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Basketball is one of the world’s most unusual sports in that it was invented by a single person, Dr. James Naismith. Naismith was asked by his boss in1891 at a Springfield, Massachusetts college to develop a game that could be played indoors during the cold New England weather. He had two weeks to respond. His solution was to borrow from a number of outdoor games — soccer and lacrosse included — but adapt their features to an indoor environment. He was even inspired by a childhood precision aiming game. His 13 original rules of basketball, though adapted in the years since, largely define oneof today’s most popular games. The game caught on very quickly — the first contest was played in the closing days of 1891, and it spread to Europe in the 1930s. But Dr. Naismith did not benefit from it in the same way as a modern inventor of such a popular game might. His fame as basketball’s inventor grew more after his death in 1939. Since then basketball has become a true world sport, popular in many more corners of the globe than it was at the icy New England campus where itwas first invented. Few people can claim to have developed an activity that has given people so much pleasure and so inspired human competition as Naismith’s invention. Basketball became an Olympic sport at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In 1949 the American National Basketball Association, or NBA, was founded. The NBA is considered the premier basketball-players’ association in the world. Some of Basketball’s greatest names — Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, and Larry Bird — were on the USA “Dream Team” that won the Olympics gold medal in 1992. James Naismith devised a set of rules for these early games as follows: „« The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. „« A player cannot run with the ball, but instead the player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it. „« The ball must be held in or between the hands, not any other body parts. „« No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent is permitted. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is scored. „« If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive in these rules means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul of their own). „« A goal is scored when the ball is thrown from the ground into the basket and stays there. If the ball rests on the edge of the basket and the opponents move the basket, it shall also count as a goal. „« When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. „« The umpire shall be judge and have the power to disqualify or foul players as required. „« The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. „« The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between. „« The side scoring the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners.
Today basketball has grown to become one of the world's most popular sports, all thanks to Dr Naismith. Dr. James Naismith, Inventor of Basketball KU Basketball Program Founder Dr. James Naismith is known worldwide as the inventor of basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born from Naismith's school days in the area where he played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse. The game involved attempting to knock a "duck" off the top of a large rock by tossing another rock at it. Naismith went on to attend McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. After serving as McGill's Athletic Director, James Naismith moved on to the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA in 1891, where the sport of basketball was born. In Springfield, Naismith was faced with the problem of finding a sport that was suitable for play inside during the Massachusetts winter for the students at the School for Christian Workers. Naismith wanted to create a game of skill for the students instead of one that relied solely on strength. He needed a game that could be played indoors in a relatively small space. The first game was played with a soccer ball and two peach baskets used as goals. Naismith joined the University of Kansas faculty in 1898, teaching physical education and being a chaplain. James Naismith devised a set of thirteen rules of basketball: 1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. 2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist. 3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed. 4. The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it. 5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed. 6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and 4 and such as described in Rule 5.
The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. but with the system that we are using." he said. If he holds it longer. to which side it belongs. the superintendent of physical education at the international YMCA Training School. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners. Before the meeting ended. and shall keep the time. One class was particularly incorrigible. The Origin of Basketball The challenge that inspired the invention of basketball came from Dr. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee. When the ball goes out of bounds." Though the class didn't follow up on Gulick's challenge to invent such a game. Naismith watched his sport. "The trouble is not with the men. James Naismith graduated as a medical doctor. 8. During the meeting." As they walked down the hall together after the meeting. In class discussions. In fact. in 1939. Naismith found himself revisiting the issue a few months later when the physical education faculty met to discuss what was becoming a persistent problem. The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. it shall go to the opponent. "Naismith." . something that would appeal to their play instincts. he expressed his opinion that. Kansas. they knew of no indoor game that would inspire the excitement of football or baseball. and Naismith was one of his students. The kind of work for this particular class should be of a recreative nature. With the end of the fall sports season. easy to learn. he added. the school once again confronted the distaste many students felt for the gymnasium work that was mandatory during the winter months. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. 11. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds. Naismith was flown to Berlin to watch the games. During the summer session of 1891. Luther Halsey Gulick.7. it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. basketball. Gulick brought up an issue that was weighing on his mind: the need for new indoor game "that would be interesting. Gulick placed the problem squarely on Naismith's lap. Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and stays there. He shall have the power to disqualify men according to Rule 5. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul). Jr. it shall count as a goal. "I want you to take that class and see what you can do with it. the group nevertheless found itself stymied. with a keen interest in philosophy and clean living. introduced in many nations by the YMCA movement as early as 1893. "Now would be a good time for you to work on that new game you said could be invented. 12. If any side persists in delaying the game. Gulick introduced a new course in the psychology of play. 13. 9. Basketball was introduced at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. the umpire shall call a foul on them. In addition to the creation of the basketball. He died in Lawrence. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket. primarily interested in sports physiology and what we would today call sports science and as Presbyterian minister. 10. and easy to play in the winter and by artificial light." Though there was general agreement with Naismith. providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. and two instructors had already tried and failed to devise activities that would interest them.. Naismith later wrote.
