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You are on page 1of 368

The scheme on the first cover represents the Smarandache function

7-7 additive relationships and belongs to H. Ibstedt (see p. 73).

ISBN 1053-4792, Vol. 1-6, 1990-1995.

volume, and 800-1000 copies.

following journals: "Zentralblatt Für Mathematik" (Germany),

"Referativnyi Zhurnal" and "Matematika" (Academia Nauk, Russia),

"Mathematical Reviews" (USA), "Computing Review" (USA), "Libertas

Mathematica" (USA), "Octogon" (Romania), "Indian Science Abstracts"

(India), "Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory" (USA),

"Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media" (USA),

"Historia Mathematica" (USA), "Journal of Recreational Mathematics"

(USA), "The Mathematical Gazette" (U.K.), "Abstracts of Papers

Presented to the American Mathematical Society" (USA), "Personal

Computer World" (U.K.), "Mathematical Spectrum" (U.K.), "Bulletin

of Pure and Applied Sciences" (India), Institute for Scientific

Information (PA, USA), "Library of Congress Subject Headings"

(USA).

Referents:

Murad A. AlDamen, P. O. Box 713330, Hai Nazzal 11171, Amman,

Jordan.

Y. V. Chebrakov, Department of Mathematics, St.-Petersburg

Technical University, Nevsky 3-11, 191186, Russia.

Ion Goian, Department of Algebra, Number Theory and Logic,

State University of Kishinev, Republic of Moldova.

Florian Luca, Instituto de Matematicas UNAM, Campus Morelia,

Apartado Postal 61-3 (Xangari), CP 58 089, Morelia, Michoacan,

México.

Chris Nash, 5000 Bryan Station Road #5, Lexington, KY 40516-9505,

USA.

Carlos B. Rivera F., J. Pardavé 517, Col Lomas del Roble, San

Nicolás de los Garza, CP 66450, Nuevo León, México.

Sebastian Martin Ruiz, Avda. De Regla, 43, Chipiona 11550,

Cadiz, Spain.

Copyright 2001

by Transilvania University of BraÕov, Department of Mathematics

and Computer Science, BraÕov, Romania.

119 Northwood Drive, Hiawatha, Iowa 52233, USA.

Ion Balacenoiu, Department of Mathematics, University of

Craiova, Romania.

Mihaly Bencze, Str. H|rmanului 6, 2212 S|cele 3, Jud. BraÕov,

2

Romania.

Emil Burton, Department of Mathematics, University of Cluj-

Napoca, Romania.

Ion Cojocaru & Sorin Cojocaru, Department of Mathematics,

University of Craiova, Romania.

Constantin Corduneanu, Department of Mathematics, University

of Texas at Arlington, USA.

Henry Ibstedt, Glimminge 2036, 280 60 Broby, Sweden.

Widmer Lamarr, Department of Mathematics, Mesiah College,

Grantham, PA 17027, USA.

Maohua Le, Department of Mathematics, Zhanjiang Normal

College, 29 Cunjin Road, Chikan, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, P.R.China.

A.A.K. Majumdar, Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar

University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

Leonardo Fernandes Dias da Motta, Av. Conselheiro Furtado,

1574, Apt. 501, Bairro Batista Campos, Belem, PA 66040-100, Brazil.

Mike Mudge, 22 Gors Fach, Pwll-Trap, St Clears,

Carmarthenshire, Dyfed SA33 4AQ, United Kingdom.

Jean Normand, 3, square Robinson, 92330 Sceaux, France.

E. R|descu & N. R|descu, Department of Mathematics, University

of Craiova, Romania.

Francisco Bellot Rosado, Dos de Mayo 16-8E dcha, E-47004

Valladolid, Spain.

Felice Russo, Micron Technology Italy, Avezzano (Aq), Italy.

Jozsef Sandor, Department of Mathematics, BabeÕ-Bolyai

University, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Vasile Seleacu, Department of Mathematics, University of

Craiova, Romania.

Y. A. Shmagin, Department of Mathematics, St.-Petersburg

Technical University, Nevsky 3-11, 191186,

St.-Petersburg, Russia.

Vera W. de Spinadel, Centro de Matematica y Diseno MAyDI,

Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Urbanismo, Universidad

de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

INDICATION TO AUTHORS

numbers, sequences, integer algorithms, paradoxes, Non-Euclidean

geometries, etc. are encouraged to submit manuscripts to the

Editors:

Department of Mathematics

Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.

3

conjectures, solved/unsolved or open new proposed problems,

notes, articles, miscellaneous, etc. They must be original work

and camera ready [typewritten/computerized, format: 8.5 x 11

inches (. 21,6 x 28 cm)]. They are not returned, hence we

advise the authors to keep a copy.

