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Vol. 12, No.

1-2-3, Spring 2001 ISSN 1084-2810

SMARANDACHE NOTIONS JOURNAL

TRANSILVANIA UNIVERSITY OF BRAÔOV


The scheme on the first cover represents the Smarandache function
7-7 additive relationships and belongs to H. Ibstedt (see p. 73).

This journal is an extension of the "Smarandache Function Journal",


ISBN 1053-4792, Vol. 1-6, 1990-1995.

SNJ is yearly published (in the Spring or Fall) in a 300-400 pages


volume, and 800-1000 copies.

SNJ is a referred journal: reviewed, indexed, cited by the


following journals: "Zentralblatt Für Mathematik" (Germany),
"Referativnyi Zhurnal" and "Matematika" (Academia Nauk, Russia),
"Mathematical Reviews" (USA), "Computing Review" (USA), "Libertas
Mathematica" (USA), "Octogon" (Romania), "Indian Science Abstracts"
(India), "Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory" (USA),
"Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media" (USA),
"Historia Mathematica" (USA), "Journal of Recreational Mathematics"
(USA), "The Mathematical Gazette" (U.K.), "Abstracts of Papers
Presented to the American Mathematical Society" (USA), "Personal
Computer World" (U.K.), "Mathematical Spectrum" (U.K.), "Bulletin
of Pure and Applied Sciences" (India), Institute for Scientific
Information (PA, USA), "Library of Congress Subject Headings"
(USA).

Referents:
Murad A. AlDamen, P. O. Box 713330, Hai Nazzal 11171, Amman,
Jordan.
Y. V. Chebrakov, Department of Mathematics, St.-Petersburg
Technical University, Nevsky 3-11, 191186, Russia.
Ion Goian, Department of Algebra, Number Theory and Logic,
State University of Kishinev, Republic of Moldova.
Florian Luca, Instituto de Matematicas UNAM, Campus Morelia,
Apartado Postal 61-3 (Xangari), CP 58 089, Morelia, Michoacan,
México.
Chris Nash, 5000 Bryan Station Road #5, Lexington, KY 40516-9505,
USA.
Carlos B. Rivera F., J. Pardavé 517, Col Lomas del Roble, San
Nicolás de los Garza, CP 66450, Nuevo León, México.
Sebastian Martin Ruiz, Avda. De Regla, 43, Chipiona 11550,
Cadiz, Spain.
Copyright 2001
by Transilvania University of BraÕov, Department of Mathematics
and Computer Science, BraÕov, Romania.

ASSOCIATE EDITORIAL BOARD:

Charles Ashbacher, Charles Ashbacher Technologies, Box 294,


119 Northwood Drive, Hiawatha, Iowa 52233, USA.
Ion Balacenoiu, Department of Mathematics, University of
Craiova, Romania.
Mihaly Bencze, Str. H|rmanului 6, 2212 S|cele 3, Jud. BraÕov,
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Romania.
Emil Burton, Department of Mathematics, University of Cluj-
Napoca, Romania.
Ion Cojocaru & Sorin Cojocaru, Department of Mathematics,
University of Craiova, Romania.
Constantin Corduneanu, Department of Mathematics, University
of Texas at Arlington, USA.
Henry Ibstedt, Glimminge 2036, 280 60 Broby, Sweden.
Widmer Lamarr, Department of Mathematics, Mesiah College,
Grantham, PA 17027, USA.
Maohua Le, Department of Mathematics, Zhanjiang Normal
College, 29 Cunjin Road, Chikan, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, P.R.China.
A.A.K. Majumdar, Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar
University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.
Leonardo Fernandes Dias da Motta, Av. Conselheiro Furtado,
1574, Apt. 501, Bairro Batista Campos, Belem, PA 66040-100, Brazil.
Mike Mudge, 22 Gors Fach, Pwll-Trap, St Clears,
Carmarthenshire, Dyfed SA33 4AQ, United Kingdom.
Jean Normand, 3, square Robinson, 92330 Sceaux, France.
E. R|descu & N. R|descu, Department of Mathematics, University
of Craiova, Romania.
Francisco Bellot Rosado, Dos de Mayo 16-8E dcha, E-47004
Valladolid, Spain.
Felice Russo, Micron Technology Italy, Avezzano (Aq), Italy.
Jozsef Sandor, Department of Mathematics, BabeÕ-Bolyai
University, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Vasile Seleacu, Department of Mathematics, University of
Craiova, Romania.
Y. A. Shmagin, Department of Mathematics, St.-Petersburg
Technical University, Nevsky 3-11, 191186,
St.-Petersburg, Russia.
Vera W. de Spinadel, Centro de Matematica y Diseno MAyDI,
Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Urbanismo, Universidad
de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

INDICATION TO AUTHORS

Authors of papers concerning any of Smarandache type functions,


numbers, sequences, integer algorithms, paradoxes, Non-Euclidean
geometries, etc. are encouraged to submit manuscripts to the
Editors:

Prof. Sabin & Tatiana Tabirca


Department of Mathematics
Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.