" he recalled. "I noticed the lines of the football and realized it was shaped so that it might be carried in the arms. It should provide plenty of exercise. but had only one player from each team vying for the initial toss-up. or tripping. While any number could play. one at each end. "that when we played a game called 'Duck on a Rock. Naismith assembled the elements for the new game." he said. "There was to be no carrying of the ball in the new game. When the teams were chosen. rater than being thrown. picked up the soccer ball. yet without the roughness of football or soccer. The game of lacrosse suggested the type of goal to be used. such as holding. since those would threaten bruises and broken bones if played in a confined space. A man was stationed at both goals in the balcony to pick the ball from the basket and put it back into play. but could move it only by passing or batting it to another player. Naismith later described those first moments of play in mid December 1891: "There were eighteen in the class. and the game would be divided into two 16-minute halves. nine on a side was suggested as the ideal." the players nevertheless cooperated with their popular instructor and listened attentively as he outlined the method of play. so i walked over. thus limiting the force with which it was hurled. he considered whether to use a football or soccer ball.Naismith tried several different approaches in an effort to improve the attitude of his difficult class. First. There were three forwards. However. and by a large number of players all at once.' the goal should be one that could not be rushed. high enough so the ball would have to be tossed into it. It was the start of the first basketball game and the finish of the trouble with that class. and three backs on each team. "I recalled from my boyhood in the lumbering camps of Canada. pushing. rather than the whole team. had failed. This called for a goal with a horizontal opening. the janitor suggested halfbushel peach baskets instead. The next morning. He had his students play simple games. including one called "battleball." The method he adapted for putting the ball into play-the toss-up-borrowed from English rugby. Naismith drew up the rules. then threw the ball between them. I placed the men on the floor. Then. Still not wanting to give up. I chose two of the center men to jump. That idea came to Naismith from his memories of a childhood game he had played with his friends in Bennie's Corners." He attempted to modify outdoor games like rugby and soccer so they could be played in a gym. and started in search of a goal. and that the ball could not be slammed through. thus far. It should be easy to learn. once again. Besides outlining the method and objective of moving the ball. but tackling made it too rough for an indoor sport. with the use of the fist prohibited." He asked the school janitor for two 18-inch square boxes to use as goals. full-sleeve woolen jerseys and long gray trousers. however. could be eliminated if players were forbidden to run with the ball. It must be playable indoors or on any kind of ground. I selected two captains and had them choose sides. but the goal would be horizontal so players would have to throw the ball in an arc. with a five-minute rest between. They wore the then-usual gym costume of black. Ontario. He saw. the need to offer a totally different kind of game. Naismith tried to deduce the cause of his failure. and he was quite clear about what its characteristics should be. three centers. but complex enough to be interesting. Most of them also sported the luxuriant handlebar mustaches that were so popular in the Gas-Lit Era. A referee would be appointed to judge the play. Naismith nailed them to the lower rail of gymnasium balcony. Somewhat dubious about "Naismith's new game. as his first two weeks with the class neared an end. he had to admit that his efforts. he described various fouls. such as various types of tag. <="" p=""> American rugby (football) was the game Naismith considered most interesting. Tackling. Naismith's secretary typed the rules and tacked them on the bulletin board while he waited nervously for the class to arrive." . He introduced a few games others had developed. Fortunately for the name of the game.
and Backboard (basketball) Traditional eight-panelbasketball The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the basketball and the court: a flat. and spectators began crowding the balconies. basketball spread with incredible speed. To gain point at the opponents basket 2. and whistle-operated stop-clock systems. as well. scoresheets. To avoid the opponent to gain point from your basket Equipment Main articles: Basketball (ball). which went to YMCAs around the country. 2. 5. . James Naismith when he created the game basketball. 4. Word got around that something new was going on in Springfield. The Triangle. by 1905. Once launched. half a court with one basket). Basketball quickly moved beyond the YMCA network.The new game was a success from the minute the first ball was tossed into the air. private athletic clubs had organized basketball teams. The player can not run with the ball Any player can take up ay position on the court a any time There shall be no physical contact between players The goal (basket) shall be place horizontally above he floor of the court Basketball Objectives 1. alternating possession arrows. it wasn't long before basketball was introduced in more than a dozen countries by these students. Because of the College's international student body. 1. High schools and colleges launched the new sport as well and. rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends (or in the case of 3-on-3 street basketball. Five 5 Basic principles of Dr. it was recognized as a permanent winter sport. Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks. 3. Within a few years. Some of the students introduced it at their local YMCAs during Christmas vacation. The game is played with a round ball and with the hands. scoreboard(s). and the rules of the game were soon printed in the school newspaper. Basketball court.
the official basketball size is 28. If women are playing. A regulation basketball court in international games is 28 metres (91.9 cm) in circumference (size 7. While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard.a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting. it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height .7 m) by 50 feet (15. The size of the basketball is also regulated. The basket is a steel rim 18 inches (45.4 cm) in circumference (size 6.An outdoor basketball net. Most courts have wood flooring.5 inches (72.9 cm) inside the baseline.5 inches (74.2 ft) wide.9 cm) by 3. usually constructed from maple planks running in the same direction as the longer court dimension. The name and logo of the home team is usually painted on or around the center circle. For men.7 cm) high and 2 feet (61. or a "295 ball") and weighs 22 ounces (624 g).5 feet (106.0 cm) wide.9 ft) long and 15 metres (49. At almost all levels of competition.7 cm) in diameter with an attached net affixed to a backboard that measures 6 feet (182. and one basket is at each end of the court. the official ball is 29. The white outlined box on the backboard is 18 inches (45. the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet (305 cm) above the court and 4 feet (121. In the NBA and NCAA the court is 94 feet (28. Positions in the court Main article: Basketball position .7 cm). or a "285 ball") with a weight of 20 ounces (567 g).2 m).
