remains essentially unaltered By making (n) proportional to derivatives of the signal slow changes cause small (n) , resulting in slowly decaying impulse response,

MN Other considerations

the time-varying lowpass filter examined with baseline wander the method for power line interference based on trunctated series expansions

However, a notable problem is that the methods tend to create artificial waves, little or no smoothing in the QRS comples or other serious distortions Muscle noise filtering remains largely an unsolved problem

Conclusions

Both baseline wander and powerline interference removal are mainly a question of filtering out a narrow band of lower-than-ECG frequency interference.

The main problems are the resulting artifacts and how to optimally remove the noise

Muscle noise, on the other hand, is more difficult as it overlaps with actual ECG data For the varying noise types (baseline wander and muscle noise) an adaptive approach seems quite appropriate, if the detection can be done well. For power line interference, the nonlinear approach seems valid as ringing artifacts are almost unavoidable otherwise

The main idea to take home from this section would, in my opinion be, to always take note of why you are doing the filtering. The best way depends on what is most important for the next step of processing in many cases preserving the true ECG waveforms can be more important than obtaining a mathematically pleasing low error solution. But

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