The submitted manuscripts may be in the format of remarks,


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conjectures, solved/unsolved or open new proposed problems,
notes, articles, miscellaneous, etc. They must be original work
and camera ready [typewritten/computerized, format: 8.5 x 11
inches (. 21,6 x 28 cm)]. They are not returned, hence we
advise the authors to keep a copy.
The title of the paper should be writing with capital letters.
The author's name has to apply in the middle of the line, near
the title. References should be mentioned in the text by a
number in square brackets and should be listed alphabetically.
Current address followed by e-mail address should apply at the
end of the paper, after the references.
The paper should have at the beginning an up to a half-page
abstract, followed by the key words.
All manuscripts are subject to anonymous review by two or more
independent sources.
Every letter will be answered.
The authors will receive free copies of the journal.

Papers in electronic form are accepted. They can be e-mailed


in Microsoft Word 97 (or lower), WordPerfect 7.0 (or lower), PDF
4.0, or ASCII files.

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C O N T E N T S

MATHEMATICS:

ROBERTO TORRETTI, A Model for Smarandache's Anti-Geometry .... 5


FLORIAN LUCA, The Average Smarandache Function ............... 19
TATIANA TABIRCA, SABIN TABIRCA, A Parallel Loop Scheduling
Algorithm Based on the Smarandache f-Inferior Part Function .. 28
HENRY IBSTEDT, On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function and Iteration
Problems. Part I: The Euler φ Function ...................... 36
HENRY IBSTEDT, On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function and Iteration
Problems. Part II: The Sum of Divisors Function ............. 44
SABIN TABIRCA, Erdös-Smarandache Moments Numbers ............. 49
SABIN TABIRCA, TATIANA TABIRCA, Erdös-Smarandache Numbers .... 54
J. SÁNDOR, On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function ................ 59
HENRY IBSTEDT, Smarandache k-k Additive Relationships ........ 62
KRASSIMIR T. ATANASSOV, Remarks on Some of the Smarandache's
Problems. Part 1 ............................................ 82
HENRY IBSTEDT, A Brief Account on Smarandache 2-2 Substractive
Relationships ................................................ 99
HENRY IBSTEDT, On a Smarandache Partial Perfect Additive
Sequence .................................................... 103
NIKOLAI NIKOLOV, KRASSIMIR ATANASSOV, On the 107-th, 108-th and
109-th Smarandache's Problems ............................... 108
KRASSIMIR T. ATANASSOV, On the 20-th and the 21-st Smarandache's
Problems .................................................... 111
SABIN TABIRCA, TATIANA TABIRCA, On the Primality of the
Smarandache Symmetric Sequences ............................. 114
KRASSIMIR T. ATANASSOV, On Four Prime and Coprime Functions . 122
Y. V. CHEBRAKOV, V. V. SHMAGIN, Investigating Connections Between
Some Smarandache Sequences, Prime Numbers and Magic Squares . 126
TIANG ZHENGPING, XU KANGHUA, On Smarandache Sequences and
Subsequences ................................................ 146
FELICE RUSSO, On Three Problems Concerning the Smarandache LCM
Sequence .................................................... 153
FELICE RUSSO, On a Problem Concerning the Smarandache Unary
Sequence .................................................... 156
FELICE RUSSO, An Introduction to the Smarandache Double Factorial
Function .................................................... 158
ADRIAN VASIU, ANGELA VASIU, Geometrie Interioar| ............ 168
FELICE RUSSO, On Some Smarandache Conjectures and Unsolved
363
Problems ................................................... 172
FELICE RUSSO, A Recurrence Formula for Prime Numbers Using the
Smarandache or Totient Functions ............................ 193
FELICE RUSSO, On Two Problems Concerning Two Smarandache
P-Partial Digital Sequences ................................. 198
MIHALY BENCZE, Open Questions for the Smarandache Function .. 201
MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. I: The
Commutative Multiplicative Semigroup A(a,n) ................. 204
MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. II: The
Smarandache Semigroup ....................................... 207
MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. III: The
Commutative Ring B(a,n) ..................................... 209
MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. IV: The
Commutative Ring C(a,n) ..................................... 211
MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. V: Two Classes
of Smarandache Rings ........................................ 213
MAOHUA LE, A Note on the Smarandache Bad Numbers ............ 215
MAOHUA LE, A Lower bound for S(2p-1(2p-1)) ................... 217
MAOHUA LE, The Squares in the Smarandache Higher Power Product
Sequences ...................................................
21364
MAOHUA LE, The Powers in the Smarandache Square Product Sequences
............................................................. 221
MAOHUA LE, The Powers in the Smarandache Cubic Product Sequences
............................................................. 223
MAOHUA LE, On the Smarandache Uniform Sequences ............. 226
MAOHUA LE, The Primes in the Smarandache Power Product Sequences
of the Second Kind .......................................... 228
MAOHUA LE, The Primes in the Smarandache Power Product Sequences