All of these variations were created to defend different varieties that offense has. teams played with more "isolation". but sometimes plays more actively 4. power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the basket. on defense seeks rebounds and steals. The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions. Since the 1980s. run most of the offense while the other four offensive players get out of his/her way. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team. and one center were used. teams tend to play with more teamwork. Defense has also evolved with offense. The "Center" position has evolved to become more of a taller "Small Forward" position. "Zone defense" has changed with many variations. especially if both players have good leadership and ball handling skills. The most commonly interchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard. replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. more specific positions have evolved. Nowadays. Teams that had one superstar would let one player. on defense. "Man-to-man defense" has been the most preferred of all the . namely: 1. plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense) 5. guards the small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the opponent's best perimeter player on defense basket and dribble penetration. "2–1–2 zone" and many more. and more jump shots have been taken as a result. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution. There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and man-to-man defense. each defensive player guards a specific opponent and tries to prevent them from taking action. ball movement has evolved with the game. There are defensive schemes called "2–3 zone". center: uses height and size to score (on offense). 3. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense. In man-to-man defense. one guard. or to rebound. "3–2 zone". In the 1990s and early 2000s. Zone defense involves players in defensive positions guarding whichever opponent is in their zone. and two centers or two guards. "box-and-1". two forwards. two forwards. organizes the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time 2. teams will choose to use a three guard offense. to protect the basket closely (on defense). Strategy Main article: Basketball playbook The strategies also evolve with the game. they have evolved as part of basketball. usually the point guard or shooting guard. Since teams play more teamwork.Basketball positions in the offensive zone Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever.
Streetball — variation typically played on outdoor courts. as dribbling is next to impossible on sand. Nature of basketball Ball game — any game played with a ba. Variations and similar games Recreational basketball — where fun. Water basketball — played in a swimming pool with a floating boardless hoop. Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. A legal attempt by an offensive player to stop an opponent from guarding a teammate. it is these that a coach normally requests a time-out to discuss. are more emphasized in higher levels in basketball. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll. On court. combining rules from basketball and water polo. and carrying. is a screen or pick. Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays. traveling. with the ball movement done via passes or 2½ steps. and double dribbling are allowed. the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur. with rules that vary widely from court to court. A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is a cut. by standing in the defender's way such that the teammate cuts next to him. these allow the quick passes and teamwork which can lead to a successful basket. entertainment and camaraderie rule rather than winning a game Player number variants FIBA 33 — A formalized version of three-on-three halfcourt basketball created by FIBA in 2007.options because many basketball games are not as organized as the entertainment part of basketball. normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball. In most versions there are no free throws. Defensive and offensive structures. Offensive plays are more varied. in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket. . and positions. Play medium variants Beach basketball — played on beaches in a circular court with no backboard and no out-of-bounds rule. Team sport — any sport which involves players working together towards a shared objective. and currently being heavily promoted by the federation.
e. shooting from various distances. ball handling. this version has come under attack from animal rights groups. for example.5m). most notably. screens. It is a combination of polo. rugby. basketball rules and basketball ethics. offensive moves. or Filipino expatriate basketball leagues in the Gulf or the United States.. Wheelchair basketball — designed for disabled people in wheelchairs and is considered one of the major disabled sports practiced. Ethnic and Religion-based basketball — Examples of ethnic basketball include Indo-Pak or Russian or Armenian leagues in the United States or Canada. Unicycle basketball — is played using a regulation basketball on a regular basketball court with the same rules. College and University basketball — played in educational institutions of higher learning. layups.g. Despite the game's many whistles due to its “no contact” nature of play.Riding variants Donkey basketball — Played on the backs of donkeys. rebounding. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) — Intercollegiate basketball. Sign language is also used to communicate referee decisions and communication between players. defense. such as: Bankshot basketball — Deaf basketball — Basketball played by deaf people. and basketball. Also popular are the basketball camps organized for various occasions. Religion-based basketball includes. commonly known as College basketball in the United States although it is also played in most universities in the country. Special interest group variants Basketball Schools and Academies — where students are trained in developing basketball fundamentals. one must dribble the ball whilst riding. Disabled basketball played by various disabled groups. dribbling. Horseball — game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net (approximately 1.5m×1. Wheelchair basketball — based on basketball but designed for disabled people in wheelchairs and considered one of the major disabled sports practiced. Basketball students learn proper ways of passing. undergo fitness and endurance exercises and learn various basketball skills. and basketball clinics for improving skills. church-related . often to get prepared for basketball events. deaf players have adapted well to reading the flow of the game and can easily tell when a foul is committed.