The title of the paper should be writing with capital letters.

The author's name has to apply in the middle of the line, near

the title. References should be mentioned in the text by a

number in square brackets and should be listed alphabetically.

Current address followed by e-mail address should apply at the

end of the paper, after the references.

The paper should have at the beginning an up to a half-page

abstract, followed by the key words.

All manuscripts are subject to anonymous review by two or more

independent sources.

Every letter will be answered.

The authors will receive free copies of the journal.

in Microsoft Word 97 (or lower), WordPerfect 7.0 (or lower), PDF

4.0, or ASCII files.

4

C O N T E N T S

MATHEMATICS:

FLORIAN LUCA, The Average Smarandache Function ............... 19

TATIANA TABIRCA, SABIN TABIRCA, A Parallel Loop Scheduling

Algorithm Based on the Smarandache f-Inferior Part Function .. 28

HENRY IBSTEDT, On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function and Iteration

Problems. Part I: The Euler φ Function ...................... 36

HENRY IBSTEDT, On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function and Iteration

Problems. Part II: The Sum of Divisors Function ............. 44

SABIN TABIRCA, Erdös-Smarandache Moments Numbers ............. 49

SABIN TABIRCA, TATIANA TABIRCA, Erdös-Smarandache Numbers .... 54

J. SÁNDOR, On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function ................ 59

HENRY IBSTEDT, Smarandache k-k Additive Relationships ........ 62

KRASSIMIR T. ATANASSOV, Remarks on Some of the Smarandache's

Problems. Part 1 ............................................ 82

HENRY IBSTEDT, A Brief Account on Smarandache 2-2 Substractive

Relationships ................................................ 99

HENRY IBSTEDT, On a Smarandache Partial Perfect Additive

Sequence .................................................... 103

NIKOLAI NIKOLOV, KRASSIMIR ATANASSOV, On the 107-th, 108-th and

109-th Smarandache's Problems ............................... 108

KRASSIMIR T. ATANASSOV, On the 20-th and the 21-st Smarandache's

Problems .................................................... 111

SABIN TABIRCA, TATIANA TABIRCA, On the Primality of the

Smarandache Symmetric Sequences ............................. 114

KRASSIMIR T. ATANASSOV, On Four Prime and Coprime Functions . 122

Y. V. CHEBRAKOV, V. V. SHMAGIN, Investigating Connections Between

Some Smarandache Sequences, Prime Numbers and Magic Squares . 126

TIANG ZHENGPING, XU KANGHUA, On Smarandache Sequences and

Subsequences ................................................ 146

FELICE RUSSO, On Three Problems Concerning the Smarandache LCM

Sequence .................................................... 153

FELICE RUSSO, On a Problem Concerning the Smarandache Unary

Sequence .................................................... 156

FELICE RUSSO, An Introduction to the Smarandache Double Factorial

Function .................................................... 158

ADRIAN VASIU, ANGELA VASIU, Geometrie Interioar| ............ 168

FELICE RUSSO, On Some Smarandache Conjectures and Unsolved

363

Problems ................................................... 172

FELICE RUSSO, A Recurrence Formula for Prime Numbers Using the

Smarandache or Totient Functions ............................ 193

FELICE RUSSO, On Two Problems Concerning Two Smarandache

P-Partial Digital Sequences ................................. 198

MIHALY BENCZE, Open Questions for the Smarandache Function .. 201

MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. I: The

Commutative Multiplicative Semigroup A(a,n) ................. 204

MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. II: The

Smarandache Semigroup ....................................... 207

MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. III: The

Commutative Ring B(a,n) ..................................... 209

MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. IV: The

Commutative Ring C(a,n) ..................................... 211

MAOHUA LE, On Smarandache Algebraic Structures. V: Two Classes

of Smarandache Rings ........................................ 213

MAOHUA LE, A Note on the Smarandache Bad Numbers ............ 215

MAOHUA LE, A Lower bound for S(2p-1(2p-1)) ................... 217

MAOHUA LE, The Squares in the Smarandache Higher Power Product

Sequences ...................................................