of the First Kind ........................................... 230
k
MAOHUA LE, On the Equation S(mn)=m S(n) .................... 232
MAOHUA LE, On an Inequality Concerning the Smarandache Function
............................................................. 234
MAOHUA LE, The Squares in the Smarandache Factorial Product
Sequence of the Second Kind ................................ 236
MAOHUA LE, On the Third Smarandache Conjecture about Primes . 238
MAOHUA LE, On Russo's Conjecture about Primes ............... 240
MAOHUA LE, A Conjecture Concerning the Reciprocal Partition
Theory ...................................................... 242
MAOHUA LE, A Sum Concerning Sequences ....................... 244
J. SÀNDOR, A Note on S(n2) .................................. 246
J. SÀNDOR, On A New Smarandache Type Function .............. 247
MIHALY BENCZE, About the S(n)=S(n-S(n)) Equation ........... 249
SAM ALEXANDER, A Note on Smarandache Reverse Sequence ...... 250
364
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Pascal Derived Sequences ...... 251
AMARNATH MURTHY, Depascalisation of Smarandache Pascal Derived
Sequences and Backward Extended Fibonacci Sequence ......... 255
AMARNATH MURTHY, Proof of the Depascalisation Theorem ...... 258
JÓZSEF SÁNDOR, On Certain Arithmetic Functions ............. 260
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Star (Stirling) Derived Sequences
............................................................. 262
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Friendly Numbers and A Few More
Sequences .................................................. 264
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Geometrical Partitions and Sequences
............................................................. 268
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Route Sequences ............... 272
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Determinant Sequences ......... 275
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Reverse Auto Correlated Sequences
and Some Fibonacci Derived Smarandache Sequences ........... 279
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Strictly Stair Case Sequences . 283
CSABA BÍRÓ, About a New Smarandache-type Sequence .......... 284
LEONARDO MOTTA, On the Smarandache Paradox ................. 287
SEBASTIÁN MARTÍN RUIZ, New Prime Numbers ................... 289
TAEKYUN KIM, A Note on the Value of Zeta ................... 291
FELICE RUSSO, Ten Conjectures on Prime Numbers ............. 295
ADRIAN VASIU, ANGELA VASIU, On Some Implications of Formalized
Theories in our Life ....................................... 297
AMARNATH MURTHY, Decomposition of the Divisors of A Natural
Number Into Pairwise Co-Prime Sets ......................... 303
AMARNATH MURTHY, Some Notions on Least Common Multiples .... 307
AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Dual Symmetric Functions and
Corresponding Numbers of the Type of Stirling Numbers of the
First Kind ................................................. 309
AMARNATH MURTHY, Some More Conjectures on Primes and Divisors 311
MAOHUA LE, The Reduced Smarandache Square-Digital Subsequence is
Infinite ................................................... 313
MAOHUA LE, The Reduced Smarandache Cube-Partial-Digital
Subsequence is Infinite .................................... 315
MAOHUA LE, The Convergence Value and the Simple Continued
Fractions of Some Smarandache Sequences .................... 317
MAOHUA LE, The First Digit and the Trailing Digit of Elements of
the Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence .................... 319
MAOHUA LE, The 2-Divisibility of Even Elements of the Smarandache
Deconstructive Sequence .................................... 321
MAOHUA LE, Two Smarandache Series .......................... 323
MAOHUA LE, The 3-Divisibility of Elements of the Smarandache
Deconstructive Sequence .................................... 325
MAOHUA LE, Two Conjectures Concerning Extents of Smarandache
365
Factor Partition ........................................... 328
MAOHUA LE, On the Balu Numbers ............................. 331
MAOHUA LE, The Limit of the Smarandache Divisor Sequences .. 335
KRASSIMIR ATANASSOV, HRISTO ALADJOV, A Generalized Net For
Machine Learning of the Process of Mathematical Problems Solving.
/ On An Example with A Smarandache Problem ................. 338
G. L. Waghmare, S. V. More, New Smarandache Algebraic Structures
............................................................. 344
DWIRAJ TALUKDAR, Lattice of Smarandache Groupoid ........... 347

PHYSICS:

LEONARDO F. D. DA MOTTA, Smarandache Hypothesis: Evidences,


Implications and Applications .............................. 354
LEONARDO F. D. DA MOTTA, Smarandache-Rodrigues-Maiorino (SRM)
Theory ..................................................... 359
GHEORGHE NICULESCU, Quantum Smarandache Paradoxes .......... 361

366
The "Smarandache Notions Journal" is online at:
http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/
and selected papers are periodically added to our web site. The
authors are pleased to send, together with their hard copy
manuscripts, a floppy disk with HTML or ASCHII files to be put in
the Internet as well.

Papers in electronic form are accepted. They can be


e-mailed in Microsoft Word 97 (or lower), WordPerfect 7.0 (or
lower), PDF 4.0, or ASCII files.

Starting with this Vol. 10, the "Smarandache Notions


Journal" is also printed in hard cover for a special price of
$79.95.

$69.90