is the term used to describe the avid Native American following of basketball and. Maxi Basketball — played by more elderly individuals.) playing in their own leagues or in public. lesbian. in some areas. Gay basketball — played in gay. or denominational leagues like Coptic. Syriac/Assyrian basketball leagues in the United States or Canada. Alternate game forms Fantasy basketball - Basketball video games . short for reservation ball. etc. entitled Prison Ball. Midnight basketball — a basketball initiative to curb inner-city crime in the United States and elsewhere by keeping urban youth off the streets and engaging them with sports alternatives to drugs and crime. bisexual and transgender communities in gay basketball leagues. Slamball — offered as entertainment events. World Outgames and EuroGames. singers. Rezball — . practiced in prisons and penitentiary institutions. Film director Jason Moriarty has released a documentary relating to the sport. Midget basketball — teams of athletes of short stature offering shows using basketball. non-prisoners may play in such leagues. School or High school basketball — the sport of basketball being one of the most frequently exercised and popular sports in all school systems. The sport of basketball is a major part of events during the Gay Games. Active religious basketball missionary groups also play basketball with prisoners. Mini basketball — played by underage children. etc. Specialized entertainment teams include: Celebrity basketball — teams of celebrities (actors. At times. Muslim and Hindu basketball leagues. Jewish. Prison basketball — . like the Harlem Globetrotters. Some prisons have developed their own prison basketball leagues. often for entertainment and charity events.Christian basketball leagues. the style of play of Native American teams. provided all home and away games are played within prison courts. Show basketball Show basketball — Performed by entertainment basketball show teams.
Downtown — Well outside the three-point line. with each zone having a pole (without a backboard) with a netless hoop at the top. The opposite of the frontcourt.5 inches in circumference. Also called the "strong side. it is usually made out of a hardwood. consisting of a rectangular floor with baskets at either end. . Basketballs typically range in size from very small promotional items possibly only a few inches in diameter to extra large balls nearly a foot in diameter used in training exercises to increase the skill of players. Netball — played between two teams of seven players on a rectangular court divided into thirds. Ringball — Equipment of the game Basketball — inflated ball used in the game of basketball. Unlike basketball. Also called the "end line. In professional or organized basketball. giving the area the appearance of a skeleton key hole) Lane — The free-throw lane. Key — The free-throw lane and free-throw circle together (originally. Slamball — form of basketball played with 3 trampolines in front of each net.Spin-offs Spin-offs from basketball that are now separate sports include: Korfball — played by 2 teams that each have 2 males and 2 females. in korfball the hoops are placed well within the zones. Baseline — The line that marks the playing boundary at either end of the court. Ball side — The half of the court (divided lengthwise) that the ball is on. (2) A team's guards. especially when played indoors. The standard size of a basketball in the NBA is 29. It is played "full contact" and has boards around the court. and highly polished. the lane was narrower than the circle's diameter. in which the hoops are placed at the ends of the court. Rock — the ball Basketball court — the playing surface. with a raised netted hoop (without a backboard) at each short end. Backcourt — (1) The half of the court a team is defending. on a court divided into 2 zones." Block — The small painted square on the floor next to the basket just outside the lane." The opposite of the help side. often maple.
The distance to the three-point line from the center of the basket varies by league: NCAA (women) — 19. Three seconds rule — . it is a field goal made from beyond the three-point line. Shot clock — A timer designed to increase the pace (and subsequently. any shot converted beyond this line counts as three points.5 feet (6. See alsoairball.75 feet (6. Finger sleeve — an accessory that enhances the grip on the ball during a shot and prevents the ball from rolling or slipping to the top of the fingers. Jump ball — method used to begin or resume play in basketball. resulting in a loss of possession.32 m) NBA — 22 feet (6.5 feet (6.2 m) WNBA — 20. which extends from the biceps to the wrist.02 m) International `— 20. and then instantly snap back into its original shape when the player releases it. The time limit is 24 seconds in the NBA. Backboard — The rectangular platform behind the rim in which supports it Hoop — Breakaway rim — hoop that can bend slightly when a player dunks a basketball. in contrast to the two points awarded for shots made inside the three-point line.24 m) Bench — (1) Substitutes sitting on the sideline. Officials — Three-point field goal — also known as a three-pointer.75 feet (6.2 m) NCAA (men) — 20.Three-point line — the line that separates the two-point area from the three-point area.75 feet (7. 35 in the NCAA. (2) The bench or chairs they sit. A successful attempt is worth three points. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after it is tossed up into the air in between them by an official. and it reduces the possibility of wrist injuries.75 feet (6.02 m) High school — 19. a designated arc radiating from the basket. Clothing Basketball sleeve — an accessory similar to a wristband.7 m) to 23. made out of nylon and spandex. the score) by requiring the ball to either touch the rim or enter the basket before the timer expires. It allows players to dunk the ball without shattering the backboard.
It is the most common type of foul in basketball." Unsportsmanlike conduct — acting inappropriately or unprofessionally. An offender's team can be penalized by free throws being awarded to the other team followed by loss of possession. such as traveling or a threesecond violation. Also called a "charging foul.Infractions Fouls Foul — Violations of the rules other than floor violations. Penalized by a change in possession or free-throw opportunities. Due to the nature of the game. Also called a "blocking foul. WNBA. a contact foul involving excessive or unjustified contact is classed as an unsportsmanlike foul (or in the NBA. Frequently abbreviated as "technical" or "T. having too many players on the floor or calling timeout when none remain). Block — A violation in which a defender steps in front of a dribbler but is still moving when they collide. However. Violations Violation — An infraction of the rules other than a foul. touching the ball or any part of the basket while the ball is on the rim of the basket or within the cylinder extending upwards from the rim . 24-second violation — (NBA. and flagrant fouls. profanity. Basket interference — violation involving any of the following: 1. FIBA) a shot-clock violation. Offensive foul — A foul committed by a member of the team playing offense. Technical foul — A foul assessed for unsportsmanlike non-contact behavior and for some procedural violations (for example. and upon repeated transgressions an offender can be ejected from the game. Penalized by loss of possession after a free throw which may be taken by any member of the opposing team. such as fighting. Personal foul — a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. generally when a player attempts to gain advantage by physical contact. verbal abuse. flagrant foul)." Charge — A violation in which one player makes illegal contact with another player who has an established position." Flagrant foul — An unsportsmanlike foul in which there is no serious attempt to play the ball. personal fouls occur on occasion and are not always regarded as unsportsmanlike.