21364

MAOHUA LE, The Powers in the Smarandache Square Product Sequences

............................................................. 221

MAOHUA LE, The Powers in the Smarandache Cubic Product Sequences

............................................................. 223

MAOHUA LE, On the Smarandache Uniform Sequences ............. 226

MAOHUA LE, The Primes in the Smarandache Power Product Sequences

of the Second Kind .......................................... 228

MAOHUA LE, The Primes in the Smarandache Power Product Sequences

of the First Kind ........................................... 230

k

MAOHUA LE, On the Equation S(mn)=m S(n) .................... 232

MAOHUA LE, On an Inequality Concerning the Smarandache Function

............................................................. 234

MAOHUA LE, The Squares in the Smarandache Factorial Product

Sequence of the Second Kind ................................ 236

MAOHUA LE, On the Third Smarandache Conjecture about Primes . 238

MAOHUA LE, On Russo's Conjecture about Primes ............... 240

MAOHUA LE, A Conjecture Concerning the Reciprocal Partition

Theory ...................................................... 242

MAOHUA LE, A Sum Concerning Sequences ....................... 244

J. SÀNDOR, A Note on S(n2) .................................. 246

J. SÀNDOR, On A New Smarandache Type Function .............. 247

MIHALY BENCZE, About the S(n)=S(n-S(n)) Equation ........... 249

SAM ALEXANDER, A Note on Smarandache Reverse Sequence ...... 250

364

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Pascal Derived Sequences ...... 251

AMARNATH MURTHY, Depascalisation of Smarandache Pascal Derived

Sequences and Backward Extended Fibonacci Sequence ......... 255

AMARNATH MURTHY, Proof of the Depascalisation Theorem ...... 258

JÓZSEF SÁNDOR, On Certain Arithmetic Functions ............. 260

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Star (Stirling) Derived Sequences

............................................................. 262

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Friendly Numbers and A Few More

Sequences .................................................. 264

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Geometrical Partitions and Sequences

............................................................. 268

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Route Sequences ............... 272

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Determinant Sequences ......... 275

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Reverse Auto Correlated Sequences

and Some Fibonacci Derived Smarandache Sequences ........... 279

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Strictly Stair Case Sequences . 283

CSABA BÍRÓ, About a New Smarandache-type Sequence .......... 284

LEONARDO MOTTA, On the Smarandache Paradox ................. 287

SEBASTIÁN MARTÍN RUIZ, New Prime Numbers ................... 289

TAEKYUN KIM, A Note on the Value of Zeta ................... 291

FELICE RUSSO, Ten Conjectures on Prime Numbers ............. 295

ADRIAN VASIU, ANGELA VASIU, On Some Implications of Formalized

Theories in our Life ....................................... 297

AMARNATH MURTHY, Decomposition of the Divisors of A Natural

Number Into Pairwise Co-Prime Sets ......................... 303

AMARNATH MURTHY, Some Notions on Least Common Multiples .... 307

AMARNATH MURTHY, Smarandache Dual Symmetric Functions and

Corresponding Numbers of the Type of Stirling Numbers of the

First Kind ................................................. 309

AMARNATH MURTHY, Some More Conjectures on Primes and Divisors 311

MAOHUA LE, The Reduced Smarandache Square-Digital Subsequence is

Infinite ................................................... 313

MAOHUA LE, The Reduced Smarandache Cube-Partial-Digital

Subsequence is Infinite .................................... 315

MAOHUA LE, The Convergence Value and the Simple Continued

Fractions of Some Smarandache Sequences .................... 317

MAOHUA LE, The First Digit and the Trailing Digit of Elements of

the Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence .................... 319

MAOHUA LE, The 2-Divisibility of Even Elements of the Smarandache

Deconstructive Sequence .................................... 321

MAOHUA LE, Two Smarandache Series .......................... 323

MAOHUA LE, The 3-Divisibility of Elements of the Smarandache

Deconstructive Sequence .................................... 325

MAOHUA LE, Two Conjectures Concerning Extents of Smarandache

365

Factor Partition ........................................... 328

MAOHUA LE, On the Balu Numbers ............................. 331

MAOHUA LE, The Limit of the Smarandache Divisor Sequences .. 335

KRASSIMIR ATANASSOV, HRISTO ALADJOV, A Generalized Net For

Machine Learning of the Process of Mathematical Problems Solving.

/ On An Example with A Smarandache Problem ................. 338

G. L. Waghmare, S. V. More, New Smarandache Algebraic Structures

............................................................. 344

DWIRAJ TALUKDAR, Lattice of Smarandache Groupoid ........... 347

PHYSICS:

Implications and Applications .............................. 354

LEONARDO F. D. DA MOTTA, Smarandache-Rodrigues-Maiorino (SRM)

Theory ..................................................... 359

GHEORGHE NICULESCU, Quantum Smarandache Paradoxes .......... 361

366

The "Smarandache Notions Journal" is online at:

http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/

and selected papers are periodically added to our web site. The

authors are pleased to send, together with their hard copy

manuscripts, a floppy disk with HTML or ASCHII files to be put in

the Internet as well.

e-mailed in Microsoft Word 97 (or lower), WordPerfect 7.0 (or

lower), PDF 4.0, or ASCII files.

Journal" is also printed in hard cover for a special price of

$79.95.

$69.90

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