Five-second free throw violation — Under FIBA rules. be it inside or outside the cylinder 3. 2. Touching the ball in the backcourt after it has entered the frontcourt and was not last touched by the other team. Penalty = Lose the shot and possible loss of ball: A successful shot does not count. Five-second rule — Also called the five-second violation. The situations in which a five-second violation may occur are: Five-second throw-in violation — a team attempting a throw-in has a total of five seconds to release the ball towards the court.2. reaching up through the basket from below and touching the ball. Penalty = Loss of ball: A throw-in is awarded to the opponent at the previous throw in spot. Five-second closely guarded violation — When a player with the ball is guarded closely for five seconds. Start of throw in count: When the basketball is at the disposal of the throw in team (usually bounced or handed to the throw in team by the official). 2. pulling down on the rim of the basket so that it contacts the ball before returning to its original position. stop. Carrying — Double dribble — Either of the following acts results in a loss of possession: 1. a free throw shooter must throw the ball towards the hoop within five seconds after an official places it at his disposal. The ball is awarded to the opponent at the free throw line unless another free throw or a possession penalty is to follow. To dribble the ball with two hands at the same time To dribble. Five-second back to the basket violation (NBA only) — Penalty = Loss of ball: The opponent is awarded the ball at the free throw line extended. Penalty = Loss of ball: The opposing team gets to throw-in the ball from the out-of-bounds spot nearest the violation. and then begin to dribble again Backcourt violation — 1. is a rule that helps promote continuous play. . Failure to bring the ball from the backcourt into the frontcourt within the allotted time of 8 seconds in the NBA (previously 10) and 10 seconds elsewhere.
(b) entirely above the rim and has the possibility of entering the basket. Bonus — under NCAA and NFHS rules. varying by governing body. allows the player a second free-throw attempt. the other team is "in the double bonus". and (c) not touching the rim. Penalties and bonuses Penalties — For infractions of the rules. See also bonus and penalty." See also bonus and double bonus. Double bonus — (NCAA and NFHS) when a team accumulates 10 or more fouls in a half. if made. Free throw — Penalty — once a team reaches a set number of team fouls in a playing period. • • And one — The free throw awarded to a shooter who is fouled while scoring. eight or nine team fouls in a half and so gains a one and one opportunity on each non-shooting foul. and often has statistics comparable to those of starters. earning two free throws on each subsequent non-shooting foul by the defense. but is generally the first person off the bench. the fouled team gets free throws instead of possession of the ball. The opposing team is "over the limit. The fouling team is "over the limit. • • • • • Game play Participants Players • • • Ball hog — A player who does not pass the ball Bricklayer — One who repeatedly shoots bricks. Sixth man (or sixth woman) — A player who does not start. Turnover — A loss of possession. Over-and-back — See backcourt violation (1) Three seconds rule — requires that a player shall not remain in the opponents' restricted area for more than three consecutive seconds while his team is in control of a live ball in the frontcourt and the game clock is running. a team is penalized by bonuses being rewarded to the opposing team. Traveling — To move one's pivot foot illegally or to fall to the floor without maintaining a pivot foot (exact rules vary)." See also double bonus and penalty. .Goaltending — the violation of interfering with the ball when it is on its way to the basket and it is (a) in its downward flight. One-and-one — (NCAA and NFHS) A free-throw attempt which. See also bonus. a team is "in the bonus" when its opponent has seven.
Power forwards typically play offensively with their backs to the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a zone defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense Small forward — • • • • . are generally the team's best shooters. Backcourt positions: • • • Guard — One of the three standard player positions. Power forward — positions that plays a role similar to that of center in what is called the "post" or "low blocks". though the rules do not specify any positions. and defense near the basket. Pivot — Another name for center Forward — One of the three standard player positions. guards are typically classified in two broad categories: Point guard — has strong ballhandling and passing skills and is typically used to run the offense. Forwards are primarily responsible for scoring and rebounding. and terminology for describing game play. Today.Basketball position The general location on the court which each player is responsible for is referred to as a position. responsible mainly for scoring. Centers are generally the tallest players on the floor. Positions are part of the strategy that has evolved for playing the game. Frontcourt positions: • Center — One of the three standard player positions. and are very often the leading scorers on their teams. A player is generally described by the position (or positions) he or she plays. rebounding. Shooting guard — as the name implies.
Point forward — A forward with strong ballhandling and passing skills who can be called on to direct the team's offense. Jordan Rules — Man-to-man defense — A defense in which each player guards a single opposing player. who coachedPrinceton Tigers men's basketball in the late 1930s. back-door cuts. See also zone defense. passing. and disciplined teamwork. A tweener has a set of skills that do not match the traditional position of his physical stature. 1-3-1 defense/offense — Box-and-one defense — A combination defense in which four defenders play zone in a box formation and the fifth defender guards one player man-to-man. though its roots may be traced back to Franklin “Cappy” Cappon.Tweener A tweener is a player who is able to play two positions. since these are usually the two biggest player positions on any basketball team. Tweeners include: Combo Guard — Combines the features of both point guard and shooting guard. this means power forward and center. but is not ideally suited to play either position exclusively. Typically. Cornerman — Forward-Center — position for players who play or have played both forward and center on a consistent basis. Swingman — A player capable of playing either shooting guard or small forward. Continuity offense — Flex offense — Shuffle offense — Hack-a-Shaq — The strategy of intentionally and repeatedly committing a personal foul against a player who shoots free throws poorly. It was used and perfected at Princeton University by Pete Carril. "Shaq" refers to Shaquille O'Neal. so he/she is said to be in between. Coaches Strategy Princeton offense — an offensive strategy which emphasizes constant motion. and therefore more often overlap each other. .
Motion offense — Category of offense involving a series of cuts and screens to create the best possible shot. Triangle and Two Defense — hybrid between a man-to-man defense in which each defensive player is responsible for marking a player on the other team. Nellie ball — a fast-paced offense relying on smaller. drawing the defender along. creating spacing among players and allowing each one to pass to four teammates. This offense is most effective against teams that do not have the athleticism or shooting ability to keep up with the fast pace. Baseline out-of-bounds play — the play used to return the ball to the court from outside the baseline along the opponent's basket. more athletic players who can outrun their opponents and make more three-point attempts. then suddenly cuts to the basket behind the defender for a pass. Box set — a formation in which four players align themselves as the four corners of a box. with most or all offensive players moving simultaneously. and a zone defense in which each defensive player is responsible for guarding an area of the court. The opposite of a V cut. . Developed by NBA head coach Don Nelson. Often used for baseline out-of-bounds plays. Back screen — offensive play in which a player comes from the low post to set a screen for a player on the perimeter. Run and gun — Shuffle offense — Small Ball — Triangle offense — An offensive strategy with the goal of exchanging three (sometimes all five) positions. Ball screen — offensive play in which a player sets a screen on the defender guarding the player with the ball. UCLA High Post Offense — Zone defense — 2-3 Zone Defense — Plays Backdoor cut — offensive play in which a player on the perimeter steps away from the basket.
Fly fast break — after a shot is attempted. Halfcourt defense — portion of a team's defensive play conducted with both teams having established positions. but runs down the court looking for a pass from a rebounding team mate for a quick score. before both teams have established positions. See also halfcourt offense. Transition offense — portion of a team's offensive play conducted when first obtaining possession from the other team and moving up the court. the player who is guarding the shooter does not box out or rebounds. Halfcourt offense — portion of a team's offensive play conducted with both teams having established positions. giving the other team no time to defend effectively. Includes defense against fast breaks. This is rare. A play in which a shooter is fouled while making a two-point shot and then makes the resulting free throw. the player setting the pick moves to an open area of the court to receive a pass from the ballhandler and "pops" a jump shot. Pick and roll — Three-point play 1. Fast break — an offensive tactic in which a team attempts to advance the ball and score as quickly as possible. Four-point play — rare play in which a player is fouled but completes a three point shot and then makes the resulting free throw. See also and one. See also halfcourt defense. Includes fast breaks. Memphis Attack — another name for dribble drive motion the offense was popularized in the early 2000s at the University of Memphis. See also transition offense. When a shooter is fouled while taking but missing a three-point shot and then makes all three free throws. Pick and pop — offensive play that is a derivative of the classic pick and roll. Often the result of a steal or blocked shot.Dribble drive motion — an offense that spreads the players to open up the lane for driving player to make a layup or kick out for a three pointer. See also transition defense. before both teams have established positions. Instead of rolling toward the basket. however. • Transition defense — portion of a team's defensive play conducted when the other team has first gained possession and is moving up the court. 2. • .
Blocking and footwork Banana cut — A wide. Alley oop — An offensive play in which a player throws the ball up near the basket to a teammate (or.Moves Free throw — Advance step — A step in which the defender's lead foot steps toward their man and the back foot slides forward." Box out — See block out. Rebound — To obtain the ball after a missed field goal attempt. Air pass — A pass that goes straight through the air to the receiver. Does not reset the shot clock. Rip a C — A motion used while chinning the ball to create space during a pivot between an offensive player and a defensive player. set a screen — (v) To attempt to prevent an defender from guarding a teammate by standing in the defender's way. more rarely. See also bounce pass. Air ball — An unblocked shot that fails to hit the rim or backboard. does not include free throws. Pivot towards the defender and rips the ball in a C-shape away from the pressure to create a passing lane. moving or climbing on a player's back who is already in position to rebound the ball. Also called "box out. Bump the cutter — To step in the way of a player who is trying to cut to the ball for a pass. The screening player must remain stationary: a moving screen is an offensive foul. catches the ball in mid air and immediately scores a basket. Blindside screen — A screen set directly behind a defender where the player can't see it. Basket cut — A cut toward the basket. Also called a "pick". as opposed to a cut that is a straight line. . Over the back — a foul committed by a player who tries to rebound the ball by pushing. Field goal — A shot made from anywhere on the court. Block — To tip or deflect a shooter's shot. to himself) who jumps. screen. Dingle — A steal that leads quickly to a score.* Block out — To make contact with an opposing player to establish rebounding position between the player and the ball. usually with a slam dunk. curving cut. altering its flight so the shot misses. (n) The tactic of setting a screen.
but note that the ball is not intended to go around the body as in the basic 'wraparound.' This move is used to avoid an easy strip. switching it to his/her other hand. Dribbling Dribble — To bounce the ball continuously. This move can be used when the defender attempts a steal. since the stutter step is a smaller version of shuffling. Sometimes. A streetball move with the same name involves swinging the ball around the opponent's body. Wraparound — In the wraparound. where it is often used many times during a game. To stall means to overlook what can be setup on the court while still maintaining control over the ball. The move can also leave the ballhandler somewhat disoriented. or to be surprised by a defender after losing eye contact. The spin move can be used while dribbling (when it is also called a reverse pivot) or in a post position. This warm-up is supposed to keep the players alert and help them prepare to defend players in a real game. the ballhandler changes pace to confuse or freeze a defender. In the professional league. Behind the back dribble — A basic move in which the ballhandler simply bounces the ball behind the back to the opposite hand. The best choice when to use this move would be in the case of a teammate's unavailability. The move is often performed by street players. It is also used to put the defender off balance to make it easier for the player handling the ball to dribble past the defender. . If done properly. Crossover dribble — In a crossover dribble. a pick may also be performed between the legs. or to 'pick. this is called an ankle breaker. and/or to drive the ball closer to the hoop due to the lack of space between the ballhandler and defender. This move is most effective in open-court situations.Stutter step — a common warm-up drill where you shuffle and scuff your feet in a quick moving motion across a length of flooring. players like Allen Iverson. Required in order to take steps with the ball. and Tim Hardaway are known to use this move in order to generate an easy layup or jump shot. allowing the ballhandler to begin moving forward as the defense moves in. meaning that the ball is bounced back and forth behind the back. the ballhandler dribbles the ball behind his/her back. to outrun your defender. where it is easy to shake or "juke" the defender with a simple crossover. being unable to change directions. the ballhandler spins his/her body to change the direction and put his body between the ball and the defender. the defender falls down. the defender will be caught off guard. A pick is virtually the same as a stall but a pick is continuous. Jason Williams. Spin move — In a spin move. to 'stall'.' It can be used to avoid an easy strip as an alternative to bouncing the ball in front of you for a tricky crossover.
behind the back passes can either be bounced off the floor or passed directly to a teammate's chest. The Elbow Pass . Also called "pass fake. Usually done to confuse the defender. It is best used in the open court and on the perimeter. Still. the blind pass is performed when a player looks in one direction but passes the ball to his target in another direction. a player must use his best judgment when he decides whether to make such a pass. this is a long pass in which the passer throws the ball with one hand. Dime — See drop a dime. However. Assist — A pass to a teammate who scores a basket immediately or after one dribble. Bounce pass — A fundamental passing technique that consists of one player passing the ball to a teammate by bouncing the ball off the floor with great energy. can confuse the defense. the Elbow Pass is one of the most difficult trick passes to execute. The move has to be executed perfectly because a bounce pass may be kicked by rapidlyshifting players and might be a difficult catch for the intended receiver. but when done correctly. It is infrequently used. as if it were a baseball or a football. Larry Bird. mainly to set up last-second plays off a baseline inbounding situation. Chest pass — This pass is performed best by stepping towards your target with one foot. Magic Johnson. a successful bounce pass can easily result in a scoring assist because a bounce pass is harder for defenders to intercept. Blind passes are risky and infrequently attempted. Thus.Passes Pass — (v) To throw the ball to a teammate. ending with the thumbs pointing down. allowing the passer to pass in another direction. Isiah Thomas. Earl Monroe was famous for this move. Ball fake — A sudden movement by the player with the ball intended to cause the defender to move in one direction. The no-look pass has been popularized by players such as Pete Maravich. and Chris Webber is famed for using this move down in the paint. Because the ball will be at ground level as it passes a defender. Dish — An assist. most behindthe-back passes are direct. Drop a dime — To make an assist Elbow pass — Introduced with much hype by Jason Williams. Steve Nash uses this move often." Ball reversal — Passing of the ball from one side of the court to the other. Baseball pass — Also called the lance pass. Jason Kidd and Steve Nash. Blind pass — Also known as a no-look pass. Behind-the-back — Dealt to a target behind the passer's back. then throwing the ball out towards their chest with two hands while turning the hands over. a bounce pass may be intercepted due to its slower speed. (n) The act of passing.
serves as a devastating complement to the Behind-the-Back pass and can be used with various no-look elements. Overhead pass — another fundamental passing technique. a wellthrown overhead. After a defensive rebound. from the free throw line. or outlet. the passer hits it with his elbow. Dunk — (v) To score by putting the ball directly through the basket with one or both hands. it can sometimes confuse the defender. (n) A shot made by dunking. away from the basket. the Elbow Pass entails what appears to the defender to be a simple Behind-the-Back pass. However. usually when a teammate gets open during the shot. Brick — A bad shot that bounces off the backboard or rim without a chance of going in. Fadeaway — A jump shot taken while jumping backwards. Williams was able to pull off this pass at a full sprint during a Rookie All-Star game. Shots Bank shot — A shot that hits the backboard before hitting the rim or going through the net. as it leaves the offensive player very vulnerable to turnovers. but most players have trouble hitting the ball with their elbow while standing still. One attempt is awarded for technical fouls. Generally. worth one point. . pass can allow a breaking offensive player to quickly score without even dribbling by catching the ball near the basket. used by snapping the ball over the head. This pass is especially effective in helping to initiate a fast break. but as the ball crosses the passer's back. This kind of pass is strongly discouraged in all levels of basketball. Buzzer beater — A basket in the final seconds of a game (right before the buzzer sounds) that in itself results in a win or overtime. When done intentionally. or when the opposing team fouls while over the foul limit. causing him to believe that the passer is shooting instead of passing. Jump pass — A pass performed while the passing player's feet are off the floor. redirecting the ball back toward the side it started on and hopefully leaving the defender(s) amazed and out of position. two attempts are awarded when the player is fouled in the act of shooting (three attempts are awarded in the case of three point shot). fouled flagrantly. Free throw — An unopposed attempt to score a basket. it at times is done as a result of the player having their shooting lane blocked and often leads to the player turning the ball over to the opposing team. Most effective on a fast-break. Board — A shot resulting in a rebound. like a soccer throw-in. Outlet pass — A pass thrown by a rebounder to start a fast break.
but instead goes back out. Set shot — A shot taken without leaving the floor. worth three points. Jump shot — A shot taken while jumping Lay-in — A close-range shot using one hand to tip the ball over the rim Layup — A close-range shot using one hand to bank the ball off the backboard Points in the paint — Field goals made in the painted area below the freethrow line Prayer — A shot that has very little probability of being made. Continental Basketball Association — was a professional men's basketball league in the United States. . with six players on each team instead of five. Four corners offense — an offensive strategy for stalling that was rendered obsolete by the introduction of the shot clock and the three-point line.Hook shot — A shot in which the offensive player arcs the ball over his head using the farthest hand from the basket. Pok-a-tok — James Naismith also based basketball on the ancient Mayan ballgame. In-n-out — A shot that appears to be going in. Trey — A three-point field goal History of basketball James Naismith — invented basketball in 1891 Ullamaliztli — basketball was in part based on the ancient Aztec ballgame. Six-on-six basketball — largely-archaic variant of women's basketball. can go in or out. attempted with both feet behind the three-point line. (v) To make a swish. Three-ball — A three-point field goal Three-point field goal — A shot. Three-pointer — A three-point field goal Toilet bowl — When the ball hits the rim on a certain angle and then circles around it. Slam dunk — A shot performed with the player jumping in air and forces the ball into the rim with one or both hands. while guards must stay in their team's backcourt. Swish — (n) A shot which goes through the net without hitting the backboard or rim. while moving perpendicular to the basket. affiliated with USA Basketball. and in which only forwards are allowed to shoot the ball and must stay in their team's frontcourt.
Euroleague — Europe's top transnational club competition. On the smack of the ball players pass the ball repeatedly to the nearest player. while traveling up the court. The 2 defenders attack the single defender resulting in a 2 on 1 to the other side. Eurocup — Europe's second-level transnational club competition. End of quarter — when a quarter ends Halftime — (1) The end of the first half of play. the largest professional league in the United States. Initialism for the Spanish Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto ("Association of Basketball Clubs"). Also used to describe national tournaments operated by this body. FIBA — The International Basketball Federation. with the person who shot the layup and the last passer returning to play defense. Hot hand fallacy — Is the notion that a streak of positive successes are likely to continue. Pivot — (1) A center (2) The pivot foot. The qualifying rounds are operated by FIBA Europe. The ballhandler amongst the group of the 3 retreats to the other end after attacking the goal. with the middle player holding the ball. NBA — The National Basketball Association. Upon reaching the end of the court the drill turns into a 3 on 2 drill. Analogous to the UEFA Champions League in football (soccer). especially the Division . Pivot foot — The foot that must remain touching the floor to avoid traveling Run — An interval in which one team heavily outscores the other. NCAA — The National Collegiate Athletic Association. Three-peat — winning three consecutive championships. also operated by ULEB. (2) The interval between the two halves. Organized basketball Leagues ACB — The top professional league in Spain. but statistics show that the probability of a streak continuing actually goes down as the length increases. These remaining 3 players then execute a 3 man weave to the far baseline. while the competition proper is operated by ULEB. Analogous to the UEFA Europa League in association football (soccer). 5 man weave — drill consisting of 5 players spaced evenly along the baseline. also with one team in Canada. They then run behind two players. an association of national organizations which governs international competitions. the primary governing body for intercollegiate sports in the United States. often regarded as the second-strongest domestic league in the world behind the NBA.
WNBA — The Women's National Basketball Association. this body operates the Euroleague and Eurocup. including basketball.S. ULEB — A cooperative organization of professional basketball leagues in Europe.I men's and women's tournaments. The name is a French acronym for "Union of European Leagues of Basketball". the largest professional basketball league for women in the United States. NFHS — The National Federation of State High School Associations. . the body that sets rules for high school sports in the U. An unrelated body with the same name exists in the Philippines..
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